WorldWideScience

Sample records for islands glint effects

  1. DETECTING OCEANS ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS USING THE GLINT EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David

    2010-01-01

    Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

  2. Angular glint effects generation for false naval target verisimility requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostis, Theodoros G; Galanis, Konstantinos G; Katsikas, Sokratis K

    2009-01-01

    A stimulating problem in the generation of coherent countermeasures for high range resolution radar systems is the inclusion of angular glint effects in the preparation of the false target mask. Since angular glint is representative of extended naval targets, this inclusion increases the credibility factor of the decoy playback signal at the adversary radar-operator station. In this paper, the ability of an interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (InISAR) simulator to provide a proof of concept towards the clarification of this challenging task is ascertained. The solution consists of three novel vector representations of the generated data, which are proven to behave according to the laws of physics governing the glint phenomenon. The first depiction is the angular glint injection at the target which is followed by the representation of the wavefront distortion at the radar. A value-added time procession integration of the target in pure roll motion provides an expected by ISAR theory side-view image of the naval extended false target. The effectiveness of the proposed approach through verification and validation of the results by using the method of pictorial evidence is established. A final argument is raised on the usage of this software tool for actual obfuscation and deception actions for air defence at sea applications

  3. A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.; Voigt, Aiko

    2012-01-01

    Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

  4. Correction of sun glint effect on MIVIS data of the Sicily campaign in July 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zappitelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the suspended and dissolved matter in water in the visible and near infrared spectral regions it is necessary to estimate with adequate accuracy the water leaving radiance. Consequently radiance measured by a remote sensor has to be corrected from the atmospheric and the sea surface effects consisting in the path radiance and the sun and sky glitter radiance contributions. This paper describes the application of the sun glint correction scheme on to airborne hyperspectral MIVIS measurements acquired on the area of the Straits of Messina during the campaign in July 2000. In the Messina case study data have been corrected for the atmospheric effects and for the sun-glitter contribution evaluated following the method proposed by Cox and Munk (1954, 1956. Comparison between glitter contaminated and glitter free data has been made taking into account the radiance profiles relevant to selected scan lines and the spectra of different pixels belonging to the same scan line and located out and inside the sun glitter area. The results show that spectra after correction have the same profile as the contaminated ones, although, at this stage, free glint data have not yet been used in water constituent retrieval and consequently the reliability of such correction cannot be completely evaluated.

  5. Robust glint detection through homography normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Roholm, Lars; García Ferreiros, Iván

    2014-01-01

    A novel normalization principle for robust glint detection is presented. The method is based on geometric properties of corneal reflections and allows for simple and effective detection of glints even in the presence of several spurious and identically appearing reflections. The method is tested...

  6. Glint Field Trial Results and Application to Glint Threshold Distance Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chevalier, William

    1998-01-01

    .... Glint threshold algorithm. Software adjustments would tentatively be made to the existing algorithm to improve glint threshold distance calculation accuracy, making the modified model a better iterative eye armor design tool...

  7. Target Glint Suppression Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rayleigh for either horizontal or vertical polarization). 2.1.2 Spatial Characterization. Before the effects of diversity on target detection can be...ncs) dRCS T If the lower intergration limit is taken as zero for the Rayleigh targct model of interest, then this quantity is unbounded. In...port wing, inner section Trailing edge of starboard .:ing, inner section Leading edge of horizontal stabilizer, inner section, port side TLeal, -g

  8. Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2012-01-01

    Glints are bright light spots created by particulate media like cirrus clouds, glaciers, and wavy water surfaces. They are seen around the specular reflection angle. In this paper, the glints from such scattering/reflecting media are described in a unified manner through the probability density for facet tilts. Various kinds of these probability densities for wavy surfaces are defined and classified. The concept of the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for rough surfaces instead of the conventional bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is introduced for characterization of the glints. The simple equations connecting the DSCS and the probability densities for facet tilts are derived. It is shown that the glints from particulate media and wavy surface are very similar at small incidence angles and they are significantly different at slant incidence. -- Highlights: ► Differential scattering cross section unifies particulate media and wavy surfaces. ► The glint pattern is a mapping of the probability density function for facet tilts. ► Shadowing is a crucial aspect of glint pattern formation. ► Glint patterns discriminate between the particulate media and wavy surfaces.

  9. Sun Glint Correction of High and Low Spatial Resolution Images of Aquatic Scenes: a Review of Methods for Visible and Near-Infrared Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sun glint, the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a serious confounding factor for remote sensing of water column properties and benthos. This paper reviews current techniques to estimate and remove the glint radiance component from imagery. Methods for processing of ocean color images use statistical sea surface models to predict the glint from the sun and sensor positions and wind data. Methods for higher resolution imaging, used in coastal and shallow water mapping, estimate the glint radiance from the near-infrared signal. The effects of some current methods are demonstrated and possibilities for future techniques are briefly addressed.

  10. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  11. WFC3 TV2 Testing: UVIS Channel Glint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M.

    2007-10-01

    The UVIS spare detector (UVIS build 2) was housed in WFC3 during the most recent epoch of thermal vaccum ground testing. We scanned the chip gap with a HeNe laser, to look for scattering from any material in the CCD chip gap or the edges of the CCD chips themselves. Although we found no such scattering issues, we did find a significant glint problem involving reflection from the surface of the CCD to the CCD housing and back down to the CCD. The glint appears as a large streak, ~10,000 pixels in area, containing anywhere from 1% to 30% of the energy within the source itself, depending upon the wavelength and position of the source. Approximately 10% of the detector area leads to glint when a source is placed in that area. Although any one glint comprises a tiny fraction of the detector area, the glint sweeps over a large area as the source is moved, implying that approximately 15% of the detector could be significantly illuminated by glint when observing a crowded field. As a result, the UVIS detectors currently not installed in the instrument have been modified to mask the surfaces responsible for the glint, to avoid this issue on orbit.

  12. Linear and non-linear enhancement for sun glint reduction in advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan, N; Reba, M N M; Askari, M; Halim, M K A

    2014-01-01

    Cloud detection over water surfaces is difficult due to the sun glint effect. The mixed pixels between both features may introduce inaccurate cloud classification. This problem generally occurs because of less contrast between the glint and the cloud. Both features have almost the same reflectance in the visible wavelength. The piecewise contrast stretch technique shows preservation capability on the reflectance of the cloud. The result of a band ratio was smoothed by applying the Sobel edge detection to provide better cloud feature detection. The study achieved an accuracy of about 77.5% in cloud pixels detection

  13. Green Bank Lunar Interferometer for Neutrino Transients: GLINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Glen I. [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)], E-mail: glangsto@nrao.edu; Bradley, Rich [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hankins, Tim [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Mutel, Bob [University of Iowa, 706 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Green Bank Lunar Interferometer for Neutrino Transients (GLINT) project is a wide band (0.3-2.6 GHz) interferometric radio array dedicated to observations of transient events. The target is detection of few bright (>2000Jy) short duration (few nano-second) pulses from the lunar regolith. The GLINT project has three goals: (1) Maximize detection of statistically significant pulses originating from the lunar surface. (2) Unambiguously differentiate neutrino pulses from other sources of interference. (3) Localize the direction of the incoming radio pulse resulting from neutrino interactions.

  14. Automatic Hotspot and Sun Glint Detection in UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Terol, Damian; Hernandez-Lopez, David; Ballesteros, Rocio; Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego

    2017-10-15

    Last advances in sensors, photogrammetry and computer vision have led to high-automation levels of 3D reconstruction processes for generating dense models and multispectral orthoimages from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. However, these cartographic products are sometimes blurred and degraded due to sun reflection effects which reduce the image contrast and colour fidelity in photogrammetry and the quality of radiometric values in remote sensing applications. This paper proposes an automatic approach for detecting sun reflections problems (hotspot and sun glint) in multispectral images acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), based on a photogrammetric strategy included in a flight planning and control software developed by the authors. In particular, two main consequences are derived from the approach developed: (i) different areas of the images can be excluded since they contain sun reflection problems; (ii) the cartographic products obtained (e.g., digital terrain model, orthoimages) and the agronomical parameters computed (e.g., normalized vegetation index-NVDI) are improved since radiometric defects in pixels are not considered. Finally, an accuracy assessment was performed in order to analyse the error in the detection process, getting errors around 10 pixels for a ground sample distance (GSD) of 5 cm which is perfectly valid for agricultural applications. This error confirms that the precision in the detection of sun reflections can be guaranteed using this approach and the current low-cost UAV technology.

  15. Solar glint suppression in compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.; Cook, Jason C.; Grava, Cesare; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2015-08-01

    Solar glint suppression is an important consideration in the design of compact photon-counting ultraviolet spectrographs. Southwest Research Institute developed the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (launch in 2009), and the Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Juno (Juno-UVS, launch in 2011). Both of these compact spectrographs revealed minor solar glints in flight that did not appear in pre-launch analyses. These glints only appeared when their respective spacecraft were operating outside primary science mission parameters. Post-facto scattered light analysis verifies the geometries at which these glints occurred and why they were not caught during ground testing or nominal mission operations. The limitations of standard baffle design at near-grazing angles are discussed, as well as the importance of including surface scatter properties in standard stray light analyses when determining solar keep-out efficiency. In particular, the scattered light analysis of these two instruments shows that standard "one bounce" assumptions in baffle design are not always enough to prevent scattered sunlight from reaching the instrument focal plane. Future builds, such as JUICE-UVS, will implement improved scattered and stray light modeling early in the design phase to enhance capabilities in extended mission science phases, as well as optimize solar keep out volume.

  16. Dominant Glint Based Prey Localization in Horseshoe Bats: A Possible Strategy for Noise Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Reijniers, Jonas; Firzlaff, Uwe; Peremans, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Rhinolophidae or Horseshoe bats emit long and narrowband calls. Fluttering insect prey generates echoes in which amplitude and frequency shifts are present, i.e. glints. These glints are reliable cues about the presence of prey and also encode certain properties of the prey. In this paper, we propose that these glints, i.e. the dominant glints, are also reliable signals upon which to base prey localization. In contrast to the spectral cues used by many other bats, the localization cues in Rhi...

  17. Dominant glint based prey localization in horseshoe bats: a possible strategy for noise rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Reijniers, Jonas; Firzlaff, Uwe; Peremans, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    Rhinolophidae or Horseshoe bats emit long and narrowband calls. Fluttering insect prey generates echoes in which amplitude and frequency shifts are present, i.e. glints. These glints are reliable cues about the presence of prey and also encode certain properties of the prey. In this paper, we propose that these glints, i.e. the dominant glints, are also reliable signals upon which to base prey localization. In contrast to the spectral cues used by many other bats, the localization cues in Rhinolophidae are most likely provided by self-induced amplitude modulations generated by pinnae movement. Amplitude variations in the echo not introduced by the moving pinnae can be considered as noise interfering with the localization process. The amplitude of the dominant glints is very stable. Therefore, these parts of the echoes contain very little noise. However, using only the dominant glints potentially comes at a cost. Depending on the flutter rate of the insect, a limited number of dominant glints will be present in each echo giving the bat a limited number of sample points on which to base localization. We evaluate the feasibility of a strategy under which Rhinolophidae use only dominant glints. We use a computational model of the echolocation task faced by Rhinolophidae. Our model includes the spatial filtering of the echoes by the morphology of the sonar apparatus of Rhinolophus rouxii as well as the amplitude modulations introduced by pinnae movements. Using this model, we evaluate whether the dominant glints provide Rhinolophidae with enough information to perform localization. Our simulations show that Rhinolophidae can use dominant glints in the echoes as carriers for self-induced amplitude modulations serving as localization cues. In particular, it is shown that the reduction in noise achieved by using only the dominant glints outweighs the information loss that occurs by sampling the echo. © 2011 Vanderelst et al.

  18. Dominant glint based prey localization in horseshoe bats: a possible strategy for noise rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vanderelst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinolophidae or Horseshoe bats emit long and narrowband calls. Fluttering insect prey generates echoes in which amplitude and frequency shifts are present, i.e. glints. These glints are reliable cues about the presence of prey and also encode certain properties of the prey. In this paper, we propose that these glints, i.e. the dominant glints, are also reliable signals upon which to base prey localization. In contrast to the spectral cues used by many other bats, the localization cues in Rhinolophidae are most likely provided by self-induced amplitude modulations generated by pinnae movement. Amplitude variations in the echo not introduced by the moving pinnae can be considered as noise interfering with the localization process. The amplitude of the dominant glints is very stable. Therefore, these parts of the echoes contain very little noise. However, using only the dominant glints potentially comes at a cost. Depending on the flutter rate of the insect, a limited number of dominant glints will be present in each echo giving the bat a limited number of sample points on which to base localization. We evaluate the feasibility of a strategy under which Rhinolophidae use only dominant glints. We use a computational model of the echolocation task faced by Rhinolophidae. Our model includes the spatial filtering of the echoes by the morphology of the sonar apparatus of Rhinolophus rouxii as well as the amplitude modulations introduced by pinnae movements. Using this model, we evaluate whether the dominant glints provide Rhinolophidae with enough information to perform localization. Our simulations show that Rhinolophidae can use dominant glints in the echoes as carriers for self-induced amplitude modulations serving as localization cues. In particular, it is shown that the reduction in noise achieved by using only the dominant glints outweighs the information loss that occurs by sampling the echo.

  19. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  20. Earth Glint Observations Conducted During the Deep Impact Spacecraft Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Robinson, T.; Hewagama, T.

    2010-01-01

    We describe observations of Earth conducted using the High Resolution Instrument (HRI) - a 0.3 m f/35 telescope - on the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft during its recent flybys. Earth was observed on five occasions: 2008-Mar-18 18:18 UT, 2008-May-28 20:05 UT, 2008-Jun-4 16:57 UT, 2009-Mar-27 16:19 and 2009-Oct-4 09:37 UT. Each set of observations was conducted over a full 24-hour rotation of Earth and a total of thirteen NIR spectra were taken on two-hour intervals during each observing period. Photometry in the 450, SSO, 650 and 8S0 nm filters was taken every fifteen minutes and every hour for the 350, 750 and 950 nm filters. The spacecraft was located over the equator for the three sets of observations in 2008, while the 2009- Mar and 2009-Oct were taken over the north and south Polar Regions, respectively. Observations of calibrator stars Canopus and Achernar were conducted on multiple occasions through all filters. The observations detected a strong specular glint not necessarily associated with a body of water. We describe spectroscopic characterization of the glint and evidence for the possibility of detection of reflection from high cirrus clouds. We describe implications for observations of extrasolar planets.

  1. Mechanism of viscosity effect on magnetic island rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Konovalov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V.D. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tsypin, V.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, SP (Brazil)

    2000-04-01

    It is shown that plasma viscosity does not influence the magnetic island rotation directly. Nevertheless, it leads to nonstationarity of the plasma velocity. This nonstationarity is the reason of the viscosity effect on island rotation. (author)

  2. Prediction of the Sun-Glint Locations for the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Ik Park

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available For the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS which will be launched in 2008, an algorithm for finding the precise location of the sun-glint point on the ocean surface is studied. The precise locations of the sun-glint are estimated by considering azimuth and elevation angles of Sun-satellite-Earth geometric position and the law of reflection. The obtained nonlinear equations are solved by using the Newton-Raphson method. As a result, when COMS is located at 116.2°E or 128.2°E longitude, the sun-glint covers region of ±10° (N-S latitude and 80-150° (E-W longitude. The diurnal path of the sun-glint in the southern hemisphere is curved towards the North Pole, and the path in the northern hemisphere is forwards the south pole. The algorithm presented in this paper can be applied to predict the precise location of sun-glint region in any other geostationary satellites.

  3. Can Aerosol Offset Urban Heat Island Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M. S.; Shepherd, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) refers to urban skin or air temperature exceeding the temperatures in surrounding non-urban regions. In a warming climate, the UHI may intensify extreme heat waves and consequently cause significant health and energy problems. Aerosols reduce surface insolation via the direct effect, namely, scattering and absorbing sunlight in the atmosphere. Combining the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations over large cities together with Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) simulations, we find that the aerosol direct reduction of surface insolation range from 40-100 Wm-2, depending on seasonality and aerosol loads. As a result, surface skin temperature can be reduced by 1-2C while 2-m surface air temperature by 0.5-1C. This study suggests that the aerosol direct effect is a competing mechanism for the urban heat island effect (UHI). More importantly, both aerosol and urban land cover effects must be adequately represented in meteorological and climate modeling systems in order to properly characterize urban surface energy budgets and UHI.

  4. GLINT: a user-friendly toolset for the analysis of high-throughput DNA-methylation array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Elior; Yedidim, Reut; Shenhav, Liat; Schweiger, Regev; Weissbrod, Omer; Zaitlen, Noah; Halperin, Eran

    2017-06-15

    GLINT is a user-friendly command-line toolset for fast analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation data generated using the Illumina human methylation arrays. GLINT, which does not require any programming proficiency, allows an easy execution of Epigenome-Wide Association Study analysis pipeline under different models while accounting for known confounders in methylation data. GLINT is a command-line software, freely available at https://github.com/cozygene/glint/releases . It requires Python 2.7 and several freely available Python packages. Further information and documentation as well as a quick start tutorial are available at http://glint-epigenetics.readthedocs.io . elior.rahmani@gmail.com or ehalperin@cs.ucla.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  6. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  7. The health effects of the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The major healt effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population living in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children, and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect has proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers, who continued to show relatively high levels of demoralization some months after the accident. Moreover, the groups in the general population and the workers, in their differen ways, had continuing problems of trust that stemmed directly from the Three Mile Island accident. For both the nuclear workers and general population, the mental health and behavioral effects are understandable in terms of the objective realities of the threats they faced during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

  8. Magnetic Island Growth A comparison of local and global effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.S.; Gardner, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In stellarators a hot plasma is confined to a torus by a magnetic field with both toroidal and poloidal components generated by external currents. Plasma currents develop to balance the pressure gradient with a J x B force which in turn change the shape of confining magnetic field. Self-consistent equilibrium magnetic fields and plasma currents for some H-1NF configurations were calculated using the HINT code. This code relaxes a simplified set of resistive MHD equations on a coordinate grid until an equilibrium is reached [1]. Islands can occur in the equilibrium magnetic field, surrounding field lines with low-order rational rotational transform. The island widths are influenced by four types of currents. External currents determine the vacuum island widths. Global resonant and non-resonant currents increase linearly with plasma pressure and can act in or out of phase to the external currents. Local resonant currents are caused by the presence of an island and reinforce or counteract the island depending on the field strength gradient [2]. We compare the impact of local resonant and global non-resonant currents by comparing the results of HINT for several related configurations of H-1NF. Two configurations with slightly different rotational transforms (but otherwise very similar parameters) will have very different resonant plasma currents but nearly identical non-resonant plasma currents. Comparing the effect of the currents of the two configurations on island width gives an insight into the different contributions of resonant and non-resonant plasma currents to island growth or self-healing

  9. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  10. GEO light imaging national testbed (GLINT) heliostat design and testing status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Marcia A.; Oldenettel, Jerry R.; Hult, Dane W.; Koski, Katrina; Depue, Tracy; Cuellar, Edward L.; Balfour, Jim; Roof, Morey; Yarger, Fred W.; Newlin, Greg; Ramzel, Lee; Buchanan, Peter; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Scotese, Lee

    2002-01-01

    The GEO Light Imaging National Testbed (GLINT) will use three laser beams producing simultaneous interference fringes to illuminate satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). The reflected returns will be recorded using a large 4,000 m2 'light bucket' receiver. This imaging methodology is termed Fourier Telescopy. A major component of the 'light bucket' will be an array of 40 - 80 heliostats. Each heliostat will have a mirrored surface area of 100 m2 mounted on a rigid truss structure which is supported by an A-frame. The truss structure attaches to the torque tube elevation drive and the A-frame structure rests on an azimuth ring that could provide nearly full coverage of the sky. The heliostat is designed to operate in 15 mph winds with jitter of less than 500 microradians peak-to- peak. One objective of the design was to minimize receiver cost to the maximum extent possible while maintaining GLINT system performance specifications. The mechanical structure weights approximately seven tons and is a simple fabricated steel framework. A prototype heliostat has been assembled at Stallion Range Center, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and is being tested under a variety of weather and operational conditions. The preliminary results of that testing will be presented as well as some finite element model analyses that were performed to predict the performance of the structure.

  11. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  13. Effect of island shape on dielectrophoretic assembly of metal nanoparticle chains in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Weiyu; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conductive island shape influences the dynamic process occurring in DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. • The DEP-assembled nanoparticle wires form a straighter conduction path with the increase in the geometric angle of conductive island tip. • The different island shapes distort the DEP force distribution and increase the local electrothermally induced fluid flow to different extents, which is important for the morphology and electrical conductance quality of the DEP-assembled metal nanoparticle chains. - Abstract: The electrical conduction quality of an electric circuit connection formed by dielectrophoretic (DEP)-assembled metal nanoparticle wires between small conductive elements plays a significant role in electronic devices. One of the major challenges for improving the electrical conductance of nanowires is optimizing their geometric morphology. So far, the electrical conduction quality has been enhanced by optimizing the AC frequency and conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein, the effect of the conductive island shapes on the dynamic process occurring in a DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles was investigated in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. The nanoparticle wires between the microelectrodes were assembled in situ from colloidal suspensions. The wires were grown in a much straighter route by increasing the geometric angle of the conductive-island tip. To validate the experiments, the effects of mutual DEP interactions and electrothermally induced fluid flow on the dynamic behavior of particle motion for different island geometric configurations in the conductive-island-based microelectrode system were determined by numerical simulations. The simulation results are consistent with those of experiments. This indicates that different conductive island shapes change the distribution of DEP force and increase the electrothermally induced fluid flow to

  14. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decheng Zhou; Shuqing Zhao; Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/ rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (...

  15. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, William F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Nonlinear resonance islands and modulational effects in a proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examine one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. The authors examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, the authors examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: Tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three parameters: The strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. The tune modulation model is successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. The authors present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and the authors make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment. The authors apply the tune modulation stability diagram to the explicitly two-dimensional phenomenon of modulational diffusion in the Fermilab Tevatron with beam-beam kicks as the source of nonlinearity. The amplitude growth created by this mechanism in simulation is exponential rather than root-time as predicted by modulational diffusion models. The authors comment upon the luminosity and lifetime limitations such a mechanism implies in a proton storage ring

  17. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tyler D. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ennico, Kimberly [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W. [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bussey, D. Ben J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 17-1, Moffett Field, CA 94089, USA Now the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute. (United States); Breiner, Jonathan, E-mail: tyler.d.robinson@nasa.gov [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  18. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  19. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  20. Hohlraum glint and laser pre-pulse detector for NIF experiments using velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Clancy, T J; Frieders, G; Celliers, P M; Ralph, J; Turnbull, D P

    2014-11-01

    Laser pre-pulse and early-time laser reflection from the hohlraum wall onto the capsule (termed "glint") can cause capsule imprint and unwanted early-time shocks on indirect drive implosion experiments. In a minor modification to the existing velocity interferometer system for any reflector diagnostic on NIF a fast-response vacuum photodiode was added to detect this light. The measurements show evidence of laser pre-pulse and possible light reflection off the hohlraum wall and onto the capsule.

  1. Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susca, T.; Gaffin, S.R.; Dell'Osso, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 deg. C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO 2 equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role. - Highlights: → The local morphology and the scarcity of vegetation in NYC core determines its UHI. → We introduce the evaluation of the effects of the surface albedo on climate change. → We use it to compare a black roof with a white and a green one. → Surface albedo has a crucial role in the evaluation of the environmental loads of the roofs. → Vegetation has positive effects on both the urban and the building scale. - Vegetation has positive effects both on an urban scale, mitigating the urban heat island effect; and on a building scale, where albedo, thermal insulation and biological activity of plants play a crucial role.

  2. Tidal Effects on Groundwater in a Very Small Tropical Island: A Study on the Groundwater Resources of Pag-asa Island, Kalayaan Island Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pag-asa Island, with its very small land area and low relief, has a very limited fresh water supply occurring as a thin freshwater lens. Climate, topography, vegetation, lithology, human abstractions, and tides affect the volume of the freshwater lens. Topographic and hydrogeologic surveys, coupled with a 72-hour groundwater-monitoring program were done to assess the effects of tides on the freshwater lens.Groundwater parameters measured in wells during the monitoring program include variations in water table depths, specific electrical conductivity (SEC, and temperature. Changes in these parameters were then correlated with the observed variations of the tides.The groundwater levels oscillate with the tides at varying amplitudes. The hydraulic properties of the lithologies making up the island's aquifer influence the amplitude of the oscillations. Groundwater level oscillations are least in the reef materials and greatest in the sandy materials where it is nearly simultaneous with the tidal variations. High electrical conductivity values are marked in wells built near the coasts and in sandy materials.The average annual precipitation is approximately 2,020 mm. Based on empirical studies, the estimated sustainable yield for small tropical islands is 6% of the lowest annual rainfall or about 20,300 m3/yr for Pag-asa Island.

  3. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 × 10"5 m"3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 × 10"4 m"3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a six-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land

  4. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  5. Mitigating the Urban Heat Island Effect in Megacity Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Sodoudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities demonstrate higher nocturnal temperatures than surrounding rural areas, which is called “urban heat island” (UHI effect. Climate change projections also indicate increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves, which will intensify the UHI effect. As megacity Tehran is affected by severe heatwaves in summer, this study investigates its UHI characteristics and suggests some feasible mitigation strategies in order to reduce the air temperature and save energy. Temperature monitoring in Tehran shows clear evidence of the occurrence of the UHI effect, with a peak in July, where the urban area is circa 6 K warmer than the surrounding areas. The mobile measurements show a park cool island of 6-7 K in 2 central parks, which is also confirmed by satellite images. The effectiveness of three UHI mitigation strategies high albedo material (HAM, greenery on the surface and on the roofs (VEG, and a combination of them (HYBRID has been studied using simulation with the microscale model ENVI-met. All three strategies show higher cooling effect in the daytime. The average nocturnal cooling effect of VEG and HYBRID (0.92, 1.10 K is much higher than HAM (0.16 K, although high-density trees show a negative effect on nocturnal cooling.

  6. Toroidal effects on the non-linearly saturated m = 1 island in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Haas, F.A.; Thyagaraja, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of toroidal effects (due to the coupling of various poloidal harmonics) on the non-linear saturation of the m=1 island. Bounds are obtained relating the aspect ratio, the shear at the q=1 surface and the saturated island width. Provided these bounds are satisfied, then we find that the cylindrical m=1 island theory is valid for toroidal geometry. (author)

  7. Effect of Nearshore Islands on Tsunami Inundation in Shadow Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, J.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Lynett, P. J.; Synolakis, C.

    2017-12-01

    Field surveys performed in the wake of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami event have described the belief of local residents that offshore islands serve as possible tsunami sheltering mechanisms, reducing the corresponding inundation on beaches behind the islands, despite the fact that deduced inundation from debris lines show this to be in fact untrue (Hill et al. 2012). Recent numerical model studies (Stefanakis et al. 2014) have shown that inundation levels on beaches behind conical islands are indeed higher than they are on open coastlines. While work has been done on tsunami amplification on the lee side of islands (Briggs et al. 1995), no work has been done concerning tsunami inundation on beach areas behind the islands. A series of experiments to address this were conducted in the Directional Wave Basin (DWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University in summer 2016. A series of four sheet metal islands (two with a full conical section, two truncated at the water line) were placed at varying distances from the toe of a 1/10 sloping beach. Incident wave conditions consisting of solitary waves and full-stroke "dam break" waves were run over the islands. Free surface elevations, velocities, and beach runup were measured, with the intent of determining relationships between the wave condition, the island geometry and distance from the beach, and the tsunami characteristics. A series of runup measurements from a particular set of experiments can be seen in Figure 1. Based on these preliminary analyses, it was determined that: A) inundation was always amplified behind the island relative to areas outside this shadow zone; and B) inundation was generally highest with the island closest to the beach, except in the case where the tsunami wave broke prior to reaching the island. In this latter scenario, the inundation behind the island increased with island distance from the beach. The development of relationships between the inundation levels

  8. Using Microporous Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Sheets as a Flexible Solar Diffuser to Minimize Sunlight Glint to Cameras in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  9. Using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene thin sheets as a flexible solar diffuser to minimize sunlight glint to cameras in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  10. Effect of magnetic island geometry on ECRH/ECCD and consequences to the NTM stabilization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziantonaki, I.; Tsironis, C.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.

    2012-09-01

    In the majority of codes that model ECCD-based NTM stabilization, the analysis of the EC propagation and absorption is performed in terms of the axisymmetric magnetic field, ignoring effects due to the island topology. In this paper, we analyze the wave propagation, absorption and current drive in the presence of NTMs, as well as the ECCD-driven island growth, focusing on the effect of the island geometry on the wave de-position. A primary evaluation of the consequences of these effects on the NTM evolution is also made in terms of the modified Rutherford equation.

  11. [Edge effect of the plant community structure on land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Jin-Feng; Hu, Guang; Xu, Gao-Fu; Yu, Ming-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted on 29 land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake (TIL), where long-term monitoring plots were set up during 2009-2010. The community attributes including species richness, Shannon index, plant mean height, plant mean diameter at breast height (DBH) and plant density along the edge-interior gradient from edge to interior forest were calculated to investigate the edge effect. The results showed that the species richness and Shannon index were affected through the whole gradient (larger than 50 m), while the range of edge effect was 20-30 m on mean plant height, and 10 m on plant density and mean DBH. Community attributes differed significantly among the edge gradients. The species richness and Shannon index peaked at the intermediate edge gradient. Plant density decreased and plant mean height increased along the edge to interior gradient. All five community attributes were significantly associated with the edge gradient, also different functional groups, evergreen or deciduous species, trees or shrubs, shade tolerant or shade intolerant species, were differentially influenced by the edge effect. It was demonstrated the influence of edge effect on the fragmented forest community varied with community attributes and functional groups.

  12. Coupling Analysis of Heat Island Effects, Vegetation Coverage and Urban Flood in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, Q.; Fan, W.; Wang, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, satellite image, remote sensing technique and geographic information system technique are main technical bases. Spectral and other factors comprehensive analysis and visual interpretation are main methods. We use GF-1 and Landsat8 remote sensing satellite image of Wuhan as data source, and from which we extract vegetation distribution, urban heat island relative intensity distribution map and urban flood submergence range. Based on the extracted information, through spatial analysis and regression analysis, we find correlations among heat island effect, vegetation coverage and urban flood. The results show that there is a high degree of overlap between of urban heat island and urban flood. The area of urban heat island has buildings with little vegetation cover, which may be one of the reasons for the local heavy rainstorms. Furthermore, the urban heat island has a negative correlation with vegetation coverage, and the heat island effect can be alleviated by the vegetation to a certain extent. So it is easy to understand that the new industrial zones and commercial areas which under constructions distribute in the city, these land surfaces becoming bare or have low vegetation coverage, can form new heat islands easily.

  13. Urban heat island effect on cicada densities in metropolitan Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Q. Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Urban heat island (UHI effect, the ubiquitous consequence of urbanization, is considered to play a major role in population expansion of numerous insects. Cryptotympana atrata and Hyalessa fuscata are the most abundant cicada species in the Korean Peninsula, where their population densities are higher in urban than in rural areas. We predicted a positive relationship between the UHI intensities and population densities of these two cicada species in metropolitan Seoul. Methods To test this prediction, enumeration surveys of cicada exuviae densities were conducted in 36 localities located within and in the vicinity of metropolitan Seoul. Samples were collected in two consecutive periods from July to August 2015. The abundance of each species was estimated by two resource-weighted densities, one based on the total geographic area, and the other on the total number of trees. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors critical for the prevalence of cicada species in the urban habitat. Results C. atrata and H. fuscata were major constituents of cicada species composition collected across all localities. Minimum temperature and sampling period were significant factors contributing to the variation in densities of both species, whereas other environmental factors related to urbanization were not significant. More cicada exuviae were collected in the second rather than in the first samplings, which matched the phenological pattern of cicadas in metropolitan Seoul. Cicada population densities increased measurably with the increase in temperature. Age of residential complex also exhibited a significantly positive correlation to H. fuscata densities, but not to C. atrata densities. Discussion Effects of temperature on cicada densities have been discerned from other environmental factors, as cicada densities increased measurably in tandem with elevated temperature. Several mechanisms may contribute to the abundance of

  14. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L O; Parkinson, D K

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  15. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Wen Hsu; Meng-Hsien Chou; Wei-Ting Chao; Shin-Jye Liang

    2018-01-01

    Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m) shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes...

  16. Effect of magnetic islands on the impurity transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.V.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Chudnovskij, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of magnetic islands m=2, created in plasma with the help of special quadrupole winding, on the behaviour of impurity in the T-7 tokamak is studied. The use of quadrupole winding permitted to exlude the magnetic island nonstationarity typical to spontaneous development of the Tiaring instability. The results obtained confirm the point of view that splitting of rational magnetic surface results in the change of impurity ion density gradient in its vicinity. This change occurs under the action of ambipolar electric field, that is excited due to the increase of radial electron transport in magnetic islands

  17. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms

  18. Kinetic effects on the currents determining the stability of a magnetic island in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, E., E-mail: emanuele.poli@ipp.mpg.de; Bergmann, A.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany); Peeters, A. G. [University of Bayreuth, Department of Physics (Germany); Siccinio, M.; Zarzoso, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The role of the bootstrap and polarization currents for the stability of neoclassical tearing modes is investigated employing both a drift kinetic and a gyrokinetic approach. The adiabatic response of the ions around the island separatrix implies, for island widths below or around the ion thermal banana width, density flattening for islands rotating at the ion diamagnetic frequency, while for islands rotating at the electron diamagnetic frequency the density is unperturbed and the only contribution to the neoclassical drive arises from electron temperature flattening. As for the polarization current, the full inclusion of finite orbit width effects in the calculation of the potential developing in a rotating island leads to a smoothing of the discontinuous derivatives exhibited by the analytic potential on which the polarization term used in the modeling is based. This leads to a reduction of the polarization-current contribution with respect to the analytic estimate, in line with other studies. Other contributions to the perpendicular ion current, related to the response of the particles around the island separatrix, are found to compete or even dominate the polarization-current term for realistic island rotation frequencies.

  19. Typhoon effect on Kuroshio and Green Island wake: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    T.-W. Hsu; M.-H. Chou; T.-H. Hou; S.-J. Liang

    2015-01-01

    Green Island located in the typhoon active eastern Taiwan coastal water is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m) shallow-water equations (SWEs) model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydrodynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wake. Two wind induced flows, typhoon Soulik and Holland's wind field model, are studied. Simulation results of the typhoon Soulik indicate that salient characteristics of Kuroshio and ...

  20. Flying between sky islands: the effect of naturally fragmented habitat on butterfly population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called "sky islands" when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat.

  1. The Effect of a Guide Field on the Structures of Magnetic Islands: 2D PIC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Lu, Q.; Lu, S.; Wang, P.; Wang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic island plays an important role in magnetic reconnection. Using a series of 2D PIC simulations, we investigate the magnetic structures of a magnetic island formed during multiple X-line magnetic reconnection, considering the effects of the guide field in symmetric and asymmetric current sheets. In a symmetric current sheet, the current in the direction forms a tripolar structure inside a magnetic island during anti-parallel reconnection, which results in a quadrupole structure of the out-of-plane magnetic field. With the increase of the guide field, the symmetry of both the current system and out-of-plane magnetic field inside the magnetic island is distorted. When the guide field is sufficiently strong, the current forms a ring along the magnetic field lines inside magnetic island. At the same time, the current carried by the energetic electrons accelerated in the vicinity of the X lines forms another ring at the edge of the magnetic island. Such a dual-ring current system enhance the out-of-plane magnetic field inside the magnetic island with a dip in the center of the magnetic island. In an asymmetric current sheet, when there is no guide field, electrons flows toward the X lines along the separatrices from the side with a higher density, and are then directed away from the X lines along the separatrices to the side with a lower density. The formed current results in the enhancement of the out-of-plane magnetic field at one end of the magnetic island, and the attenuation at the other end. With the increase of the guide field, the structures of both the current system and the out-of-plane magnetic field are distorted.

  2. Effect of drift-acoustic waves on magnetic island stability in slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical formalism is developed for calculating the ion polarization term in the Rutherford island width evolution equation in the presence of drift-acoustic waves. The calculation is fully nonlinear, includes both ion and electron diamagnetic effects, as well as ion compressibility, but is performed in slab geometry. Magnetic islands propagating in a certain range of phase velocities are found to emit drift-acoustic waves. Wave emission gives rise to rapid oscillations in the ion polarization term as the island phase velocity varies, and also generates a net electromagnetic force acting on the island region. Increasing ion compressibility is found to extend the range of phase velocities over which drift-acoustic wave emission occurs in the electron diamagnetic direction

  3. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wen Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes seems less affected by the typhoon Soulik, because the shortest distance of typhoon Soulik is 250 km away from Green Island and wind speed near Green Island is small. Moreover, Kuroshio currents increase when flow is in the same direction as the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon, and vice versa. This finding is in favorable agreement with the TOROS (Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System observed data. Simulations of Kuroshio and Holland’s typhoon model successfully reproduces the downstream recirculation and vortex street. Numerical results reveal that the slow moving typhoon has a more significant impact on the Kuroshio and downstream Green Island wakes than the fast moving typhoon does. The rightward bias phenomenon is evident—Kuroshio currents increase (decrease in the right (left of the moving typhoon’s track, due to the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon.

  4. Roles of effective helical ripple rates in nonlinear stability of externally induced magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.

  5. Training competent and effective Primary Health Care Workers to fill a void in the outer islands health service delivery of the Marshall Islands of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni Bhalachandra H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for health are non-existent in many parts of the world and the outer islands of Marshall Islands in Micronesia are prime examples. While the more populated islands with hospital facilities are often successful in recruiting qualified health professionals from overseas, the outer islands generally have very limited health resources, and are thus less successful. In an attempt to provide reasonable health services to these islands, indigenous people were trained as Health Assistants (HA to service their local communities. In an effort to remedy the effectiveness of health care delivery to these islands, a program to train mid-level health care workers (Hospital Assistants was developed and implemented by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the hospital in Majuro, the capital city of the Marshall Islands. Methods A physician instructor with experience and expertise in primary health care in these regions conducted the program. The curriculum included training in basic health science, essentials of endemic disorders and their clinical management appropriate to the outer islands. Emphasis was given to prevention and health promotion as well as to the curative aspects. For clinical observation, the candidates were assigned to clinical departments of the Majuro hospital for 1 year during their training, as assistants to the nursing staff. This paper discusses the details of the training, the modalities used to groom the candidates, and an assessment of the ultimate effectiveness of the program. Results Out of 16 boys who began training, 14 candidates were successful in completing the program. In 1998 a similar program was conducted exclusively for women under the auspices of Asian Development Bank funding, hence women were not part of this program. Conclusion For developing countries of the Pacific, appropriately trained human resources are an essential component of economic progress, and the health workforce

  6. On the urban heat island effect dependence on temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilloni, I.; Barros, V.

    1997-01-01

    For US, Argentine and Australian cities, yearly mean urban to rural temperature differences (ΔT u-r ) and rural temperatures (T r ) are negatively correlated in almost every case, suggesting that urban heat island intensity depends, among other parameters on the temperature itself. This negative correlation is related to the fact that interannual variability of temperature is generally lower in urban environments than in rural areas. This seems to hold true at low frequencies leading to opposite trends in the two variables. Hence, urban stations are prone to have lower trends in absolute value than rural ones. Therefore, regional data sets including records from urban locations, in addition to urban growth bias may have a second type of urban bias associated with temperature trends. A bulk estimate of this second urban bias trend for the contiguous United States during 1901-1984 indicates that it could be of the same order as the urban growth bias and of opposite sign. If these results could be extended to global data, it could be expected that the spurious influence of urban growth on global temperature trends during warming periods will be offset by the diminishing of the urban heat island intensity. 36 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Ant species accumulation on Lord Howe Island highlights the increasing need for effective biosecurity on islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Hoffmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Fallopia (F. sachalinensis, F. japonica, Polygonaceae native to Asia, and their hybrid (F. × bohemica, belong to the most noxious plant invaders in Europe. They impact highly on invaded plant communities, resulting in extremely poor native species richness. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed, under laboratory conditions, whether there are phytotoxic effects of the three Fallopia congeners on seed germination of three target species: two native species commonly growing in habitats that are often invaded by Fallopia taxa (Urtica dioica, Calamagrostis epigejos, and Lepidium sativum, a species commonly used in allelopathic bioassays as a control. Since Fallopia taxa form dense stands with high cover, we included varying light conditions as an additional factor, to simulate the effects of shading by leaf canopy on germination.

  8. Effects of insularity on digestion: living on islands induces shifts in physiological and morphological traits in island reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2015-10-01

    Living on islands entails numerous challenges for animals, among which resource scarcity stands out. In order to survive, animals have to optimize energy acquisition. We examined the impact of insularity on digestion comparing a series of physiological and morphological traits of adult males between insular and mainland populations of the Balkan green lizard. Island lizards had longer gastrointestinal tracts and gut passage times and higher digestive efficiencies. The dissection of the hindgut revealed an unexpected finding, the presence of cecal valves that were more frequent in island lizards. Thanks to all above islanders retain food for longer periods and thus maximize energy income and increase the amount of the extracted nutrients. That way, they secure energy income from the limited, in time and quantity, food resources of the islands.

  9. Double-Crested Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax auritus) Nesting Effects on Understory Composition and Diversity on Island Ecosystems in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Darby M.; Murphy, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    The context for this study is the management concerns over the severity and extent of the impact of cormorants on island flora in the recent past on Lake Erie islands. Accordingly, this study sought to quantify the nesting colonies' influence on coarse woody litter and how nest densities and litter depth may influence the herbaceous layer, the seed bank composition and viability across the extent of three Lake Erie islands. The data for this study were collected from 2004 to 2008 on East Sister Island and Middle Island using two main strategies. First, herbaceous layer surveys, cormorant nest counts, soil seed bank cores, and litter depth measurements were executed using a plotless-point quarter method to test island-wide impacts from nesting activities (data were also collected on a third island, West Sister Island as a reference for the other two islands). Secondly, a sub-sample of the entire plot set was examined in particularly high nesting density areas for two islands (Middle Island and East Sister Island). Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that there are subtle changes in the herbaceous diversity (total, native and exotic) and seed bank composition across the islands. The sub sample set of the plots demonstrated that Phalacrocorax auritus nest density does influence litter depth, herbaceous species abundance and diversity. Cormorant nesting pressures are restricted to areas of high nesting pressures and competition. However, there remains a risk to the interior herbaceous layer of the island if the effects of nesting pressures at the edges advance inward from this perimeter.

  10. Effect of an isolated elliptical terrain (Jeju Island on rainfall enhancement in a moist environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-OK Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of idealised experiments using a cloud-resolving storm simulator (CReSS was performed to investigate the effects of the isolated elliptically shaped terrain of Jeju Island (oriented east–west, southern Korea, on the enhancement of pre-existing rainfall systems under the influence of prevailing southwesterly moist flows. Control parameters were the low-altitude wind speed (Froude numbers: 0.2, 0.4, 0.55 and the initial location of the elongated (oriented north–east rainfall system (off the northwestern or western shores of the island. Simulations were conducted for all combinations of initial location and wind regime. Overall, results indicate that weak southwesterlies flowing around the steep mountain on the island (height, 2 km generate two local convergences, on the northern lateral side and on the lee side of the island, both in regions of moist environments, thus producing conditions favourable for enhanced rainfall. As an eastward-moving rainfall system approaches the northwestern shore of the island, the southwesterlies at low altitudes accelerate between the system and the terrain, generating a local updraft region that causes rainfall enhancement onshore in advance of the system's arrival over the terrain. Thus, the prevailing southwesterlies at low altitudes that are parallel to the terrain are a crucial element for the enhancement. Relatively weak southwesterlies at low altitudes allow system enhancement on the lee side by generating a convergence of relatively weak go-around northwesterlies from the northern island and relatively strong moist southwesterlies from the southern island, thus producing a relatively long-lived rainfall system. As the southwesterlies strengthen, a dry descending air mass intensifies on the northeastern downwind side of the terrain, rapidly dissipating rainfall and resulting in a relatively short-lived rainfall system. A coexisting terrain-generated local convergence, combined with the absence

  11. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m 3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m 3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  13. Numerical simulations of island effects on airflow and weather during the summer over the island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiep Van Nguyen; Yie-Leng Chen; Francis Fujioka

    2010-01-01

    The high-resolution (1.5 km) nonhydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania StateUniversity–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) and an advanced land surface model (LSM) are used to study the island-induced airflow and weather for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, under summer trade wind conditions. Despite Oahu’s relatively small...

  14. Effective Behaviour Management Strategies for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Linda L.; Boon, Helen J.; Lewthwaite, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify effective behaviour management strategies which create a positive learning environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. The search criteria employed resulted in 103 documents which were analysed in response to this focus. Results identified…

  15. Climate change effects on soil arthropod communities from the Falkland Islands and the maritime Antartic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Huiskes, A.; Convey, P.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over a 2-year study, we investigated the effect of environmental change on the diversity and abundance of soil arthropod communities (Acari and Collembola) in the Maritime Antarctic and the Falkland Islands. Open Top Chambers (OTCs), as used extensively in the framework of the northern boreal

  16. Understanding the effects of strain on morphological instabilities of a nanoscale island during heteroepitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Lu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shibin; Li, Linan; Shen, Min; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Zhenfei; Zhao, Yang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Engineering Mechanics, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-07-21

    A comprehensive morphological stability analysis of a nanoscale circular island during heteroepitaxial growth is presented based on continuum elasticity theory. The interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic mechanisms is revealed by including strain-related kinetic processes. In the kinetic regime, the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model is adopted to describe the growth front of the island. Together with kinetic boundary conditions, various kinetic processes including deposition flow, adatom diffusion, attachment-detachment kinetics, and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier can be taken into account at the same time. In the thermodynamic regime, line tension, surface energy, and elastic energy are considered. As the strain relief in the early stages of heteroepitaxy is more complicated than commonly suggested by simple consideration of lattice mismatch, we also investigate the effects of external applied strain and elastic response due to perturbations on the island shape evolution. The analytical expressions for elastic fields induced by mismatch strain, external applied strain, and relaxation strain are presented. A systematic approach is developed to solve the system via a perturbation analysis which yields the conditions of film morphological instabilities. Consistent with previous experimental and theoretical work, parametric studies show the kinetic evolution of elastic relaxation, island morphology, and film composition under various conditions. Our present work offers an effective theoretical approach to get a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between different growth mechanisms and how to tailor the growth mode by controlling the nature of the crucial factors.

  17. Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands: Effects of interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Standalone diesel systems have been widely used on Malaysian islands due to the isolated locations of the islands. Nevertheless, the high diesel prices and the high cost of transporting diesel to islands cause the use of standalone diesel systems to be uneconomical. This study analyzes the feasibility of implementing PV (photovoltaic) systems as alternatives to standalone diesel systems by considering the effects of annual real interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes, using the HOMER (hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources) software. The results indicate that, at the ordinary diesel price of $ 0.61/L, low interest rates (0–3%) are desirable for the implementation of hybrid PV/diesel with battery systems over standalone diesel systems, regardless of the load sizes. Although different load sizes may affect the decisions on the implementation of PV systems at higher interest rates (6–9%), these effects become less pronounced as the price of diesel increases to $ 1.22/L or higher. Also, under high diesel prices, the choice of optimal system configurations obtained for small load sizes should be applicable for larger load sizes, albeit with different component ratings. Although the current study is intended for Malaysian islands, the findings can be generalized for other places with similar solar radiation levels. - Highlights: • Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands have been analyzed using HOMER. • Interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes affect optimal system configurations. • Effects of interest rates and load sizes reduce with increasing diesel prices. • Photovoltaic systems' implementation is feasible at high diesel prices. • The findings can be generalized for places with similar solar radiation levels

  18. The mitigation effect of configuration and context optimization of urban holdings on heat island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y P; Yu, D Y; Xun, B

    2014-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has become a serious problem in recent years. It is necessary to study the mitigation methods and quantify their effects on UHI. In this paper, based on the remote sensed data, an empirical model was established as a negative function of land surface temperature (LST) to vegetation coverage. Urban heat island intensity (UHII) was estimated by a robust statistic algorithm. Compared with the current condition (vegetation coverage equaling to 0%), five high vegetation coverage building scenarios (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) were designed to explore mitigation effects on UHI separately. The results showed that the mean LST increase by about 0.5°C when vegetation coverage decrease by 0.1. UHII has a considerable decrease when the scenarios of vegetation coverage equaling to 20% and 40%, respectively. The reasonable vegetation configuration is the effective UHI mitigation

  19. Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Schoener, Thomas W

    2011-01-28

    The effect of environmental change on ecosystems is mediated by species interactions. Environmental change may remove or add species and shift life-history events, altering which species interact at a given time. However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. In a Caribbean island system, a major manifestation of environmental change is seaweed deposition, which has been linked to eutrophication, overfishing, and hurricanes. Here, we show in a whole-island field experiment that without seaweed two predators--lizards and ants--had a substantially greater-than-additive effect on herbivory. When seaweed was added to mimic deposition by hurricanes, no interactive predator effect occurred. Thus environmental change can substantially restructure food-web interactions, complicating efforts to predict anthropogenic changes in ecosystem processes.

  20. Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Dons, Klaus; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure can to a certain extent mitigate urban warming. However, the cooling effect of plants varies with space, time and plant-specific properties. To contribute to our understanding of the cooling effect of vegetation on urban surface and air temperature, 21 parks in Addis...... and spatial design of green spaces in cooling the environment....

  1. Monitoring the effects of land use/landcover changes on urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ong K.; Sarker, Md Latifur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    Urban heat island effects are well known nowadays and observed in cities throughout the World. The main reason behind the effects of urban heat island (UHI) is the transformation of land use/ land cover, and this transformation is associated with UHI through different actions: i) removal of vegetated areas, ii) land reclamation from sea/river, iii) construction of new building as well as other concrete structures, and iv) industrial and domestic activity. In rapidly developing cities, urban heat island effects increases very hastily with the transformation of vegetated/ other types of areas into urban surface because of the increasing population as well as for economical activities. In this research the effect of land use/ land cover on urban heat island was investigated in two growing cities in Asia i.e. Singapore and Johor Bahru, (Malaysia) using 10 years data (from 1997 to 2010) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Multispectral visible band along with indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build Index (NDBI), and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were used for the classification of major land use/land cover types using Maximum Likelihood Classifiers. On the other hand, land surface temperature (LST) was estimated from thermal image using Land Surface Temperature algorithm. Emissivity correction was applied to the LST map using the emissivity values from the major land use/ land cover types, and validation of the UHI map was carried out using in situ data. Results of this research indicate that there is a strong relationship between the land use/land cover changes and UHI. Over this 10 years period, significant percentage of non-urban surface was decreased but urban heat surface was increased because of the rapid urbanization. With the increase of UHI effect it is expected that local urban climate has been modified and some heat related health problem has been exposed, so appropriate measure should be taken in order to

  2. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérubin, Laurent Marcel; Garavelli, Lysel

    2016-01-01

    The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns. PMID:26942575

  3. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marcel Chérubin

    Full Text Available The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.

  4. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  5. The effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Piquero, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Henriquez, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the economic effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands to generate electricity in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants. To this end we will evaluate how this measure contributes to achieving the objectives of the islands' energy policy and we calculate the cost of generating a kWh from this technology. For this calculation we obtain the net present value (NPV) of the total production costs during the economic lifetime of the plant so as to subsequently find the unitary cost per kWh generated. The result obtained indicates that the kWh cost is some 25% lower than the cost of using petroleum derivatives. Additionally, if we consider the positive effect of CO 2 emissions reductions, the cost is 41% lower. The introduction of natural gas will also be a decisive factor in complying with Kyoto requirements and in diversifying supply sources in the Canaries

  6. Finite banana orbit effects in the presence of mini-magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.P.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    To address the interaction of trapped ions on magnetic islands, the contribution of collisionless finite banana orbit effects on the parallel (to the magnetic field B) current is investigated. In this calculation the width of the magnetic islands and the ion banana orbits are assumed to be small compared with the characteristic equilibrium gradient scale length, a, but comparable to each other, e.g., w isl ∼Δr T much-lt a. The ion drift kinetic equation is solved near the rational flux surface for a single resonant helicity perturbation of the magnetic field, B 1 =∇x(-ψ 1 ∇ζ)∼exp{im(θ-ζ/q s )}. Here, θ is the poloidal angle, ζ the toroidal angle, and q s =m/n the safety factor on the rational flux surface. Then, using this solution, the parallel current will be calculated in combination with the electron drift kinetic solution previously solved by Hegna and Callen, where the electron banana width effects are neglected since the electron poloidal gyro radius is taken to be very small with respect to the magnetic island width

  7. EFFECTS OF PHOTOSTIMULATION ON SEMEN PRODUCTION IN RHODE ISLAND ROOSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA LADOSI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammals the length of daylight has an oscillatory influence on semen production. It is known that in mammalian males highest semen output occurs mainly in spring and fall. It is possible that there is the same pattern in rooster semen production despite the anatomic differences regarding the testis location and, obviously local temperature. Considering these facts the present trial was set up in order to reveal effects of prolonged daylight – photo stimulation – on semen production in young roosters. All young roosters in the trial were divided in 3 groups, according to the age when photo stimulating schedule started. Photo stimulation was performed by moving young roosters from an 8h/day light to 14h / day light. Attempts of collecting semen up to the age of 20 weeks have failed showing relationship between body general development and semen output. Under prolonged light semen parameters as volume, motility and concentration changed from one week to the other. However, light is not the single factor inducing sexual maturity of the genital tract, but it could be used in young roosters in order to stimulate feed intake and thus overall body growth and development.

  8. A global analysis of the urban heat island effect based on multisensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J.; Frolking, S. E.; Milliman, T. E.; Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Human population is rapidly urbanizing. In much of the world, cities are prone to hotter weather than surrounding rural areas - so-called `urban heat islands' - and this effect can have mortal consequences during heat waves. During the daytime, when the surface energy balance is driven by incoming solar radiation, the magnitude of urban warming is strongly influenced by surface albedo and the capacity to evaporate water (i.e., there is a strong relationship between vegetated land fraction and the ratio of sensible to latent heat loss or Bowen ratio). At nighttime, urban cooling is often inhibited by the thermal inertia of the built environment and anthropogenic heat exhaust from building and transportation energy use. We evaluated a suite of global remote sensing data sets representing a range of urban characteristics against MODIS-derived land-surface temperature differences between urban and surrounding rural areas. We included two new urban datasets in this analysis - MODIS-derived change in global urban extent and global urban microwave backscatter - along with several MODIS standard products and DMSP/OLS nighttime lights time series data. The global analysis spanned a range of urban characteristics that likely influence the magnitude of daytime and/or nighttime urban heat islands - urban size, population density, building density, state of development, impervious fraction, eco-climatic setting. Specifically, we developed new satellite datasets and synthesizing these with existing satellite data into a global database of urban land surface parameters, used two MODIS land surface temperature products to generate time series of daytime and nighttime urban heat island effects for 30 large cities across the globe, and empirically analyzed these data to determine specifically which remote sensing-based characterizations of global urban areas have explanatory power with regard to both daytime and nighttime urban heat islands.

  9. Effects of 2010 Hurricane Earl amidst geologic evidence for greater overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Tuttle, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    A post-hurricane survey of a Caribbean island affords comparisons with geologic evidence for greater overwash at the same place. This comparison, though of limited application to other places, helps calibrate coastal geology for assessment of earthquake and tsunami potential along the Antilles Subduction Zone. The surveyed island, Anegada, is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and is near the paths of hurricanes Donna (1960) and Earl (2010), which were at or near category 4 when at closest approach. The survey focused on Earl's geologic effects, related them to the surge from Hurricane Donna, and compared them further with erosional and depositional signs of southward overwash from the Atlantic Ocean that dates to 1200-1450 AD and to 1650-1800 AD. The main finding is that the geologic effects of these earlier events dwarf those of the recent hurricanes. Hurricane Earl's geologic effects at Anegada, observed mainly in 2011, were limited to wrack deposition along many of the island's shores and salt ponds, accretion of small washover (spillover) fans on the south shore, and the suspension and deposition of microbial material from interior salt ponds. Earl's most widespread deposit at Anegada, the microbial detritus, was abundantly juxtaposed with evidence for catastrophic overwash in prior centuries. The microbial detritus formed an extensive coating up to 2 cm thick that extended into breaches in beach-ridge plains of the island's north shore, onto playas that are underlain by a sand-and-shell sheet that extends as much as 1.5 km southward from the north shore, and among southward-strewn limestone boulders pendant to outcrops as much as 1 km inland. Earl's spillover fans also contrast with a sand-and-shell sheet, which was dated previously to 1650-1800, by being limited to the island's south shore and by extending inland a few tens of meters at most. These findings complement those reported in this issue by Michaela Spiske and Robert Halley (Spiske and Halley

  10. Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of water level variations on breaking wave setup over fringing reefs are assessed using field measurements obtained at three study sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. At each site, reef flat setup varies over the tidal range with weaker setup at high tide and stronger setup at low tide for a given incident wave height. The observed water level dependence is interpreted in the context of radiation stress gradients specified by an idealized point break model generalized for nonnormally incident waves. The tidally varying setup is due in part to depth-limited wave heights on the reef flat, as anticipated from previous reef studies, but also to tidally dependent breaking on the reef face. The tidal dependence of the breaking is interpreted in the context of the point break model in terms of a tidally varying wave height to water depth ratio at breaking. Implications for predictions of wave-driven setup at reef-fringed island shorelines are discussed.

  11. Analysis of the effect of local heat island in Seoul using LANDSAT image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. I.; Ryu, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in the rate of industrialization due to urbanization has caused the Urban Heat Island phenomenon which means that the temperature of the city is higher than the surrounding area, and its intensity is increasing with climate change. Among the cities where heat island phenomenon occur, Seoul city has different degree of urbanization, green area ratio, energy consumption, and population density by each district unit. As a result, the strength of heat island phenomenon is also different. The average maximum temperature in each region may differ by more than 3 °, which is bigger than the suburbs in Seoul and it means that analysis of UHI effect by regional unit is needed. Therefore, this study is to extract the UHI Intensity of the regional unit of the Seoul Metropolitan City using the satellite image, analyzed the difference of intensity according to the regional unit. And do linear regression analysis with variables included in three categories(regional meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat generation, land use factors). As a result, The UHI Intensity value of the Gu unit is significantly different from the UHI Intensity distribution of the Dong unit. The variable having the greatest positive correlation with UHI Intensity was NDBI(Normalized Difference Built-up Index) which shows the distribution of urban area, and Urban area ratio also has high correlation. There was a negative correlation between mean wind speed but there was no significant correlation between population density and power consumption. The result of this study is to identify the regional difference of UHI Intensity and to identify the factors inducing heat island phenomenon. so It is expected that it will provide direction in urban thermal environment design and policy development in the future.

  12. Serological markers suggest heterogeneity of effectiveness of malaria control interventions on Bioko Island, equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Cook

    Full Text Available In order to control and eliminate malaria, areas of on-going transmission need to be identified and targeted for malaria control interventions. Immediately following intense interventions, malaria transmission can become more heterogeneous if interventions are more successful in some areas than others. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, has been subject to comprehensive malaria control interventions since 2004. This has resulted in substantial reductions in the parasite burden, although this drop has not been uniform across the island.In 2008, filter paper blood samples were collected from 7387 people in a cross-sectional study incorporating 18 sentinel sites across Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Antibodies were measured to P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1 by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Age-specific seropositivity rates were used to estimate seroconversion rates (SCR. Analysis indicated there had been at least a 60% decline in SCR in four out of five regions on the island. Changes in SCR showed a high degree of congruence with changes in parasite rate (PR and with regional reductions in all cause child mortality. The mean age adjusted concentration of anti-AMA-1 antibodies was mapped to identify areas where individual antibody responses were higher than expected. This approach confirmed the North West of the island as a major focus of continuing infection and an area where control interventions need to be concentrated or re-evaluated.Both SCR and PR revealed heterogeneity in malaria transmission and demonstrated the variable effectiveness of malaria control measures. This work confirms the utility of serological analysis as an adjunct measure for monitoring transmission. Age-specific seroprevalence based evidence of changes in transmission over time will be of particular value when no baseline data are available. Importantly, SCR data provide additional evidence to link malaria control activities to contemporaneous

  13. [Applicability of traditional landscape metrics in evaluating urban heat island effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Lian; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    By using 24 landscape metrics, this paper evaluated the urban heat island effect in parts of Beijing downtown area. QuickBird (QB) images were used to extract the landscape type information, and the thermal bands from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST) in four seasons of the same year. The 24 landscape pattern metrics were calculated at landscape and class levels in a fixed window with 120 mx 120 m in size, with the applicability of these traditional landscape metrics in evaluating the urban heat island effect examined. Among the 24 landscape metrics, only the percentage composition of landscape (PLAND), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), coefficient of Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance variance (ENN_CV), and landscape division index (DIVISION) at landscape level were significantly correlated with the LST in March, May, and November, and the PLAND, LPI, DIVISION, percentage of like adjacencies, and interspersion and juxtaposition index at class level showed significant correlations with the LST in March, May, July, and December, especially in July. Some metrics such as PD, edge density, clumpiness index, patch cohesion index, effective mesh size, splitting index, aggregation index, and normalized landscape shape index showed varying correlations with the LST at different class levels. The traditional landscape metrics could not be appropriate in evaluating the effects of river on LST, while some of the metrics could be useful in characterizing urban LST and analyzing the urban heat island effect, but screening and examining should be made on the metrics.

  14. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  15. Assessing, planning, and management of North Sea oil development effects in the Shetland Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.G.; Butler, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Shetland Islands have long had the reputation of having planned and managed the onshore effects of offshore petroleum development very well. The islands are seen as something of a model for others to follow and have frequently been visited since the beginning of northern North Sea oil development in the early 1970s by those wishing to learn how to best approach offshore petroleum development in their home areas. In this assessment the authors wish to focus on views expressed on the effectiveness of the planning and managing of onshore effects of petroleum development and present an overview of interviewee statements on future issues. Emphasis will be placed on the environmental aspects, where that term is taken for present purposes, to include fauna, flora, water quality, and other resources and their relationships to industries such as fishing and tourism--although observations will also be made about planning and management of land use and socio-economic effects. The paper concludes with an attempt to set their findings in a broader pluralist context by relating them to the views expressed in recent books by Shetland residents that contain observations on oil effects although written for more general purposes

  16. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  17. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites. We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal

  18. Effect of Gravity Waves from Small Islands in the Southern Ocean on the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Oman, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of small islands in the Southern Ocean on the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is considered with a series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model in which the gravity wave stress generated by these islands is increased to resemble observed values. The enhanced gravity wave drag leads to a 2 K warming of the springtime polar stratosphere, partially ameliorating biases in this region. Resolved wave drag declines in the stratospheric region in which the added orographic gravity waves deposit their momentum, such that changes in gravity waves are partially compensated by changes in resolved waves, though resolved wave drag increases further poleward. The orographic drag from these islands has impacts for surface climate, as biases in tropospheric jet position are also partially ameliorated. These results suggest that these small islands are likely contributing to the missing drag near 60 degrees S in the upper stratosphere evident in many data assimilation products.

  19. Urban surface temperature behaviour and heat island effect in a tropical planned city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeb Qaid; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Jamei, Elmira; Manaf, Norhashima Abd; Said, Ismail; Ahmad, Mohd Hamdan

    2015-02-01

    Putrajaya is a model city planned with concepts of a "city in the garden" and an "intelligent city" in the tropics. This study presents the behaviour of the surface temperature and the heat island effect of Putrajaya. Findings show that heat island intensity is 2 °C on average at nighttime and negligible at daytime. But high surface temperature values were recorded at the main boulevard due to direct solar radiation incident, street orientation in the direction of northeast and southwest and low building height-to-street width ratio. Buildings facing each other had cooling effect on surfaces during the morning and evening hours; conversely, they had a warming effect at noon. Clustered trees along the street are effective in reducing the surface temperature compared to scattered and isolated trees. Surface temperature of built up areas was highest at noon, while walls and sidewalks facing northwest were hottest later in the day. Walls and sidewalks that face northwest were warmer than those that face southeast. The surface temperatures of the horizontal street surfaces and of vertical façades are at acceptable levels relative to the surface temperature of similar surfaces in mature cities in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean climates.

  20. What land covers are effective in mitigating a heat island in urban building rooftop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 20th century, due to the rapid urbanization many urban environment problems have got blossomed and above all heat island has been recognized as an important issue. There are several causes of urban heat island, but land cover change occupies the largest portion of them. Owing to urban expansion, vegetation is changed into asphalt pavements and concrete buildings, which reduces latent heat flux. To mitigate the problems, people enlarge vegetation covers such as planting street trees, making rooftop gardens and constructing parks or install white roofs that feature high albedo on a building. While the white roofs reflect about 70% of solar radiation and absorb less radiation, vegetation has low albedo but cools the air through transpiration and fixes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. There are some studies concerning which one is more effective to mitigate heat island between the green roof and white roof. This study compares the green roof and white roof and additionally considers carbon fixation that has not been treated in other studies. Furthermore, this study ascertains an efficiency of solar-cell panel that is used for building roof recently. The panel produces electric power but has low albedo which could warm the air. The experiment is conducted at the rooftop in Seoul, Korea and compares green roof (grass), white roof (painted cover), black roof (solar panel) and normal painted roof. Surface temperature and albedo are observed for the four roof types and incoming shortwave, outgoing longwave and carbon flux are measured in green roof solely. In the case of solar panels, the electricity generation is calculated from the incoming radiation. We compute global warming potentials for the four roof types and test which roof type is most effective in reducing global warming potential.

  1. Analytical approach for evaluating temperature field of thermal modified asphalt pavement and urban heat island effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Derive an analytical approach to predict temperature fields of multi-layered asphalt pavement based on Green’s function. • Analyze the effects of thermal modifications on heat output from pavement to near-surface environment. • Evaluate pavement solutions for reducing urban heat island (UHI) effect. - Abstract: This paper aims to present an analytical approach to predict temperature fields in asphalt pavement and evaluate the effects of thermal modification on near-surface environment for urban heat island (UHI) effect. The analytical solution of temperature fields in the multi-layered pavement structure was derived with the Green’s function method, using climatic factors including solar radiation, wind velocity, and air temperature as input parameters. The temperature solutions were validated with an outdoor field experiment. By using the proposed analytical solution, temperature fields in the pavement with different pavement surface albedo, thermal conductivity, and layer combinations were analyzed. Heat output from pavement surface to the near-surface environment was studied as an indicator of pavement contribution to UHI effect. The analysis results show that increasing pavement surface albedo could decrease pavement temperature at various depths, and increase heat output intensity in the daytime but decrease heat output intensity in the nighttime. Using reflective pavement to mitigate UHI may be effective for an open street but become ineffective for the street surrounded by high buildings. On the other hand, high-conductivity pavement could alleviate the UHI effect in the daytime for both the open street and the street surrounded by high buildings. Among different combinations of thermal-modified asphalt mixtures, the layer combination of high-conductivity surface course and base course could reduce the maximum heat output intensity and alleviate the UHI effect most.

  2. [Effectiveness of dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of finger web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Rui, Yongjun; Zhang, Quanrong; Xue, Mingyu; Zhang, Zhihai

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of the finger web. Between June 2009 and December 2010, 10 patients with scar contracture of the finger web were treated. There were 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 30 years (range, 14-57 years). Scar contracture was caused by injury in 8 cases, by burn in 1 case, and by operation in 1 case. The locations were the 1st web space in 1 case, the 2nd web space in 3 cases, the 3rd web space in 5 cases, and the 4th web space in 1 case. The disease duration was 3 to 9 months with an average of 5 months. The maximum abduction was 10-20 degrees. After web space scar release, the dorsal metacarpal island flap (3.5 cm x 1.2 cm-4.0 cm x 2.0 cm in size) was used to reconstruct web space (2.0 cm x 1.0 cm-3.0 cm x 1.8 cm in size). The donor site was directly sutured or repaired with local flaps. At 2 days after operation, necrosis occurred in 1 flap, which healed by extractive treatment. The other flaps survived and wound healed by first intention; all the flaps at donor sites survived and incision healed by first intention. Ten patients were followed up 6 to 15 months (mean, 9 months). The reconstructed web space had good appearance, the maximum abduction was 80 degrees in 1 case of the 1st web space scars contracture, and the maximum abduction was 35-45 degrees (mean, 40 degrees) in the other 9 cases. In 8 scar patients causing by injury, no scar contracture recurred during follow-up. It can achieve good results in appearance and function to use dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of the finger web.

  3. The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC SEDIMENT CONTENT ON CORAL DIVERSITY IN KARIMUNJAWA ISLAND, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Nugroho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef now are under threats due to sedimentation. Fatal effect of organic rich sediment, leading corals mortality. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate effect of organic sediment content to the coral diversity in Karimunjawa Island, Central Java, Indonesia. Field data was conducted at 6 locations.  Three sediment traps were deployed at each sites to measure organic sediment content. Twenty replicated quadrant transects were used to estimate coral density and coral diversity. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to examine the differences of organic sediment content in each station. The linear regression was used to assess the relationship between organic sediment content and coral diversity. Our field result demonstrated that sediment content significantly different between sites with value range from 0.42 mg/800 ml - 1.32 mg/800 ml. Based on the Simson’s Diversity Index, the highest coral diversity found at Alang-alang as site with low sedimentation while the lowest coral diversity was found at Legon Lele as site with high sedimentation. The study shown significant negative correlation between organic sediment content and coral diversity with the coefficient of regression 0.68. This study convinces that disturbance on coral reefs might affect coral diversity in Karimunjawa Island, in addition to other factors such as the influence of human activities, natural disruption and climate change. Keywords: sedimentation, organic, coral, diversity, Karimunjawa

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns against Rabies in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, E; Mourits, M C M; Siko, M M; Hogeveen, H

    2017-12-01

    A dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies against rabies in a dog population representative of a typical village on Flores Island. Cost-effectiveness was measured as public cost per averted dog-rabies case. Simulations started with the introduction of one infectious dog into a susceptible dog population of 399 dogs and subsequently ran for a period of 10 years. The base scenario represented a situation without any control intervention. Evaluated vaccination strategies were as follows: annual vaccination campaigns with short-acting vaccine (immunity duration of 52 weeks) (AV_52), annual campaigns with long-acting vaccine (immunity duration of 156 weeks) (AV_156), biannual campaigns with short-acting vaccine (BV_52) and once-in-2-years campaigns with long-acting vaccine (O2V_156). The effectiveness of the vaccination strategies was simulated for vaccination coverages of 50% and 70%. Cumulative results were reported for the 10-year simulation period. The base scenario resulted in three epidemic waves, with a total of 1274 dog-rabies cases. The public cost of applying AV_52 at a coverage of 50% was US$5342 for a village. This strategy was unfavourable compared to other strategies, as it was costly and ineffective in controlling the epidemic. The costs of AV_52 at a coverage of 70% and AV_156 at a coverage of 70% were, respectively, US$3646 and US$3716, equivalent to US$3.00 and US$3.17 per averted dog-rabies case. Increasing the coverage of AV_156 from 50% to 70% reduced the number of cases by 7% and reduced the cost by US$1452, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$1.81 per averted dog-rabies case. This simulation model provides an effective tool to explore the public cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination strategies in Flores Island. Insights obtained from the simulation results are useful for animal health authorities to support decision-making in rabies

  6. Geothermal energy sources for water production--socio-economic effects and people's wishes on Milos island: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manologlou, E.; Tsartas, P.; Markou, A.

    2004-01-01

    The scope of the article is to examine the local residents' views and opinions on the effects of the construction of a desalination plant on the island of Milos (Greece) which suffers - as many other islands in Cyclades - from lack of water. In particular: - To identify the current situation regarding the water supply on the island. - To examine the effects that the construction of the desalination plant will have on the local development. - To identify the different sectors of every day life which may be affected the most by better quality of water. - To examine the views concerning the environmental effects during project construction and operation. The main conclusion is that: Most of the inhabitants perceive the proposed project as beneficial for different sectors of the local development (mining, agriculture, tourism) and for every day life

  7. Merchandising at the point of sale: differential effect of end of aisle and islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Garrido-Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Merchandising at point of sale comprises a set of techniques aimed at encouraging the purchase at the point of sale. This paper analyzes the impact on sales of two of these techniques, especially used in the context of non-specialized food stores and rarely distinguished in academic research: (1 the presentation of product in the ends of the aisles or main aisles, leading from the side aisle access and, (2 the presentation of the product in islands within the main aisles. This research combines cross-sectional and longitudinal data and analyzes specific information on sales and commercial stimulus for all references in two large categories of products from a hypermarket over ten weeks. Results show that both the ends of aisle and the islands have a positive effect on sales and their relative importance depends on the nature of the category analyzed. There are also greater synergies between ends of aisle and price promotions. Finally, the results provide some evidence into the impact of the extension or termination of these merchandising stimuli.

  8. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  9. Cost-effective reduction of eutrophication in the Gulf of Kalloni (Island of Lesvos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ZANOU

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cost-effective analysis by comparing the costs of measures (options to improve the quality of bathing waters in the Gulf of Kalloni (island of Lesvos, Greece in order to reduce the anthropogenic eutrophication in the coastal water of the Kalloni Gulf. The Gulf of Kalloni is a semi-enclosed gulf (115 km2 which receives municipal wastewater, agricultural activity drainage, and at times sewage from olive oil plants processing the local olives harvest. The area of study consists of the coastal waters and the river basin of which water run-off drains into the gulf. Four options are comparable in their environmental effectiveness to reduce eurtophication damages which are: municipal wastewater treatment plant, construction of dams, organic farming plus training and olive oil wastewater treatment plant.

  10. Effects of climate change on saltwater intrusion at Hilton Head Island, SC. U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Dorothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Sea‐level rise and changes in precipitation patterns may contribute to the occurrence and affect the rate of saltwater contamination in the Hilton Head Island, South Carolina area. To address the effects of climate change on saltwater intrusion, a threedimensional, finite‐element, variable‐density, solute‐transport model was developed to simulate different rates of sea‐level rise and variation in onshore freshwater recharge. Model simulation showed that the greatest effect on the existing saltwater plume occurred from reducing recharge, suggesting recharge may be a more important consideration in saltwater intrusion management than estimated rates of sea‐level rise. Saltwater intrusion management would benefit from improved constraints on recharge rates by using model‐independent, local precipitation and evapotranspiration data, and improving estimates of confining unit hydraulic properties.

  11. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  12. Effectiveness of Different Urban Heat Island Mitigation Methods and Their Regional Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cool roofs and green roofs are two popular methods to mitigate urban heat island and improve urban climate. The effectiveness of different urban heat island mitigation strategies in the summer of 2013 in the Yangtze River Delta, China is investigated using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model coupled with a physically based urban canopy model. The modifications to the roof surface changed the urban surface radiation balance and then modified the local surface energy budget. Both cool roofs and green roofs led to lower surface skin temperature and near-surface air temperature. Increasing the roof albedo to 0.5 caused a similar effectiveness as covering 25% of urban roofs with vegetation; increasing roof albedo to 0.7 caused a similar near-surface air temperature decrease as 75% green roof coverage. The near-surface relative humidity increased in both cool roof and green roof experiments because of the combination of the impacts of increases in specific humidity and decreases in air temperature. The regional impacts of cool roofs and green roofs were evaluated using the regional effect index. The regional effect could be found in both near-surface air temperature and surface specific/relative humidity when the percentage of roofs covered with high albedo materials or green roofs reached a higher fraction (greater than 50%). The changes in the vertical profiles of temperature cause a more stable atmospheric boundary layer over the urban area; at the same time, the crossover phenomena occurred above the boundary layer due to the decrease in vertical wind speed.

  13. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  14. Investigating wind power`s effective capacity: A case study in the Caribbean Island of La Martinique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Germa, J.M.; Bailey, B. [AWS Scientific, Inc., Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report on the experimental determination of the effective capacity of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation with respect to the utility load requirements of the Island of La Martinique. La Martinique is a French Overseas Department in the Caribbean Sea. The case study spans two years, 1990 and 1991. We consider wind generation at three locations in different wind regimes, and PV generation for fixed and tracking flat plate systems. The results presented include: (1) An overview of typical solar and wind power output at each considered site, presented in contrast to the Island`s electric load requirements; and (2) Effective capacities quantified for each resource as a function of penetration in the utility generation mix. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. The effect of environmental change on vascular plant and cryptogam communities from the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Convey Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antarctic terrestrial vegetation is subject to one of the most extreme climates on Earth. Currently, parts of Antarctica are one of the fastest warming regions on the planet. During 3 growing seasons, we investigated the effect of experimental warming on the diversity and abundance of coastal plant communities in the Maritime Antarctic region (cryptogams only and the Falkland Islands (vascular plants only. We compared communities from the Falkland Islands (51°S, mean annual temperature 7.9°C, with those of Signy Island (60°S, -2.1°C and Anchorage Island (67°S, -2.6°C, and experimental temperature manipulations at each of the three islands using Open Top Chambers (OTCs. Results Despite the strong difference in plant growth form dominance between the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic, communities across the gradient did not differ in total diversity and species number. During the summer months, the experimental temperature increase at 5 cm height in the vegetation was similar between the locations (0.7°C across the study. In general, the response to this experimental warming was low. Total lichen cover showed a non-significant decreasing trend at Signy Island (p Conclusion These results suggest that small temperature increases may rapidly lead to decreased soil moisture, resulting in more stressful conditions for plants. The more open plant communities (grass and lichen appeared more negatively affected by such changes than dense communities (dwarf shrub and moss.

  16. Effects of anisotropic diffusion and finite island sizes in homoepitaxial growth Pt on Pt(100)-hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Linderoth, T.R.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1998-01-01

    coverage regime. have been determined for substrate temperatures in the range T = 318-497 K and adatom deposition rates from R=4 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-3) site(-1) s(-1). The measurements are compared to the results of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations and rate equation theory. The Pt(100)-hex surface...... exhibits a height modulation caused by the misfit between the topmost quasi-hexagonal layer and the quadratic substrate. resulting in a highly anisotropic large scale surface morphology with six-atom wide channels running along the [1(1) over bar0$] direction. From an autocorrelation analysis...... channels. Rate equations incorporating this effect are solved, and a scaling exponent of chi=1/3 is derived in contrast to the chi=1/4 obtained for a 1-D point-island model. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  17. Gyrokinetic simulation study of magnetic island effects on neoclassical physics and micro-instabilities in a realistic KSTAR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Min; Ku, S.; Choi, M. J.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; Yoon, E. S.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    We perform gyrokinetic simulations to study the effects of a stationary magnetic island on neoclassical flow and micro-instability in a realistic KSTAR plasma condition. Through the simulations, we aim to analyze a recent KSTAR experiment, which was to measure the details of poloidal flow and fluctuation around a stationary (2, 1) magnetic island [M. J. Choi et al., Nucl. Fusion 57, 126058 (2017)]. From the simulations, it is found that the magnetic island can significantly enhance the equilibrium E × B flow. The corresponding flow shearing is strong enough to suppress a substantial portion of ambient micro-instabilities, particularly ∇Te -driven trapped electron modes. This implies that the enhanced E × B flow can sustain a quasi-internal transport barrier for Te in an inner region neighboring the magnetic island. The enhanced E × B flow has a (2, 1) mode structure with a finite phase shift from the mode structure of the magnetic island. It is shown that the flow shear and the fluctuation suppression patterns implied from the simulations are consistent with the observations on the KSTAR experiment.

  18. The effect of urban heat island on Izmir's city ecosystem and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corumluoglu, Ozsen; Asri, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Depending on the researches done on urban landscapes, it is found that the heat island intensity caused by the activities in any city has some impact on the ecosystem of the region and on the regional climate. Urban areas located in arid and semiarid lands somehow represent heat increase when it is compared with the heat in the surrounding rural areas. Thus, cities located amid forested and temperate climate regions show moderate temperatures. The impervious surfaces let the rainfall leave the city lands faster than undeveloped areas. This effect reduces water's cooling effects on these lands. More significantly, if trees and other vegetations are rare in any region, it means less evapotranspiration-the process by which trees "exhale" water. Trees also contribute to the cooling of urban lands by their shade. Land cover and land use maps can easily be produced by processing of remote sensing satellites' images, like processing of Landsat's images. As a result of this process, urban regions can be distinguished from vegetation. Analyzed GIS data produced and supported by these images can be utilized to determine the impact of urban land on energy, water, and carbon balances at the Earth's surface. Here in this study, it is found that remote sensing technique with thermal images is a liable technique to asses where urban heat islands and hot spots are located in cities. As an application area, in Izmir, it was found that the whole city was in high level of surface temperature as it was over 28 °C during the summer times. Beside this, the highest temperature values which go up to 47 °C are obtained at industrial regions especially where the iron-steel factories and the related industrial activities are.

  19. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J L; Stott, I; Davies, Z G; Gaston, K J; Leake, J R

    2016-09-19

    Urban areas are major contributors to air pollution and climate change, causing impacts on human health that are amplified by the microclimatological effects of buildings and grey infrastructure through the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban greenspaces may be important in reducing surface temperature extremes, but their effects have not been investigated at a city-wide scale. Across a mid-sized UK city we buried temperature loggers at the surface of greenspace soils at 100 sites, stratified by proximity to city centre, vegetation cover and land-use. Mean daily soil surface temperature over 11 months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization on microclimate, soil processes and human health.

  20. Effects of a tropical cyclone on the drinking-water quality of a remote Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Luke M; Sharp, Donald S; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2004-12-01

    The effect of a cyclone (Ami, January 2003) on drinking-water quality on the island of Vanua Levu, Fiji was investigated. Following the cyclone nearly three-quarters of the samples analysed did not conform to World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline values for safe drinking-water in terms of chlorine residual, total and faecal coliforms, and turbidity. Turbidity and total coliform levels significantly increased (up 56 and 62 per cent, respectively) from pre-cyclone levels, which was likely due to the large amounts of silt and debris entering water-supply sources during the cyclone. The utility found it difficult to maintain a reliable supply of treated water in the aftermath of the disaster. Communities were unaware they were drinking water that had not been adequately treated. Circumstances permitted this cyclone to be used as a case study to assess whether a simple paper-strip water-quality test (the hydrogen sulphide, H(2)S) kit could be distributed and used for community-based monitoring following such a disaster event to better protect public health. The H(2)S test results correlated well with faecal and total coliform results as found in previous studies. A small percentage of samples (about 10 per cent) tested positive for faecal and total coliforms but did not test positive in the H(2)S test. It was concluded that the H(2)S test would be well suited to wider use, especially in the absence of water-quality monitoring capabilities for outer island groups as it is inexpensive and easy to use, thus enabling communities and community health workers with minimal training to test their own water supplies without outside assistance. The importance of public education before and after natural disasters is also discussed.

  1. Effects of religion, economics, and geography on genetic structure of Fogo Island, Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Koertevlyessy, T; Huntsman, R G; Collins, M; Duggirala, R; Martin, L; Keeping, D

    1995-01-01

    The population structure of Fogo Island, Newfoundland is described using geography, religious affiliation, economic factors (such as the presence of a fish-packing plant), and genetic markers. Five different analytic methods, R-matrix analysis, r ii VS. mean per locus heterozygosity, predicted kinship (ϕ), mean first passage time, and Mantel matrix comparisons, were applied to the Fogo Island genetic and demographic data. The results suggest that geography plays a role on Fogo Island in the distribution of genes, while religion, ethnicity, and economic factors play less significant roles. The communities with fish-packing plants and tourism serve as migratory "sinks" for Fogo islanders seeking employment. Reproductively, the most isolated village on Fogo Island is Tilting, and this is reflected in its genetic uniqueness, initially caused by Irish settlement and subsequently the action of stochastic processes. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. The effectiveness of cool and green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect at the city-scale is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM). Specifically, the cooling impacts of green roof and cool (white/high-albedo) roof strategies over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area during a heat wave period (7 June–10 June 2008) are assessed using the optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM described in the companion paper by Li and Bou-Zeid (2014). Results indicate that the surface UHI effect (defined based on the urban–rural surface temperature difference) is reduced significantly more than the near-surface UHI effect (defined based on urban–rural 2 m air temperature difference) when these mitigation strategies are adopted. In addition, as the green and cool roof fractions increase, the surface and near-surface UHIs are reduced almost linearly. Green roofs with relatively abundant soil moisture have comparable effect in reducing the surface and near-surface UHIs to cool roofs with an albedo value of 0.7. Significant indirect effects are also observed for both green and cool roof strategies; mainly, the low-level advection of atmospheric moisture from rural areas into urban terrain is enhanced when the fraction of these roofs increases, thus increasing the humidity in urban areas. The additional benefits or penalties associated with modifications of the main physical determinants of green or cool roof performance are also investigated. For green roofs, when the soil moisture is increased by irrigation, additional cooling effect is obtained, especially when the ‘unmanaged’ soil moisture is low. The effects of changing the albedo of cool roofs are also substantial. These results also underline the capabilities of the WRF-PUCM framework to support detailed analysis and diagnosis of the UHI phenomenon, and of its different mitigation strategies. (letter)

  3. Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Quinn, G.J.; Hofstetter, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on resin and zeolite used in the waste cleanup at Three Mile Island Unit II have been examined both experimentally and in-situ. Hydrogen and organic gases are generated due to absorbed radiation as a function of resin material, curie loading and residual water content. Significant oxygen scavaging was demonstrated in the organic resin liners. Hydrogen and oxygen gases in near stoichiometric quantities are generated from irradiation of residual water in inorganic zeolites. Gas generation was determined to be directly proportional to curie content but correlates poorly with residual water content in zeolite vessels. Results of the gas generation analyses of EPICOR II liners show that vessels with less than 166 curies had almost no hydrogen generated during two years of storage and therefore did not require safety measures for shipment or storage. Experimental measurements done at research laboratories predicted similar results associated with hydrogen gas generation and oxygen depletion. X-ray diffraction examinations and ion exchange capacity measurements indicated no evidence of irradiation effects on the structure or cesium exchange capacity for zeolites exposed to 10 10 rads. Darkening and damage of organic resin due to radiation has been identified. Breaking and agglomeration of the purification demineralizer resin is believed to be the result of temperature effects. No damage was identified from radiation effects on zeolite. Organic and inorganic sorbents used in the processing of contaminated waters at TMI-2 have been shown to be effective in maintaining long-term stability under high radiation conditions. The effects of radiolytic degradation have been shown by direct measurements and simulation tests and are of use in their general application throughout the industry

  4. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Rhode Island. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  5. Experimental study of poloidal flow effect on magnetic island dynamics in LHD and TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narushima, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Castejon, F.

    2010-11-01

    The dynamics of a magnetic island are studied by focusing on the poloidal flows in the helical devices LHD and TJ-II. The temporal increment of the ExB poloidal flow prior to the magnetic island transition from growth to healing is observed. The direction of the poloidal flow is in the electron-diamagnetic direction in LHD and in the ion-diamagnetic direction in TJ-II. From the magnetic diagnostics, it is observed that a current structure flowing in the plasma moves ∼π rad poloidally in the electron-diamagnetic direction during the transition in LHD experiments. These experimental observations from LHD and TJ-II show that the temporal increment of the poloidal flow is followed by the transition (growth to healing) of the magnetic island regardless of the flow direction and clarify the fact that significant poloidal flow affects the magnetic island dynamics. (author)

  6. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with inhomogeneous floating islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Li Ze-Hong; Liu Xiao-Long; Xie Jia-Xiong; Deng Guang-Min; Zhang Bo

    2011-01-01

    A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) structure with an ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp ), whose distinctive feature is the use of inhomogeneous floating p-islands in the n-drift region, is proposed. The theoretical limit of its R on,sp is deduced, the influence of structure parameters on the breakdown voltage (BV) and R on,sp are investigated, and the optimized results with BV of 83 V and R on,sp of 54 mΩ·mm 2 are obtained. Simulations show that the inhomogeneous-floating-islands metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has a superior 'R on,sp /BV' trade-off to the conventional VDMOS (a 38% reduction of R on,sp with the same BV) and the homogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET (a 10% reduction of R on,sp with the same BV). The inhomogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET also has a much better body-diode characteristic than the superjunction MOSFET. Its reverse recovery peak current, reverse recovery time and reverse recovery charge are about 50, 80 and 40% of those of the superjunction MOSFET, respectively. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. Testing the island effect on phenotypic diversification: insights from the Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, Joan; Šmíd, Jiří; Sol, Daniel; Fasola, Mauro; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Island colonization is often assumed to trigger extreme levels of phenotypic diversification. Yet, empirical evidence suggests that it does not always so. In this study we test this hypothesis using a completely sampled mainland-island system, the arid clade of Hemidactylus, a group of geckos mainly distributed across Africa, Arabia and the Socotra Archipelago. To such purpose, we generated a new molecular phylogeny of the group on which we mapped body size and head proportions. We then explored whether island and continental taxa shared the same morphospace and differed in their disparities and tempos of evolution. Insular species produced the most extreme sizes of the radiation, involving accelerated rates of evolution and higher disparities compared with most (but not all) of the continental groups. In contrast, head proportions exhibited constant evolutionary rates across the radiation and similar disparities in islands compared with the continent. These results, although generally consistent with the notion that islands promote high morphological disparity, reveal at the same time a complex scenario in which different traits may experience different evolutionary patterns in the same mainland-island system and continental groups do not always present low levels of morphological diversification compared to insular groups.

  9. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert E.; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2010-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM-based NLCD 2001 dataset and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to the nonurban rural areas nearby and used to stratify sampling for land surface temperatures and NDVI. Sampling is further constrained by biome and elevation to insure objective intercomparisons between zones and between cities in different biomes permitting the definition of hierarchically ordered zones that are consistent across urban areas in different ecological setting and across scales. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban-rural temperature difference) the largest (8 C average) observed for cities built in biomes dominated by temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. For all cities combined, ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance in LST. On a yearly average, urban areas are substantially warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except for urban areas in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is remarkably asymmetric with a 4.3 C temperature difference in summer and only 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, the LST's response to ISA presents an uncharacteristic "U-shaped" horizontal gradient decreasing from the urban core to the outskirts of the city and then increasing again in the suburban to the rural zones. UHI's calculated for these cities point to a possible heat sink effect. These observational results show that the urban heat island amplitude both increases with city size and is seasonally

  10. Effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of urban heat island in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. H.; Latiff, N. A. A.; Ismail, K.; Isa, N. K. M.

    2018-04-01

    This study carried out to study the effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) in Cameron Highlands (CH).The aim of this study is to identify the formation of UHI in CH following the urbanization activities. This study also involved two main data that are primary through field survey and secondary data from collection data. In addition, this study was used qualitative and quantitative method. The data was taken two times a day, at a day and night between the hours of 12:00 to 14:00 and 19:00 to 21:00. Data in this study analyzed by using correlation analysis and analysis of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which known as interpolation. Result found the formation of UHI in CH was concentrated at city centre namely in Pekan Tanah Rata. From the whole average value, city centre was recorded the highest reading of temperatures which is 30.5°C, while reading of temperature for subtown and suburban was recorded 28.6°C and 23.8°C. Average of humidity in CH during the day was recorded as highest reading in the suburban area namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which is 58.4%. Then, average of humidity in CH at night was recorded highest reading in the suburban area namely Habu Mini Market 91 (station 9) which the value is 83.2%. The reading of wind speed in CH during the day recorded the highest reading day at the suburban namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which the value is 2.3 m/s. While, following the reading of wind speed in CH at night, suburban namely Habu Mini Market 91(station 9) was recorded the highest reading which is 0.8 m/s. The Intensity of Urban Heat Island in CH during the day was recorded 2.8°C, while at night intensity of UHI was recorded 1.4°C. Overall, the urbanization activities in CH had caused the formation of UHI. Therefore, measures of legislation such as protect forest from development by control the urbanization activities need to be implemented so that the formation of UHI can be reduced and

  11. Differences in harm from legal BZP/TFMPP party pills between North Island and South Island users in New Zealand: a case of effective industry self-regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Sweetsur, Paul

    2010-01-01

    'Party' pills containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) were sold legally in New Zealand until early 2008. Prospective studies of hospital emergency department admissions appeared to suggest that the harm from party pills was greater among South Island than North Island users. The party pill industry association (the Social Tonics Association of New Zealand or STANZ) claimed these differences were due to the voluntary code of practice adopted by their members in the North Island. The aims of this study were to examine differences in harm from party pills between North and South Island users in New Zealand, and to investigate possible reasons for any differences in harm, including the impact of industry self-regulation. A national household survey of BZP/TFMPP party pill use was conducted in New Zealand. Information on the ingredients of party pills was provided by the National Poisons Centre. In a number of instances last year users of party pills from the South Island were more likely than last year users from the North Island to report harm from party pills. There were no differences between the North and South Island users with regard to the mean number of BZP/TFMPP party pills taken, mean total milligrams of BZP/TFMPP ingested or prevalence of use of other drug types in combination with party pills. A minority of users in the South Island reported using extremely high numbers of BZP/TFMPP party pills in a single session and using extremely high potency brands of party pills. Last year party pill users from the South Island were more likely than those from the North Island to be students. A number of factors may have contributed to the greater harm from BZP/TFMPP party pills among South Island users including a higher proportion of student users with higher consumption of alcohol and other drugs. Users from both Islands commonly exceeded the dosage of BZP/TFMPP recommended by STANZ suggesting the STANZ code of conduct was

  12. The Conundrum of Impacts of Climate Change on Urbanization and the Urban Heat Island Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2011-01-01

    The twenty-first century is the first urban century according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus on cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population resided in urban areas. The United Nations estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of megacities (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the spatial growth of urban areas and what the impacts are on the environment. Moreover, there is a critical need to assess how under global climate change, cities will affect the local, regional, and even global climate. As urban areas increase in size, it is anticipated there will be a concomitant growth of the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI), and the attributes that are related to its spatial and temporal dynamics. Therefore, how climate change, including the dynamics of the UHI, will affect the urban environment, must be explored to help mitigate potential impacts on the environment (e.g., air quality, heat stress, vectorborne disease) and on human health and well being, to develop adaptation schemes to cope with these impacts.

  13. A Case Study in the Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): the Islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relles, Noelle J.

    The islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean, were both mapped along their leeward coasts for dominant coral community and other benthic cover in the early 1980s. This mapping effort offers a unique baseline for comparing changes in the benthic community of the two islands since that time, particularly given the marked differences between the two islands. Bonaire is well-protected and completely surrounded by a marine protected area (MPA), which includes two no-diving marine reserves; additionally, Bonaire's population is only around 15,000. In contrast, the island of Curacao is home to 140,000 inhabitants and marine protection is limited, with a reef area of 600 ha established as a "paper" park (i.e., little enforcement). Video transects collected by SCUBA over the reefs were collected on Bonaire in January of 2008; when compared to data from 1985, coral cover had declined in the shallowest portion of the reef ( 20%), predominantly sand (> 50%) and areas where hard coral and sand were mixed with soft corals, sea whips and marine plants. These modern maps (2007-09) were groundtruthed using the video data collected on Bonaire for accuracy and then compared to the early 1980s maps of the reefs on both islands. Bonaire experienced declines in coral cover overall and the remaining coral was increasingly patchy; however, changes in patch characteristics were not significant over the time period, but status as a marine reserve and the sheltering of the shoreline did appear to buffer against coral loss. Surprisingly, the island of Curacao did not experience a decline in total coral cover, but did become increasingly patchy, significantly more so than Bonaire. The Curacao Underwater Park afforded no additional protection against coral loss or fragmentation than an adjacent unprotected area of reef. The difference between the two islands in coral loss versus fragmentation has the potential for a unique natural experiment to study the effects of habitat fragmentation

  14. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  15. [Effects of land use changes on soil water conservation in Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhao, He; Liu, Lei; OuYang, Zhi Yun; Zheng, Hua; Mi, Hong Xu; Li, Yan Min

    2017-12-01

    In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand age of 12 years (AF) and rubber plantations with stand age of 35 years (RF). The effects of land use change on soil water holding capacity and water conservation (presented by soil water index, SWI) were assessed. The results showed that, compared with VF, the soil water holding capacity index of other land types decreased in the top soil layer (0-10 cm). AF had the lowest soil water holding capacity in all soil layers. Soil water content and maximum water holding capacity were significantly related to canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density, which indicated that canopy density, soil organic matter and compactness were important factors influencing soil water holding capacity. Compared to VF, soil water conservation of SF, AF and RF were reduced by 27.7%, 54.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The change of soil water conservation was inconsistent in different soil layers. Vegetation canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density explained 83.3% of the variance of soil water conservation. It was suggested that land use conversion had significantly altered soil water holding capacity and water conservation function. RF could keep the soil water better than AF in the research area. Increasing soil organic matter and reducing soil compaction would be helpful to improve soil water holding capacity and water conservation function in land management.

  16. Roles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Allen, Dale J.; Zhang, Da-Lin; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Landry, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) effects can strengthen heat waves and air pollution episodes. In this study, the dampening impact of urban trees on the UHI during an extreme heat wave in the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area is examined by incorporating trees, soil, and grass into the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model and an urban canopy model (WRF-UCM). By parameterizing the effects of these natural surfaces alongside roadways and buildings, the modified WRF-UCM is used to investigate how urban trees, soil, and grass dampen the UHI. The modified model was run with 50% tree cover over urban roads and a 10% decrease in the width of urban streets to make space for soil and grass alongside the roads and buildings. Results show that, averaged over all urban areas, the added vegetation decreases surface air temperature in urban street canyons by 4.1 K and road-surface and building-wall temperatures by 15.4 and 8.9 K, respectively, as a result of tree shading and evapotranspiration. These temperature changes propagate downwind and alter the temperature gradient associated with the Chesapeake Bay breeze and, therefore, alter the strength of the bay breeze. The impact of building height on the UHI shows that decreasing commercial building heights by 8 m and residential building heights by 2.5 m results in up to 0.4-K higher daytime surface and near-surface air temperatures because of less building shading and up to 1.2-K lower nighttime temperatures because of less longwave radiative trapping in urban street canyons.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Monsoon Effect on the Temperature Lapse Rate of a Subtropical Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-An Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature lapse rate (TLR has been widely used in the prediction of mountain climate and vegetation and in many ecological models. The aims of this paper are to explore the spatio-temporal variations and monsoon effects on the TLR in the subtropical island of Taiwan with its steep Central Mountain Region (CMR. A TLR analysis using the 32-year monthly mean air temperatures and elevations from 219 weather stations (sea level to 3852 m a.s.l. was performed based on different geographical regions and monsoon exposures. The results revealed that the average TLR for all of Taiwan is -5.17°C km-1, with a general tendency to be steeper in summer and shallower in winter. The results are also shallower than the typical or global average TLR of -6.5°C km-1. During the prevailing northeast monsoon season (winter, the TLR exhibits a contrast between the windward side (steeper, -5.97°C km-1 and the leeward side (shallower, -4.51°C km-1. From the diagnosis on spatial characteristics of monthly cloud amount and vertical atmospheric profiles, this contrasting phenomenon may be explained by the warming effect of onshore stratus clouds (500 - 2500 m depth on cold and dry Siberian monsoon air on the windward side of the CMR. On the southwestern leeward side of the CMR, the low-level (1500 m, the weak ventilation atmosphere and temperature inversion make the TLR shallower than on the windward side.

  18. Effect of a Stepped Si(100) Surface on the Nucleation Process of Ge Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesin, M. Yu.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. A.; Mashanov, V. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Loshkarev, I. D.; Pchelyakov, O. P.

    2018-03-01

    Nucleation of Ge islands on a stepped Si(100) surface is studied. It is shown by diffraction of fast electrons that at a temperature of 600°C, constant flux of Si, and deposition rate of 0.652 Å/s, a series of the 1×2 superstructure reflections completely disappears, if the Si (100) substrate deviated by an angle of 0.35° to the (111) face is preliminarily heated to 1000°C. The disappearance of the 1×2 superstructure reflexes is due to the transition from the surface with monoatomic steps to that with diatomic ones. Investigations of the Ge islands' growth were carried out on the Si(100) surface preliminarily annealed at temperatures of 800 and 1000°C. It is shown that the islands tend to nucleate at the step edges.

  19. Effect of pollution on diversity of marine gastropods and its role in trophic structure at Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean supplies a significant amount of food to human population. However, marine ecosystem is under a threat due to the increasing marine pollution. Fiji Islands, located in South Pacific sea, are experiencing such a threat. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effects of pollution on the diversity of marine gastropods in Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands. A detailed opportunistic survey was conducted; 85 species of marine gastropods molluscas were recorded belonging to 29 families in four different habitats (Habitat 1, Habitat 2, Habitat 3 and Habitat 4 at Nasese Shore during April–September 2014. Compared with Habitat 4, all three other habitats were polluted by frequently added sewages and domestic effluents via artificial and natural creeks to the coastal area. Therefore, diversity and abundance of the gastropods were significantly lower in those three habitats. Furthermore, a higher human consumption rate for some of the gastropods was observed.

  20. Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim Temizoz, Huriye; Unal, Yurdanur S.

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul. Perim Temizöz, Deniz H. Diren, Cemre Yürük and Yurdanur S. Ünal Istanbul Technical University, Department of Meteorological Engineering, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey City or metropolitan areas are significantly warmer than the outlying rural areas since the urban fabrics and artificial surfaces which have different radiative, thermal and aerodynamic features alter the surface energy balance, interact with the regional circulation and introduce anthropogenic sensible heat and moisture into the atmosphere. The temperature contrast between urban and rural areas is most prominent during nighttime since heat is absorbed by day and emitted by night. The intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) vary considerably depending on the prevailent meteorological conditions and the characteristics of the region. Even though urban areas cover a small fraction of Earth, their climate has greater impact on the world's population. Over half of the world population lives in the cities and it is expected to rise within the coming decades. Today almost one fifth of the Turkey's population resides in Istanbul with the percentage expected to increase due to the greater job opportunities compared to the other cities. Its population has been increased from 2 millions to 14 millions since 1960s. Eventually, the city has been expanded tremendously within the last half century, shifting the landscape from vegetation to built up areas. The observations of the last fifty years over Istanbul show that the UHI is most pronounced during summer season. The seasonal temperature differences between urban and suburban sites reach up to 3 K and roughly haft degree increase in UHI intensity is observed after 2000. In this study, we explore the possible range of heat load and distribution over Istanbul for different prevailing wind conditions by using the non-hydrostatic MUKLIMO3 model developed by DWD

  1. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  2. Characterization Urban Heat Island Effect and Modelling of Secondary Pollutant Formations at Urban Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undi, G. S. N. V. K. S. N. S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 60 percent of the world population is living the urban zones by 2020. This socio of economic transformations will bring considerable changes to the ambient atmosphere. More than 70 percent of the air pollutants in the urban hotspots are from vehicular emissions. in the urban hotspots. In the urban hotspots, the meteorological and dispersion conditions will have different characteristics than in surrounding rural areas. Reactive pollutants transformations are drastically influenced by the local meteorological conditions. The complexity of urban structure alters the pollutants dispersion in the hotspots. This relationship between urban meteorology and air pollution is an important aspect of consideration. In the atmosphere, drastic changes have been noticed from micro to regional and global scales. However, the characteristics of air pollutant emissions vary with time and space, favorable dispersion conditions transport them from local to regional scale. In the present study, the impact of land cover change on Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) has been characterized by considering the three different zones with varying land use patterns. An attempt has been made to estimate the impact of UHI on secondary pollutants (O3) transformations. Envi-Met model has been used to characterize the UHI intensity for the selected zones. Meteorological and air quality measurements were carried out at the selected locations. The diurnal variations of Ozone (O3) concentration for three zones are correlated with the UHI intensity. And the monitoring and model results of O3 concentrations are in good agreement. It is observed from the obtained model results that the metrological parameters influence on local air quality is significant in urban zones.

  3. Suburban heat island effect in groundwater energy utilisation in Nordic climate - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Teppo

    2017-04-01

    We present the preliminary results from the initial thermogeological characterization of Finland's first-ever planned large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) facility. The site is located in the Asko area (Lahti), at a latitude of 60°59'N. In particular, emphasis is put on the results from an aquifer's pumping test performed in July / August 2016 to investigate the potential implication of suburban heat island (SUHI) effect to ATES system on the naturally cold groundwater area. The site has been under geological investigation since July 2015. At a regional scale, the groundwater's natural temperature is about 5.8- 6°C. However, preliminary measurements during the investigations revealed that local groundwater temperature ranged between 7.5 to 8.7 °C in Asko area. The highest temperature was observed underneath buildings, suggesting that higher-than-average temperature is most likely influenced due to anthropogenic heat flux into the ground. The pumping test was performed for 39 days, of which 28 days with groundwater withdrawal and 11 days of heads recovery. The pumped volumes range from 350 to 540 m3/d leading the total volume of 10400 m3 of groundwater. Groundwater temperatures were continuously measured from pumping test well and two observation piezometers during the entire test. The results indicated that aquifer's temperature remained nearly constant being between 7.4 to 7.9 °C during the test period. Heat pulses with temperature variation of 0.1 to 0.3 °C were observed in the pumping well and nearest monitoring well (19 meters from pumping well) during the pumping test and recovery phase. We estimate that the pulses were due to rapidly changed groundwater flowing conditions and pulse indicate "new groundwater" flow to the well. Overall, the preliminary test suggests that groundwater temperature are expected to remain elevated during the ATES system operation. Elevated temperature due the SUHI effect increases groundwater heating potential

  4. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report [TMI79c] to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists

  5. Emotional, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Andrew; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the psychophysiological impact of Three Mile Island on nearby residents (N=38) compared to people living near an undamaged nuclear plant (N=32), a coal-fired plant (N=24) and a control group. Results indicated that residents of the TMI area exhibited more symptoms of stress a year after the accident. (WAS)

  6. Exploring the Urban Heat Island (UHI) Effect in Port Louis, Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-10-13

    Oct 13, 2014 ... namely: environmental contamination stemming from traffic congestion, the ... problem of UHI may become a more important issue than global warming because the rate of ..... MIGRATION, population distribution and development in the world. ... Urban Heat Island and Climate Change: An Assessment of.

  7. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    In the recent decades, extreme temperature events and derived hazards are frequent and trigger noteworthy impacts in Romania, especially over the large urban areas. The cities produce significant disturbances of many elements of the regional climate, and generates adverse effects such as Urban Heat Islands (UHI). This presentation condenses the outputs of an ongoing research project (REDBHI) developed through (2013-2017) focused on developing a methodology for monitoring and forecasting indoor climate and energy challenges related to the intensity of UHI of Bucharest (Romania), based on relevant urban climate zones (UCZs). Multi-criteria correlations between the UHI and architectural, urban and landscape variables were determined, and the vulnerability of buildings expressed in the form of transfer function between indoor micro-climate and outdoor urban environment. The vulnerability of civil buildings was determined in relation with the potential for amplifying the thermal hazards intensity through the anthropogenic influence. The project REDBHI aims at developing innovative and original products, with direct applicability, which can be used in any urban settlement and have market potential with regards to energy design and consulting. The concrete innovative outcomes consist of a) localization of the Bucharest UCZs according to the UHI intensity, identifying reference buildings and sub-zones according to urban anthropic factors and landscape pattern; b) typology of representative buildings with regards to energy consumption and CO2 emitted as a result of building exploitation; c) 3D modelling of the reference buildings and of the thermal/energy reaction to severe climatic conditions d) empirical validation of the dynamic thermal/energy analysis; d) development of an pilot virtual studio capable to simulate climate alerts, analyse scenarios and suggest measures to mitigate the UHI effects, and disseminate the outcomes for educational purposes; e) compendium of

  8. Effects of island seabird subsidies and invasive species dynamics on the body size and foraging ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kristen Mundie

    2015-01-01

    Island systems have long been valuable to ecological research as they provide natural experiments for the study of ecosystem processes. We examined Allen, Leaf, U and Flat Rock Reef Cays in the Bahamas to study the effects of seabird driven marine subsidies and invasive mice on island food webs on the body size and foraging ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata). Iguanas on an island with nesting seabirds (Allen Cay) had 6 times the body mass and 1.7 times the snout...

  9. The effects of agriculture on the volcanic aquifers of the canary islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, E.; Guerra, J. A.; Jiménez, J.; Medina, J. A.; Soler, C.

    1983-12-01

    Agriculture is a basic economic activity in the Canary Islands, a Spanish region in the Atlantic Ocean, facing the Sahara. The main crops are bananas, tomatoes, and other special ones suitable for exportation. Fertilizers are applied in high quantities on the scarce land available. The relatively good vertical permeability of the soils favors the deep infiltration of irrigation return flows. Water is obtained by an extraordinary net of shaft wells and water galleries, supplemented when possible by surface reservoirs in the deep gullies. Water is distributed by an extensive network of pipes and canals, allowing the transportation of water to virtually any point from any water source. Water quality is widely variable, from almost rain water to brackish, with a high frequency of sodium bicarbonate types. Return flows, especially when water is applied with good irrigation techniques and the original quality is poor, are saline and contain chemicals leached from the fertilizers. On Tenerife Island, most of the return flows go to coastal aquifers, while most of the water comes from high-altitude water galleries. Agricultural pollution is not generally appraised, but it exists. It can be masked by the frequent, high natural nitrate content in groundwater. On Gran Canaria Island, since water comes mainly from deep shaft wells near the irrigated areas, the nitrate pollution is much more clear. On La Palma Island, besides the nitrate pollution, a potassium pollution of agricultural origin has been mentioned. Other situations on the remaining islands are also discussed. It can be concluded that agriculture is a big concern for the water quality in many areas and impairs its suitability for other uses. Because of the great depth of the water table, the nitrate pollution may not become obvious for many years, especially for the deep-water galleries.

  10. Nature’s Eden? The Production and Effects of ‘Pristine’ Nature in the Galápagos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Best known for inspiring Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands are often referred to as an “evolutionary Eden” and celebrated as one of the world’s few remaining bastions of “pristine” nature. However, recent concerns of a crisis of over-development prompted UNESCO to put the Galápagos on its list of World Heritage Sites “In Danger.” In this paper, we interrogate the conception of pristine nature which undergirds the recent crisis discourse and argue that such understandings of nature are not in fact natural, but are social productions that reflect particular ways of understanding island space. We then explore the material and political effects of understandings of “pristine” nature by showing how they work to structure the tourism industry and investment in public infrastructure in ways that have created social inequalities as well as negative environmental impacts. We then briefly discuss measures taken so far to address the crisis situation, arguing that they would benefit from critical attention to the complexity of social-environmental relations in the Galápagos and a re-thinking of the nature of the islands.

  11. A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with inhomogeneous floating islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Min; Li Ze-Hong; Liu Xiao-Long; Xie Jia-Xiong; Deng Guang-Min; Zhang Bo

    2011-01-01

    A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) structure with an ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp),whose distinctive feature is the use of inhomogeneous floating p-islands in the n-drift region,is proposed.The theoretical limit of its Ron,sp is deduced,the influence of structure parameters on the breakdown voltage (BV) and Ron,sp are investigated,and the optimized results with BV of 83 V and Ron,sp of 54 mΩ.mm2 are obtained.Simulations show that the inhomogencous-floating-islands metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)has a superior “Ron,sp/BV” trade-off to the conventional VDMOS (a 38% reduction of Ron,sp with the same BV) and the homogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET (a 10% reduction of Ron,sp with the same BV).The inhomogeneous-floatingislands MOSFET also has a much better body-diode characteristic than the superjunction MOSFET.Its reverse recovery peak current,reverse recovery time and reverse recovery charge are about 50,80 and 40% of those of the superjunction MOSFET,respectively.

  12. Demonstration of surface plasmons in metal island films and the effect of the surrounding medium--An undergraduate experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orfanides, P. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Buckner, T. F. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Buncick, M. C. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Meriaudeau, F. [LE21, 12 rue de la fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot, (France); Ferrell, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2000-10-01

    We present a demonstration of the surface plasmon phenomenon as it occurs in thin metal island films. The metal films are deposited on glass microscope slides. The effect of the surface plasmon resonance may be observed visually on the slide without further apparatus. Heating the film changes the shape of the islands and therefore the resonant frequency of the surface plasmon and changes the color of the film. Placing the film in a dielectric medium changes the resonance condition for the surface plasmon again and changes the color again. We show this by coating the slides with commercially available liquids with different indices of refraction. We present a theoretical model that assumes the islands are oblate spheroids. There are enough details given so that the equations can be programed and the theoretical optical absorbance can be reproduced. We also present a modification to the theory so that the shift in resonant frequency can be calculated when the spheroids are immersed in the index fluids. We describe our apparatus for making thin films and our optical spectrometer system. We then present optical absorbance measurements of thin films of both Ag and Au in air and in two liquids with different indices of refraction. (c) 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers.

  13. Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability Considering Load and Green-Energy Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Conti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault in the network, such portions could be disconnected from the main network and supplied by local generation only. Such a mode of operation is known as “intentional islanding” and its effectiveness, in terms of adequacy, depends on the ability of the local generation to meet the island’s load. In fact, the ratio between the available local generation and load demand can frequently change during islanding due to load variations and, especially, due to the strongly irregular behavior of the primary energy sources of renewable generators. This paper proposes an analytical formulation to assess local generation adequacy during intentional islanding, accounting for the aforementioned variations. More specifically, the fluctuations of load and green-energy generators during islanding are modeled by means of Markov chains, whose output quantities are encompassed in the proposed analytical formulation. Such a formulation is used by the analytical equations of load points’ outage rate and duration. The evaluation of the reliability indices accounts for a protection scheme based on an appropriate communication infrastructure. Therefore, a brief overview on the telecommunications technologies has been presented with reference to their suitability for the specific application. In particular, distribution network safety issues have been considered as the main concern. The results show that neglecting load and generation fluctuations leads to a strong overestimation of the ability of distributed generators to meet the island load. Through a case study it is observed that the error on the load point outage rate is greater than the one affecting the outage duration.

  14. Acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function among students: a panel study in an isolated island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Yoshiko; Takagi, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Junko; Ito, Takeshi; Nakatsubo, Ryouhei; Horie, Yosuke; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Shima, Masayuki

    2017-04-04

    Many epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollutants have been carried out in regions with major sources such as factories and automobiles. However, the health effects of air pollutants in regions without major sources remain unclear. This study investigated the acute effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary function among healthy students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants. A panel study was conducted of 43 healthy subjects who attended a school in an isolated island in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We measured the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) every morning for about 1 month in May 2014. Ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM 10-2.5 ), black carbon (BC), ozone (O 3 ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured. The associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and pulmonary function were analyzed using mixed-effects models. A decrease in FEV 1 was significantly associated with BC concentrations (-27.28 mL [95%confidence interval (CI):-54.10,-0.46] for an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 0.23 μg/m 3 ). The decrease in PEF was significantly associated with indoor O 3 concentrations (-8.03 L/min [95% CI:-13.02,-3.03] for an IQR increase of 11 ppb). Among subjects with a history of allergy, an increase in PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with low FEV 1 . In subjects with a history of asthma, an inverse association between the indoor O 3 concentration and pulmonary function was observed. Our results demonstrate that increases in BC and O 3 concentrations have acute effects on the pulmonary function among students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants.

  15. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  16. Frankish-Venetian Cyprus: Effects of the Renaissance on the Ecclesiastical Architecture of the Island

    OpenAIRE

    CHRYSOCHOU, NASSO

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the effects of the Renaissance on the Orthodox ecclesiastical architecture of the island. Even though the Latin monuments of the island have been thoroughly researched, there are only sporadic works that deal with the Orthodox ecclesiastical architecture of the period. The doctoral thesis of the author in waiting to be published is the only complete work on the subject. The methodology used, involved bibliographic research and to a large degree field research to establish...

  17. Effect of urban stormwater runoff on ground water beneath recharge basins on Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H.F.; Simmons, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff was monitored during 1980-82 to investigate the source, type, quantity, and fate of contaminants routed to the more than 3,000 recharge basins on Long Island and to determine whether this runoff might be a significant source of contamination to the groundwater reservoir. Forty-six storms were monitored at five recharge basins in representative land use areas (strip commercial, shopping-mall parking lot, major highway, low-density residential, and medium-density residential). Runoff:precipitation ratios indicate that all storm runoff is derived from precipitation on impervious surfaces in the drainage area, except during storms of high intensity or long duration, when additional runoff can be derived from precipitation on permeable surfaces. Lead was present in highway runoff in concentrations up to 3300 micrograms/L, and chloride was found in parking lot runoff concentrations up to 1,100 mg/L during winter, when salt is used for deicing. In the five composite stormwater samples and nine groundwater grab samples that were analyzed for 113 EPA-designated ' priority pollutants, ' four constituents were detected in concentrations exceeding New York State guidelines of 50 micrograms/L for an individual organic compound in drinking water: p-chloro-m-cresol (79 micrograms/L); 2 ,4-dimethylphenol (96 micrograms/L); 4-nitrophenol (58 micrograms/L); and methylene chloride (230 micrograms/L in either groundwater or stormwater at the highway basin). One stormwater sample and two groundwater samples exceeded New York State guidelines for total organic compounds in drinking water (100 micrograms/L). The presence of these constituents is attributed to contamination from point sources rather than to the quality of runoff from urban areas. The median number of indicator bacteria in stormwater ranged from 0.1 to 10 billion MPN/100 ml. Fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude during the warm season. The use of recharge

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a PVGS on the Electrical Power Supply of a Small Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a large simulated stadium-scale photovoltaic generation system (PVGS on a small island. Both the PVGS contribution to the energy demand on the island and its financial analysis were analysed in this study. The maximum allowable PVGS installation capacity is obtained by executing load flow analysis without violating the voltage magnitude and voltage variation ratio limits. However, the estimated power generation of PVGS is applied to know its impact on the power system according to the hourly solar irradiation and temperature. After that, the cost-benefit analysis of payback years (PBY and net present value (NPV method is derived considering the cash flow from utilities annual fuel and loss saving, the operation and maintenance (O&M cost, and the capital investment cost. The power network in Kiribati (PUB DNST is selected for study in this paper. The simulation results are very valuable and can be applied to the other small islands for reducing the usage of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Effects of high-rate wastewater spray disposal on the water-table aquifer, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    A study by the U.S. Geological Survey from April 1982 through December 1983 evaluated the effects of high-rate disposal of treated wastewater on the water table aquifer, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Flooding of topographically low areas resulted from the application of 10.8 inches of wastewater in 10 days in January 1983. The water table remained 2-1/2 to 5-1/2 feet below land surface when wastewater was applied at rates of 5 inches per week in August and December 1983. (USGS)

  20. Effect of Energy Storage in Increasing the Penetration of RES in the Remote Island of Agios Efstratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Braun, Philipp; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Most of the inhabited Greek islands are not connected to the central electricity grid and their energy needs are satisfied by diesel power stations. The operation of such stations has negative economic and environmental effects related to the high transportation cost of fuels, increasing oil prices...... and emissions. The replacement of fossil fuelled stations with hybrid ones that combine renewable energy technologies with energy storage systems will provide a promising clean energy generation alternative and contribute to the limitation of the aforementioned drawbacks. The current paper deals...

  1. Do recent data from the Seychelles Islands alter the conclusions of the NRC Report on the toxicological effects of methylmercury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Joseph L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2000, the National Research Council (NRC, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, released a report entitled, "Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury." The overall conclusion of that report was that, at levels of exposure in some fish- and marine mammal-consuming communities (including those in the Faroe Islands and New Zealand, subtle but significant adverse effects on neuropsychological development were occurring as a result of in utero exposure. Since the release of that report, there has been continuing discussion of the public health relevance of current levels of exposure to Methylmercury. Much of this discussion has been linked to the release of the most recent longitudinal update of the Seychelles Island study. It has recently been posited that these findings supercede those of the NRC committee, and that based on the Seychelles findings, there is little or no risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects at current levels of exposure. In this commentary, members of the NRC committee address the conclusions from the NRC report in light of the recent Seychelles data. We conclude that no evidence has emerged since the publication of the NRC report that alters the findings of that report.

  2. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  3. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  4. Effects of the New Island Divertor on the Plasma Performance in the W7-AS Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, P.; McCormick, K.; Baldzuhn, J.; Burhenn, R.; Brakel, R.; Ehmler, H.; Feng, Y.; Gadelmeier, F.; Giannone, L.; Hartmann, D.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Kisslinger, J.; Klinger, T.; Knauer, J.; Koenig, R.; Naujoks, D.; Niedermeyer, H.; Pasch, E.

    2003-01-01

    The island divertor in the W7-AS stellarator enables access to a new NBI-heated, high density operating regime with promising confinement properties. This regime -- the High Density H-Mode -- displays no evident mode activity, is extant above a threshold density and characterized by flat density profiles, high energy- and low impurity-confinement times and edge localized radiation. Impurity accumulation, normally associated with ELM-free H-modes, is avoided. Quasi steady-state discharges with n e up to 4 1020 m-3, edge radiation levels up to 90%, and partial plasma detachment at the divertor targets can be simultaneously realized

  5. Nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: its effect on a local community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behler, G.T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation consists of a longitudinal case study of the extent to which the structure of community power in Riverside, (a pseudonym) Pennsylvania (the largest community located within five miles of the Three Mile Island nuclear facility) changed as a result of the March, 1979 accident. The investigation centers around testing a basic working hypothesis. Simply stated, this working hypothesis argues that Riverside's power structure has become more pluralistic in response to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. An additional corollary to this working hypothesis is also tested. This corollary asserts that many of Riverside's community power actors have become much more cosmopolitan in their political-action tactics and problem-solving orientations as a results of the TMI crisis. The aforementioned working hypothesis and associated corollary are tested via the combined utilization of three different techniques for measuring the distribution of social power. The findings of the study clearly demonstrate the existence of increased pluralism, politicization, and cosmopolitanism within Riverside since March of 1979. Furthermore, these research results, and the entire dissertation itself, contribute to a number of subfields within the discipline of sociology. In particular,contributions are noted for the subfields of community power, social movements, and disaster research

  6. Natural Ventilation: A Mitigation Strategy to Reduce Overheating In Buildings under Urban Heat Island Effect in South American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Massimo; Carrasco, Claudio; Ángel Gálvez, Miguel; Inostroza, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Urban heat island effect often produces an increase of overheating sensation inside of buildings. To evacuate this heat, the current use of air conditioning increases the energy consumption of buildings. As a good alternative, natural ventilation is one of the best strategies to obtain indoor comfort conditions, even in summer season, if buildings and urban designs are appropriated. In this work, the overheating risk of a small house is evaluated in four South American cities: Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso, with and without considering the UHI effect. Then, natural ventilation is assessed in order to understand the capability of this passive strategy to assure comfort inside the house. Results show that an important portion of the indoor heat can be evacuated, however the temperature rising (especially during the night) due to UHI can generate a saturation effect if appropriate technical solutions, like the increase in the air speed that can be obtained with good urban design, are not considered.

  7. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  8. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  9. Urban weather data and building models for the inclusion of the urban heat island effect in building performance simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, M; Inostroza, L; Villacreses, G; Lobato, A; Carrasco, C

    2017-10-01

    This data article presents files supporting calculation for urban heat island (UHI) inclusion in building performance simulation (BPS). Methodology is used in the research article "From urban climate to energy consumption. Enhancing building performance simulation by including the urban heat island effect" (Palme et al., 2017) [1]. In this research, a Geographical Information System (GIS) study is done in order to statistically represent the most important urban scenarios of four South-American cities (Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso). Then, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is done to obtain reference Urban Tissues Categories (UTC) to be used in urban weather simulation. The urban weather files are generated by using the Urban Weather Generator (UWG) software (version 4.1 beta). Finally, BPS is run out with the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) software (version 17). In this data paper, four sets of data are presented: 1) PCA data (excel) to explain how to group different urban samples in representative UTC; 2) UWG data (text) to reproduce the Urban Weather Generation for the UTC used in the four cities (4 UTC in Lima, Guayaquil, Antofagasta and 5 UTC in Valparaíso); 3) weather data (text) with the resulting rural and urban weather; 4) BPS models (text) data containing the TRNSYS models (four building models).

  10. Effect of ECRH and resonant magnetic fields on formation of magnetic islands in the T-10 tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, E. A.; Savrukhin, P. V.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments in the T-10 tokamak demonstrated possibility of controlling the plasma current during disruption instability using the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and the controlled operation of the ohmic current-holding system. Quasistable plasma discharge with repeating sawtooth oscillations can be restored after energy quench using auxiliary ECRH power when PEC / POH > 2-5. The external magnetic field generation system consisted of eight saddle coils that were arranged symmetrically relative to the equatorial plane of the torus outside of the vacuum vessel of the T-10 tokamak to study the possible resonant magnetic field effects on the rotation frequency of magnetic islands. The saddle coils power supply system is based on four thyristor converters with a total power of 300 kW. The power supply control system is based on Siemens S7 controllers. As shown by preliminary experiments, the interaction efficiency of external magnetic fields with plasma depends on the plasma magnetic configuration. Optimal conditions for slowing the rotation of magnetic islands were determined. Additionally, the direction of the error magnetic field in the T-10 tokamak was determined, and the threshold value of the external magnetic field was determined.

  11. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Lester

    Full Text Available Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1 to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2 to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44% will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m. Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  12. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  13. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  14. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  15. Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Quinn, G.J.; Runion, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island created certain waste forms that are not routinely encountered in normal light water reactor plants and were the subject of a research and development program. Fifty EPICOR II organic resin containers were loaded to as much as 2200 Ci (of predominantly cesium plus strontium) in the course of processing contaminated water. Resin samples were taken from two of the EPICOR II vessels and examined. Nineteen zeolite containers loaded with radioactive cesium plus strontium to as much as 55,000 Ci have been analyzed. The makeup and purification system demineralizer resins, highly contaminated by the letdown of reactor coolant, have been radiation surveyed, and gas, liquid, and resin samples have been obtained. On-site sampling and analysis of these wastes indicated that combustible gases (hydrogen and oxygen) were being generated as a result of radiolysis. The results of this work are discussed, compared, and presented

  16. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional 150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging 7 days per month during winter and 2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  17. The Effect of Map Scale on the Determination of the Coastline Length and the Area of Islands in the Adriatic Sea - the Example of the Island of Rab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vučetić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The procedure to determine the coastline length and the area of the island of Rab from the maps at the scales 1:25 000, 1:50 000, 1:100 000, 1:200 000, 1:300 000, 1:500 000, 1:1 000 000 and 1:2 000 000 is described. The map sheets at the scales 1:25 000, 1:100 000 and 1:200 000 were obtained already in a georeferenced raster format, and the others were scanned and georeferenced. This was followed by a manual vectorization of the coastline and a transformation of all coordinates into the 5th zone of the Gauss-Krüger projection. The length of the coastline and the area of the island were calculated in the Gauss-Krüger projection taking into account the deformations of the projection. The results are given in tables and represented graphically.

  18. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  19. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  20. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  1. Hydrologic Effects and Biogeographic Impacts of Coastal Fog, Channel Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Fog has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrological cycle in many ecosystems, including coastal desert fog belts, tropical cloud forests, and montane areas worldwide. Fog drip can be a major source of water, particularly during the dry season, and there is evidence in some ecosystems of direct fogwater uptake by foliar absorption. Fog and low clouds can also increase availability of water by reducing evaporative water losses. In the California Channel Islands, fog and low stratus clouds dramatically affect the water budget of coastal vegetation, particularly during the long summer drought. This work focuses on a population of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. This is the southernmost large stand of this species, and tree growth and survival appears to be strongly limited by water availability. We have used parallel measurement and modeling approaches to quantify the importance of fogwater inputs and persistent cloud cover to Bishop pine growth. We have modeled drought stress over the last century based on local climate records, calibrated against a dense network of 12 weather stations on a 7km coastal-inland elevation gradient. Water availability is highly variable year to year, with episodic droughts that are associated with widespread tree mortality. Frequent cloud cover near the coast reduces evapotranspiration relative to the inland site (on the order of 25%), thereby delaying the onset of, and moderating the severity of the annual summer drought. Substantial summer fog drip at higher elevations provides additional water inputs that also reduce drought severity. Beyond the theoretical availability of extra water from fog drip, tree ring analysis and xylem water isotopic data suggest that significant amounts of fog water are actually taken up by these trees. Stand boundaries appear to be driven by spatial patterns of mortality related to water availability and frequency of severe drought. These results suggest that

  2. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  3. The effect of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island property sales price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Susan Shim

    This dissertation uses the hedonic pricing model to study the impact of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island house sales prices. The first two manuscripts are on lake water quality and use RI house sales transactions from 1988--2012. The third studies wind turbines using RI house sales transactions from 2000--2013. The first study shows that good lake water quality increases lakefront property price premium. It also shows that environmental amenities, such as forests, substitute for lake amenity as the property's distance from the lake increases. The second lake water quality study incorporates time variables to examine how environmental amenity values change over time. The results show that property price premium associated with good lake water quality does not change as it is constant in proportion to housing prices with short term economic fluctuations. The third study shows that wind turbines have a negative and significant impact on housing prices. However, this is highly location specific and varies with neighborhood demographics. All three studies have policy implications which are discussed in detail in the manuscripts below.

  4. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973. However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants can be estimated.

  5. Effects of an invasive ant on land snails in the Ogasawara Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shota; Mori, Hideaki; Kojima, Tsubasa; Hayama, Kayo; Sakairi, Yuko; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    We investigated how Pheidole megacephala has affected endemic achatinellid snails because these snails are excellent indicators of the impact of ants and they have high conservation value in Ogasawara. In 2015 we surveyed the Minamizaki area of Hahajima Island of Ogasawara, designated a core zone of the World Heritage Site, for P. megacephala. In Minamizaki, we determined the distribution and density of achatinellid snails in 2015 and compared these data with their distribution and density in 2005. Land cover in the survey area was entirely forest. We also tested whether P. megacephala preyed on achatinellid snails in the laboratory. P. megacephala was present in the forested areas of Minamizaki. Achatinellid snails were absent in 19 of 39 sites where P. megacephala was present, whereas in other areas densities of the snails ranged from 2 to 228 individuals/site. In the laboratory, P. megacephala carried 6 of 7 achatinellid snails and a broken shell was found. Snail distribution and density comparisons and results of the feeding experiments suggest that the presence of P. megacephala has contributed to the decline of achatinellid snails in forests in the survey area. Yet, P. megacephala is not on the official list of invasive non-native species. Stakeholders using the list of invasive species to develop conservation programs should recognize that invasiveness of non-native species differs depending on the ecosystem and that official lists may not be complete. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Green Space and Deaths Attributable to the Urban Heat Island Effect in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Doan Quang; Kusaka, Hiroyuki; Seposo, Xerxes T; Honda, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    To quantify heat-related deaths in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, caused by the urban heat island (UHI) and explore factors that may alleviate the impact of UHIs. We estimated district-specific meteorological conditions from 2010 to 2013 using the dynamic downscaling model and calculated the attributable fraction and number of mortalities resulting from the total, extreme, and mild heat in each district. The difference in attributable fraction of total heat between the central and outer districts was classified as the attributable fraction resulting from the UHI. The association among attributable fraction, attributable number with a green space, population density, and budget revenue of each district was then explored. The temperature-mortality relationship between the central and outer areas was almost identical. The attributable fraction resulting from the UHI was 0.42%, which was contributed by the difference in temperature distribution between the 2 areas. Every 1-square-kilometer increase in green space per 1000 people can prevent 7.4 deaths caused by heat. Green space can alleviate the impacts of UHIs, although future studies conducting a heath economic evaluation of tree planting are warranted.

  7. Effects of Tropical Islands on the Diurnal Cycle of Convection and its Influence on the MJO Propagation over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Large-scale convection fueling the MJO is initiated over the tropical Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) and into the western Pacific. Observational studies have shown that near 40-50% of the MJO events cannot pass through the MC, which is known as the MC barrier effect. Previous studies have also shown a strong diurnal cycle of convection over the islands and coastal seas, with an afternoon precipitation maximum over land and high terrain, and an early morning maximum over water and mountain valley areas. As an eastward-propagating MJO convective event passes over the MC, its nature may be altered due to the complex interaction with the large Islands and topography. In turn, the passage of an MJO event modulates local conditions over the MC. The diurnal cycle of convection over the MC and its modulation by the MJO are not well understood and poorly represented in global numerical prediction models. This study aims to improve our understanding of how the diurnal cycle of convection and the presence of islands of the MC affect the eastward propagation of the MJO over the region. To this end, we use the Unified Wave Interface-Coupled Model (UWIN-CM) in its fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration at a convection-permitting (4 km) resolution over the region. The control simulation is from the MJO event that occurred in November-December 2011, and has been verified against the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign observations, TRMM precipitation, and reanalysis products. To investigate the effects of the tropical islands on the MJO, we conduct two additional numerical experiments, one with preserved island shape but flattened topography, and one where islands are replaced by water. The difference in the diurnal cycle and convective organization among these experiments will provide some insights on the origin of the MC

  8. Assessing population movement impacts on urban heat island of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday: effects of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2018-02-01

    Chinese New Year (CNY), or Spring Festival, is the most important of all festivals in China. We use daily observations to show that Beijing's urban heat island (UHI) effects largely depend on precipitation, cloud cover, and water vapor but are insensitive to wind speed, during the CNY holiday season. Non-precipitating, clear, and low humidity conditions favor strong UHI effects. The CNY holiday, with some 3 billion journeys made, provides a living laboratory to explore the role of population movements in the UHI phenomenon. Averaged over the period 2004-2013, with the Olympic year of 2008 excluded, Beijing's UHI effects during the CNY week decline by 0.48 °C relative to the background period (4 weeks including 2 to 3 weeks before, and 2 to 3 weeks after, the CNY week). With combined effects of precipitation, large cloud cover, and high water vapor excluded, the UHI effects during the CNY week averaged over the study period decline by 0.76 °C relative to the background period, significant at the 99% confidence level by Student's t test. These results indicate that the impacts of population movements can be more easily detected when excluding unfavorable meteorological conditions to the UHI. Population movements occur not only during the CNY holiday, but also during all the time across the globe. We suggest that better understanding the role of population movements will offer new insight into anthropogenic climate modifications.

  9. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    and abundance change with increasing distance from the native forest in adjacent habitat types in Santa Maria Island, the Azores. Arthropods were sampled in four 150 m long transects in each habitat type. Arthropods were identified to species level and classified as Azorean endemic, single-island endemic (SIE...

  10. Urban heat island effect: A systematic review of spatio-temporal factors, data, methods, and mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilami, Kaveh; Kamruzzaman, Md.; Liu, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Despite research on urban heat island (UHI) effect has increased exponentially over the last few decades, a systematic review of factors contributing to UHI effect has scarcely been reported in the literature. This paper provides a systematic and overarching review of different spatial and temporal factors affecting the UHI effect. UHI is a phenomenon when urban areas experience a higher temperature than their surrounding non-urban areas and is considered as a critical factor contributing to global warming, heat related mortalities, and unpredictable climatic changes. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify the spatio-temporal factors that contribute to (or mitigate) the UHI effect in order to develop a thorough understanding of their causal mechanism so that these are addressed through urban planning policies. This paper systematically identified 75 eligible studies on UHI effect and reviews the nature and type of satellite images used, the techniques applied to classify land cover/use changes, the models to assess the link between spatio-temporal factors and UHI effect, and the effects of these factors on UHI. The review results show that: a) 54% of the studies used Landsat TM images for modelling the UHI effect followed by Landsat ETM (34%), and MODIS (28%); b) land cover indices (46%), followed by supervised classification (17%) were the dominant methods to derive land cover/use changes associated with UHI effect; c) ordinary least square regression is the most commonly applied method (68%) to investigate the link between different spatio-temporal factors and the UHI effect followed by comparative analysis (33%); and d) the most common factors affecting the UHI effect as reported in the reviewed studies, include vegetation cover (44%), season (33%), built-up area (28%), day/night (25%), population density (14%), water body (12%) together with others. This research discusses the findings in policy terms and provides directions for future research.

  11. The Effect of Tree Spacing and Size in Urban Areas: Strategies for Mitigating High Temperature in Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R.; Shandas, V.; Makido, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Many cities are unintentionally designed to be heat sinks, which absorb the sun's short-wave radiation and reemit as long-wave radiation. Long time reorganization of this `urban heat island' (UHI) phenomena has led researchers and city planners into developing strategies for reducing ambient temperatures through urban design. Specifically, greening areas have proven to reduce the temperature in UHI's, including strategies such as green streets, green facades, and green roofs have been implemented. Among the scientific community there is promoted study of how myriad greening strategies can reduce temperature, relatively limited work has focused on the distribution, density, and quantity of tree campaigns. This paper examines how the spacing and size of trees reduce temperatures differently. A major focus of the paper is to understand how to lower the temperature through tree planting, and provide recommendations to cities that are attempting to solve their own urban heat island issues. Because different cities have different room for planting greenery, we examined which strategies are more efficient given an area constraint. Areas that have less available room might not be able to plant a high density of trees. We compared the different experimental groups varying in density and size of trees against the control to see the effect the trees had. Through calibration with local weather stations, we used a micrometeorology program (ENVI-Met) to model and simulate the different experimental models and how they affect the temperature. The results suggest that some urban designs can reduce ambient temperatures by over 7 0C, and the inclusion of large form trees have the greatest contribution, by reducing temperatures over 15 0C. The results suggest that using specific strategies that combine placement of specific tree configurations with alternative distribution of urban development patterns can help to solve the current challenges of UHI's, and thereby support management

  12. Geochemical characterization and heavy metal migration in a coastal polluted aquifer incorporating tidal effects: field investigation in Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Bo; Dai, Chaomeng; Lou, Sha; Tao, An; Zhong, Guihui

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and migration of heavy metal in coastal aquifer incorporating tidal effects were investigated in detail by the field geological survey and observation. The continuous groundwater sampling, field observation (for groundwater potentiometric surface elevation, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity), and laboratory analysis (for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentration) were conducted through eight monitoring wells located around the landfill in the northern part of Chongming Island, China. The results showed that the unconfined aquifer medium was estuary-littoral facies deposit of Holocene, mainly gray clayey silt and grey sandy silt, and the groundwater flow was mainly controlled by topography condition of the aquifer formation strike. The background values of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Chongming Island were 3.10 ± 3.09, 0.81 ± 0.25, 1.48 ± 1.09, 43.32 ± 33.06, 0.08 ± 0.16, and 0.88 ± 1.74 μg/L, respectively. Compared with the groundwater samples around the study area, the drinking water was qualified and was free from the seawater intrusion/estuarine facies contaminant encroachment. Pollutant discharge was reflected in water quality parameters, the Cr and Cu concentrations elevated to the peak of 50.07 and 46.00 μg/L, respectively, and meanwhile specific migration regularity was embodied in observation time series as well as other elements. This migration regularity was not fully identical according to correlations between these analyzed elements. Ambient watery environment, anthropogenic disturbance, regional hydrogeological condition, and biogeochemical reactivity on heavy metals reduced/altered the significance of elements correlation in the migration pathway in coastal aquifer.

  13. A computational study of the piezoelectric response due to the material effect in periodic, single island thin films and the geometric effect in periodic, bi-island thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electromechanical response of a square-periodic array of circular piezoelectric (PE) thin films alternating with non-piezoelectric (NPE) films is studied in this paper. The material effects are studied for four film/substrate combinations in absence of NPE films for which it is found that if d zxx zzz (z-axis being normal to the interfacial plane between the film and the substrate), it results in reduced substrate bending leading to reduced degradation in the electromechanical response of the thin film. The bi-island structure is studied for zinc oxide on strontium titanate, and, in general, it is seen that the NPE films not only reduce degradation of the electromechanical response of the PE films but also increase their internal stresses; the effect on the former is less than the latter. These effects are most prominent when the circular NPE thin films fill the space between the PE thin films and are elastically very stiff compared to the substrate.

  14. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  15. Correlation analysis of the urban heat island effect and the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric particulates using TM images in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.Y.; Xie, X.D.; Li, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study combines the methods of observation statistics and remote sensing retrieval, using remote sensing information including the urban heat island (UHI) intensity index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference water index (NDWI), and the difference vegetation index (DVI) to analyze the correlation between the urban heat island effect and the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of atmospheric particulates in Beijing. The analysis establishes (1) a direct correlation between UHI and DVI; (2) an indirect correlation among UHI, NDWI and DVI; and (3) an indirect correlation among UHI, NDVI, and DVI. The results proved the existence of three correlation types with regional and seasonal effects and revealed an interesting correlation between UHI and DVI, that is, if UHI is below 0.1, then DVI increases with the increase in UHI, and vice versa. Also, DVI changes more with UHI in the two middle zones of Beijing. -- Highlights: •We analyze the correlation from the spatial and temporal views. •We present correlation analyses among UHI, NDWI, NDVI, and DVI from three perspectives. •Three correlations are proven to exist with regional and seasonal effects. •If UHI is below 0.1, then DVI increases with the increase in UHI, and vice versa. •The DVI changes more with UHI in the two middle zones of Beijing. -- Generally, if UHI is below 0.1 in the weak heat island or green island range, then DVI increases with the increase in UHI, and vice versa

  16. The urban heat island effect, its causes, and mitigation, with reference to the thermal properties of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Bakaric, Jason; Jeffrey-Bailey, Tristan

    2017-07-15

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a phenomenon that affects many millions of people worldwide. The higher temperatures experienced in urban areas compared to the surrounding countryside has enormous consequences for the health and wellbeing of people living in cities. The increased use of manmade materials and increased anthropogenic heat production are the main causes of the UHI. This has led to the understanding that increased urbanisation is the primary cause of the urban heat island. The UHI effect also leads to increased energy needs that further contribute to the heating of our urban landscape, and the associated environmental and public health consequences. Pavements and roofs dominate the urban surface exposed to solar irradiation. This review article outlines the contribution that pavements make to the UHI effect and analyses localized and citywide mitigation strategies against the UHI. Asphalt Concrete (AC) is one of the most common pavement surfacing materials and is a significant contributor to the UHI. Densely graded AC has low albedo and high volumetric heat capacity, which results in surface temperatures reaching upwards of 60 °C on hot summer days. Cooling the surface of a pavement by utilizing cool pavements has been a consistent theme in recent literature. Cool pavements can be reflective or evaporative. However, the urban geometry and local atmospheric conditions should dictate whether or not these mitigation strategies should be used. Otherwise both of these pavements can actually increase the UHI effect. Increasing the prevalence of green spaces through the installation of street trees, city parks and rooftop gardens has consistently demonstrated a reduction in the UHI effect. Green spaces also increase the cooling effect derived from water and wind sources. This literature review demonstrates that UHI mitigation techniques are best used in combination with each other. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the current mitigation

  17. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and sales. Final report, April 1980-January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, H.B.; Downing, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The study examined the effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and number of sales within a 25-mile radius of the plant. Regression analyses, using data on 583 actual market sales of single family homes from 1977 through 1979, examined the effects before and after the accident on the basis of distance and direction from the plant and on three different property value classes. All valid single family property sales between 1975 and 1979 within the 25-mile area were examined in a time series analysis. Interviews were conducted with realtors, financial institution officials and building contractors in the area. The accident had no measurable effects, positive or negative, on the value of single family residential properties within a 25-mile radius of the plant, or in any direction from the plant, or on low, medium, or high value properties. The plant had no measurable effects on residential property values for the 2 years prior to the accident. Immediately following the accident there was a sharp decline in the number of residential sales within 10 miles of the plant, but the real estate market returned to near normal conditions within 4-8 weeks. The interviews basically confirmed the above findings

  18. Correlation or Causality between Land Cover Patterns and the Urban Heat Island Effect? Evidence from Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Deilami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified associations between the surface urban heat island (SUHI effect (i.e., SUHI, hereinafter is referred to as UHI and urban growth, particularly changes in land cover patterns. This research questions their causal links to answer a key policy question: If cities restrict urban expansion and encourage people to live within existing urban areas, will that help in controlling UHI? The question has been answered by estimating four models using data from Brisbane, Australia: Model 1—cross-sectional ordinary least square (OLS regression—to examine the association between the UHI effect and land cover patterns in 2013; Model 2—cross-sectional geographically weighted regression (GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 1 possess significant spatial variations; Model 3—longitudinal OLS—to examine whether changes in land cover patterns led to changes in UHI effects between 2004 and 2013; and Model 4—longitudinal GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 3 vary significantly over space. All estimations were controlled for potential confounding effects (e.g., population, employment and dwelling densities. Results from the cross-sectional OLS and GWR models were consistent with previous findings and showed that porosity is negatively associated with the UHI effect in 2013. In contrast, population density has a positive association. Results from the longitudinal OLS and GWR models confirm their causal linkages and showed that an increase in porosity level reduced the UHI effect, whereas an increase in population density increased the UHI effect. The findings suggest that even a containment of population growth within existing urban areas will lead to the UHI effect. However, this can be significantly minimized through proper land use planning, by creating a balance between urban and non-urban uses of existing urban areas.

  19. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  20. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  1. Linking potential heat source and sink to urban heat island: Heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on land surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Cao, Qiwen; Lang, Kun; Wu, Jiansheng

    2017-05-15

    Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated. Then, the heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on LST were examined by using semiparametric geographically weighted regression (SGWR) models. The results showed that landscape composition has more significant effects on thermal environment than configuration. For a strong source, the percentage of patches has a positive impact on LST. Additionally, when mosaicked with some heat sink, even a small improvement in the degree of dispersion of a strong source helps to alleviate UHI. For a weak source, the percentage and density of patches have positive impacts on LST. For a strong sink, the percentage, density, and degree of aggregation of patches have negative impacts on LST. The effects of edge density and patch shape complexity vary spatially with the fragmentation of a strong sink. Similarly, the impacts of a weak sink are mainly exerted via the characteristics of percent, density, and shape complexity of patches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of water properties and soil texture on the growth of a mangrove palm; nypa fruticans on carey island, malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asleaeim, N.; Sofawi, A.B.; Zakaria, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Nypa fructicans is a major species of mangrove palm on Carey Island, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of water properties on the growth of Nypa fruticans. Plant growth measurements and water analyses were carried out in six plots for 16 months. The life stages of Nypa fruticans were divided into seedlings, juveniles, adults and matures, based on the number of leaves. Leaf production of juvenile and mature trees showed negative correlation with salinity. Leaf production of seedlings was affected negatively only by heavy metal of Arsenic (As). Calcium (Ca) in the water had a strong positive effect on the new leaf production of juveniles and on the spear elongation of matures, and Iron (Fe) had a negative effect on the leaf elongation of adults. Similarly, spear elongation of juvenile trees was positively correlated to nitrate (NO3-). Silty clay texture provides the best condition for the growth of Nypa fruticans. The growth of Nypa fruticans was most significantly affected by water parameters in the early life stages. (author)

  3. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Jiménez, Giovanna; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4.13 days compared to rural areas, thus suggesting a contraction of the flight period in urban areas. However, only one individual species ( Sympetrum striolatum) exhibited an advance in the P95 of the flight period in urban areas compared to rural areas. On the other hand, climate change (minimum temperature) had a much stronger impact on the phenology of odonates at the community level with a significant advance of 6.9 days °C-1 in the P5 of the flight period, 3.1 days °C-1 in the P50 and 3.3 days °C-1 in the P95 flight date. Similarly, a significant advance in P5 was found in 7 of the 15 species tested in response to minimum temperature, and 2 species showed a significant advance in P50 in response to minimum temperature, but no species showed a shift in the P95 flight date due to minimum temperature. As shown in previous studies, life history influences the phenological response of odonates, with spring species and those species lacking an egg diapause being the most responsive to increased temperatures, although summer species and species with obligate egg diapause also respond to the UHI by advancing the P95 by 3.8 and 4.5 days, respectively, compared to rural areas, thus contracting the flight period. The present study shows that the UHI has negligible impacts on emergence patterns of odonates

  4. The effects of biogeography on ant diversity and activity on the Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam T; Rykken, Jessica J; Farrell, Brian D

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have examined how island biogeography affects diversity on the scale of island systems. In this study, we address how diversity varies over very short periods of time on individual islands. To do this, we compile an inventory of the ants living in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Boston, Massachusetts, USA using data from a five-year All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the region's arthropods. Consistent with the classical theory of island biogeography, species richness increased with island size, decreased with island isolation, and remained relatively constant over time. Additionally, our inventory finds that almost half of the known Massachusetts ant fauna can be collected in the BHI, and identifies four new species records for Massachusetts, including one new to the United States, Myrmica scabrinodis. We find that the number of species actually active on islands depended greatly on the timescale under consideration. The species that could be detected during any given week of sampling could by no means account for total island species richness, even when correcting for sampling effort. Though we consistently collected the same number of species over any given week of sampling, the identities of those species varied greatly between weeks. This variation does not result from local immigration and extinction of species, nor from seasonally-driven changes in the abundance of individual species, but rather from weekly changes in the distribution and activity of foraging ants. This variation can be upwards of 50% of ant species per week. This suggests that numerous ant species on the BHI share the same physical space at different times. This temporal partitioning could well explain such unexpectedly high ant diversity in an isolated, urban site.

  5. The effects of biogeography on ant diversity and activity on the Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Clark

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined how island biogeography affects diversity on the scale of island systems. In this study, we address how diversity varies over very short periods of time on individual islands. To do this, we compile an inventory of the ants living in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Boston, Massachusetts, USA using data from a five-year All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the region's arthropods. Consistent with the classical theory of island biogeography, species richness increased with island size, decreased with island isolation, and remained relatively constant over time. Additionally, our inventory finds that almost half of the known Massachusetts ant fauna can be collected in the BHI, and identifies four new species records for Massachusetts, including one new to the United States, Myrmica scabrinodis. We find that the number of species actually active on islands depended greatly on the timescale under consideration. The species that could be detected during any given week of sampling could by no means account for total island species richness, even when correcting for sampling effort. Though we consistently collected the same number of species over any given week of sampling, the identities of those species varied greatly between weeks. This variation does not result from local immigration and extinction of species, nor from seasonally-driven changes in the abundance of individual species, but rather from weekly changes in the distribution and activity of foraging ants. This variation can be upwards of 50% of ant species per week. This suggests that numerous ant species on the BHI share the same physical space at different times. This temporal partitioning could well explain such unexpectedly high ant diversity in an isolated, urban site.

  6. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Foy: Effects of ocean acidification on larval Tanner crab: Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To study the effects of ocean acidification we examined the effects of ocean acidification on the larval stages of the economically important southern Tanner crab,...

  7. The carrying capacity and the effects of protection level in three marine protected areas in the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of fisheries target species in three marine protected areas (MPAs located in the NW Mediterranean provided important conclusions on management effects. The abundance, occurrence and biomass of large fish showed consistent and growing trends inside the MPAs. Fish diversity was also favoured by protection. Nevertheless, spatial variance of these indicators at a medium scale was often of the same order as that caused by time between different protection levels. The carrying capacity was determined for the first time in western Mediterranean MPAs in five out of six sites studied, and in all cases it was achieved within the first five years of protection. The observed values indicate that the system of the studied MPAs is representative of the general coastal environment of the Balearic Islands, but is far from the potential of other MPAs which are considered as hot spots in other localities. Likewise, this study shows that partially protected areas can also be fairly effective if their habitats fit with those required by target species and fishing modalities are suitably regulated or banned.

  8. Effect of Hurricane Hugo on molluscan skeletal distributions,Salt River Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold I.; Llewellyn, Ghislaine; Parsons, Karla M.; Cummins, Hays; Boardman, Mark R.; Greenstein, Benjamin J.; Jacobs, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Just prior to the passage of Hurricane Hugo over St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 35 molluscan skeletal samples were collected at 30 m intervals along a sampling transect in Salt River Bay, on the north-central coast. Three months after the hurricane, the transect was resampled to permit direct assessment of storm effects on skeletal distributions. Results indicate that spatial zonation of molluscan accumulations, associated with environmental transitions along the transect, was maintained in the wake of the hurricane. However, limited transport was diagnosed by comparing the compositions of prestorm and poststorm samples from the deepest, mud-rich subenvironment on the transect. In aggregate, the species richness of samples from the southern half of this zone increased from 16 to 40, and the abundance of species that were not among the characteristic molluscs of this subenvironment increased from 11% to 26%. These storm effects could probably not have been recognized, and attributed directly to Hugo, had there been no prestorm samples with which to compare directly the poststorm samples.

  9. Effect of Land-Use Change on the Urban Heat Island in the Fukuoka–Kitakyushu Metropolitan Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In coastal cities, the effect of the sea breeze in mitigating the urban heat island (UHI phenomenon has attracted attention. This study targeted the Fukuoka–Kitakyushu metropolitan area, the fourth largest metropolitan area in Japan which is also coastal. Doppler Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR observations were conducted in the summer of 2015 to clarify the transition of the wind field over the targeted area. To investigate the effects on the UHI of land-use change related to urbanization, the National Land Numerical Information (NLNI land-use datasets for Japan in 1976 (NLNI-76 and 2009 (NLNI-09 were used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results of the simulation showed that most of the northern part of the Kyushu region became warmer, with an average increase of +0.236 °C for the whole simulation period. Comparing the two simulations and the Doppler LiDAR observations, the simulation results with the NLNI-09 dataset (for the year closest to the study period in 2015 showed closer conformity with the observations. The results of the simulation using NLNI-76 showed faster sea breeze penetration and higher wind velocity than the observations. These results suggest that the land-use change related to urbanization weakened the sea breeze penetration in this area.

  10. Sensitivities Affecting Heat and Urban Heat Island Effect on Local Scale Projected to Neighborhood Scale in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Scott, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban regions are often impacted more by heat than adjacent rural areas, which is a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban areas are also highly heterogeneous and notoriously difficult to monitor using standard meteorological protocols—the hottest microclimates within a city often occur in locations that lack open, representative installation sites that are an adequate distance from buildings and direct heat sources. To investigate the challenges of monitoring urban heat, this study examines the sensitivity of temperature and humidity sensors currently used in a Baltimore UHI monitoring network to differences in sun exposure, material on which the data collecting instrument is attached, and land cover class of the vicinity. Sensitivity to sun exposure and attachment site can be interpreted as sources of uncertainty for urban heat monitoring, while sensitivity to land cover may reflect a true source of local temperature and humidity variability. In this study, we present results from a test deployment designed to assess the sensitivity of heat measurements to each of these three factors. We then apply these results to interpret measurements taken across the entire Baltimore UHI monitoring network. These results can then be used to improve heat measurements and more accurately represent and quantify the UHI effect on a broader scale, such as in neighborhoods or urban centers.

  11. Effects of seismic lines on the abundance of breeding birds in the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashenhurst, A.R.; Hannon, S.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2008-06-15

    The effects of oil and gas exploration activities on bird abundance in the Arctic were investigated. The study examined the impacts of new and oil visible seismic lines within the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary on the abundance of breeding passerines, Lapland longspur, common redpoll, American tree sparrow, and red-necked phalarope in upland tundra region and sedge-willow habitats. Results of the study showed that the effects on abundance with newer seismic lines were not statistically significant for most groups of birds. However, more birds were seen on reference transects than on seismic lines. The seismic lines had a significant impact on passerines grouped in upland tundra, as well as for sparrows in sedge and willows. Along older seismic lines, passerine abundance was lower than on reference transects in upland tundra. The study demonstrated that seismic lines created between 10 and 30 years ago had persistent vegetative changes that have reduced bird abundance. It was concluded that although the birds were not avoiding lines, some birds appeared to have increased the size of their territories in order to compensate for vegetative changes. 34 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Daily variation of urban heat island effect and its correlations to urban greenery: A case study of Adelaide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban structure and landscape cause an artificial temperature increase in cities, known as the urban heat island effect. The magnitude of such urban–rural temperature difference varies in daily and seasonal basis. Daily patterns of urban heat accumulation in Adelaide is under investigation. In this paper, East–West air temperature profile of Adelaide metropolitan area was mapped in 60 journeys alongside a straight cross route connecting Adelaide Hills to the West Beach under clear sky between 26 July and 15 August 2013. The most intense urban–rural temperature differences of 5.9 °C occurred during midnight in Adelaide. However, maximum urban heat variation occurred during the late afternoon when the near-surface urban heat fluctuates by 2 °C between the CBD East and Western Parklands. During summer heatwaves, the afternoon heat stress limits public life vibrancy in Adelaide. Increased urban greenery can facilitate resilience to heat by providing shadow and evaporative cooling. A better understanding of daily urban heat variations and the cooling effect of urban greenery assists urban policy making and public life management in the context of climate change.

  13. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  14. Evaluation of buffer zone effectiveness in mitigating the risks associated with agricultural runoff in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, A; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M

    2011-02-01

    To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. 5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and evaluating load reductions

  15. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  16. The Effect of Urban Heat Island on Climate Warming in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunfang Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic economic development since 1978 and the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA has been one of the three largest urban agglomerations in China. We present evidence of a significant urban heat island (UHI effect on climate warming based on an analysis of the impacts of the urbanization rate, urban population, and land use changes on the warming rate of the daily average, minimal (nighttime and maximal (daytime air temperature in the YRDUA using 41 meteorological stations observation data. The effect of the UHI on climate warming shows a large spatial variability. The average warming rates of average air temperature of huge cities, megalopolises, large cities, medium-sized cities, and small cities are 0.483, 0.314 ± 0.030, 0.282 ± 0.042, 0.225 ± 0.044 and 0.179 ± 0.046 °C/decade during the period of 1957–2013, respectively. The average warming rates of huge cities and megalopolises are significantly higher than those of medium-sized cities and small cities, indicating that the UHI has a significant effect on climate warming (t-test, p < 0.05. Significantly positive correlations are found between the urbanization rate, population, built-up area and warming rate of average air temperature (p < 0.001. The average warming rate of average air temperature attributable to urbanization is 0.124 ± 0.074 °C/decade in the YRDUA. Urbanization has a measurable effect on the observed climate warming in the YRD aggravating the global climate warming.

  17. CFD prediction of heat island formation on growing Asian cities. Effect of urbanization in Shanghai; Kyodaikasuru Asia no toshi ni okeru heat island keisei ni kansuru CFD yosoku. Shanghai no toshika ga oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, T.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Mitsumoto, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Study is conducted of the effect of change in land use and increase in artificial exhaust heat on heat island formation in Shanghai. Concerning the land use distribution in Shanghai, a point sampling survey was conducted in the 1930s using topographic charts, when the area was broken down into building-occupied region, paddy field, bare ground, and waters. In the 1990s, thanks to data from satellites, high-density and low-density urban regions have added. Calculation for Shanghai is performed, based on the rate of increase in Tokyo`s population and data predicted for Shanghai`s population, on the assumption that Shanghai`s population in the 2050s will grow 2.3 times larger than it is in the 1990s. The prediction thus produced indicates that the urban area in Shanghai in the 2050s will be as large as that of the present-day Tokyo that covers a 50km zone. Heat island formation prediction for Shanghai is worked out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-aided simulation. According to the prediction, while the maximum temperature in the 1930s was 29.6degC or 4degC higher than in the suburbs, it is 33.2degC or 7.6deg higher in the 1990s, and will be 34.4degC or 8.6degC higher in the 2050s. 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R. [University of New England, Armidale (Australia). Dept. of Zoology

    1995-04-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54{sup o}29`S. 158{sup o}58`E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  19. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54 o 29'S. 158 o 58'E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  20. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  1. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Yazawa

    Full Text Available Season of birth (SOB has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL, a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP concentration (i.e., inflammatory status among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  2. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  3. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  4. Intensity effects in the formation of stable islands in phase space during the multi-turn extraction process at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Shinji; Prior, Chris; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hirlander, Simon; Huschauer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The CERN PS utilises a Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE) scheme to stretch the beam pulse length to optimise the filling process of the SPS. MTE is a novel technique to split a beam in transverse phase space into nonlinear stable islands. The recent experimental results indicate that the positions of the islands depend on the total beam intensity. Particle simulations have been performed to understand the detailed mechanism of the intensity dependence. The analysis carried out so far suggests space charge effects through image charges and image currents on the vacuum chamber and the magnets iron cores dominate the observed behaviour. In this talk, the latest analysis with realistic modelling of the beam environment is discussed and it is shown how this further improves the understanding of intensity effects in MTE.

  5. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees...... in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce...

  6. TBT pollution and effects in molluscs at US Virgin Islands, Caribbean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Jørgensen, Anne; Tairova, Zhanna

    2009-01-01

    Thais deltoidea, Thais rustica and Purpura patula all seem to have potential as suitable and sensitive bioindicators for assessing levels and effects of TBT pollution in coastal areas including coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. However, considerable interspecies differences in especially accumulation...

  7. The effects of hurricanes on birds, with special reference to Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Wunderle, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclonic storms, variously called typhoons, cyclones, or hurricanes (henceforth, hurricanes), are common in many parts of the world, where their frequent occurrence can have both direct and indirect effects on bird populations. Direct effects of hurricanes include mortality from exposure to hurricane winds, rains, and storm surges, and geographic displacement of individuals by storm winds. Indirect effects become apparent in the storm's aftermath and include loss of food supplies or foraging substrates; loss of nests and nest or roost sites; increased vulnerability to predation; microclimate changes; and increased conflict with humans. The short-term response of bird populations to hurricane damage, before changes in plant succession, includes shifts in diet, foraging sites or habitats, and reproductive changes. Bird populations may show long-term responses to changes in plant succession as second-growth vegetation increases in storm-damaged old-growth forests. The greatest stress of a hurricane to most upland terrestrial bird populations occurs after its passage rather than during its impact. The most important effect of a hurricane is the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath. The most vulnerable terrestrial wildlife populations have a diet of nectar, fruit, or seeds; nest, roost, or forage on large old trees; require a closed forest canopy; have special microclimate requirements and/or live in a habitat in which vegetation has a slow recovery rate. Small populations with these traits are at greatest risk to hurricane-induced extinction, particularly if they exist in small isolated habitat fragments. Recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery. Also, the reproductive rate of the remnant local population and recruitment from undisturbed habitat patches influence the rate at which wildlife populations recover

  8. Three Mile Island nuclear accident and its effect on the surrounding population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhata, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    Although the effect of psychological stress is difficult to predict, these public health concerns should be addressed. The author discusses taking a precautionary route by carefully documenting both the exposed population and its health experiences after the nuclear accident. The already established TMI Population Registry and the TMI Mother-Child Registry provides reliable data bases for longterm followup studies of the health effects (physical, psychological and behavioral), if any, from the TMI nuclear accident for both the general population and for the special cohort of pregnant women and their in-utero exposed children. Causes of death and cancer diagnoses will be routinely ascertained by linkage to the State mortality and cancer incidence files. Data for other physical, psychological and behavioral health indices will be collected every five years, on the basis of a random sample through prospective followup surveys for both cohorts. Regardless of the results of a variety of short-term and long-term studies undertaken, the primary mission of the TMI Health Research Program is to fulfill the need to respond to the much publicised, potentially important public health concerns. Because of the uniqueness of the TMI nuclear accident, thus its historical significance, as well as the scientific need to document health effects of very low dose radiation in humans, the rare opportunity presented by the TMI nuclear accident should not be lost in the pursuit of these important epidemiologic studies

  9. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  10. Surface-supported Ag islands stabilized by a quantum size effect: Their interaction with small molecules relevant to ethylene epoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dahai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    This dissertation focuses on how QSE-stabilized, surface-supported Ag nanoclusters will interact with ethylene or oxygen. Experiments are performed to determine whether the QSE-mediated Ag islands react differently toward adsorption of ethylene or oxygen, or whether the adsorption of these small molecules will affect the QSE-mediated stability of Ag islands. Studies of the interaction of oxygen with Ag/Si(111)-7×7 were previously reported, but these studies were performed at a low Ag coverage where 3D Ag islands were not formed. So the study of such a system at a higher Ag coverage will be a subject of this work. The interaction of ethylene with Ag/Si(111)-7×7, as well as the interaction of oxygen with Ag/NiAl(110) are also important parts of this study.

  11. Late radiation effects in Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout 28 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1954, following detonation of a megaton nuclear device at Bikini, an unfortunate accident occurred owing to an unpredicted shift in winds resulting in exposure to radioactive fallout of 250 Marshallese people, 28 American servicemen on atolls to the east, and 23 Japanese fishermen on their fishing vessel. In this presentation, medical findings in the exposed Marshallese noted over the past 28 years is briefly reviewed with particular emphasis on late effects on the thyroid gland. The Marshallese were too far distant from the detonation for any direct effects, and their exposure was due entirely to fallout radiation during the 2 days prior to evacuation. This consisted of penetrating whole-body gamma radiation, irradiation of the skin (principally beta radiation) from fallout deposited on the skin, and internal absorption of radionuclides from ingestion of contaminated food and water. The most serious internal exposure was that to the thyroid from radioiodines, which were relatively abundant in the fallout. 63 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  12. Estimation of 222Rn flux and its effect on the atmospheric 222Rn concentration at Hachijo-jima Island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkura, Takehisa; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun; Hirao, Shigekazu; Iida, Takao

    2010-01-01

    222 Rn fluxes from the ground surface and 226 Ra contents in soil were measured on Hachijo-jima Island, which is a solitary island in the Pacific Ocean located about 200 km to the south of the main island of Japan, to evaluate fractional contributions of the locally exhaled 222 Rn and the long-range transported one to the surface air concentration measured on this island. Averages of 222 Rn flux and 226 Ra content in dry soil were evaluated to be 0.9±0.4 mBq m -2 s -1 and 6.8±0.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. These are considerably smaller than the respective values of 9.7±0.8 mBq m -2 s -1 and 23.2±0.4 Bq kg -1 measured at Nagoya as a reference. The lower value of the 226 Ra content and the even lower 222 Rn flux on this island can be attributed to the basaltic geology and the soil's coarse texture moisture, respectively. A simple model calculation assuming a typical nocturnal condition showed that the measured 222 Rn flux would cause only a small increase in the surface air concentration by 0.035 to 0.072 Bq m -3 (relative contribution of 1 to 12%) in addition to the long-range transported 222 Rn under a typical nocturnal condition. The contribution of the local flux would be smaller than that under nocturnal condition. This local 222 Rn component is negligible as compared with the concentration of the long-range transported 222 Rn (0.6 to 3.6 Bq m -3 ). It is, therefore, concluded that Hachijo-jima Island is suitable for measuring the long-range transported atmospheric 222 Rn in East Asia region. (author)

  13. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  14. Spatial Characteristics of Small Green Spaces' Mitigating Effects on Microscopic Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Kim, J. H.; Huh, K. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to find small greens' disposition, types and sizes to reduce air temperature effectively in urban blocks. The research sites were six high developed blocks in Seoul, Korea. Air temperature was measured with mobile loggers in clear daytime during summer, from August to September, at screen level. Also the measurement repeated over three times a day during three days by walking and circulating around the experimental blocks and the control blocks at the same time. By analyzing spatial characteristics, the averaged air temperatures were classified with three spaces, sunny spaces, building-shaded spaces and small green spaces by using Kruskal-Wallis Test; and small green spaces in 6 blocks were classified into their outward forms, polygonal or linear and single or mixed. The polygonal and mixed types of small green spaces mitigated averaged air temperature of each block which they belonged with a simple linear regression model with adjusted R2 = 0.90**. As the area and volume of these types increased, the effect of air temperature reduction (ΔT; Air temperature difference between sunny space and green space in a block) also increased in a linear relationship. The experimental range of this research is 100m2 ~ 2,000m2 of area, and 1,000m3 ~ 10,000m3 of volume of small green space. As a result, more than 300m2 and 2,300m3 of polygonal green spaces with mixed vegetation is required to lower 1°C; 650m2 and 5,000m3 of them to lower 2°C; about 2,000m2 and about 10,000m3 of them to lower 4°C air temperature reduction in an urban block.

  15. Effects of Vacation Rental Websites on the Concentration of Tourists—Potential Environmental Impacts. An Application to the Balearic Islands in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Martín, José Antonio; Zermeño Mejía, Karla Aída; Salinas Fernández, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of tourists at certain times of the year can damage sensitive environments. The use of peer-to-peer vacation rental websites has increased greatly during the last decade. This system could either reduce seasonality in touristic destinations where the tourist activity takes place throughout the year at a lower price or on the contrary, it could increase the number of visitors at certain times of the year even more. This paper intends to analyze the effect that these platforms have on tourism seasonality in order to calculate if they help reduce or increase the pressure on the destinations. To do so, the Gini Index has been applied to one of the main touristic spots in Europe, the Balearic Islands in Spain. The conclusion is that this type of accommodation has aggravated the problem, generating a greater concentration of tourists and a higher pressure on the resources of the islands. PMID:29462863

  16. Effects of Vacation Rental Websites on the Concentration of Tourists-Potential Environmental Impacts. An Application to the Balearic Islands in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José María Martín; Martín, José Antonio Rodriguez; Mejía, Karla Aída Zermeño; Fernández, José Antonio Salinas

    2018-02-15

    The concentration of tourists at certain times of the year can damage sensitive environments. The use of peer-to-peer vacation rental websites has increased greatly during the last decade. This system could either reduce seasonality in touristic destinations where the tourist activity takes place throughout the year at a lower price or on the contrary, it could increase the number of visitors at certain times of the year even more. This paper intends to analyze the effect that these platforms have on tourism seasonality in order to calculate if they help reduce or increase the pressure on the destinations. To do so, the Gini Index has been applied to one of the main touristic spots in Europe, the Balearic Islands in Spain. The conclusion is that this type of accommodation has aggravated the problem, generating a greater concentration of tourists and a higher pressure on the resources of the islands.

  17. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

  18. Measured effects of wind turbine generation at the Block Island Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilreker, V. F.; Smith, R. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scot, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Data measurements made on the NASA MOD-OA 200-kw wind-turbine generator (WTG) installed on a utility grid form the basis for an overall performance analysis. Fuel displacement/-savings, dynamic interactions, and WTG excitation (reactive-power) control effects are studied. Continuous recording of a large number of electrical and mechanical variables on FM magnetic tape permit evaluation and correlation of phenomena over a bandwidth of at least 20 Hz. Because the wind-power penetration reached peaks of 60 percent, the impact of wind fluctuation and wind-turbine/diesel-utility interaction is evaluated in a worst-case scenario. The speed-governor dynamics of the diesel units exhibited an underdamped response, and the utility operation procedures were not altered to optimize overall WTG/utility performance. Primary findings over the data collection period are: a calculated 6.7-percent reduction in fuel consumption while generating 11 percent of the total electrical energy; acceptable system voltage and frequency fluctuations with WTG connected; and applicability of WTG excitation schemes using voltage, power, or VARS as the controlled variable.

  19. Transient Mobility on Submonolayer Island Growth: An Exploration of Asymptotic Effects in Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Einstein, Theodore L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto

    In studies of epitaxial growth, modeling of the smallest stable cluster (i+1 monomers, with i the critical nucleus size), is paramount in understanding growth dynamics. Our previous work has tackled submonolayer growth by modeling the effect of ballistic monomers, hot-precursors, on diffusive dynamics. Different scaling regimes and energies were predicted, with initial confirmation by applying to para-hexaphenyl submonolayer studies. Lingering questions about the applicability and behavior of the model are addressed. First, we show how an asymptotic approximation based on the growth exponent, α (N Fα) allows for robustness of modeling to experimental data; second, we answer questions about non-monotonicity by exploring the behavior of the growth exponent across realizable parameter spaces; third, we revisit our previous para-hexaphenyl work and examine relevant physical parameters, namely the speed of the hot-monomers. We conclude with an exploration of how the new asymptotic approximation can be used to strengthen the application of our model to other physical systems.

  20. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose of foodstuffs on the island of Tenerife (Spain))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez-Aldecoa, J. C.; Landeras, M. I.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 26 different food types and 12 elaborated diets were analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry to measure their content of 238 U( 234 Th), 228 Ra( 228 Ac), 226 Ra( 214 Pb), 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K. The concentrations of these radionuclides measured in some imported foodstuffs were compared with those measured in some locally produced ones. Moreover, the concentrations found in the analysed foodstuffs and composite diets were compared with the data available in literature from other locations, such as Egypt (Brazil)) (Poland)) and Hong Kong. 40 K contributed highest to the daily dose produced by the intake of comestibles. The largest 40 K concentrations were measured in the chickpeas and beans with 380 ± 30 and 380 ± 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weights, respectively. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured only above detection limits in the potatoes and sweet potatoes. A mean annual effective dose of 362 μSv with a standard deviation of 110 μSv was calculated from the composite diets. (authors)

  1. Satellite remote sensing of the island mass effect on the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Babula

    2016-09-01

    The presence of the Kerguelen Plateau and surrounding bathymetric features has a strong influence on the persistently eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), resulting in enhancement of surface chlorophyll-a (Chl- a) in the downstream section of the plateau along the polar front (PF). The phenomenon is reported in this paper as the island mass effect (IME). Analysis of climatological Chl- a datasets from Aqua- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Aqua- MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows distinct bloomy plumes (Chl- a>0.5 mg/m3) during austral spring-summer spreading as far as ~1800 km offshore up to 98°E along the downstream of the north Kerguelen Plateau (NKP). Similar IME phenomena is apparent over the south Kerguelen Plateau (SKP) with the phytoplankton bloom extending up to 96.7°E, along the southern boundary of ACC. The IME phenomena are pronounced only during austral spring-summer period with the availability of light and sedimentary source of iron from shallow plateau to sea surface that fertilizes the mixed layer. The NKP bloom peaks with a maximum areal extent of 1.315 million km2 during December, and the SKP bloom peaks during January with a time lag of one month. The blooms exist for at least 4 months of a year and are significant both as the base of regional food web and for regulating the biogeochemical cycle in the Southern Ocean. Even though the surface water above the Kerguelen Plateau is rich in Chl- a, an exception of an oligotrophic condition dominated between NKP and SKP due to apparent intrusion of iron limited low phytoplankton regime waters from the Enderby basin through the northeastward Fawn Trough Current.

  2. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  3. Evaluating Mitigation Effects of Urban Heat Islands in a Historical Small Center with the ENVI-Met® Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Ambrosini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban morphology and increasing building density play a key role in the overall use of energy and promotion of environmental sustainability. The urban environment causes a local increase of temperature, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI. The purpose of this work is the study of the possible formation of an UHI and the evaluation of its magnitude, in the context of a small city, carried out with the ENVI-met® software. For this purpose, a simulation was needed, and this simulation is preparatory for a monitoring campaign on site, which will be held in the immediate future. ENVI-met® simulates the temporal evolution of several thermodynamics parameters on a micro-scale range, creating a 3D, non-hydrostatic model of the interactions between building-atmosphere-vegetation. The weather conditions applied simulate a typical Italian summer heat wave. Three different case-studies have been analyzed: Base Case, Cool Case and Green Case. Analysis of the actual state in the Base Case shows how even in an area with average building density, such as the old town center of a small city, fully developed UHI may rise with strong thermal gradients between built areas and open zones with plenty of vegetation. These gradients arise in a really tiny space (few hundreds of meters, showing that the influence of urban geometry can be decisive in the characterization of local microclimate. Simulations, carried out considering the application of green or cool roofs, showed small relevant effects as they become evident only in large areas heavily built up (metropolis subject to more intense climate conditions.

  4. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  5. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-12

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  6. Effects of seagulls on ecosystem respiration, soil nitrogen and vegetation cover on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, B. D.; Magnusson, B.

    2010-03-01

    When Surtsey rose from the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland in 1963, it became a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structures and functions. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate (Re), soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured in 21 permanent research plots distributed among the juvenile communities of the island. The plots were divided into two main groups, inside and outside a seagull (Larus spp.) colony established on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of gull nests. Occurrence of nests and increased vegetation cover also coincided with significant increases in Re, soil carbon, nitrogen and C:N ratio, and with significant reductions in soil pH and soil temperatures. Temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of Re was determined as 5.3. When compared at constant temperature the Re was found to be 59 times higher within the seagull colony, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The amount of soil nitrogen, mainly brought onto the island by the seagulls, was the critical factor that most influenced ecosystem fluxes and vegetation development on Surtsey. The present study shows how ecosystem activity can be enhanced by colonization of animals that transfer resources from a nearby ecosystem.

  7. Effects of seagulls on ecosystem respiration, soil nitrogen and vegetation cover on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Sigurdsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When Surtsey rose from the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland in 1963, it became a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structures and functions. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate (Re, soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured in 21 permanent research plots distributed among the juvenile communities of the island. The plots were divided into two main groups, inside and outside a seagull (Larus spp. colony established on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of gull nests. Occurrence of nests and increased vegetation cover also coincided with significant increases in Re, soil carbon, nitrogen and C:N ratio, and with significant reductions in soil pH and soil temperatures. Temperature sensitivity (Q10 value of Re was determined as 5.3. When compared at constant temperature the Re was found to be 59 times higher within the seagull colony, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The amount of soil nitrogen, mainly brought onto the island by the seagulls, was the critical factor that most influenced ecosystem fluxes and vegetation development on Surtsey. The present study shows how ecosystem activity can be enhanced by colonization of animals that transfer resources from a nearby ecosystem.

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  9. Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting

  10. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Stoker, A. Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137 Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137 Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137 Cs and 90 Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137 Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137 Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on

  11. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Conrado, Cynthia L; Bogen, Kenneth T; Stoker, A Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137Cs and 90Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137Cs/90Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on the ELH for 90Sr

  12. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ˜ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (˜ 4900 kg N km-2 yr-1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios of the

  13. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes

  14. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  15. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  16. The Urban Heat Island Effect and the Role of Vegetation to Address the Negative Impacts of Local Climate Changes in a Small Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence of urban-geographical variables on determining heat islands and proposes a model to estimate and spatialize the maximum intensity of urban heat islands (UHI. Simulations of the UHI based on the increase of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, using multiple linear regression, in Iporá (Brazil are also presented. The results showed that the UHI intensity of this small city tended to be lower than that of bigger cities. Urban geometry and vegetation (UI and NDVI were the variables that contributed the most to explain the variability of the maximum UHI intensity. It was observed that areas located in valleys had lower thermal values, suggesting a cool island effect. With the increase in NDVI in the central area of a maximum UHI, there was a significant decrease in its intensity and size (a 45% area reduction. It is noteworthy that it was possible to spatialize the UHI to the whole urban area by using multiple linear regression, providing an analysis of the urban set from urban-geographical variables and thus performing prognostic simulations that can be adapted to other small tropical cities.

  17. Well Salinization Risk and Effects of Baltic Sea Level Rise on the Groundwater-Dependent Island of Öland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of Öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km2 will be inundated on Öland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island’s land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island.

  18. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Lin, T.-C.; Hein, T.; Lee, L.-C.; Shih, Y.-T.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Lin, N.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered N cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizers. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds, despite of high N input, only export 0.06-0.18 of the input so were well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The high retention capacity probably is due to the effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed is the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. Thus, their greater DIN export quantity could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be

  19. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  20. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  2. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  3. Post-eruption legacy effects and their implications for long-term recovery of the vegetation on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Walker, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the vegetation of Kasatochi Island, central Aleutian Islands, to provide a general field assessment regarding the survival of plants, lichens, and fungi following a destructive volcanic eruption that occurred in 2008. Plant community data were analyzed using multivariate methods to explore the relationship between pre- and post-eruption plant cover; 5 major vegetation types were identified: Honckenya peploides beach, Festuca rubra cliff shelf, Lupinus nootkatensisFestuca rubra meadow, Leymus mollis bluff ridge (and beach), and Aleuria aurantia lower slope barrens. Our study provided a very unusual glimpse into the early stages of plant primary succession on a remote island where most of the vegetation was destroyed. Plants that apparently survived the eruption dominated early plant communities. Not surprisingly, the most diverse post-eruption community most closely resembled a widespread pre-eruption type. Microhabitats where early plant communities were found were distinct and apparently crucial in determining plant survival. Comparison with volcanic events in related boreal regions indicated some post-eruption pattern similarities. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  4. Effects of Broken Symmetry in Tokamaks: Global Braking of Toroidal Rotation and Self-consistent Determination of Neoclassical Magnetic Islands Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, Enzo

    2009-01-01

    Established results of neoclassical kinetic theory are used in a fluid model to show that in low collisionality regimes (ν and 1/ν) the propagation velocity of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) magnetic islands of sufficient width is determined self-consistently by the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) appearing because of broken symmetry. The NTV effect on bulk plasma rotation, may also explain recent observations on momentum transport. At the same time this affects the role of the neoclassical ion polarization current on neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) stability.

  5. EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER TROPICAL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM on nutrient intake and weight gain (WG were evaluated. Forty unsexed Rhode Island Red chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The control diet (T1 (MSLM 0%, the experimental diets contained MSML at a rate of 2% (T2, 4% (T3, and 6% (T4 of the diets (as fed basis to replace 3%, 5.9% and 8.8% of the crude protein (CP of the control diet. Daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MSLM diets were higher (p

  6. Species invasions on islands: searching for general patterns and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Guo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous islands worldwide are being increasingly invaded by exotic species. However, the effects of invading species on native floras remain underexplored, particularly whether island biogeography theory is applicable to native, exotic, and the newly assembled floras. Inter-group comparisons across different regions or island groups through a collection of individual...

  7. A tale of two islands: Bikini and Enewetak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcalay, G.

    1981-01-01

    An account is given of (a) the transfer of the inhabitants of Bikini and Enewetok so that the US could use the islands for atomic bomb tests, and (b) the subsequent arrangements made for the return of the islanders. The effects of contamination of the islands and of fallout from the tests are described. Radiological and other problems are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  9. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat island effect on the quality of life in the city; Hitte-eilandeffect zet leefbaarheid in de stad verder onder druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Klok, L.; Doepp, S.; Dolevo, R.; Janssen, S. [Business Unit Milieu en Leefomgeving, TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    The global rise in temperature as a result of climate change becomes increasingly perceptible. The health effects of these changes, combined with air quality, are extra high in urban areas. It seems worth while to examine the consequences of increasing heat in urban areas in the Netherlands. In order to deal with the consequences in a responsible manner and to prepare for an even warmer future, answers will have to be found for the following two questions: (1) How large is the heat island effect in Dutch cities an what can we expect in the future?; and (2) What are the consequences of the heat island effect that we will have to take into account? [mk]. [Dutch] De mondiale temperatuurstijging ten gevolge van klimaatverandering is ook in Nederland steeds duidelijker waarneembaar. De gezondheidseffecten van deze veranderingen in combinatie met luchtkwaliteit zijn in het stedelijk gebied extra groot. Het lijkt daarom de moeite waard om onderzoek te doen naar de gevolgen van toenemende hitte in stedelijke gebieden in Nederland. Om op verantwoorde wijze met de gevolgen om te gaan en om voorbereid te zijn op een nog warmere toekomst zullen antwoorden moeten worden gevonden op twee wagen: (1) Hoe groot is het hitte-eilandeffect in de Nederlandse stad nu en wat kunnen we verwachten in de toekomst?; en (2) Met welke gevolgen van het hitte-eilandeffect moeten we rekening houden?.

  11. The basic reproduction number R0 and effectiveness of reactive interventions during dengue epidemics: the 2002 dengue outbreak in Easter Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Fuentes, R; Olea, A; Aguilera, X; Nesse, H; Hyman, J M

    2013-01-01

    We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number R0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated R0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics.

  12. Effects of trade-wind strength and direction on the leeside circulations and rainfall of the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Yi-Leng Chen; Francis M. Fujioka

    2009-01-01

    The leeside circulations and weather of the island of Hawaii were studied from the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) land surface model simulations for eight strong (∼7.9 m s−1) and eight weak (∼5.2 m s−1) trade-wind days and for five days with southeasterly trades (∼7.1 m s

  13. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  14. Effects of Urbanization and Seasonal Cycle on the Surface Urban Heat Island Patterns in the Coastal Growing Cities: A Case Study of Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Bahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon is a harmful environmental problem in urban areas affecting both climatic and ecological processes. This paper aims to highlight and monitor the spatial distribution of Surface UHI (SUHI in the Casablanca region, Morocco, using remote sensing data. To achieve this goal, a time series of Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI-TIRS images was acquired from 1984 to 2016 and analyzed. In addition, nocturnal MODIS images acquired from 2005 to 2015 were used to evaluate the nighttime SUHI. In order to better analyze intense heat produced by urban core, SUHI intensity (SUHII was computed by quantifying the difference of land surface temperature (LST between urban and rural areas. The urban core SUHII appears more significant in winter seasons than during summer, while the pattern of SUHII becomes moderate during intermediate seasons. During winter, the average daytime SUHII gradually increased in the residential area of Casablanca and in some small peri-urban cities by more than 1 °C from 1984 to 2015. The industrial areas of the Casablanca region were affected by a significant rise in SUHII exceeding 15 °C in certain industrial localities. In contrast, daytime SUHII shows a reciprocal effect during summer with emergence of a heat island in rural areas and development of cool islands in urban and peri-urban areas. During nighttime, the SUHII remains positive in urban areas year-round with higher values in winter as compared to summer. The results point out that the seasonal cycle of daytime SUHII as observed in the Casablanca region is different from other mid-latitude cities, where the highest values are often observed in summer during the day.

  15. 环境风对直接空冷岛换热的影响%The Effects of Environment Wind on Heat Transfer of Direct Air Cooled Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁振宇; 陈巍; 田永兴; 李学智

    2011-01-01

    以国内蒙达电厂600MW直接空冷机组为例,针对当前直接空冷机组运行中的突出问题--环境风的不利影响,利用CFD数值模拟软件Fluent,对空冷岛外部流场进行数值模拟.发现炉后来风、热风回流、倒灌是造成空冷岛换热效率下降的主要因素,分析了炉后来风、热风回流、倒灌等对空冷岛外部流场和换热性能的影响机理,并得到环境风速与热风回流和倒灌的关系.%Taking Mengda 600MW direct air-cooled units ii our country into consideration,in view of serious hurdles of air-cooled units available-the unfavorable influences of Ambient Wind,we tentatively proceeds to making numerical simulation research on external flow field of direct air-cooled island by using CFD software Fluent. Found that the wind generating from the boiler house afterwards,hot air re-circulation and air inverse flow are the main factors of decline in the efficiency of air-cooled island heat. This paper proposed the mechanism of ambient wind impacts,and the analysis on such effects of the wind generating from the boiler house afterwards,hot air re-circulation and air inverse flow on external flow field and heat exchange efficiency of air-cooled island was thus been within reach, found out hot air re-circulation and air inverse flow relationship between the wind speed.

  16. Issues and Tensions in Island Heritage Management: A Case Study of Motuihe Island, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on a New Zealand case study, Motuihe Island, to examine the challenges of conserving cultural heritage in places renowned for natural heritage values. In keeping with the broader trend toward the ecological restoration of islands close to Auckland, Motuihe Island is undergoing conversion into an ecosystem of native flora and fauna. Issues and tensions relating to the management of natural and cultural heritage will be discussed and influencing aspects investigated: the nature/culture dualism, the effect of New Zealand’s history and identity, and the influence of islandness on heritage management.

  17. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of feral cats on the evolution of anti-predator behaviours in island reptiles: insights from an ancient introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Belasen, Anat; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Bednekoff, Peter; Foufopoulos, Johannes

    2014-08-07

    Exotic predators have driven the extinction of many island species. We examined impacts of feral cats on the abundance and anti-predator behaviours of Aegean wall lizards in the Cyclades (Greece), where cats were introduced thousands of years ago. We compared populations with high and low cat density on Naxos Island and populations on surrounding islets with no cats. Cats reduced wall lizard populations by half. Lizards facing greater risk from cats stayed closer to refuges, were more likely to shed their tails in a standardized assay, and fled at greater distances when approached by either a person in the field or a mounted cat decoy in the laboratory. All populations showed phenotypic plasticity in flight initiation distance, suggesting that this feature is ancient and could have helped wall lizards survive the initial introduction of cats to the region. Lizards from islets sought shelter less frequently and often initially approached the cat decoy. These differences reflect changes since islet isolation and could render islet lizards strongly susceptible to cat predation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban weather data and building models for the inclusion of the urban heat island effect in building performance simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palme

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents files supporting calculation for urban heat island (UHI inclusion in building performance simulation (BPS. Methodology is used in the research article “From urban climate to energy consumption. Enhancing building performance simulation by including the urban heat island effect” (Palme et al., 2017 [1]. In this research, a Geographical Information System (GIS study is done in order to statistically represent the most important urban scenarios of four South-American cities (Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso. Then, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA is done to obtain reference Urban Tissues Categories (UTC to be used in urban weather simulation. The urban weather files are generated by using the Urban Weather Generator (UWG software (version 4.1 beta. Finally, BPS is run out with the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS software (version 17. In this data paper, four sets of data are presented: 1 PCA data (excel to explain how to group different urban samples in representative UTC; 2 UWG data (text to reproduce the Urban Weather Generation for the UTC used in the four cities (4 UTC in Lima, Guayaquil, Antofagasta and 5 UTC in Valparaíso; 3 weather data (text with the resulting rural and urban weather; 4 BPS models (text data containing the TRNSYS models (four building models.

  20. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs

  2. Spatial and temporal behavior and acute ecotoxicological effects of Tributyltin (TBT) on coral reef and adjacent ecosystems around Okinawa Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Higuchi, T.; Imo, T. S.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2007-12-01

    Spatial and temporal behavior of the tributyl tin (TBT) were investigated in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island, Japan. A seasonal monitoring study was conducted between February and October 2006. The effects of TBT on the carbon metabolisms (net production and calcification) on the intact coral-alga association Galaxea fascicularis were also investigated. Mean concentration of TBT (2.45 ng/L) found in the Manko estuary waters have exceeded some international permissible targets of waters quality guideline for TBT (1ng/L). The sediments in Manko estuary sediments can be considered lightly contaminated (0-20 ng/g dw) and Okukubi estuary as uncontaminated (below 3ng/g dw) with TBT. The seasonal concentration pattern of TBT at the Manko estuary was autumn > spring > summer > winter. The acute ecotoxicological results show that the photosynthesis rate and calcification rate were significantly reduced by 78 % and 72 % relative to the control (ANOVA, p0.05) were observed when corals were exposed to 1000 ng/LTBT. The present study reports the occurrence and continuous input of TBT in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island, even 16 years after legal restriction of TBT usage in coastal waters was implemented by the Japanese Environmental Authorities. However, the nominal sensitive concentration of TBT that causes alteration of carbon metabolisms of coral within 96 hrs exposure are much higher than those recently found in the coral reef waters and adjacent ecosystems.

  3. Reproductive Consequences of Nest Site Use in Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Potential Lasting Effects of an Introduced Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brie A. Drummond

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the reproductive consequences of differential nest site use in Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, where birds on islands where foxes were introduced nest in rocky substrate rather than in typical soil habitat. We investigated how physical and microclimatic nest site characteristics influenced storm-petrel breeding success 20 years after fox removal. We then examined whether those nest site characteristics that affected success were related to the amount of rock that composed the nest. In both years of our study, nest temperature had the strongest influence on chick survival and overall reproductive success, appearing in all the top models and alone explaining 14-35% of the variation in chick survival. The relationship between reproductive success and nest temperature was positive in both years, with higher survival in warmer nests. In turn, the best predictor of nest temperature was the amount of rock that composed the site. Rockier nests had colder average temperatures, which were driven by lower daily minimum temperatures, compared to nests with more soil. Thus, the rockiness of the nest site appeared to affect chick survival and overall reproductive success through its influence on nest temperature. This study suggests that the use of rocky nest sites, presumed to be a result of historic predation from introduced foxes, could decrease breeding success in this recovering population, and thus be a long-lasting effect of introduced predators.

  4. Erosive effects of the storms HELENA (1963) and HUGO (1989) on Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe - Lesser Antilles Arc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, Rejanne; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Quiquerez, Amélie

    2014-05-01

    Basse-Terre is a volcanic island which belongs to the archipelago of Guadeloupe located in the Lesser Antilles Arc (Caribbean Sea). As a mountainous region in the tropical belt, Basse-Terre is affected by intense sediment transport due to extreme meteorological events. During the last fifty years, eight major tropical storms and hurricanes with intense rainfalls induced landslides and scars in the weathered layers. The purpose of this study is to compare two major meteorological events within a period of 26 years (HELENA in 10/1963 and HUGO in 09/1989) in order to qualify the parameters responsible of the spatial distribution of landslides and scars. The storm HELENA affected Basse-Terre between the 23rd and the 25th of October, 1963. The maximal daily rainfall reached 300 mm in Baillif which is located on the leeward coast at the altitude of 650 m while the maximum wind velocity reached 50 km/h. A similar exceptional event happened when the hurricane HUGO slammed the island in September 17, 1989. The maximum daily rainfall recorded in Sainte-Rose (on the northern coast) was 250 mm while it reached 208 mm in Petit-Bourg and the maximum wind speed was 60 km/h. Aerial images were acquired by the IGN (French Geographical Institute) before and a few weeks after the extreme events: less than three months after the event HELENA and less than a month after the event HUGO. Those images have been orthorectified at a metric resolution and combined in a GIS with a 10 m resolution DEM. Scars and landslides were digitalized and their surface area and mean slope were measured for both HELENA and HUGO. This work confirms several results proposed by a previous study related to the HELENA event: (1) the landslides occurred mainly in the center of the island and (2) the slope is the main parameter for the initiation of landslides, since all of them occurred with a slope superior to 30°. Furthermore, the resiliency of the surface affected by the landslides induced by HELENA was

  5. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  6. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  7. Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Plants and Ornamental Shrubs in Enugu City: Implications for Urban Heat Island Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of five plant species and five ornamental shrubs in Enugu Urban Center. Laboratory analysis was performed on the four physiological and biological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC, ascorbic acid (AA content, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH and leaf extract pH. These parameters were used to develop an air pollution tolerance index. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized in the analysis to examine the interactions between these parameters. Vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a \\'Bioindicator\\' of air pollution. The study also showed the possibility of utilizing APTI as a tool for selecting plants or ornamental shrubs for urban heat Island mitigation in Enugu City. The result of APTI showed order of tolerance for plants as Anacarduim occidentale (23.20, Pinus spp (22.35, Catalpa burgei (22.57, Magifera indica (23.37, and Psidum guajava (24.15.The result of APTI showed increasing order of sensitivity for ornamental shrubs from ixora red (14.32, yellow ficus(12.63, masquerade pine(12.26, Tuja pine(11.000,to Yellow bush(10.60. The APTI of all the plants examined were higher than those of ornamental shrubs. Thus suggesting that plants in general were more tolerant to air pollution than ornamental shrubs. The ornamental shrubs with lower APTI values (sensitive were recommended as bioindicator of poor urban air quality while plants with high APTI values (tolerant are planted around areas anticipated to have high air pollution load. The result of this current study is therefore handy for future planning and as well provides tolerant species for streetscape and urban heat island mitigation.

  8. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  9. Effects of Land-Use Change and Managed Aquifer Recharge on Geochemical Reactions with Implications for Groundwater Quantity and Quality in Atoll Island Aquifers, Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Gurdak, J. J.; Odigie, K. O.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll groundwater systems in Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur houses a U.S. Department of Defense military installation and presents an ideal study location where a human impacted aquifer is co-located next to a natural aquifer as part of two artificially conjoined atoll islands. The hydrogeology and geochemistry of carbonate atoll aquifers has been well studied, particularly because of its small, well-defined hydrologic system that allows for relatively precise modeling. However, it is unknown how changes in land-use/land cover and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) alters natural geochemical processes in atoll aquifers. A better understanding of this has implications on groundwater quantity and quality, carbonate dissolution, and best aquifer management practices in the context of rising sea level and saltwater intrusion. Roi has been heavily modified to house military and civilian operations; here, lack of vegetation and managed recharge has increased the volume of potable groundwater and affected the geochemical processes in the freshwater lens and saltwater transition zone. Namur is heavily vegetated and the hydrogeology is indicative of a natural atoll island. A suite of monitoring wells were sampled across both island settings for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, DOC/DIC, δ13C and δ18O/2H isotopes. By modeling geochemical reactions using a conservative mixing approach, we measure deviations from expected reactions and compare the two contrasting settings using derived geochemical profiles through a wide salinity spectrum. Results indicate that groundwater on Namur is more heavily depleted in δ13C and has greater dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting higher microbial oxidation and greater dissolution within the carbonate aquifer. This suggests MAR and reduction of vegetation makes the groundwater supply on atoll islands more resilient to sea level rise.

  10. Assessing Sediment Yield and the Effect of Best Management Practices on Sediment Yield Reduction for Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, O. T.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Upland soil erosion and sedimentation are the main threats for riparian and coastal reef ecosystems in Pacific islands. Here, due to small size of the watersheds and steep slope, the residence time of rainfall runoff and its suspended load is short. Fagaalu bay, located on the island of Tutuila (American Samoa) has been identified as a priority watershed, due to degraded coral reef condition and reduction of stream water quality from heavy anthropogenic activity yielding high nutrients and sediment loads to the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to estimate the sediment yield to the Fagaalu stream and assess the impact of Best Management Practices (BMP) on sediment yield reduction. For this, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied, calibrated, and validated for both daily streamflow and sediment load simulation. The model also estimated the sediment yield contributions from existing land use types of Fagaalu and identified soil erosion prone areas for introducing BMP scenarios in the watershed. Then, three BMP scenarios, such as stone bund, retention pond, and filter strip were treated on bare (quarry area), agricultural, and shrub land use types. It was found that the bare land with quarry activity yielded the highest annual average sediment yield of 133 ton per hectare (t ha-1) followed by agriculture (26.1 t ha-1) while the lowest sediment yield of 0.2 t ha-1 was estimated for the forested part of the watershed. Additionally, the bare land area (2 ha) contributed approximately 65% (207 ha) of the watershed's sediment yield, which is 4.0 t ha-1. The latter signifies the high impact as well as contribution of anthropogenic activity on sediment yield. The use of different BMP scenarios generally reduced the sediment yield to the coastal reef of Fagaalu watershed. However, treating the quarry activity area with stone bund showed the highest sediment yield reduction as compared to the other two BMP scenarios. This study provides an estimate

  11. A DFIG Islanding Detection Scheme Based on Reactive Power Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Liu, C.; He, G. Q.; Li, G. H.; Feng, K. H.; Sun, W. W.

    2017-07-01

    A lot of research has been done on photovoltaic (the “PV”) power system islanding detection in recent years. As a comparison, much less attention has been paid to islanding in wind turbines. Meanwhile, wind turbines can work in islanding conditions for quite a long period, which can be harmful to equipments and cause safety hazards. This paper presents and examines a double fed introduction generation (the “DFIG”) islanding detection scheme based on feedback of reactive power and frequency and uses a trigger signal of reactive power infusion which can be obtained by dividing the voltage total harmonic distortion (the "THD") by the voltage THD of last cycle to avoid the deterioration of power quality. This DFIG islanding detection scheme uses feedback of reactive power current loop to amplify the frequency differences in islanding and normal conditions. Simulation results show that the DFIG islanding detection scheme is effective.

  12. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  13. The effect of trait type and strength of selection on heritability and evolvability in an island bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Keller, Lukas F; Postma, Erik

    2014-11-01

    The heritability (h(2) ) of fitness traits is often low. Although this has been attributed to directional selection having eroded genetic variation in direct proportion to the strength of selection, heritability does not necessarily reflect a trait's additive genetic variance and evolutionary potential ("evolvability"). Recent studies suggest that the low h(2) of fitness traits in wild populations is caused not by a paucity of additive genetic variance (VA ) but by greater environmental or nonadditive genetic variance (VR ). We examined the relationship between h(2) and variance-standardized selection intensities (i or βσ ), and between evolvability (IA :VA divided by squared phenotypic trait mean) and mean-standardized selection gradients (βμ ). Using 24 years of data from an island population of Savannah sparrows, we show that, across diverse traits, h(2) declines with the strength of selection, whereas IA and IR (VR divided by squared trait mean) are independent of the strength of selection. Within trait types (morphological, reproductive, life-history), h(2) , IA , and IR are all independent of the strength of selection. This indicates that certain traits have low heritability because of increased residual variance due to the age at which they are expressed or the multiple factors influencing their expression, rather than their association with fitness. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  15. The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Stratford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

  16. Tools for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems: an application to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Banos-González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model, in combination with other methods (indicators, policy and scenario analysis, is presented as a tool for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems (SES. The Fuerteventura sustainability model (FSM, tested for the 1996-2011, allows a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between sustainability indicators and other factors of this island. The FSM was first applied to analyse the vulnerability of this island to climate change for the 2012-2025 period; results point to the need for urgent measures to mitigate its effects on some of the analysed indicators. A set of policy measures was then assessed from the behaviour of nine indicators and their sustainability thresholds. Finally, the FSM facilitated the development of a dynamic model of the island of El Hierro, extrapolating the features common to both SES. We propose this to be a useful tool for the quantitative sustainability assessment and the management of real island socio-ecological systems

  17. Virtually Impossible: Deleuze and Derrida on the Political Problem of Islands (and Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is commonplace to think of an island as a discreetly bounded unit. Selected writings on islands by the poststructuralist philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida reveal the island variously to be both real and imaginary, mythological and scientific, but as most problematic when constituted in political terms as an indivisible, sovereign entity. These two thinkers’ more broadly developed concepts of the virtual and the impossible, respectively, are seen to disrupt any assumptions about the fixity and closure of the island polity. Instead they emphasize its actualization through processual relations that can be difficult yet dynamic and decisive in effecting the move from being to becoming-other. As the possibilities for instituting more ethical as well as different political relations open up, the question of island studies remaining in its currently coherent, familiar form is raised for consideration.

  18. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragos, J.E.; Agegian, Catherine

    1986-01-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  19. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragos, J E [Environmental Resources Section, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, HI (United States); Agegian, Catherine [University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1986-07-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  20. Visitor effect on the behavior of a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) maintained at an island in Lake Catemaco, Veracruz/Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Galicia, Sergio; Miranda-Anaya, Manuel; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed the effect of human visitors on the behavior of a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept on a small tourist island. Although the spider monkey is a common species in zoos, there are very few specific studies on visitor effects on these monkeys. We conducted behavioral observations on the group of spider monkeys to evaluate the effect of visitors. We also used actimetry devices to measure the variations in the spider monkeys' locomotor activity associated with human presence. With regard to the effect on behavior, we found an increase in self-directed behaviors and a decrease in vocalization, both associated with human presence. Moreover, our results suggest that when people feed monkeys, there is an increase in agonistic behaviors. On the other hand, we found that changes in activity levels in response to human presence vary among individuals. We conclude that changes in spider monkeys' behavior could provide evidence of the negative effect of visitors in our study conditions. Although we discuss the differences in activity levels due to differences in social position, further research is required this topic. Our results can be used to inform management plans for this species in captivity. Improving this relationship between humans and non-human primates through tourism education programs would benefit ecotourism and therefore species conservation programs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  2. Effects of Green Space and Land Use/Land Cover on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical Mega-city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, G. Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Guo, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With the quick expansion of urban in size and population, its urban heat island intensity (UHII, expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas) increased rapidly. However, very few studies could quantitatively reveal the effects of green space and land use/land cover (LULC) on urban thermal environment because of lacking of the detailed measurement. This study focuses on quantifying the effects of green space and LULC on urban Heat Island (UHI) in Shenzhen, a mega subtropical city in China. Extensive measurements (air temperature and humidity) were made by mobile traverse method in a transect of 8 km in length, where a variety of LULC types were included. Measurements were carried out at 2 hours interval for 2 years (totally repeated for 7011 times). According to LULC types, we selected 5 different LULC types for studying, including water body, village in the city, shopping center (commercial area), urban green space (well-vegetated area) and suburb (forest). The main conclusions are obtained as follows: (1) The temperature difference between the 5 different urban landscapes is obvious, i.e. shopping center > village in the city > urban water body > urban green space > suburb; (2) Air temperature and UHII decreases linearly with the increase of green space in urban; (3) Green space and water body in urban have obvious effects to reduce the air temperature by evapotranspiration. Compared to the commercial areas, urban water body can relieve the IUHI by 0.9℃, while the urban green space can relieve the IUHI by 1.57℃. The cooling effect of the urban green space is better than that of the urban water body; (4) Periodic activity of human being has obvious effects on urban air temperature. The UHII on Saturday and Sunday are higher than that from Monday to Friday, respectively higher for 0.65, 0.57, 0.26 and 0.21℃. Thursday and Friday have the minimum air temperature and UHII. These results indicate that increase in urban evapotranspiration

  3. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  4. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  5. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  6. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  7. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  8. Multiple timescale analysis of the urban heat island effect based on the Community Land Model: a case study of the city of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiling; Shen, Huanfeng; Han, Xujun; Li, Huifang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2017-12-06

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the phenomenon of urban regions usually being warmer than rural regions, which significantly impacts both the regional ecosystem and societal activities. Numerical simulation can provide spatially and temporally continuous datasets for UHI analysis. In this study, a spatially and temporally continuous ground temperature dataset of Xi'an, China was obtained through numerical simulation based on the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), at a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 0.05 ∘ × 0.05 ∘ . Based on the ground temperature, the seasonal average UHI intensity (UHII) was calculated and the seasonal variation of the UHI effect was analyzed. The monthly variation tendency of the urban heat stress was also investigated. Based on the diurnal cycle of ground temperature and the UHI effect in each season, the variation tendencies of the maximum, minimum, and average UHII were analyzed. The results show that the urban heat stress in summer is the strongest among all four seasons. The heat stress in urban areas is very significant in July, and the UHII is the weakest in January. Regarding the diurnal cycle of UHII, the maximum always appears at 06:30 UTC to 07:30 UTC, while the minimum intensity of the UHI effect occurs at different times in the different seasons. The results of this study could provide a reference for policymakers about how to reduce the damage caused by heat stress.

  9. Prospective Effects of Parenting on Substance Use and Problems Across Asian/Pacific Islander and European American Youth: Tests of Moderated Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.

  10. Opportunistic nectar-feeding birds are effective pollinators of bird-flowers from Canary Islands: experimental evidence from Isoplexis canariensis (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María C; Valido, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Insular floras, characterized by simple pollination networks, sometimes include novel mutualistic agents such as nonspecialist nectarivores. In this study we confirmed the effective pollination of Isoplexis canariensis by opportunistic nectar-feeding birds in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This plant is among the ornithophilous species of the Canarian flora that lack past and present specialist nectarivorous birds. Experimental hand pollinations revealed self-compatibility, but cross-pollinated flowers produced a greater percentage of viable seeds than self-pollinated ones. Flowers were visited by five species of birds (Phylloscopus canariensis, Parus caeruleus, Sylvia melanocephala, Serinus canarius, and Fringilla coelebs) and by the endemic lizard (Gallotia galloti, Lacertidae). Insect pollination was absent, and the few insect visitors acted as nectar thieves or secondary nectar robbers. Birds represented 93.1% of total visits, with the Canarian Chiffchaff, Ph. canariensis, being the most frequent visitor. Flowers visited by birds set more, larger, and heavier fruit than flowers from which birds were excluded. Bird visitation also enhanced seed viability. These results demonstrate the active role of these opportunistic birds as effective pollinators of this Canarian bird-flower species. Further, the results reveal the need to consider the effect of these birds on the evolution of ornithophilous floral traits in absence of specialist nectarivores.

  11. Seafloor Mapping and Benthic Habitats off Assateague Island National Seashore: can we Resolve any Effects of Superstorm Sandy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.; Trembanis, A. C.; Kennedy, E.; Rusch, H.; Rothermel, E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Park Service has partnered with faculty and students at the University of Delaware to map the length of Assateague Island and sample benthic communities there for two purposes: (1) to provide a complete inventory of benthic habitats and their biota, and (2) to determine if any changes from a pre-storm survey can be ascribed to Superstorm Sandy in 2012. During the 2014 and 2015 field seasons over 75 km2 of high-resolution ( 50 cm/pixel) side-scan sonar and collocated bathymetry were collected with a surface vessel mounted bathy side-scan sonar (EdgeTech 6205), spanning the shore from depths of less than 2 m out to a distance of approximately 1 nautical mile and depths of 10-12 m. Furthermore, we have resampled using standard methodology (modified Young grab and 0.5-mm sieve) a subset of the previously sampled benthic stations that represent all sediment classes identified in prior studies. Additionally, we have obtained novel data with our ROV and AUV assets, including finer scale bottom video and multibeam bathymetry, at specifically chosen locations in order to enhance understanding of the benthic habitat and bottom type changes. In addition to providing a habitat and faunal inventory for resource management purposes, we will compare our side scan and benthic survey data to the pre-storm 2011 data products with comparable coverage. To date we have found that ArcGIS and ENVI sediment classifications agree well with those from the 2011 study, but spatially we note more areas of finer sediments and less of gravel. As was expected, 2014 benthic assemblages differ significantly among sediment classes (PRIMER ANOSIM), and sediment class is the best predictor of the benthic community (PERMANOVA+ distance-based RDA). Our goal here is to use consistent analytical approaches to characterize changes that occur over season and inter-annual time scales. This is a critical step toward attributing sediment, habitat and biological changes to Superstorm Sandy.

  12. Development of a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework: A Shared Process to Guide Effective Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Brands

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a substantially higher cancer mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians. While cancer outcomes are improving for non-Indigenous Australians, they are worsening for Indigenous Australians. Reducing this disparity requires evidence-based and culturally-appropriate guidance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative by Cancer Australia and Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies to develop Australia’s first National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework using a process of co-design with relevant stakeholders. The initiative was guided by three core principles: achieving policy-relevant evidence-based outcomes; engaging and maintaining trust with Indigenous Australians at every phase; and employing best-practice and appropriate research methods. Four components of research comprised the Framework development: evidence review; multifaceted stakeholder consultation and input; triangulation of findings; and direct stakeholder input in drafting and refining the Framework. The evidence review confirmed the increasing burden of cancer on Indigenous Australians, while stakeholder consultations facilitated comprehensive input from those with lived experience. The consultations revealed issues not identified in existing literature, and gave different emphases of priority, thus reinforcing the value of including stakeholder perspectives. This paper focuses primarily on documenting the methods used; findings are presented only in order to illustrate the results of the process. The published Framework is available at www.canceraustralia.gov.au; further description and analyses of findings from the consultations will be published elsewhere. The logistics inherent in large-scale consultation are considerable. However, the quality of data and the foundation for sustained partnership with stakeholders and knowledge translation vastly outweighed the challenges. The process of wide

  13. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  14. Initial evolution of nonlinear magnetic islands in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.

    1988-06-01

    The evolution of nonlinear magnetic islands is computed in the kinetic collisionality regime called the semicollisional regime, which is appropriate to present fusion confinement devices. Realistic effects are included, such as the presence of small external field errors, radial electric fields, and omega. When present simultaneously, these effects can greatly change the stability of small amplitude nonlinear islands. Islands with Δ' > O can sometimes be prevented from growing to macroscopic size; it is also possible to produce moderate mode-number nonlinear instabilities in the plasma edge. Furthermore, island growth can be prevented by application of external fields with suitably chosen amplitude and frequency

  15. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  16. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  17. Bifurcated states of the error-field-induced magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Li, B.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    We find that the formation of the magnetic islands due to error fields shows bifurcation when neoclassical effects are included. The bifurcation, which follows from including bootstrap current terms in a description of island growth in the presence of error fields, provides a path to avoid the island-width pole in the classical description. The theory offers possible theoretical explanations for the recent DIII-D and JT-60 experimental observations concerning confinement deterioration with increasing error field

  18. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Foy: Effects of ocean acidification on embryo stages of Tanner crab: Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To study the effects of ocean acidification we examined the effects of ocean acidification on the embryo stages of the economically important southern Tanner crab,...

  19. Seed islands driven by turbulence and NTM dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraglia, M.; Agullo, O.; Poye, A.; Benkadda, S.; Horton, W.; Dubuit, N.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an issue for tokamak plasmas. Growing magnetic islands expel energetic particles from the plasma core leading to high energy fluxes in the SOL and may cause damage to the plasma facing components. The islands grow from seeds from the bootstrap current effects that oppose the negative delta-prime producing nonlinear island growth. Experimentally, the onset of NTM is quantified in terms of the beta parameter and the sawtooth period. Indeed, in experiments, (3;2) NTM magnetic islands are often triggered by sawtooth precursors. However (2;1) magnetic islands can appear without noticeable MHD event and the seed islands origin for the NTM growth is still an open question. Macroscale MHD instabilities (magnetic islands) coexist with micro-scale turbulent fluctuations and zonal flows which impact island dynamics. Nonlinear simulations show that the nonlinear beating of the fastest growing small-scale ballooning interchange modes on a low order rational surface drive a magnetic islands located on the same surface. The island size is found to be controlled by the turbulence level and modifies the NTM threshold and dynamics.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-04

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg-400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects.

  1. Climatic change and the effects on the marine ecosystem around the island of Sylt. Final report; Das marine Oekosystem um Sylt unter veraenderten Klimabedingungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackschewitz, D.; Menn, I.; Reise, K.

    2000-05-01

    Climatic warming of 1.5 to 2.5 C with a higher water temperature may only slightly change the species spectrum of the intertidal zone of the island of Sylt (North Sea). This is shown by a comparison with tidal flats of the French Atlantic coast. Stronger effects are expected from a sea level rise and an increase in hydrodynamic forces. This may result in a decrease of eelgrass and mussel beds. On the high intertidal zone muddy flats will be replaced by sandy flats due to wave action. Enhanced erosion at the Wadden Sea shoreline will probably entail its continued petrification to prevent further losses. This will cause a decrease of natural habitats with their specific assemblages, and the esthetic appeal of the Wadden Sea will decrease too. It is proposed that sand replenishment on the Wadden Sea shoreline will better preserve the natural sequence of biotopes on the tidal flats. The erosive beach on the seaward side of the island of Sylt is both focal place for tourist recreation, and the site of a highly diverse interstitial fauna. This fauna will be able to re-establish itself three months after a campaign of sand replenishment. Sand replenishment was found to be an effective way to compensate beach erosion and, due to the quick re-establishment of the fauna, it may be regarded as an acceptable method of coastal defense from an ecological perspective. (orig.) [German] Bei einer Klimaerwaermung um 1,5 bis 2,5 C wird der direkte Einfluss hoeherer Wassertemperatur das biologische Artenspektrum im Sylter Gezeitenbereich nicht wesentlich veraendern. Dies ergibt ein Vergleich mit Watten der franzoesischen Atlantikkueste. Bedeutender sind voraussichtlich Auswirkungen hoeherer Wasserstaende und einer zunehmenden Hydrodynamik. Seegraswiesen und Muschelbaenke werden dadurch im Wattbereich abnehmen. In Ufernaehe werden schlickige von sandigen Watten verdraengt. Einer verstaerkten Erosion an ungeschuetzten Wattufern wird voraussichtlich mit weiteren Befestigungen begegnet

  2. Island development impacts on the Nile River morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Sadek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The greater Cairo area has many islands formed after the Aswan High Dam construction. Ministry of water resources and irrigation is interested in studying the development and evolution of these islands in order to reflect the esthetic aspects and improvement of the environment surrounding the islands. This study focuses on Shubra El-Khaima Island which is located upstream Delta Barrage in the back water curve region. The study aims to propose different alternatives for island development. GSTAR3.0 model is the most recent version of a series of numerical models for simulating flow of water and sediment transport and prediction of morphological changes in alluvial rivers. This model was used to simulate and examine different alternatives for Shubra island development on river morphology according to different discharges scenarios. The optimum alternative was proposed. Also, the future required precautions to mitigate the effects of this development on the stability of watercourse were suggested.

  3. Environmental Assessment for Ford Island Conference Center, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, O'ahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (formerly the Ford Island Theater), a historic property, at Ford Island, Oahu, Hawaii. The Proposed Action would have an adverse effect on Building 89 due to its partial demolition and alterations to the interior...

  4. Optimized Dispatch Schedule for Autonomous Grids in Isolated Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liuyang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of wind power provides a new solution for power supply of isolated island. However, due to the intermittent and stochastic nature of renewable energy resources (RES, the energy storage unit (ESU is required for power grid reliability. This paper proposed an automatic programming method for autonomous grid in isolated islands. The sea water pumped storage plant serves as ESU to counter-balance the fluctuations of RESs. The penetration level of RES and the profit of the Island system operator (ISO increase significantly. With the geographical and historical data of an island in China, the effectiveness of the proposed method is testified.

  5. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  6. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  7. Effects of sea-level rise and pumpage elimination on saltwater intrusion in the Hilton Head Island area, South Carolina, 2004-2104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Dorothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion of the Upper Floridan aquifer has been observed in the Hilton Head area, South Carolina since the late 1970s and currently affects freshwater supply. Rising sea level in the Hilton Head Island area may contribute to the occurrence of and affect the rate of saltwater intrusion into the Upper Floridan aquifer by increasing the hydraulic gradient and by inundating an increasing area with saltwater, which may then migrate downward into geologic units that presently contain freshwater. Rising sea level may offset any beneficial results from reductions in groundwater pumpage, and thus needs to be considered in groundwater-management decisions. A variable-density groundwater flow and transport model was modified from a previously existing model to simulate the effects of sea-level rise in the Hilton Head Island area. Specifically, the model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004) and evaluate the conceptual model, (2) project these trends from the present day into the future based on different potential rates of sea-level change, and (3) evaluate the relative influences of pumpage and sea-level rise on saltwater intrusion. Four scenarios were simulated for 2004-2104: (1) continuation of the estimated sea-level rise rate over the last century, (2) a doubling of the sea-level rise, (3) a cessation of sea-level rise, and (4) continuation of the rate over the last century coupled with an elimination of all pumpage. Results show that, if present-day (year 2004) pumping conditions are maintained, the extent of saltwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer will increase, whether or not sea level continues to rise. Furthermore, if all pumpage is eliminated and sea level continues to rise, the simulated saltwater extent in the Upper Floridan aquifer is reduced. These results indicate that pumpage is a strong driving force for simulated saltwater intrusion, more so than sea-level rise at current rates

  8. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  9. Effects of an Unusual Cold-Water Intrusion in 2008 on the Catch of Coastal Fishing Methods around Penghu Islands, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon long-term observations (1993 - 2010 of satellite-derived winter sea surface temperature (SST data, an exceptional cold-water intrusion into the southern Taiwan Strait (TS was noted in February 2008. In the winter of 2008, La Niña caused a strong and continuous northeasterly wind that drove the cold ocean current, the China Coastal Current, more southward to penetrate the southern TS north of the Chang-Yuen Ridge. A portion of this current turned eastward to the south of Penghu Islands (PHI. The low-SST event significantly impeded local marine aquaculture and wild fish, causing the death of more than 73 tons of fish around PHI. Comparing variations of the first quarterly catches in 2008 with the long-term averages from 1993 to 2010 (excluding 2008, we noted a 50 to 80% decrease in catches from pole-and-line, long-line, and gill-net fishery. Non-migratory species dominated the composition of the catches. We also noted a greater than 230% increase in the catches from set-net fishery, with the majority being migratory species. These results illustrate the positive and negative effects of cold-water intrusion on several fish communities and species.

  10. Characterizing the complexity of the fleet dynamics for an effective fisheries management: The case of the Cíes Islands (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ouréns

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the fishing fleet dynamics in the Cíes Islands, located in a National Land-Marine Park of Galicia. By interviewing fishers we identified the fleet fishing in the study area and obtained temporal data on effort and catch. Then we performed multivariate analyses of the catch profiles to identify the fishing strategies and their temporal dynamics. Our results highlight the complexity of the fishery system, composed of 565 boats that used 19 fishing gears and 33 strategies in an area of 26.6 km2. Octopus and velvet crab pots, gillnets targeting hake, trammel nets targeting European spider crab or ballan wrasse, clam rakes, and hand harvesting of gooseneck barnacles and razor shells are the strategies most used. In addition, most of the boats are generalists and use up to seven different fishing strategies throughout the year. This flexibility of the fleet to change the target species generates a wide diversity of annual fishing patterns that increases the complexity of the fisheries and the difficulty of managing them. The implementation of data collection programmes that include fleet dynamics and spatial data are key factors for developing effective management regulations consistent with the complexity of the system.

  11. A comprehensive approach for the simulation of the Urban Heat Island effect with the WRF/SLUCM modeling system: The case of Athens (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, Christos; Nenes, Athanasios; Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a comprehensive modeling approach for simulating the spatiotemporal distribution of urban air temperatures with a modeling system that includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) with a modified treatment of the impervious surface temperature. The model was applied to simulate a 3-day summer heat wave event over the city of Athens, Greece. The simulation, using default SLUCM parameters, is capable of capturing the observed diurnal variation of urban temperatures and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in the greater Athens Area (GAA), albeit with systematic biases that are prominent during nighttime hours. These biases are particularly evident over low-intensity residential areas, and they are associated with the surface and urban canopy properties representing the urban environment. A series of sensitivity simulations unravels the importance of the sub-grid urban fraction parameter, surface albedo, and street canyon geometry in the overall causation and development of the UHI effect. The sensitivities are then used to determine optimal values of the street canyon geometry, which reproduces the observed temperatures throughout the simulation domain. The optimal parameters, apart from considerably improving model performance (reductions in mean temperature bias from 0.30 °C to 1.58 °C), are also consistent with actual city building characteristics - which gives confidence that the model set-up is robust, and can be used to study the UHI in the GAA in the anticipated warmer conditions in the future.

  12. The effect of realistic forces in finite epitaxial islands: Equilibrium structure, stability limits and substrate-induced dissociation of migrating clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Markov, Ivan

    1985-06-01

    The behaviour of finite epitaxial islands in the periodic field of the substrate is theoretically investigated. The harmonic interactions, traditionally adopted in the model of Frank and Van der Merwe, are replaced by Toda and Morse potentials and sets of difference recursion equations, governing the equilibrium properties of the system, are derived and solved numerically. It is shown that allowing for anharmonicity in the interactions in the deposit reveals several qualiatively new effects, such as: (1) The existence of substrate-induced rupture of anharmonic clusters which migrate on the substrate. It is predicted that such dissociation should be enhanced, if (a) the energy barrier for surface diffusion is increased, (b) the natural incompatibility between substrate and deposit is decreased, and (c) the size of the clusters grows. (2) A split in the misfit stability limits for pseudomorphism and for spontaneous generation of misfit dislocations with respect to the sign of the misfit. The limits corresponding to negative misfit rapidly increase while the positive misfit limits decrease (in absolute terms) with growing degree of anharmonicity. (3) A marked asymmetry in the magnitude of various properties of the clusters, such as adhesion to the substrate, activation energy for surface diffusion, mean strain, dislocation lengths, etc., with respect to the sign of the mismatch between surface and deposit.

  13. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  14. Stabilization of sawtooty oscillation by island heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Chu, T.K.

    1986-10-01

    Using the compressible resistive MHD equations in a finite aspect ratio cylinder, it is found that the m = 1 mode (the sawtooth oscillation) can saturate when the pressure inside the magnetic island is higher than that of the original core plasma. The saturation condition is of the form Δβ/sub p/ ≥ 8 ε -1 /sub q = 1/ (1 - q 0 ) 2 . This saturation effect can be used to actively stabilize sawteeth by heating the island and/or by cooling the core plasma. This mechanism together with a stabilizing toroidal effect may also explain recent lower-hybrid-wave-driven tokamak experiments where the saturation of sawteeth has been observed

  15. The rare sugar D-allose has a reducing effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury on the rat abdominal skin island flap model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneuchi, Gan; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2013-08-01

    Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, has received attention from many researchers because of its availability for mass production and its various physiological functions. Among these, an antioxidative effect has been strongly suggested. In this study, we investigated whether this effect is also applicable to the field of skin surgery. In ischemia-reperfusion injury model using the rat abdominal skin island flap (male Wistar rats, n = 110), D-allose was injected intravenously 15 min before 8-h ischemia. The survival area (%) was measured by digital photographic assessment 1 wk after surgery, and multiple comparisons (Fisher's protected least significant difference) were carried out. Histopathological examination (neutrophilic infiltration into dermis in hematoxylin and eosin stain) and immunostaining (of ectodermal dysplasia-1 (ED1)-positive cells/flap) were assessed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the skin flap (sampling at the time of 8 h after reperfusion) was measured spectrophotometrically, and Student t-test was performed. D-allose extended the survival of the remaining flaps, and a dose greater than 30 mg (0.1 mg/g) was necessary to be effective. The flap survival rates in the 30, 60, and 150 mg groups were significantly higher than that in the control (saline) group: 75.87 ± 5.90, 79.27 ± 7.81, and 77.87 ± 6.20 versus 50.53 ± 9.66, respectively (P rare sugars are safer for our bodies as well as the environment; therefore, this rare sugar project is expected to lead to the development of a safer antioxidant for skin flap surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  17. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  18. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  19. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  20. Bird communities in two oceanic island forests fragmented by roads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although most studies on road effects on birds have been conducted on continental grounds, road fragmentation on oceanic islands is often heavier. We assessed variation in bird communities near (≤ 25 m) and far (>100 m) from forest roads dividing laurel and pine forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Line transects were ...

  1. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2016-01-01

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  2. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  3. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  4. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  5. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  6. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  7. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  8. Abu Dhabi’s New Urban Islands and Shorefront Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Amrousi Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abu Dhabi is in the process of urbanizing a group of Islands that surround its northern and eastern coastlines. Al-Lulu, Al-Saadiyat, Al- Maryah, Al-Reem and Yas Islands are all new urban enclaves that were desert islands and marshlands yet, have been developed over the past decade to urban islands that include epic and entertainment centres such as the Abu Dhabi Louvre, Guggenheim Museum, Ferrari World, NYU Abu Dhabi, the Paris Sorbonne Abu Dhabi in addition to iconic and exclusive waterfront residential units. These new islands re-brand the image of the main archipelago of Abu Dhabi that for decades retained a grid street pattern and pragmatic concrete blocks created in the late 1970s. The new urban islands transform Abu Dhabi’s image into a multinational modern Arab city seeking to become part of the global city network. Abu Dhabi’s new urban islands also act as breakwaters that protect the main archipelago’s coastline from erosion resulting from tidal change, because they are designed to include concrete and stone breakwater barriers. This paper represents a cross-disciplinary research between Civil Engineering and Architecture Departments in an attempt to explore the emerging infrastructure and urban expansion of Abu Dhabi from a multi-disciplinary perspective. We also highlight through simulating the effect of breakwaters on wave heights two scenarios for Al-Lulu Island the importance of these new barrier Islands on the urban expansion of Abu Dhabi.

  9. Hypersonic drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2007-01-01

    A two-fluid theory of long wavelength, hypersonic, drift-tearing magnetic islands in low-collisionality, low-β plasmas possessing relatively weak magnetic shear is developed. The model assumes both slab geometry and cold ions, and neglects electron temperature and equilibrium current gradient effects. The problem is solved in three asymptotically matched regions. The 'inner region' contains the island. However, the island emits electrostatic drift-acoustic waves that propagate into the surrounding 'intermediate region', where they are absorbed by the plasma. Since the waves carry momentum, the inner region exerts a net force on the intermediate region, and vice versa, giving rise to strong velocity shear in the region immediately surrounding the island. The intermediate region is matched to the surrounding 'outer region', in which ideal magnetohydrodynamic holds. Isolated hypersonic islands propagate with a velocity that lies between those of the unperturbed local ion and electron fluids, but is much closer to the latter. The ion polarization current is stabilizing, and increases with increasing island width. Finally, the hypersonic branch of isolated island solutions ceases to exist above a certain critical island width. Hypersonic islands whose widths exceed the critical width are hypothesized to bifurcate to the so-called 'sonic' solution branch

  10. The Effects of 60 Days of Tray Ration Consumption in Marine Combat Engineers While Deployed on Great Inagua Island, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Turkey Eggs Fruit Sausage Vegetables Spaghetti and Meatballs Potatoes BBQ Ribs Chocolate Cake Strawberry Oatmeal Western Omlet Beef Stew Chow Mein...Stir Fry Juice 2 Potatoes Rice 2 Hamburgers Eggs With Sausage 2 Eggs in General Meatballs Table 10.10. T Ration items Marines tired of at breakfast...the three test periods. RESULTS Ratinas of T and B Breakfasts Significant main effect acceptability ratings were observed between eggs (T Ration

  11. Differential effects of lichens versus liverworts epiphylls on host leaf traits in the tropical montane rainforest, Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Liu, Fude; Yang, Wenjie; Liu, Hong; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Zhongsheng; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P. prunifolia but increased Chl b content, while that of liverworts did not affect them as a whole. The variations of net photosynthetic rates (P n ) among host leaves colonized with different coverage of lichens before or after removal treatment (a treatment to remove epiphylls from leaf surface) were greater than that colonized with liverworts. The full cover of lichens induced an increase of light compensation point (LCP) by 21% and a decrease of light saturation point (LSP) by 54% for their host leaves, whereas that of liverworts displayed contrary effects. Compared with the colonization of liverworts, lichens exhibited more negative effects on the leaf traits of P. prunifolia in different stages of colonization. The results suggest that the responses of host leaf traits to epiphylls are affected by the epiphyllous groups and coverage, which are also crucial factors in assessing ecofunctions of epiphylls in tropical forests.

  12. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  13. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  14. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  15. Coastal plain pond water quality and mercury contend of biota of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens and Mashomack Preserve: Effects of atmospheric deposition and human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Siemion, Jason; Lane, Oksana P.

    2015-01-01

    Pine barrens are considered an imperiled ecosystem in the northeastern U.S. The Suffolk County Pine Barrens, once the second largest in the Northeast, were substantially reduced and fragmented by development during the 20th century. The coastal plain ponds being considered in this study occur in central Suffolk County within the Long Island Central Pine Barrens region. This highly unique natural environment, embedded with forests and woodlands, resulted from its glacial origins and a land use history that predates European colonization. Included in this study was The Nature Conservancy’s Mashomack Preserve, located on Shelter Island between Peconic Bay and Gardiner’s Bay. There are no freshwater ponds in the Mashomack Preserve, but this area was included with the Central Pine Barrens investigation, because Shelter Island has a similar geologic and land-use history that has resulted in a similarly unique low-nutrient forest and woodland ecosystem with extremely coarse-textured soils.

  16. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  17. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  18. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  19. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  20. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  1. Effects of mechanical and chemical processes on the degradation of plastic beach debris on the island of Kauai, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David A; Corcoran, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Plastic debris is accumulating on the beaches of Kauai at an alarming rate, averaging 484 pieces/day in one locality. Particles sampled were analyzed to determine the effects of mechanical and chemical processes on the breakdown of polymers in a subtropical setting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that plastic surfaces contain fractures, horizontal notches, flakes, pits, grooves, and vermiculate textures. The mechanically produced textures provide ideal loci for chemical weathering to occur which further weakens the polymer surface leading to embrittlement. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show that some particles have highly oxidized surfaces as indicated by intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of the spectra. Our textural analyses suggest that polyethylene has the potential to degrade more readily than polypropylene. Further evaluation of plastic degradation in the natural environment may lead to a shift away from the production and use of plastic materials with longer residence times.

  2. Potential effects of the Hawaii Geothermal Project on ground-water resources on the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Hawaii proposed the Hawaii Geothermal Project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. This report uses data from 31 wells and 8 springs to describe the properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. Potential effects of this project on ground-water resources are also discussed. Data show differences in ground-water chemistry and heads within the study area that appear to be related to mixing of waters of different origins and ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. East of Pahoa, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the pumping of freshwater to support geothermal development in that part of the rift zone would have a minimal effect on ground-water levels. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying sufficient fresh water to support geothermal operations. Contamination of ground-water resources by accidental release of geothermal fluids into shallow aquifers is possible because of corrosive conditions in the geothermal wells, potential well blowouts, and high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of water level, temperature, and chemistry in observation wells should continue throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project for early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids within the groundwater system.

  3. Subharmonic edge waves on a large, shallow island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mostafa A.

    1988-08-01

    Subharmonic resonance of edge waves by incident and reflected waves has been studied thus far for the case of a plane infinite beach. The analysis will be extended here to the case of a curved coastline, with a large radius of curvature and slowly varying beach slope in the longshore direction. It will be shown that the effects of such slow beach slope changes on a propagating edge wave are similar to the familiar shoaling effects on incident waves. The case of subharmonic edge wave generation on large shallow islands will be discussed in detail. The nonlinear analysis will show that within a certain range of island sizes, the generation mechanism can produce a stable standing edge wave around the island. For larger islands the solution disintegrates into two out-of-phase envelopes of opposite-going edge waves. For still larger islands, the generated progressive edge waves become unstable to sideband modulations.

  4. Simulation of the Effects of Water Withdrawals, Wastewater Return Flows, and Land-Use Change on Streamflow in the Blackstone River Basin, Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Streamflow in many parts of the Blackstone River Basin in south-central Massachusetts and northern Rhode Island is altered by water-supply withdrawals, wastewater-return flows, and land-use change associated with a growing population. Simulations from a previously developed and calibrated Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) precipitation-runoff model for the basin were used to evaluate the effects of water withdrawals, wastewater-return flows, and land-use change on streamflow. Most of the simulations were done for recent (1996?2001) conditions and potential buildout conditions in the future when all available land is developed to provide a long-range assessment of the effects of possible future human activities on water resources in the basin. The effects of land-use change were evaluated by comparing the results of long-term (1960?2004) simulations with (1) undeveloped land use, (2) 1995?1999 land use, and (3) potential buildout land use at selected sites across the basin. Flow-duration curves for these land-use scenarios were similar, indicating that land-use change, as represented in the HSPF model, had little effect on flow in the major tributary streams and rivers in the basin. However, land-use change?particularly increased effective impervious area?could potentially have greater effects on the hydrology, water quality, and aquatic habitat of the smaller streams in the basin. The effects of water withdrawals and wastewater-return flows were evaluated by comparing the results of long-term simulations with (1) no withdrawals and return flows, (2) actual (measured) 1996?2001 withdrawals and wastewater-return flows, and (3) potential withdrawals and wastewater-return flows at buildout. Overall, the results indicated that water use had a much larger effect on streamflow than did land use, and that the location and magnitude of wastewater-return flows were important for lessening the effects of withdrawals on streamflow in the Blackstone River Basin

  5. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  6. Effects of landscape composition and pattern on land surface temperature: An urban heat island study in the megacities of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji; Myint, Soe W

    2017-01-15

    Due to its adverse impacts on urban ecological environment and the overall livability of cities, the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has become a major research focus in various interrelated fields, including urban climatology, urban ecology, urban planning, and urban geography. This study sought to examine the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and the abundance and spatial pattern of impervious surface and green space in the metropolitan areas of Bangkok (Thailand), Jakarta (Indonesia), and Manila (Philippines). Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS data and various geospatial approaches, including urban-rural gradient, multiresolution grid-based, and spatial metrics-based techniques, were used to facilitate the analysis. We found a significant strong correlation between mean LST and the density of impervious surface (positive) and green space (negative) along the urban-rural gradients of the three cities, depicting a typical UHI profile. The correlation of impervious surface density with mean LST tends to increase in larger grids, whereas the correlation of green space density with mean LST tends to increase in smaller grids, indicating a stronger influence of impervious surface and green space on the variability of LST in larger and smaller areas, respectively. The size, shape complexity, and aggregation of the patches of impervious surface and green space also had significant relationships with mean LST, though aggregation had the most consistent strong correlation. On average, the mean LST of impervious surface is about 3°C higher than that of green space, highlighting the important role of green spaces in mitigating UHI effects, an important urban ecosystem service. We recommend that the density and spatial pattern of urban impervious surfaces and green spaces be considered in landscape and urban planning so that urban areas and cities can have healthier and more comfortable living urban environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of magnetic island on three-dimensional structure of edge radiation and its consequences for detachment in LHD (EX-D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapiko, E.A.; Peterson, B.J.; Kobayashi, M.

    2010-11-01

    Detached plasmas represent an important operational regime for a fusion reactor whereby the heat load to the divertor can be reduced through enhanced radiation to ensure sustainable steady-state discharges. Normally, in toroidal devices there exists a density threshold above which detachment occurs, but in LHD the plasma commonly experiences radiative collapse before this threshold is reached. Recent work on LHD has shown the addition of an n/m=1/1 magnetic island (MI) enhances the detachment process by lowering its density threshold. In this paper the effects of the MI on the 3D radiation structure in attached and detached plasmas as predicted by EMC3-EIRENE are clearly seen in the imaging bolometer (IRVB) data, experimentally confirming the role that the MI plays in the detachment process. With the addition of the MI the carbon radiation profile from the code in a poloidal cross-section becomes more localized near the helical divertor (HD) x-points (X). This is reflected in the focussing of the radiation patterns corresponding to the HDX in both the IRVB and code data in images corresponding to the IRVB field of view (FOV). Detachment results in a more asymmetric radiation profile in the poloidal cross-section code data with localized peaks near the HDX and MIX. The radiation from the MIX is reflected in strong radiation from the corresponding location in the IRVB FOV from both code and IRVB data. However the relative increase in the radiation from the MIX is greater in the code data than in the IRVB data for reasons which are so far unknown. Also similar discharges with and without the MI show detachment with the MI, albeit at a lower density than the discharge without the MI. This work confirms the previous conclusion that the MI enhances the localization of the radiation and is conducive to achieving and sustaining the detachment. (author)

  8. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  9. Effect of severe hurricanes on biorock coral reef restoration projects in Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lucy; Perez, Fernando; Hibbert, Marlon; Clerveaux, Luc; Johnson, Jodi; Goreau, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Artificial reefs are often discouraged in shallow waters over concerns of storm damage to structures and surrounding habitat. Biorock coral reef restoration projects were initiated in waters around 5 m deep in Grand Turk, at Oasis (October 2006) and at Governor's Beach (November 2007). Hemi-cylindrical steel modules, 6m long were used, four modules at Oasis and six at Governor's Beach. Each project has over 1200 corals transplanted from sites with high sedimentation damage, and are regularly monitored for coral growth, mortality and fish populations. Corals show immediate growth over wires used to attach corals. Growth has been measured from photographs using a software program and is faster at Governor's Beach. After hurricanes Hanna and Ike (September 2008) the Governor's Beach structure was fully standing since the waves passed straight through with little damage, the Oasis structures which were tie-wired rather than welded had one module collapse (since been replaced with a new, welded structure). Hurricane Ike was the strongest hurricane on record to hit Grand Turk. Most cables were replaced following the hurricanes due to damage from debris and high wave action. The projects lost about a third of the corals due to hurricanes. Most of those lost had only been wired a few days before and had not yet attached themselves firmly. These projects have regenerated corals and fish populations in areas of barren sand or bedrock and are now attractive to snorkelers. High coral survival and low structural damage after hurricanes indicate that Biorock reef restoration can be effective in storm-impacted areas.

  10. Effect of severe hurricanes on Biorock Coral Reef Restoration Projects in Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wells

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are often discouraged in shallow waters over concerns of storm damage to structures and surrounding habitat. Biorock coral reef restoration projects were initiated in waters around 5m deep in Grand Turk, at Oasis (October 2006 and at Governor’s Beach (November 2007. Hemi-cylindrical steel modules, 6m long were used, four modules at Oasis and six at Governor’s Beach. Each project has over 1200 corals transplanted from sites with high sedimentation damage, and are regularly monitored for coral growth, mortality and fish populations. Corals show immediate growth over wires used to attach corals. Growth has been measured from photographs using a software program and is faster at Governor’s Beach. After hurricanes Hanna and Ike (September 2008 the Governor’s Beach structure was fully standing since the waves passed straight through with little damage, the Oasis structures which were tie-wired rather than welded had one module collapse (since been replaced with a new, welded structure. Hurricane Ike was the strongest hurricane on record to hit Grand Turk. Most cables were replaced following the hurricanes due to damage from debris and high wave action. The projects lost about a third of the corals due to hurricanes. Most of those lost had only been wired a few days before and had not yet attached themselves firmly. These projects have regenerated corals and fish populations in areas of barren sand or bedrock and are now attractive to snorkelers. High coral survival and low structural damage after hurricanes indicate that Biorock reef restoration can be effective in storm-impacted areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 141-149. Epub 2010 October 01.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Rhode Island single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of PV Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support Functions in Multi-Inverter Island Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Anderson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bell, Frances [SolarCity, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1.) In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2.) The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness. Crucially, the multi-inverter anti-islanding tests described in this report examine scenarios with multiple inverters connected to multiple different points on the grid. While this so-called 'solar subdivision' scenario has been examined to some extent through simulation, this is the first known work to test it using hardware inverters. This was accomplished through the use of power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulation, which allows the hardware inverters to be connected to a real-time transient simulation of an electric power system that can be easily reconfigured to test various distribution circuit scenarios. The anti-islanding test design was a modified version of the unintentional islanding test in IEEE Standard 1547.1, which creates a balanced, resonant island with the intent of creating a highly challenging condition for island detection. Three common, commercially available single-phase PV inverters from three different manufacturers were tested. The first part of this work examined each inverter individually using a series of pure hardware resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC

  13. Effects of relative plate motion on the deep structure and penetration depth of slabs below the Izu-Bonin and Mariana island arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Seno, Tetsuzo

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of seismological studies indicate that slabs of subducted lithosphere penetrate the Earth's lower mantle below some island arcs but are deflected, or, rather, laid down, in the transition zone below others. Recent numerical simulations of mantle flow also advocate a hybrid form

  14. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Palaeogene low-rank coal on the Faroe Islands: Restricted effects of alteration by basaltic lava flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuboušková, S.; Krmíček, Lukáš; Coufalík, Pavel; Pokorný, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 165, AUG (2016), s. 157-172 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Faroe Island * coal composition * alteration Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  15. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  16. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  17. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  18. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  19. Genetically depauperate in the continent but rich in oceanic islands: Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae in the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population genetic theory holds that oceanic island populations are expected to have lower levels of genetic variation than their mainland counterparts, due to founder effect after island colonization from the continent. Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae is distributed in both the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean region. Numerous phylogenetic results obtained in the last years allow performing further phylogeographic analyses in Cistus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sequences from multiple plastid DNA regions in 47 populations of Cistus monspeliensis from the Canary Islands (21 populations and the Mediterranean basin (26 populations. The time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogeographic analyses yielded the following results: (1 a single, ancestral haplotype is distributed across the Mediterranean, whereas 10 haplotypes in the Canary Islands; (2 four haplotype lineages are present in the Canarian Islands; (3 multiple colonization events across the archipelago are inferred; (4 the earliest split of intraspecific lineages occurred in the Early to Middle Pleistocene (<930,000 years BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The contrasting pattern of cpDNA variation is best explained by genetic bottlenecks in the Mediterranean during Quaternary glaciations, while the Canarian archipelago acted as a refugium of high levels of genetic diversity. Active colonization across the Canarian islands is supported not only by the distribution of C. monspeliensis in five of the seven islands, but also by our phylogeographic reconstruction in which unrelated haplotypes are present on the same island. Widespread distribution of thermophilous habitats on every island, as those found throughout the Mediterranean, has likely been responsible for the successful colonization of C. monspeliensis, despite the absence of a long-distance dispersal mechanism. This is the first example of a plant species with higher genetic variation among oceanic island

  20. Integrating local urban climate modelling and mobile sensor data for personal exposure assessments in the context of urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberham, Maximilian; Hertel, Daniel; Schlink, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Deeper knowledge about urban climate conditions is getting more important in the context of climate change, urban population growth, urban compaction and continued surface sealing. Especially the urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of the most significant human induced alterations of Earth's surface climate. According to this the appearance frequency of heat waves in cities will increase with deep impacts on personal thermal comfort, human health and local residential quality of citizens. UHI can be very heterogenic within a city and research needs to focus more on the neighborhood scale perspective to get further insights about the heat burden of individuals. However, up to now, few is known about local thermal environmental variances and personal exposure loads. To monitor these processes and the impact on individuals, improved monitoring approaches are crucial, complementing data recorded at conventional fixed stations. Therefore we emphasize the importance of micro-meteorological modelling and mobile measurements to shed new light on the nexus of urban human-climate interactions. Contributing to this research we jointly present the approaches of our two PhD-projects. Firstly we illustrate on the basis of an example site, how local thermal conditions in an urban district can be simulated and predicted by a micro-meteorological model. Secondly we highlight the potentials of personal exposure measurements based on an evaluation of mobile micro-sensing devices (MSDs) and analyze and explain differences between model predictions and mobile records. For the examination of local thermal conditions we calculated ENVI-met simulations within the "Bayerischer Bahnhof" quarter in Leipzig (Saxony, Germany; 51°20', 12°22'). To accomplish the maximum temperature contrasts within the diverse built-up structures we chose a hot summer day (25 Aug 2016) under autochthonous weather conditions. From these simulations we analyzed a UHI effect between the model core (urban area

  1. Evolution of reproductive life histories in island birds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, Rita

    2012-04-22

    Island environments typically share characteristics such as impoverished biotas and less-seasonal climates, which should be conducive to specific adaptations by organisms. However, with the exception of morphological studies, broad-scale tests of patterns of adaptation on islands are rare. Here, I examine reproductive patterns in island birds worldwide. Reproductive life histories are influenced by latitude, which could affect the response to insularity; therefore, I additionally test this hypothesis. Island colonizers showed mostly bi-parental care, but there was a significant increase in cooperative breeding on islands. Additionally, I found support for previous suggestions of reduced fecundity, longer developmental periods and increased investment in young on islands. However, clutch size increased with latitude at a rate nearly five times faster on the mainland than on the islands revealing a substantially stronger effect of insularity at higher latitudes. Latitude and insularity may also interact to determine egg volume and incubation periods, but these effects were less clear. Analyses of reproductive success did not support an effect of reduced nest predation as a driver of reproductive change, but this requires further study. The effect of latitude detected here suggests that the evolutionary changes associated with insularity relate to environmental stability and improved adult survival.

  2. Kinetic theory of magnetic island stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.; Garbet, X.

    1993-10-01

    The non linear behavior of low and large wave number tearing modes is studied. The emphasis is layed on diamagnetic effects. A kinetic equation, including transport processes associated with a background of microturbulence, is used to describe the electron component. Such transport processes are shown to play a significant role in the adjustment of density and temperature profile and also in the calculation of the island rotation frequency. The fluctuating electric potential is calculated self-consistently, using the differential response of electrons and ions. Four regimes are considered, related to island width (smaller or larger than an ion Larmor radius) and transport regime (electron-ion collisions or electro-viscosity dominated). It is shown that diamagnetism does not influence the island stability for small island width in the viscous regime, as long as the constant A constraint is maintained. It turns out that the release of this constraint may strongly modify the previously calculated stability thresholds. Finally, it is found that diamagnetism is destabilizing (stabilizing) for island width smaller (larger) than an ion Larmor radius, in both resistive and viscous regimes. A typical island evolution scenario is studied which shows that even large scale tearing modes with positive Δ ' could saturate to island width of order of a few ion Larmor radii. Illustrative Δ ' threshold and island saturation size are calculated. (authors). 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  4. The transport characteristics of passing fast ions produced by nonlocal overlapping of drift island surfaces and magnetic island surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jinjia; Gong, Xueyu, E-mail: gongxueyu-usc@163.com; Xiang, Dong; Huang, Qianhong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, Jun [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The structure of the drift-island surface of passing fast ions (PFIs) is investigated in the presence of the resonant interaction with a magnetic island. Two overlapping regions of the drift-island surface and the magnetic island surface are found, one corresponding to local overlapping region and the other to non-local one. Here, the word “nonlocal” denotes that the resonances in the core plasma can have effects on the PFIs near the plasma boundary, while the “local” represents that the PFIs just near the resonant location are influenced. The nonlocal overlapping constructs a transport path along which the PFIs can become losses. There are three kinds of drift-island surfaces to join in forming the transport paths. A pitch angle region, which is called pitch angle gap, is found near the plasma boundary, where the drift-island surface cannot be formed and few PFIs are lost. The pitch-angle selective features of PFI losses are obtained by analyzing the three kinds of drift-island surfaces. The coupling between the crowd drift island surfaces and the collision can induce the prompt losses of PFIs and rapidly slowing down of PFI energy. The time of the prompt losses and the slowing down rate are calculated. Qualitatively, the theoretical results are in well agreement with the experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade [M. García-Muñoz et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, L10 (2007)].

  5. Seasonal evolution of the effective thermal conductivity of the snow and the soil in high Arctic herb tundra at Bylot Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domine, Florent; Barrere, Mathieu; Sarrazin, Denis

    2016-11-01

    The values of the snow and soil thermal conductivity, ksnow and ksoil, strongly impact the thermal regime of the ground in the Arctic, but very few data are available to test model predictions for these variables. We have monitored ksnow and ksoil using heated needle probes at Bylot Island in the Canadian High Arctic (73° N, 80° W) between July 2013 and July 2015. Few ksnow data were obtained during the 2013-2014 winter, because little snow was present. During the 2014-2015 winter ksnow monitoring at 2, 12 and 22 cm heights and field observations show that a depth hoar layer with ksnow around 0.02 W m-1 K-1 rapidly formed. At 12 and 22 cm, wind slabs with ksnow around 0.2 to 0.3 W m-1 K-1 formed. The monitoring of ksoil at 10 cm depth shows that in thawed soil ksoil was around 0.7 W m-1 K-1, while in frozen soil it was around 1.9 W m-1 K-1. The transition between both values took place within a few days, with faster thawing than freezing and a hysteresis effect evidenced in the thermal conductivity-liquid water content relationship. The fast transitions suggest that the use of a bimodal distribution of ksoil for modelling may be an interesting option that deserves further testing. Simulations of ksnow using the snow physics model Crocus were performed. Contrary to observations, Crocus predicts high ksnow values at the base of the snowpack (0.12-0.27 W m-1 K-1) and low ones in its upper parts (0.02-0.12 W m-1 K-1). We diagnose that this is because Crocus does not describe the large upward water vapour fluxes caused by the temperature gradient in the snow and soil. These fluxes produce mass transfer between the soil and lower snow layers to the upper snow layers and the atmosphere. Finally, we discuss the importance of the structure and properties of the Arctic snowpack on subnivean life, as species such as lemmings live under the snow most of the year and must travel in the lower snow layer in search of food.

  6. Global Urban Heat Island (UHI) Data Set, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect represents the relatively higher temperatures found in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas owing to higher proportions...

  7. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, Alejandro

    2014-07-21

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.

  8. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E.; Perez, N.; Snelling, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs

  9. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  10. Areas contributing recharge to production wells and effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook Basins, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.; Stone, Janet R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook Basins in southern Rhode Island are an important water resource for public and domestic supply, irrigation, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Health, began a study in 2012 as part of an effort to protect the source of water to six large-capacity production wells that supply drinking water and to increase understanding of how climate change might affect the water resources in the basins. Soil-water-balance and groundwater-flow models were developed to delineate the areas contributing recharge to the wells and to quantify the hydrologic response to climate change. Surficial deposits of glacial origin ranging from a few feet to more than 200 feet thick overlie bedrock in the 24.4-square mile study area. These deposits comprise a complex and productive aquifer system.

  11. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  12. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability. Alternatively, communities on small islands might contain more dissimilar or distantly related species than on large islands because limited space and resource availability result in greater competitive exclusion among species with high niche overlap. Breeding birds were surveyed on 36 islands and two mainland sites annually from 2010 to 2014 in the Thousand Island Lake region, China. We assessed community structure of breeding birds on these subtropical land-bridge islands by integrating species' trait and evolutionary distances. We additionally analysed habitat heterogeneity and variance in size ratios to distinguish biotic and abiotic processes of community assembly. Results showed that functional-phylogenetic diversity increased with island area, and decreased with isolation. Bird communities on the mainland were more diverse and generally less clustered than island bird communities and not different than randomly assembled communities. Bird communities on islands tend to be functionally similar and phylogenetically clustered, especially on small and isolated islands. The nonrandom decline in species diversity and change in bird community structure with island area and isolation, along with the relatively homogeneous habitats on small islands, support the environmental

  13. New High Voltage Interconnections with Islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Malta and Sicily. Analysis of the Effects on Renewable Energy Sources Integration and Benefits for the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the benefits coming from the operation of the recent electrical high voltage (HV interconnections between Sicily, Malta and mainland Italy. These new interconnections allow zonal prices of electricity considerably lower than in the past, ensuring greater flexibility to the system and a better integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. After briefly illustrating the two high-voltage electrical systems (Sicily and Malta, and having provided a description of the interconnection cable with Malta and its protection devices, the authors hypothesized two modes of operation (Sicily-Malta system islanded or interconnected to the rest of Europe. For the first case (islanded some simulations are performed through the use of an electric network model realized in the Neplan® environment, and for the second case an analysis of one year real data was made. The results of the simulation, thanks to the use of a power flow tracing method, show that this new interconnection between the two islands (Sicily and Malta allows an important improvement in the integration and dispatching of the power generated by RES of the Sicilian territory, better operation of traditional Sicilian generation units, lower electricity zonal prices and a significant reduction in emissions from obsolete fuel oil thermal units located in Malta.

  14. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  15. Formation and healing of n = 1 magnetic islands in LHD equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Hayashi, Takaya; Okamoto, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic islands with the toroidal mode number n = 1, e.g. m/n = 1/1 and 2/1 islands, in a Large Helical Device (LHD) equilibrium are studied using the three-dimensional MHD equilibrium code, HINT. In order to accomplish this purpose, the HINT code has been improved. The equilibrium analysis, in particular an analysis of the LHD equilibrium with an m/n = 1/1 island, is required for the local island divertor experiment, in order to understand the magnetic structures of field lines, i.e. flux surfaces, islands and ergodic field lines. We find that the m/n = 2/1 island can be healed for a finite equilibrium beta, while the m/n = 1/1 island is not healed and is surrounded with ergodic field lines for finite-β. From the latter result, we can conjecture that the island divertor concept is effective even for finite equilibrium beta-values, but the performance of the island divertor is deteriorated for finite-β because of the existence of the ergodic zone between the closed surfaces (i.e. the core region) and the m/n = 1/1 island. We also find that the width of the m/n = 1/1 island depends on the equilibrium beta value and that the island located at the inside of the torus has the advantage of retaining its width

  16. Conventional proximity effect in bilayers of superconducting underdoped $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands coated with non superconducting overdoped $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, G.; Millo, O.

    2009-01-01

    Following a recent study by our group in which a large $T_c$ enhancement was reported in bilayers of the non-superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$ and superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ films [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{101}, 057005 (2008)], we checked if a similar effect occurs when superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands are coated with a continuous layer of the non superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$. We found that no such phenomenon is observed. The bare supercond...

  17. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  18. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  19. The effective and environmental half-life of {sup 137}Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Stoker, A. Carol

    2003-07-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of {sup 137}Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of {sup 137}Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the{sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less

  20. Barrier island forest ecosystem: role of meteorologic nutrient inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art, H W; Bormann, F H; Voigt, G K; Woodwell, G M

    1974-04-05

    The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

  1. Solid waste management on small islands. The case of Green Island, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.; Wesseler, J. [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The cost-effective solution is the one, which is the most expensive in the short run: continuing business as usual and introducing an incineration plant in the year 2010. The results indicate furthermore that deviations from optimal timing of investment only slightly change average annual costs. In the long run, the municipality can hardly avoid transporting waste to the mainland. By investing in an incineration plant, they can buy additional time to investigate alternative SWM strategies.

  2. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  3. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age

  4. Distribution and ratios of 137Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Brown, Patrick H.; Stone, Earl L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg -1 . When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of 137 Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, 137 Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while 137 Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while 137 Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The 137 Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and 137 Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and 137 Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic, but K

  5. Distribution and ratios of {sup 137}Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)], E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Brown, Patrick H. [University of California, Department of Plant Sciences, Davis, CA 95819 (United States); Stone, Earl L. [University of Florida (United States); Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they

  6. Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands : assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their vulnerability and low capacity to adapt, the impact of climate change on small island nations will be far larger compared to larger countries. The Dutch BES islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) form part of the Caribbean global biodiversity hotspot area. The leeward Dutch islands

  7. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  8. THE EFFECT OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON WORK ETHOS AND ITS IMPACT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY IN REGENCY DEPARTMENT OF LANDS OF LOMBOK ISLAND, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmianto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A leader should be concerned about the influence of his leadership on working culture and environment of the employees. These responsibilities include the ethical responsibility of treating employees with mutual respect, service, fairness, and honesty. This study aimed to determine the influence of ethical leadership and organizational culture on the work ethos and its impact on the performance of the organization on the Department of Lands. A quantitative research method was applied in this study. The sample of research are 69 respondents with cluster sampling method. The research was conducted at National Department of Lands in Lombok Island. The data analysis technique used is SEM using SmartPLS 3.0 program. The results showed that ethical leadership has no significant effect on work ethos, while organizational culture has a significant effect on work ethos. Furthermore, both work ethos and ethical leadership had a significant effect on organizational performance, organizational culture has a significant effect on organizational performance.

  9. Pressure driven currents near magnetic islands in 3D MHD equilibria: Effects of pressure variation within flux surfaces and of symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Allan H.

    2016-07-01

    In toroidal, magnetically confined plasmas, the heat and particle transport is strongly anisotropic, with transport along the field lines sufficiently strong relative to cross-field transport that the equilibrium pressure can generally be regarded as constant on the flux surfaces in much of the plasma. The regions near small magnetic islands, and those near the X-lines of larger islands, are exceptions, having a significant variation of the pressure within the flux surfaces. It is shown here that the variation of the equilibrium pressure within the flux surfaces in those regions has significant consequences for the pressure driven currents. It is further shown that the consequences are strongly affected by the symmetry of the magnetic field if the field is invariant under combined reflection in the poloidal and toroidal angles. (This symmetry property is called "stellarator symmetry.") In non-stellarator-symmetric equilibria, the pressure-driven currents have logarithmic singularities at the X-lines. In stellarator-symmetric MHD equilibria, the singular components of the pressure-driven currents vanish. These equilibria are to be contrasted with equilibria having B ṡ∇p =0 , where the singular components of the pressure-driven currents vanish regardless of the symmetry. They are also to be contrasted with 3D MHD equilibrium solutions that are constrained to have simply nested flux surfaces, where the pressure-driven current goes like 1 /x near rational surfaces, where x is the distance from the rational surface, except in the case of quasi-symmetric flux surfaces. For the purpose of calculating the pressure-driven currents near magnetic islands, we work with a closed subset of the MHD equilibrium equations that involves only perpendicular force balance, and is decoupled from parallel force balance. It is not correct to use the parallel component of the conventional MHD force balance equation, B ṡ∇p =0 , near magnetic islands. Small but nonzero values of B

  10. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  11. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  12. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  13. 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON THE MALDIVES ISLANDS: INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Keating

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-tsunami field surveys of the Maldives Islands where carried out to document the effects of the tsunami inundation. The study area was situated in the islands of South Male Atoll that were some of the most heavily damaged islands of the Maldive Islands. The tsunami damaged the natural environment, vegetation, man-made structures, and residents. The maximum tsunami wave height was 3-4 m. This level of inundation exceeded the height of most residents. The wave height was greatest on the eastern rim of the South Male Atoll (closest to the tsunami source and these islands were completely flooded. The islands within the interior of the atoll saw the lowest wave heights, and these were only marginally flooded.Surveys of flood lines left on the exterior and interior of structures were measured but proved to be substantially less than that reported by survivors. It appears that the highest inundation was not preserved as flood lines. We suggest that the turbulence associated with the tsunami inundation erased the highest lines or that they did not form due to an absence of debris and organic compounds that acted as adhesion during the initial flooding.Significant erosion was documented. Deposition took place in the form of sand sheets while only desultory deposition of coral clasts in marginal areas was found. Seasonal erosion, and storms are likely to remove most or all of the traces of the tsunami within these islands.

  14. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN CONTRACTING MAGNETIC ISLANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, D.; Tenishev, V.; Gombosi, T. I. [University of Michigan, Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2143 (United States); Guidoni, S. E. [The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue Northeast, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Electron acceleration in solar flares is well known to be efficient at generating energetic particles that produce the observed bremsstrahlung X-ray spectra. One mechanism proposed to explain the observations is electron acceleration within contracting magnetic islands formed by magnetic reconnection in the flare current sheet. In a previous study, a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an eruptive solar flare was analyzed to estimate the associated electron acceleration due to island contraction. That analysis used a simple analytical model for the island structure and assumed conservation of the adiabatic invariants of particle motion. In this paper, we perform the first-ever rigorous integration of the guiding-center orbits of electrons in a modeled flare. An initially isotropic distribution of particles is seeded in a contracting island from the simulated eruption, and the subsequent evolution of these particles is followed using guiding-center theory. We find that the distribution function becomes increasingly anisotropic over time as the electrons’ energy increases by up to a factor of five, in general agreement with the previous study. In addition, we show that the energized particles are concentrated on the Sunward side of the island, adjacent to the reconnection X-point in the flare current sheet. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that the electron energy gain is dominated by betatron acceleration in the compressed, strengthened magnetic field of the contracting island. Fermi acceleration by the shortened field lines of the island also contributes to the energy gain, but it is less effective than the betatron process.

  15. Stratigraphy and morphology of the barrier platform of Breton Island, Louisiana: deltaic, marine and human influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Locker, Stanley D.

    2015-01-01

    Breton Island, located at the southern end of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, is part of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Breton NWR is recognized as an important bird habitat and is host to one of Louisiana's largest historical brown pelican nesting colonies. Loss of island area through relative sea-level rise, storm impact, and impeded and diminishing sediment supply is reducing the available habitat, and restoration is necessary if the island is to remain emergent. Physical investigation of the Breton Island platform has provided new insight into the geologic framework. The data reveal a complex system that is undergoing both long-term and short-term change. Results of the study help to resolve uncertainties in island evolution and will assist in effective restoration of the island.

  16. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect (UHI for inner land regions was investigated using satellite data, ground observations, and simulations with an Single-Layer Urban Canopy Parameterization (SLUCP coupled into the regional Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF, http://wrf-model.org/index.php. Specifically, using the satellite-observed surface skin temperatures (Tskin, the intensity of the UHI was first compared for two inland cities (Xi’an City, China, and Oklahoma City (OKC, which have different city populations and building densities. The larger population density and larger building density in Xi’an lead to a stronger skin-level UHI by 2 °C. However, the ground observed 2 m surface air temperature (Tair observations showed an urban cooling island effect (UCI over the downtown region in OKC during the daytime of 19 July 2003, from a DOE field campaign (Joint Urban 2003. To understand this contrast between satellite-based Tskin and ground-based Tair, a sensitivity study using WRF/SLUCP was analyzed. The model reproduced a UCI in OKC. Furthermore, WRF/Noah/SLUCM simulations were also compared with the Joint Urban 2003 ground observations, including wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes. Although the WRF/SLUCM model failed to simulate these variables accurately, it reproduced the diurnal variations of surface temperatures, wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes reasonably well.

  17. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  18. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  19. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  20. The aquatic Coleoptera of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records and faunal composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Elmidae, Dryopidae, Heteroceridae of Prince Edward Island, Canada is surveyed. Seventy-two species are now known to occur on Prince Edward Island, 26 of which are added to the island's faunal list. Three species, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte, Oulimnius latiusculus (LeConte, and Helichus striatus LeConte, are removed since there are no voucher specimens or published records to substantiate their presence. The name Dineutus horni is designated as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Dineutus hornii Roberts, 1895. The composition of the fauna is briefly discussed, both from regional and zoogeographic perspectives. There is only one introduced species, Helophorus grandis Illiger. Only one third of the aquatic fauna recorded on the neighbouring mainland has been found on Prince Edward Island, perhaps reflecting an island-associated diminution, the paucity of collecting, an area effect, or a combination of all these factors. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are compared. Prince Edward Island's is 36% smaller than the others, in contrast with the island's carabid fauna which is almost identical in magnitude with that of Cape Breton. This might reflect dispersal obstacles, the relative paucity of aquatic habitats on the island, or an insufficient collecting effort. Further research would be desirable, both to better discern the composition of the province's fauna, as well as to monitor the health of aquatic ecosystems in relation to anthropogenic activities.

  1. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  2. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  3. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  4. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  5. Ground deformation effects from the M6 earthquakes (2014-2015) on Cephalonia-Ithaca Islands (Western Greece) deduced by GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Vassilis; Lagios, Evangelos

    2017-03-01

    The implications of the earthquakes that took place in the central Ionian Islands in 2014 (Cephalonia, M w6.1, M w5.9) and 2015 (Lefkas, M w6.4) are described based on repeat measurements of the local GPS networks in Cephalonia and Ithaca, and the available continuous GPS stations in the broader area. The Lefkas earthquake occurred on a branch of the Cephalonia Transform Fault, affecting Cephalonia with SE displacements gradually decreasing from north ( 100 mm) to south ( 10 mm). This earthquake revealed a near N-S dislocation boundary separating Paliki Peninsula in western Cephalonia from the rest of the island, as well as another NW-SE trending fault that separates kinematically the northern and southern parts of Paliki. Strain field calculations during the interseismic period (2014-2015) indicate compression between Ithaca and Cephalonia, while extension appears during the following co-seismic period (2015-2016) including the 2015 Lefkas earthquake. Additional tectonically active zones with differential kinematic characteristics were also identified locally.

  6. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone... zones for marine events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event... unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on...

  7. 76 FR 39292 - Special Local Regulations & Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... and fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is... Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on July 6, 2011 through 6 p.m. on October 2, 2011...

  8. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  9. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  10. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  11. Simulation and theory of island growth on stepped substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pownall, C.D.

    1999-10-01

    The nucleation, growth and coalescence of islands on stepped substrates is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations and analytical theories. Substrate steps provide a preferential site for the nucleation of islands, making many of the important processes one-dimensional in nature, and are of potentially major importance in the development of low-dimensional structures as a means of growing highly ordered chains of 'quantum dots' or continuous 'quantum wires'. A model is developed in which island nucleation is entirely restricted to the step edge, islands grow in compact morphologies by monomer capture, and eventually coalesce with one another until a single continuous cluster of islands covers the entire step. A series of analytical theories is developed to describe the dynamics of the whole evolution. The initial nucleation and aggregation regimes are modeled using the traditional approach of rate equations, rooted in mean field theory, but incorporating corrections to account for correlations in the nucleation and capture processes. This approach is found to break down close to the point at which the island density saturates and a new approach is developed based upon geometric and probabilistic arguments to describe the saturation behaviour, including the characteristic dynamic scaling which is found to persist through the coalescence regime as well. A further new theory, incorporating arguments based on the geometry of Capture Zones, is presented which reproduces the dynamics of the coalescence regime. The, latter part of the. thesis considers the spatial properties of the system, in particular the spacing of the islands along the step. An expression is derived which describes the distribution of gap sizes, and this is solved using a recently-developed relaxation method. An important result is the discovery that larger critical island sizes tend to yield more evenly spaced arrays of islands. The extent of this effect is analysed by solving for critical island

  12. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore reached island

  13. Development and characterization of 12 microsatellite markers for the Island Night Lizard (Xantusia riversiana), a threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Island Night Lizard is a federally threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands of California. Twelve microsatellite loci were developed for use in this species and screened in 197 individuals from across San Nicolas Island, California. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 21. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.520 to 0.843. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population structure, effective population size, and gene flow across the island, to inform protection and management of this species.

  14. Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S M; Hansen, E B; Higginbotham, A P; Kuemmeth, F; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Krogstrup, P; Danon, J; Flensberg, K; Marcus, C M

    2017-03-31

    We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (∼1  μs) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (>10  μs). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. When converted from gate voltage to energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.

  15. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  16. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  17. Dermatosurgery Rounds - The Island SKIN Infraorbital Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in dermatologic surgery is complete excision of the tumour while achieving the best possible functional and cosmetic outcome. Also we must take into account age, sex, and tumour size and site. We should also consider the patient's expectations, the preservation of the different cosmetic units, and the final cosmetic outcome. Various reconstructive methods ranging from secondary healing to free flap applications are usedfor the reconstruction of perinasal or facial defects caused by trauma or tumour surgery. Herein, we describe the nasal infraorbital island skin flap for the reconstruction in a patient with basal cell carcinoma. No complications were observed in operation field. The infraorbital island skin flap which we describe for the perinasal area reconstruction is a safe, easily performed and versatile flap. The multidimensional use of this flap together with a relatively easy reconstruction plan and surgical procedure would be effective in flap choice.

  18. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare; Holmes, Nick; Tershy, Bernie; Spatz, Dena; Croll, Donald A

    2015-02-01

    Protected area delineation and conservation action are urgently needed on marine islands, but the potential biodiversity benefits of these activities can be difficult to assess due to lack of species diversity information for lesser known taxa. We used linear mixed effects modeling and simple spatial analyses to investigate whether conservation activities based on the diversity of well-known insular taxa (birds and mammals) are likely to also capture the diversity of lesser known taxa (reptiles, amphibians, vascular land plants, ants, land snails, butterflies, and tenebrionid beetles). We assembled total, threatened, and endemic diversity data for both well-known and lesser known taxa and combined these with physical island biogeography characteristics for 1190 islands from 109 archipelagos. Among physical island biogeography factors, island area was the best indicator of diversity of both well-known and little-known taxa. Among taxonomic factors, total mammal species richness was the best indicator of total diversity of lesser known taxa, and the combination of threatened mammal and threatened bird diversity was the best indicator of lesser known endemic richness. The results of other intertaxon diversity comparisons were highly variable, however. Based on our results, we suggest that protecting islands above a certain minimum threshold area may be the most efficient use of conservation resources. For example, using our island database, if the threshold were set at 10 km(2) and the smallest 10% of islands greater than this threshold were protected, 119 islands would be protected. The islands would range in size from 10 to 29 km(2) and would include 268 lesser known species endemic to a single island, along with 11 bird and mammal species endemic to a single island. Our results suggest that for islands of equivalent size, prioritization based on total or threatened bird and mammal diversity may also capture opportunities to protect lesser known species endemic to

  19. A comparison of controls on freshwater lens morphology of small carbonate and siliciclastic islands: examples from barrier islands in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, James C.; Kruse, Sarah E.

    2003-12-01

    The freshwater lens on small islands may easily be overexploited or polluted due to dense development combined with improper management. On small carbonate islands complexities in fresh groundwater distribution are most commonly driven by geologic heterogeneities and their attendant impact on permeability and effective recharge patterns. Siliciclastic islands (composed primarily of quartz sand and other silica-based minerals) have been less well studied, and fewer common patterns of lens development have emerged. On some siliciclastic islands correlations between geology and lens geometries are weak; on these islands the freshwater lens geometry may be largely determined by how vegetation and terrain elevation affect recharge. Other factors such as unequal sea level on opposite sides of an island and transient variability (natural island migration and climate variability) may also be locally significant. Two barrier islands in the northeast Gulf of Mexico fall into this category of siliciclastic islands. Relationships between lens morphology, geology, vegetation, terrain, and sea level and transient effects are documented on St George Island and Dog Island, FL. Patterns of fresh groundwater occurrence are deduced with electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods. Although isolated cores show geologic layering that could potentially control freshwater lens development, ground penetrating radar and seismic surveys show no evidence of semi-continuous subhorizontal layering. Inferred lens thickness and geometry suggests that site geology plays a relatively minor role as a cause of complexity in lens formation. Lens geometry does appear to be related to terrain and vegetation variability, and further complicated by the continuous reforming of these islands by coastal processes and human development.

  20. Sustainable Energy Portfolios for Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szabó

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a cost effective electricity generation portfolio for six island states for a 20-year period (2015–2035. The underlying concept investigates whether adding sizeable power capacities of renewable energy sources (RES options could decrease the overall costs and contribute to a more sustainable, indigenous electricity generation at the same time. Often, island states rely on fossil fuels which, apart from dependence on foreign resources, also includes an additional, significant transport cost. This is an extra motive to study the extent in which island states represent primary locations for RES technologies. For the aims of the present study an optimization model has been developed and following numerous runs the obtained results show that installing PV and battery capacities can delay-reduce the huge investments in fossil options in early periods. Thus, investment on RES can have a positive, long-term effect on the overall energy mix. This prompt development can happen without adding new subsidies but there is a need to address the existing socio-economic barriers with intelligent design of financing and economic instruments and capacity building as discussed in the conclusions.

  1. Ambient air quality effects of the 2008-2009 Halema`uma`u eruption on the Island of Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Kauahikaua, J. P.; Ray, J. D.; Babb, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    While the Halema`uma`u eruption has enlivened volcanologists with the rare opportunity to observe eruptive processes at Kilauea’s summit, it has also caused significant environmental impact on the Island of Hawai`i. Since the beginning of 2008, the combined SO2 emissions from the east rift zone (ERZ) and summit of Kilauea have increased by ~40% as compared to the 2003-2007 long-term average. However, emissions from Kilauea’s summit have increased ~6-fold, averaging 850 t/d during January 2008-August 2009. Although average emissions from the ERZ during this period have been 1-2 times that of the summit, the relative impact of summit emissions is disproportionately large due to the location of the vent and the plume dispersal pattern to downwind communities. Ambient air quality data show that federal standards have been exceeded frequently in various communities on the south half of the island. Between April 2008 and August 2009, primary health standards for SO2 and PM2.5 were exceeded on 41 and 19 occasions respectively in Pahala, located ~30 km downwind of the Kilauea summit under prevailing trade wind conditions. Pahala, which exceeded the SO2 annual standard for 2008, had not exceeded standards prior to the opening of the Halema`uma`u vent in March 2008. In July 2008, the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture designated Hawai`i County a primary natural disaster area due to agricultural losses from volcanic emissions. Many growers of exotic flower crops in the Ka`u district suffered irrecoverable losses. Coffee and macadamia nut farmers also reported damage to their fields. While some livestock farmers reported eye irritation in cattle, more significant damage was observed in the accelerated deterioration of galvanized fencing, gates, pipelines and other infrastructure. The increase in volcanic pollution has spurred health concerns. A rise in respiratory emergencies for visitors to Kilauea caldera in early 2008 led Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park to close areas

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism: associations with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer and the modifying effects of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Karen; Slattery, Martha L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bigler, Jeannette; Levin, Theodore R; Wolff, Roger K; Albertsen, Hans; Potter, John D; Samowitz, Wade S

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated associations between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) colon cancer and genetic polymorphisms relevant to one-carbon metabolism and thus, potentially the provision of methyl groups and risk of colon cancer. Data from a large, population-based case-control study (916 incident colon cancer cases and 1,972 matched controls) were used. Candidate polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thymidylate synthase (TS), transcobalamin II (TCNII), methionine synthase (MTR), reduced folate carrier (RFC), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) were evaluated. CIMP- or CIMP+ phenotype was based on five CpG island markers: MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, p16 and MLH1. The influence of specific dietary factors (folate, methionine, vitamin B(12) and alcohol) on these associations was also analyzed. We hypothesized that polymorphisms involved in the provision of methyl groups would be associated with CIMP+ tumors (two or more of five markers methylated), potentially modified by diet. Few associations specific to CIMP+ tumors were observed overall, which does not support the hypothesis that the provision of methyl groups is important in defining a methylator phenotype. However, our data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in MTHFR 1,298A > C, interacting with diet, may be involved in the development of highly CpG-methylated colon cancers. AC and CC genotypes in conjunction with a high-risk dietary pattern (low folate and methionine intake and high alcohol use) were associated with CIMP+ (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 versus AA/high risk; P-interaction = 0.03). These results provide only limited support for a role of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism in the etiology of CIMP colon cancer.

  3. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Island. Prevailing sediment transport processes will provide natural renourishment of the westward islands in the barrier system (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009b). One difficulty in developing the final recommendations is that few data are available to incorporate into restoration plans related to bathymetry, sediment type, and biota. For example, the most recent bathymetry available dates to when East and West Ship Islands were a single continuous island (1917). As a result, the MsCIP program has encouraged post-hurricane bathymetric data collection for future reference. Furthermore, managing a complex environment such as this barrier island system for habitat conservation and best resource usage requires significant knowledge about those habitats and resources. To effectively address these issues, a complete and comprehensive understanding of the type, geographic extent, and condition of marine resources included within the GUIS is required. However, the data related to the GUIS marine resources are limited either spatially or temporally. Specifically, there is limited knowledge and information about the distribution of benthic habitats and the characteristics of the offshore region of the GUIS, even though these are the habitats that will be most affected by habitat restoration. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive map of the benthic marine habitats within the GUIS to give park managers the ability to develop strategies for coastal and ocean-resource management and to aid decisionmakers in evaluating conservation priorities.

  4. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  5. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  6. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  7. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  8. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  9. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  10. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  11. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  12. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    be directed toward much more pressing problems, such as general habitat restoration, erosion control, and the removal of feral cats. The island night lizard (Xantusia riversiana) is endemic to three of the California Channel Islands: Nicolas, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara Islands. Due to its restricted range and apparently small population levels, both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game have listed the island night lizard as a threatened species. Our study was conducted on San Nicolas Island, which lies offshore 120 km southwest of Los Angeles, California. The island is managed by the U.S. Navy who refers to the island as Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island. The Navy maintains radar, telemetry, and communications equipment on San Nicolas Island to support its mission of testing and evaluating weapons systems. The Navy has dual requirements for ensuring military readiness and sustainability while complying with the Federal Endangered Species Act. A comprehensive understanding of the status and stability of the species on San Nicolas Island is essential for effective island management and may aid in the eventual delisting of the species. Previous work on the San Nicolas Island (Fellers and others, 1998) demonstrated that island night lizards were distributed over the eastern half of San Nicolas Island where there is suitable shrubby habitat. On the eastern half of the island, they occur primarily in or near cactus/sage scrub habitats on the north beach terrace, in scattered patches of scrub on the central mesa, and in boulder and cactus habitats on the southern escarpment of the island. Fellers and others (1998) evaluated data from 1984-85 and 1992-95 and estimated that there were 15,300 island night lizards present on San Nicolas Island. There are two non-native lizards on San Nicolas Island, the side-blotch lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata). Both of the

  13. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail

  14. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Rong, E-mail: haven21c@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Man [University of Incheon, Songdo-dong, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  15. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  16. Arsenic flux dependence of island nucleation on InAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Frank; Barvosa-Carter, William; Zinck, Jenna; Wheeler, Matthew; Gyure, Mark F.

    2002-01-01

    The initial stages of InAs(001) homoepitaxial growth are investigated using a combination of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations based on ab initio density functional theory and scanning tunneling microscopy. In the two dimensional island nucleation mode investigated, the island number density is found to decrease with increasing As. This behavior is explained by a suppression of the effective In-adatom density leading to a reduction in island nucleation. The relevant microscopic processes responsible for this reduction are identified

  17. Detailed profile of m=2 islands with TVTS on JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, T.; Grek, B.; Hoshino, K.; Le Blanc, B.; Johnson, D.; Felt, J.; Shiina, T.; Kurita, G.; Ishige, Y.; Kozawa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The detailed electron temperature profile (spatial resolution: 0.86 cm) of a low density JFT-2M plasma is measured with the TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS). Flat profiles showing the electron temperature shapes of m=2/n=1 islands are presented, which are in contrast to that without islands. On the other hand, the m=2/n=1 islands are effectively suppressed with local ECRH heating. (orig.)

  18. Surface Characteristics of Green Island Wakes from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Ho; Hsu, Po-Chun; Ho, Chung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics of an island wake induced by the Kuroshio Current flows pass by Green Island, a small island 40 km off southeast of Taiwan is investigated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery. The MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) imagery is produced at 250-meter resolution from 2014 to 2015 using the SeaDAS software package which is developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The wake occurrence is 59% observed from SST images during the data span. The average cooling area is 190 km2, but the area is significantly changed with wind directions. The wake area is increased during southerly winds and is reduced during northerly winds. Besides, the average cooling SST was about 2.1 oC between the front and rear island. Comparing the temperature difference between the wake and its left side, the difference is 1.96 oC. In addition, the wakes have 1 3 times higher than normal in chlorophyll concentration. The results indicate the island mass effect makes the surface water of Green island wake colder and chl-a higher.

  19. Plasma flow healing of magnetic islands in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments from the large helical device (LHD) demonstrate a correlation between the “healing” of vacuum magnetic islands in stellarators and changes in the plasma flow. A model explaining this phenomenon is developed based on self-consistent torque balance and island evolution equations. In conventional stellarators, neoclassical flow damping physics plays an important role in establishing the flow profiles. The balance of neoclassical damping and cross-field viscosity produces a radial boundary layer for the plasma rotation profile outside the separatrix of a locked magnetic island. The width of this boundary layer decreases as the plasma becomes less collisional. Associated with these flow effects are plasma currents flowing in the island region that attempt to suppress island formation. These currents are enhanced as the collisionality drops making magnetic island healing occur more readily in high temperature conventional stellarators. The analytic theory produces a critical β for healing that scales monotonically with collisionality and is in qualitative agreement with LHD observations.

  20. Suppressing magnetic island growth by resonant magnetic perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the growth of magnetic islands is investigated based on two-fluid equations. It is found that if the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity at the resonant surface is sufficiently large, static RMPs of the same helicity and of moderate amplitude can suppress the growth of magnetic islands in high-temperature plasmas. These islands will otherwise grow, driven by an unfavorable plasma current density profile and bootstrap current perturbation. These results indicate that the error field can stabilize island growth, if the error field amplitude is not too large and the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity is not too low. They also indicate that applied rotating RMPs with an appropriate frequency can be utilized to suppress island growth in high-temperature plasmas, even for a low bi-normal electron fluid velocity. A significant change in the local equilibrium plasma current density gradient by small amplitude RMPs is found for realistic plasma parameters, which are important for the island stability and are expected to be more important for fusion reactors with low plasma resistivity.

  1. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  2. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  3. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  4. Effects of seabird nitrogen input on biomass and carbon accumulation after 50 years of primary succession on a young volcanic island, Surtsey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblans, N. I. W.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Roefs, P.; Thuys, R.; Magnússon, B.; Janssens, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    What happens during primary succession after the first colonizers have occupied a pristine surface largely depends on how they ameliorate living conditions for other species. For vascular plants the onset of soil development and associated increase in nutrient (mainly nitrogen; N) and water availability is especially important. Here, we report the relationship between N accumulation and biomass and ecosystem carbon (C) stocks in a 50-year-old volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland, where N stocks are still exceptionally low. However, a 28-year-old seagull colony on the island provided nutrient-enriched areas, which enabled us to assess the relationship between N stock and biomass and ecosystem C stocks across a much larger range in N stock. Further, we compared areas on shallow and deep tephra sands as we expected that deep-rooted systems would be more efficient in retaining N. The sparsely vegetated area outside the colony had accumulated 0.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which was ca. 50-60% of the estimated N input rate from wet deposition. This approximates values for systems under low N input and bare dune habitats. The seagulls have added, on average, 47 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which induced a shift from belowground to aboveground in ecosystem N and C stocks and doubled the ecosystem N-use efficiency, determined as the ratio of biomass and C storage per unit N input. Soil depth did not significantly affect total N stocks, which suggests a high N retention potential. Both total ecosystem biomass and C stocks were strongly correlated with N stock inside the colony, which indicated the important role of N during the first steps of primary succession. Inside the colony, the ecosystem biomass C stocks (17-27 ton C ha-1) had reached normal values for grasslands, while the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (4-10 ton C ha-1 were only a fraction of normal grassland values. Thus, it will take a long time until the SOC stock reaches equilibrium with the current primary production, during which

  5. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of a Coastal Island Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case in Hatiya Island, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, S.; Mahmud, M. S.; Hossain, M. A.; Hasan, M.; Ashrafi, Z. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh is recognized for its high vulnerability to sea level rise (SLR). SLR directly and indirectly (by altering morphology of river estuary) accelerates erosion processes, washes out the loose materials of the coast and coastal islands. Hatiya, highly populated coastal island, located in Meghna river estuary is under severe threat of coastal erosion, which has not been quantified yet. The accurate mapping of the shoreline and coastal changes are very important for adopting conservation measures e.g. protection of human life, property and the natural environment. The objectives of the present study are to use remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in the shoreline and coastal land area of the Hatiya Island between the year of 1985 and 2016 from multi-temporal satellite images, i.e. assessing shifting of the shoreline position through digital shoreline analysis besides the erosion-accretion measurements. Study reveals that about 67 square kilometer areas has been lost between 1985 and 2016 which was about 17 percent of original area (1985). Erosion mainly took place in northern, north-western banks of the island. In these areas, the landward movement and rate of the shoreline were higher with a highest value of the net shoreline movement (NSM) around 6.2 km. Erosion rate is significant in exposed part of the island where tidal water pressure, shoreline configuration, loose bank materials and steep slope were observed. However, the accretion was noticed in recent years (2010-2016) in southern part of the island where slopes were gentle, perhaps due to backwash sediment deposition. As erosion process is prominent in this island, significant amounnt of usable land was lost. Therefore, local livelihood pattern has changed that has noticable effect on local economy. By quantifying the erosion-accretion rate, livelihood planning can be initiated in climatically threated vulnerable islands.

  6. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km2 of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km2, although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects. PMID:27628096

  7. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian B; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-09-15

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km(2) of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km(2), although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects.

  8. Immigration and the competitiveness of an island tourism destination: a knowledge-based reputation analysis of Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Juan García-Almeida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds light on the relationship between immigration and tourism competitiveness on the island of Lanzarote through the analysis of reputation from the demand perspective. The tourists’ knowledge about news on immigration from a destination, their contact with immigrants in the area, and the influence of the presence of immigrants there are studied, as all these factors can have a major impact on island competitiveness in tourism. The empirical work has been conducted with a survey of tourists on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain. A total of 359 valid questionnaires were obtained. Results show a relatively low impact and retention of immigration news about the destination, and a low perceived contact with non-European immigrants when visiting the island. Moreover, tourists tend to recognize the positive value created by immigrants on the island, though some negative effects are also indicated. Finally, immigration seems to have a positive impact on the tourist’s global satisfaction and loyalty to the island destination.

  9. Risk to Water Security on Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S. T.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of fresh water available on small islands is shallow groundwater that forms a freshwater lens. Freshwater lenses are generally limited in extent and as such are vulnerable to many stressors that impact water security. These include stressors related to climate change, such as sea level rise, as well as those related to human impacts, such as contamination. Traditionally, water security assessments have focussed on indicators that provide a snapshot of the current condition. However, recent work suggests that in order to effectively manage the water system, it is also important to consider uncertain future impacts to the system by evaluating how different stressors might impact water security. In this study, a framework for assessing risk to water security was developed and tested on Andros Island in The Bahamas. The assessment comprises two main components that characterise the water system: numerical modelling studies and a hazard survey. A baseline numerical model of the freshwater lens throughout Andros Island was developed to simulate the morphology of the freshwater lens and estimate the freshwater resources currently available. The model was prepared using SEAWAT, a density-dependent flow and solute transport code. Various stressors were simulated in the model to evaluate the response of the freshwater lens to predicted future shifts in climate patterns, sea level rise, and changes in water use. A hazard survey was also conducted on the island to collect information related to the storage of contaminants, sanitation infrastructure, waste disposal practices and groundwater abstraction rates. The results of the survey form a geo-spatial database of the location and associated hazards to the freshwater lens. The resulting risk framework provides a ranking of overall risk to water security based on information from the numerical modelling and hazard survey. The risk framework is implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provides a map

  10. Modeling effects of nitrate from non-point sources on groundwater quality in an agricultural watershed in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yefang; Somers, George

    2009-05-01

    Intensification of potato farming has contaminated groundwater with nitrate in many cases in Prince Edward Island, Canada, which raises concerns for drinking water quality and associated ecosystem protection. Numerical models were developed to simulate nitrate-N transport in groundwater and enhance understanding of the impacts of farming on water quality in the Wilmot River watershed. Nitrate is assumed non-reactive based on δ15N and δ18O in nitrate and geochemical information. The source functions were reconstructed from tile drain measurements, N budget and historical land-use information. The transport model was calibrated to long-term nitrate-N observations in the Wilmot River and verified against nitrate-N measurements in two rivers from watersheds with similar physical conditions. Simulations show groundwater flow is stratified and vertical flux decreases exponentially with depth. While it would take several years to reduce the nitrate-N in the shallow portion of the aquifer, it would take several decades or even longer to restore water quality in the deeper portions of the aquifer. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations in base flow are positively correlated with potato cropping intensity and significant reductions in nitrate-N loading are required if the nitrate level of surface water is to recover to the standard in the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines.

  11. Effect of Diel Activity Patterns and Harvesting Pressure on the Diversity and Biomass of Sea Cucumbers in Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckius, Christine; Albert, Simon; Tibbetts, Ian; Udy, James

    2010-05-01

    A marked decline in the contribution by Marovo Lagoon to the annual total bêche-de-mer production of the Solomon Islands from 58% in 1989 to 17% in 2003 prompted investigation of their current biomass and diversity. We also assessed changes to critical ecological services and the prospects for population recovery following a fisheries closure. Day time and nocturnal transects revealed a mean abundance of 32.4 (SD = 5.3) low value species per ha (e.g. Holothuria atra, H. edulis, H. coluber and Thelenota anax) and 15.2 (SD = 2.7) high value species per ha (e.g. H. fuscogilva, Actinopyga lecanora, Stichopus hermanni and Thelenota ananas). Following a 17 month closure of the fishery (2005-2007), the abundance of bêche-de-mer was reported by local fisherman to have increased; however, no scientific studies were conducted that can substantiate this community held belief. The current study aimed to document the impact of re-opening the fishery in 2007 and documented a decline in high value species of 9% over a 5 month period following the opening of the fishery, while low value species continued to increase in abundance by 11%, over the same period based on nocturnal surveys. Continued observation of the recovery, post closure, and any subsequent harvest in Marovo will be required to properly understand population dynamics and provide a sustainable harvest plan for bêche-de-mer in the future.

  12. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  13. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  14. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  15. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  16. Impact of the urban heat island on residents’ energy consumption: a case study of Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Pang, Huaji; Guo, Wenhui

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines impact of urban heat island on residents’ energy consumption through comparative analyses of monthly air temperature data observed in Qingdao, Laoshan and Huangdao weather stations. The results show effect of urban heat island is close related with urbanization speed. Recently, effects of urban heat island of Laoshan and Huangdao exceed that of Qingdao, consistent with rapid urbanization in Laoshan and Huangdao. Enhanced effect of urban heat island induces surface air temperature to rise up, further increase electricity energy consumption for air conditioning use in summer and reduce coal consumption for residents heating in winter. Comparing change of residents’ energy consumption in summer and winter, increments in summer are less than reduction in winter. This implicates effect of urban heat island is more obvious in winter than in summer.

  17. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan’an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study Yan’an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI and land use/land cover (LULC types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990–2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990–2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon’s diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment.

  18. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan’an City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Hao, Hongke; Zhang, Fangfang; Hu, Youning

    2017-01-01

    In this study Yan’an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990–2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990–2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon’s diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment. PMID:28933770

  19. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan'an City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Wang, Dexiang; Hao, Hongke; Zhang, Fangfang; Hu, Youning

    2017-07-26

    In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon's diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment.

  20. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  1. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  3. Matrix formulations of radiative transfer including the polarization effect in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yoshifumi; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    A vector radiative transfer model has been developed for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The radiative transfer scheme is based on the discrete ordinate and matrix operator methods. The reflection/transmission matrices and source vectors are obtained for each atmospheric or oceanic layer through the discrete ordinate solution. The vertically inhomogeneous system is constructed using the matrix operator method, which combines the radiative interaction between the layers. This radiative transfer scheme is flexible for a vertically inhomogeneous system including the oceanic layers as well as the ocean surface. Compared with the benchmark results, the computational error attributable to the radiative transfer scheme has been less than 0.1% in the case of eight discrete ordinate directions. Furthermore, increasing the number of discrete ordinate directions has produced computations with higher accuracy. Based on our radiative transfer scheme, simulations of sun glint radiation have been presented for wavelengths of 670 nm and 1.6 μm. Results of simulations have shown reasonable characteristics of the sun glint radiation such as the strongly peaked, but slightly smoothed radiation by the rough ocean surface and depolarization through multiple scattering by the aerosol-loaded atmosphere. The radiative transfer scheme of this paper has been implemented to the numerical model named Pstar as one of the OpenCLASTR/STAR radiative transfer code systems, which are widely applied to many radiative transfer problems, including the polarization effect.

  4. Distribution of haemic neoplasia of soft-shelled clams in Prince Edward Island: an examination of anthropogenic factors and effects of experimental fungicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, D R; MacCallum, G S; McGladdery, S E; Davidson, J

    2016-05-01

    Haemic neoplasia was first considered a disease of concern for soft-shell clams in Prince Edward Island (PEI) when it was diagnosed as the cause of mass mortalities in 1999. The aetiology of the disease remains elusive, but has been associated with environmental degradation. In this study, a 2-year (2001-2002) geographic and seasonal survey was conducted for haemic neoplasia, using histology, in soft-shell clams from PEI. In addition, using geographic information system, the association between anthropogenic factors in the watersheds at sites affected by haemic neoplasia and the prevalence of the disease was investigated. Finally, histopathological changes were assessed in soft-shell clams experimentally exposed to four concentrations of chlorothalonil for 27 days. Haemic neoplasia could not be induced at any concentration of chlorothalonil. Clams exposed to a concentration of 1000 μg L(-1) of the fungicide, however, exhibited an LC50 of 17 days. Although this information provides additional toxicity information (LC50) for soft-shell clams, further experiments are required to assess longer term exposure to the fungicide. The highest prevalences of haemic neoplasia in PEI were found in North River and Miscouche (28.3-50.9% and 33.0-77.8%, respectively). No clear seasonal patterns were found. There was a correlation between haemic neoplasia prevalence and watersheds with a high percentage of potato acreage and forest coverage (P = 0.026 and P = 0.045, respectively), suggesting a link between anthropogenic activity and the prevalence of the disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of Sediment Characteristics on the Accumulation and Transfer Rate of Heavy Metals in Mangrove Trees (Case Study: Nayband Bay and Qeshm Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moradi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the accumulation of heavy metals of Nickel (Ni and Vanadium (V was measured in habitat sediments, mangrove roots and leaves (Avicennia marina. Besides, the transfer of Ni and V from the sediment to root and to the leaves in Nayband Bay and Qeshm Island were studied. The samples were gathered by Systematic-random Sampling using selective transects at 16 stations at the end of mangrove cover in both sides of land and sea in two habitats with three replicates of sediment, root and leave samples. The bed characteristics including sediment texture, pH, EC and organic matters were determined. The concentration of Ni and V was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and then the metal transfer factor from sediment to root and root to leave was calculated. The correlation of the metal transfer factor and sediment characteristics was analyzed using the SPSS software (version 19. In the sample of sediments, roots and leaves respectively, the most concentrations of nickel and vanadium were measured. About transfer of Ni and V, transfer rate from sediment to root was much higher than from root to leave. In addition, the highest transfer factor from sediment to root and from root to leave was obtained for V in Qeshm habitat (0.502 and for Ni (0.749 in Nayband Bay. It seems that the difference between sediment textures in the two habitats and widespread oil and gas activities in Nayband Bay might be the notable reasons for the difference in transfer rates in two the habitats. Therefore, we conclude that the finer texture of Qeshm habitat increased transfer of V from sediment to root, and the coarser texture associated with increasing air pollution in Nayband Bay caused more Ni to accumulate in the leaves.

  6. The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen on the thermosphere/ionosphere system over the Argentine Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Wells

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past the global, fully coupled, time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's thermosphere/ionosphere/plasmasphere (CTIP has been unable to reproduce accurately observed values of the maximum plasma frequency, foF2, at extreme geophysical locations such as the Argentine Islands during the summer solstice where the ionosphere remains in sunlight throughout the day. This is probably because the seasonal dependence of thermospheric cooling by 5.3 µm nitric oxide has been neglected and the photodissociation of O2 and heating rate calculations have been over-simplified. Now we have included an up-to-date calculation of the solar EUV and UV thermospheric heating rate, coupled with a new calculation of a diurnally varying O2 photodissociation rate, in the model. Seasonally dependent 5.3 µm nitric oxide cooling is also included. With these important improvements, it is found that model values of foF2 are in substantially better agreement with observation. The height of the F2-peak is reduced throughout the day, but remains within acceptable limits of values derived from observation, except at around 0600 h LT. We also carry out two studies of the sensitivity of the upper atmosphere to changes in the magnitude of nitric oxide cooling and photodissociation rates. We find that hmF2 increases with increased heating, whilst foF2 falls. The converse is true for an increase in the cooling rate. Similarly increasing the photodissociation rate increases both hmF2 and foF2. These changes are explained in terms of changes in the neutral temperature, composition and neutral wind.

  7. Effects of steam-heating processes on a stratified volcanic aquifer: Stable isotopes and dissolved gases in thermal waters of Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, C.; Capasso, G.; Paonita, A.; Favara, R.

    2010-05-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of major-ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes measured in water wells at Vulcano Island since 1988. The work focuses on a quantitative model describing steam condensation and boiling phenomena in shallow water bodies. The model is based on the differences in partition coefficients between liquid water and vapor characterizing oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, as well as volcanic gases (CO 2, S species, and HCl). Based on both physical conditions of aquifers identified during drilling campaigns and the composition of the volcanic vapor, mass and enthalpy balances are applied in a multistep process of steam separation and condensation in shallower aquifers. By comparing the model results with measured data, we infer that (i) strong isotope enrichment observed in some shallow thermal waters can result from an increasing mass rate of condensing deep vapor, even in water meteoric in origin; (ii) the high CO 2 content measured in the fumarolic vapor during 1988-1993 affected the δ18O value of the steam-heated water due to CO 2-H 2O isotope exchange; (iii) the high pCO 2 measured in the coldest and peripheral waters are explained by the progressive enrichment of this gas in the vapor phase during multistep boiling; and (iv) the high Cl - and SO 42-contents in the hottest waters can be attributed to the direct condensation (single-step) of volcanic vapor. The model also takes into account both the mass fluxes and the compositions of the involved endmembers (steam and shallow groundwater), which provides important inferences on the modifications observed or expected during periods of increasing mass and heat input from depth.

  8. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements inclu