WorldWideScience

Sample records for island zoom showing

  1. Zoom in, zoom out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2011-03-01

    Zoom buttons on digital devices let us examine images from many viewpoints. They also provide an apt metaphor for modes of strategic thinking. Some people prefer to see things up close, others from afar. Both perspectives have virtues. But they should not be fixed positions, says Harvard Business School's Kanter. To get a complete picture, leaders need to zoom in and zoom out. A close-in perspective is often found in relationship-intensive settings. It brings details into sharp focus and makes opportunities look large and compelling. But it can have significant downsides. Leaders who prefer to zoom in tend to create policies and systems that depend too much on politics and favors. They can focus too closely on personal status and on turf protection. And they often miss the big picture. When leaders zoom out, they can see events in context and as examples of general trends. They are able to make decisions based on principles. Yet a far-out perspective also has traps. Leaders can be so high above the fray that they don't recognize emerging threats. Having zoomed out to examine all possible routes, they may fail to notice when the moment is right for action on one path. They may also seem too remote and aloof to their staffs. The best leaders can zoom in to examine problems and then zoom out to look for patterns and causes. They don't divide the world into extremes-idiosyncratic or structural, situational or strategic, emotional or contextual. The point is not to choose one over the other but to learn to move across a continuum of perspectives.

  2. Robust feedback zoom tracking for digital video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tengyue; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Zoom tracking is an important function in video surveillance, particularly in traffic management and security monitoring. It involves keeping an object of interest in focus during the zoom operation. Zoom tracking is typically achieved by moving the zoom and focus motors in lenses following the so-called "trace curve", which shows the in-focus motor positions versus the zoom motor positions for a specific object distance. The main task of a zoom tracking approach is to accurately estimate the trace curve for the specified object. Because a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller has historically been considered to be the best controller in the absence of knowledge of the underlying process and its high-quality performance in motor control, in this paper, we propose a novel feedback zoom tracking (FZT) approach based on the geometric trace curve estimation and PID feedback controller. The performance of this approach is compared with existing zoom tracking methods in digital video surveillance. The real-time implementation results obtained on an actual digital video platform indicate that the developed FZT approach not only solves the traditional one-to-many mapping problem without pre-training but also improves the robustness for tracking moving or switching objects which is the key challenge in video surveillance.

  3. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  4. Population exposure to smoking and tobacco branding in the UK reality show 'Love Island'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alexander B; Opazo Breton, Magdalena; Cranwell, Jo; Britton, John; Murray, Rachael L

    2018-02-05

    Reality television shows are popular with children and young adults; inclusion of tobacco imagery in these programmes is likely to cause smoking in these groups. Series 3 of the UK reality show Love Island, broadcast in 2017, attracted widespread media criticism for high levels of smoking depicted. We have quantified this tobacco content and estimated the UK population exposure to generic and branded tobacco imagery generated by the show. We used 1-min interval coding to quantify actual or implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia or branding, in alternate episodes of series 3 of Love Island, and Census data and viewing figures from Kantar Media to estimate gross and per capita tobacco impressions. We coded 21 episodes comprising 1001 min of content. Tobacco imagery occurred in 204 (20%) intervals; the frequency of appearances fell significantly after media criticism. An identifiable cigarette brand, Lucky Strike Double Click, appeared in 16 intervals. The 21 episodes delivered an estimated 559 million gross tobacco impressions to the UK population, predominantly to women, including 47 million to children aged branding, including 4 million to children branded tobacco impressions both to children and adults in the UK. More stringent controls on tobacco content in television programmes are urgently needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Eye-gaze control of the computer interface: Discrimination of zoom intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis methodology and associated experiment were developed to assess whether definable and repeatable signatures of eye-gaze characteristics are evident, preceding a decision to zoom-in, zoom-out, or not to zoom at a computer interface. This user intent discrimination procedure can have broad application in disability aids and telerobotic control. Eye-gaze was collected from 10 subjects in a controlled experiment, requiring zoom decisions. The eye-gaze data were clustered, then fed into a multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) for optimal definition of heuristics separating the zoom-in, zoom-out, and no-zoom conditions. Confusion matrix analyses showed that a number of variable combinations classified at a statistically significant level, but practical significance was more difficult to establish. Composite contour plots demonstrated the regions in parameter space consistently assigned by the MDA to unique zoom conditions. Peak classification occurred at about 1200--1600 msec. Improvements in the methodology to achieve practical real-time zoom control are considered

  6. ZOOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2016-01-01

    This article posits reflections from the author’s mature body of work that resulted in sizeable national (Denmark) and international (European) funded projects, a patent, commercial product, and a Serious Games company. Main focus is on sharing a two-stage in-action and on-action emergent model...... for evaluating the use of ICT (serious games and creative expression) in healthcare and learning intervention. The model, first published in 2005, being emergent, has evolved to suggest being applicable beyond existing contexts and situations e.g. informal, non-formal and formal. Thus, to advance the model...

  7. Zoom

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This brilliantly inventive fantasy epic by the award-winning author of Watership Down immerses the reader in a medieval world complete with created languages, detailed maps and elaborate traditions and rituals. Centring on the long-awaited reincarnation of a giant bear among the half-barbaric Orelgan people, Shardik''s appearance sets off a violent chain of events as faith in his divinity sweeps the land. Closest to the bear is the hunter Kelderek, a naturally pious, ignorant, well-meaning man who becomes - in his dedication to Shardik - a prophet, victorious soldier, corrupt priest-king and r

  8. Continuous zoom antenna for mobile visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebin; Tang, Yi; Cui, Lu; Bai, Tingzhu

    2015-11-10

    In this paper, we design a continuous zoom antenna for mobile visible light communication (VLC). In the design, a right-angle reflecting prism was adopted to fold the space optical path, thus decreasing the antenna thickness. The surface of each lens in the antenna is spherical, and the system cost is relatively low. Simulation results indicated that the designed system achieved the following performance: zoom ratio of 2.44, field of view (FOV) range of 18°-48°, system gain of 16.8, and system size of 18 mm×6  mm. Finally, we established an indoor VLC system model in a room the size of 5  m ×5  m ×3  m and compared the detection results of the zoom antenna and fixed-focus antenna obtained in a multisource communication environment, a mobile VLC environment, and a multiple-input multiple-output communication environment. The simulation results indicated that the continuous zoom antenna could realize large FOV and high gain. Moreover, the system showed improved stability, mobility, and environmental applicability.

  9. Super-Resolution for Synthetic Zooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical zooming is an important feature of imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate a low-cost signal processing alternative to optical zooming—synthetic zooming by super-resolution (SR techniques. Synthetic zooming is achieved by registering a sequence of low-resolution (LR images acquired at varying focal lengths and reconstructing the SR image at a larger focal length or increased spatial resolution. Under the assumptions of constant scene depth and zooming speed, we argue that the motion trajectories of all physical points are related to each other by a unique vanishing point and present a robust technique for estimating its D coordinate. Such a line-geometry-based registration is the foundation of SR for synthetic zooming. We address the issue of data inconsistency arising from the varying focal length of optical lens during the zooming process. To overcome the difficulty of data inconsistency, we propose a two-stage Delaunay-triangulation-based interpolation for fusing the LR image data. We also present a PDE-based nonlinear deblurring to accommodate the blindness and variation of sensor point spread functions. Simulation results with real-world images have verified the effectiveness of the proposed SR techniques for synthetic zooming.

  10. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ 15 N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ 15 N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hamilton

    Full Text Available The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  12. Slow Motion and Zoom in HD Digital Videos Using Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Murroni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Slow motion replay and spatial zooming are special effects used in digital video rendering. At present, most techniques to perform digital spatial zoom and slow motion are based on interpolation for both enlarging the size of the original pictures and generating additional intermediate frames. Mainly, interpolation is done either by linear or cubic spline functions or by motion estimation/compensation which both can be applied pixel by pixel, or by partitioning frames into blocks. Purpose of this paper is to present an alternative technique combining fractals theory and wavelet decomposition to achieve spatial zoom and slow motion replay of HD digital color video sequences. Fast scene change detection, active scene detection, wavelet subband analysis, and color fractal coding based on Earth Mover's Distance (EMD measure are used to reduce computational load and to improve visual quality. Experiments show that the proposed scheme achieves better results in terms of overall visual quality compared to the state-of-the-art techniques.

  13. Electrostatic afocal-zoom lens design using computer optimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe the detailed design of a five-element electrostatic afocal-zoom lens. • The simplex optimization is used to optimize lens voltages. • The method can be applied to multi-element electrostatic lenses. - Abstract: Electron optics is the key to the successful operation of electron collision experiments where well designed electrostatic lenses are needed to drive electron beam before and after the collision. In this work, the imaging properties and aberration analysis of an electrostatic afocal-zoom lens design were investigated using a computer optimization technique. We have found a whole new range of voltage combinations that has gone unnoticed until now. A full range of voltage ratios and spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients were systematically analyzed with a range of magnifications between 0.3 and 3.2. The grid-shadow evaluation was also employed to show the effect of spherical aberration. The technique is found to be useful for searching the optimal configuration in a multi-element lens system.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Video-Zoom Driven Digital Audio-Zoom System for Portable Digital Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Seon Man; Kim, Hong Kook; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo; Yun, Su Won

    In this paper, we propose a video-zoom driven audio-zoom algorithm in order to provide audio zooming effects in accordance with the degree of video-zoom. The proposed algorithm is designed based on a super-directive beamformer operating with a 4-channel microphone system, in conjunction with a soft masking process that considers the phase differences between microphones. Thus, the audio-zoom processed signal is obtained by multiplying an audio gain derived from a video-zoom level by the masked signal. After all, a real-time audio-zoom system is implemented on an ARM-CORETEX-A8 having a clock speed of 600 MHz after different levels of optimization are performed such as algorithmic level, C-code, and memory optimizations. To evaluate the complexity of the proposed real-time audio-zoom system, test data whose length is 21.3 seconds long is sampled at 48 kHz. As a result, it is shown from the experiments that the processing time for the proposed audio-zoom system occupies 14.6% or less of the ARM clock cycles. It is also shown from the experimental results performed in a semi-anechoic chamber that the signal with the front direction can be amplified by approximately 10 dB compared to the other directions.

  15. The Zoom Lens: A Case Study in Geometrical Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, Alan; Scepanovic, Misa

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a case study on a motion picture company considering the purchase of a newly developed zoom lens in which students act as the engineers designing the zoom lens based on the criteria of company's specifications. Focuses on geometrical optics. Includes teaching notes and classroom management strategies. (YDS)

  16. Toward an improved haptic zooming algorithm for graphical information accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very difficult to perceive using touch. With manually created tactile diagrams, these details are often presented in separate diagrams which must be selected from among others. Being able to actively zoom in on an area of a single diagram so that the details can be presented at a reasonable size for exploration purposes seems a simpler approach for the user. However, directly using visual zooming methods have some limitations when used haptically. Therefore, a new zooming method is proposed to avoid these pitfalls. A preliminary experiment was performed to examine the usefulness of the algorithm compared to not using zooming. The results showed that the number of correct responses improved with the developed zooming algorithm and participants found it to be more usable than not using zooming for exploration of a floor map.

  17. Parameters Design for Logarithmic Quantizer Based on Zoom Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of designing suitable parameters for logarithmic quantizer such that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. Based on zoom strategy, we propose two methods for quantizer parameters design, under which it ensures that the state of the closed-loop system can load in the invariant sets after some certain moments. Then we obtain that the quantizer is unsaturated, and thus the quantization errors are bounded under the time-varying logarithm quantization strategy. On that basis, we obtain that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. A benchmark example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods, and the comparison results are illustrated.

  18. Adaptive zooming in X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabravolski, Andrei; Batenburg, Kees Joost; Sijbers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In computed tomography (CT), the source-detector system commonly rotates around the object in a circular trajectory. Such a trajectory does not allow to exploit a detector fully when scanning elongated objects. Increase the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image by optimal zooming during scanning. A new approach is proposed, in which the full width of the detector is exploited for every projection angle. This approach is based on the use of prior information about the object's convex hull to move the source as close as possible to the object, while avoiding truncation of the projections. Experiments show that the proposed approach can significantly improve reconstruction quality, producing reconstructions with smaller errors and revealing more details in the object. The proposed approach can lead to more accurate reconstructions and increased spatial resolution in the object compared to the conventional circular trajectory.

  19. Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.

    2012-06-01

    Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

  20. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer: Implication of two-state focal zooming on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froula, D. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Huang, H.; Hu, S. X.; Hill, E.; Kelly, J. H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA low-adiabat cryogenic experiments reduces the hydrodynamic efficiency by ∼35%, which lowers the calculated one-dimensional (1-D) yield by a factor of 7. CBET can be mitigated by reducing the diameter of the laser beams relative to the target diameter. Reducing the diameter of the laser beams by 30%, after a sufficient conduction zone has been generated (two-state zooming), is predicted to maintain low-mode uniformity while recovering 90% of the kinetic energy lost to CBET. A radially varying phase plate is proposed to implement two-state zooming on OMEGA. A beam propagating through the central half-diameter of the phase plate will produce a large spot, while a beam propagating through the outer annular region of the phase plate will produce a narrower spot. To generate the required two-state near-field laser-beam profile, a picket driver with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) would pass through an apodizer, forming a beam of half the standard diameter. A second main-pulse driver would co-propagate without SSD through its own apodizer, forming a full-diameter annular beam. Hydrodynamic simulations, using the designed laser spots produced by the proposed zooming scheme on OMEGA, show that implementing zooming will increase the implosion velocity by 25% resulting in a 4.5× increase in the 1-D neutron yield. Demonstrating zooming on OMEGA would validate a viable direct-drive CBET mitigation scheme and help establish a pathway to hydrodynamically equivalent direct-drive–ignition implosions by increasing the ablation pressure (1.6×), which will allow for more stable implosions at ignition-relevant velocities

  1. Fast digital zooming system using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonseok; Jeon, Jaehwan; Yu, Soohwan; Paik, Joonki

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast digital zooming system for mobile consumer cameras using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration methods. The proposed interpolation algorithm performs edge refinement along the initially estimated edge orientation using directionally steerable filters. Either the directionally weighted linear or adaptive cubic-spline interpolation filter is then selectively used according to the refined edge orientation for removing jagged artifacts in the slanted edge region. A novel image restoration algorithm is also presented for removing blurring artifacts caused by the linear or cubic-spline interpolation using the directionally adaptive truncated constrained least squares (TCLS) filter. Both proposed steerable filter-based interpolation and the TCLS-based restoration filters have a finite impulse response (FIR) structure for real time processing in an image signal processing (ISP) chain. Experimental results show that the proposed digital zooming system provides high-quality magnified images with FIR filter-based fast computational structure.

  2. Effect of zooming on texture features of ultrasonic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacou Efthyvoulos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unstable carotid plaques on subjective, visual, assessment using B-mode ultrasound scanning appear as echolucent and heterogeneous. Although previous studies on computer assisted plaque characterisation have standardised B-mode images for brightness, improving the objective assessment of echolucency, little progress has been made towards standardisation of texture analysis methods, which assess plaque heterogeneity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of image zooming during ultrasound scanning on textural features and to test whether or not resolution standardisation decreases the variability introduced. Methods Eighteen still B-mode images of carotid plaques were zoomed during carotid scanning (zoom factor 1.3 and both images were transferred to a PC and normalised. Using bilinear and bicubic interpolation, the original images were interpolated in a process of simulating off-line zoom using the same interpolation factor. With the aid of the colour-coded image, carotid plaques of the original, zoomed and two resampled images for each case were outlined and histogram, first order and second order statistics were subsequently calculated. Results Most second order statistics (21/25, 84% were significantly (p Conclusion Texture analysis of ultrasonic plaques should be performed under standardised resolution settings; otherwise a resolution normalisation algorithm should be applied.

  3. Zoom system without moving element by using two liquid crystal lenses with spherical electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren-Kai; Lin, Chia-Ping; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-08-01

    A traditional zoom system is composed of several elements moving relatively toward other components to achieve zooming. Unlike tradition system, an electrically control zoom system with liquid crystal (LC) lenses is demonstrated in this paper. To achieve zooming, we apply two LC lenses whose optical power is controlled by voltage to replace two moving lenses in traditional zoom system. The mechanism of zoom system is to use two LC lenses to form a simple zoom system. We found that with such spherical electrodes, we could operate LC lens at voltage range from 31V to 53 V for 3X tunability in optical power. For each LC lens, we use concave spherical electrode which provide lower operating voltage and great tunability in optical power, respectively. For such operating voltage and compact size, this zoom system with zoom ratio approximate 3:1 could be applied to mobile phone, camera and other applications.

  4. Optimal design of link systems using successive zooming genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Doo; Sohn, Chang-hyun; Kwon, Soon-Bum; Lim, Jae-gyoo

    2009-07-01

    Link-systems have been around for a long time and are still used to control motion in diverse applications such as automobiles, robots and industrial machinery. This study presents a procedure involving the use of a genetic algorithm for the optimal design of single four-bar link systems and a double four-bar link system used in diesel engine. We adopted the Successive Zooming Genetic Algorithm (SZGA), which has one of the most rapid convergence rates among global search algorithms. The results are verified by experiment and the Recurdyn dynamic motion analysis package. During the optimal design of single four-bar link systems, we found in the case of identical input/output (IO) angles that the initial and final configurations show certain symmetry. For the double link system, we introduced weighting factors for the multi-objective functions, which minimize the difference between output angles, providing balanced engine performance, as well as the difference between final output angle and the desired magnitudes of final output angle. We adopted a graphical method to select a proper ratio between the weighting factors.

  5. CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) colorectal cancer shows not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also low-level methylation at individual loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takako; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2008-03-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct phenotype in colorectal cancer. However, the concept of CIMP-low with less extensive CpG island methylation is still evolving. Our aim is to examine whether density of methylation in individual CpG islands was different between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors. Utilizing MethyLight technology and 889 population-based colorectal cancers, we quantified DNA methylation (methylation index, percentage of methylated reference) at 14 CpG islands, including 8 CIMP-high-specific loci (CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1). Methylation positivity in each locus was defined as methylation index>4. Low-level methylation (methylation index>0, CIMP-high-specific locus was significantly more common in 340 CIMP-low tumors (1/8-5/8 methylation-positive loci) than 133 CIMP-high tumors (> or =6/8 methylation-positive loci) and 416 CIMP-0 tumors (0/8 methylation-positive loci) (PCIMP-high, low-level methylation, was not persistently more prevalent in CIMP-low tumors. In conclusion, compared to CIMP-high and CIMP-0 tumors, CIMP-low colorectal cancers show not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also more frequent low-level methylation at individual loci. Our data may provide supporting evidence for a difference in pathogenesis of DNA methylation between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors.

  6. Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Craen, P.

    2007-02-01

    Miniaturized camera systems are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently possess auto focus functionality. Commercially available solutions without moving parts have been developed using the electrowetting technology. Here, the contact angle of a drop of a conductive or polar liquid placed on an insulating substrate can be influenced by an electric field. Besides the compensation of the axial image shift due to different object distances, mobile phones with zoom functionality are desired as a next evolutionary step. In classical mechanically compensated zoom lenses two independently driven actuators combined with precision guides are needed leading to a delicate, space consuming and expansive opto-mechanical setup. Liquid lens technology based on the electrowetting effect gives the opportunity to built adaptive lenses without moving parts thus simplifying the mechanical setup. However, with the recent commercially available liquid lens products a completely motionless and continuously adaptive zoom system with market relevant optical performance is not feasible. This is due to the limited change in optical power the liquid lenses can provide and the dispersion of the used materials. As an intermediate step towards a continuously adjustable and motionless zoom lens we propose a bifocal system sufficient for toggling between two effective focal lengths without any moving parts. The system has its mechanical counterpart in a bifocal zoom lens where only one lens group has to be moved. In a liquid lens bifocal zoom two groups of adaptable liquid lenses are required for adjusting the effective focal length and keeping the image location constant. In order to overcome the difficulties in achromatizing the lens we propose a sequential image acquisition algorithm. Here, the full color image is obtained from a sequence of monochrome images (red, green, blue) leading to a simplified optical setup.

  7. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Eugene S.; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Chambers, Earle C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. PMID:12911254

  8. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Obenschain, S. P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Aglitsky, Y. [Science Applications International, McLean, Virginia 22150 (United States); Smyth, Z.; Lehmberg, R. H. [Research Support Instruments, Inc., Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States); Terrell, S. [Commonwealth Technologies, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22315 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser ({lambda}= 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 {mu}m thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  9. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Obenschain, S. P.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Terrell, S.

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ= 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  10. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Terrell, S.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for temporal dynamics associated with attentional processing in the zoom lens paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Visuospatial processing requires wide distribution or narrow focusing of attention to certain regions in space. This mechanism is described by the zoom lens model and predicts an inverse correlation between the efficiency of processing and the size of the attentional scope. Little is known, however, about the exact timing of the effects of attentional scaling on visual searching and whether or not additional processing phases are involved in this process. Method Electroencephalographic recordings were made while participants performed a visual search task under different attentional scaling conditions. Two concentric circles of different sizes, presented to the participants at the center of a screen modulated the attentional scopes, and search arrays were distributed in the space areas indicated by these concentric circles. To ensure consistent eccentricity of the search arrays across different conditions, we limited our studies to the neural responses evoked by the search arrays distributed in the overlapping region of different attentional scopes. Results Consistent with the prediction of the zoom lens model, our behavioral data showed that reaction times for target discrimination of search arrays decreased and the associated error rates also significantly decreased, with narrowing the attentional scope. Results of the event-related potential analysis showed that the target-elicited amplitude of lateral occipital N1, rather than posterior P1, which reflects the earliest visuospatial attentional processing, was sensitive to changes in the scaling of visuospatial attention, indicating that the modulation of the effect of changes in the spatial scale of attention on visual processing occurred after the delay period of P1. The N1 generator exhibited higher activity as the attentional scope narrowed, reflecting more intensive processing resources within the attentional focus. In contrast to N1, the amplitude of N2pc increased with the

  12. Mechanically assisted liquid lens zoom system for mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Berge, B.

    2006-08-01

    Camera systems with small form factor are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently feature auto focus functionality. Ready to market solutions without moving parts have been developed by using the electrowetting technology. Besides virtually no deterioration, easy control electronics and simple and therefore cost-effective fabrication, this type of liquid lenses enables extremely fast settling times compared to mechanical approaches. As a next evolutionary step mobile phone cameras will be equipped with zoom functionality. We present first order considerations for the optical design of a miniaturized zoom system based on liquid-lenses and compare it to its mechanical counterpart. We propose a design of a zoom lens with a zoom factor of 2.5 considering state-of-the-art commercially available liquid lens products. The lens possesses auto focus capability and is based on liquid lenses and one additional mechanical actuator. The combination of liquid lenses and a single mechanical actuator enables extremely short settling times of about 20ms for the auto focus and a simplified mechanical system design leading to lower production cost and longer life time. The camera system has a mechanical outline of 24mm in length and 8mm in diameter. The lens with f/# 3.5 provides market relevant optical performance and is designed for an image circle of 6.25mm (1/2.8" format sensor).

  13. INFLUENCE OF MECHANICAL ERRORS IN A ZOOM CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gardel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As it is well known, varying the focus and zoom of a camera lens system changes the alignment of the lens components resulting in a displacement of the image centre and field of view. Thus, knowledge of how the image centre shifts may be important for some aspects of camera calibration. As shown in other papers, the pinhole model is not adequate for zoom lenses. To ensure a calibration model for these lenses, the calibration parameters must be adjusted. The geometrical modelling of a zoom lens is realized from its lens specifications. The influence on the calibration parameters is calculated by introducing mechanical errors in the mobile lenses. Figures are given describing the errors obtained in the principal point coordinates and also in its standard deviation. A comparison is then made with the errors that come from the incorrect detection of the calibration points. It is concluded that mechanical errors of actual zoom lenses can be neglected in the calibration process because detection errors have more influence on the camera parameters.

  14. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  15. Photographic zoom fisheye lens design for DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yufeng; Sasian, Jose

    2017-09-01

    Photographic fisheye lenses with fixed focal length for cameras with different sensor formats have been well developed for decades. However, photographic fisheye lenses with variable focal length are rare on the market due in part to the greater design difficulty. This paper presents a large aperture zoom fisheye lens for DSLR cameras that produces both circular and diagonal fisheye imaging for 35-mm sensors and diagonal fisheye imaging for APS-C sensors. The history and optical characteristics of fisheye lenses are briefly reviewed. Then, a 9.2- to 16.1-mm F/2.8 to F/3.5 zoom fisheye lens design is presented, including the design approach and aberration control. Image quality and tolerance performance analysis for this lens are also presented.

  16. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Explaining anomalies in intertemporal choice : a mental zooming theory

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein Terje

    2014-01-01

    I present a theory that can explain hyperbolic discounting and magnitude effects in intertemporal choice. This approach builds on theories of narrow framing and reference dependence and expands these theories in a novel way by examining hidden mental zooming in base consumption adjustment in decisions regarding intertemporal prospects of varying magnitudes and time horizons. Data from a field experiment were used to assess the theory with an incentivecompatible multiple price list approach in...

  18. UAV-based detection and spatial analyses of periglacial landforms on Demay Point (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbski, Maciej; Zmarz, Anna; Pabjanek, Piotr; Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata; Karsznia, Izabela; Chwedorzewska, Katarzyna J.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution aerial images allow detailed analyses of periglacial landforms, which is of particular importance in light of climate change and resulting changes in active layer thickness. The aim of this study is to show possibilities of using UAV-based photography to perform spatial analysis of periglacial landforms on the Demay Point peninsula, King George Island, and hence to supplement previous geomorphological studies of the South Shetland Islands. Photogrammetric flights were performed using a PW-ZOOM fixed-winged unmanned aircraft vehicle. Digital elevation models (DEM) and maps of slope and contour lines were prepared in ESRI ArcGIS 10.3 with the Spatial Analyst extension, and three-dimensional visualizations in ESRI ArcScene 10.3 software. Careful interpretation of orthophoto and DEM, allowed us to vectorize polygons of landforms, such as (i) solifluction landforms (solifluction sheets, tongues, and lobes); (ii) scarps, taluses, and a protalus rampart; (iii) patterned ground (hummocks, sorted circles, stripes, nets and labyrinths, and nonsorted nets and stripes); (iv) coastal landforms (cliffs and beaches); (v) landslides and mud flows; and (vi) stone fields and bedrock outcrops. We conclude that geomorphological studies based on commonly accessible aerial and satellite images can underestimate the spatial extent of periglacial landforms and result in incomplete inventories. The PW-ZOOM UAV is well suited to gather detailed geomorphological data and can be used in spatial analysis of periglacial landforms in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region.

  19. Engineering web maps with gradual content zoom based on streaming vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Meijers, Martijn; Šuba, Radan; van Oosterom, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Vario-scale data structures have been designed to support gradual content zoom and the progressive transfer of vector data, for use with arbitrary map scales. The focus to date has been on the server side, especially on how to convert geographic data into the proposed vario-scale structures by means of automated generalisation. This paper contributes to the ongoing vario-scale research by focusing on the client side and communication, particularly on how this works in a web-services setting. It is claimed that these functionalities are urgently needed, as many web-based applications, both desktop and mobile, require gradual content zoom, progressive transfer and a high performance level. The web-client prototypes developed in this paper make it possible to assess the behaviour of vario-scale data and to determine how users will actually see the interactions. Several different options of web-services communication architectures are possible in a vario-scale setting. These options are analysed and tested with various web-client prototypes, with respect to functionality, ease of implementation and performance (amount of transmitted data and response times). We show that the vario-scale data structure can fit in with current web-based architectures and efforts to standardise map distribution on the internet. However, to maximise the benefits of vario-scale data, a client needs to be aware of this structure. When a client needs a map to be refined (by means of a gradual content zoom operation), only the 'missing' data will be requested. This data will be sent incrementally to the client from a server. In this way, the amount of data transferred at one time is reduced, shortening the transmission time. In addition to these conceptual architecture aspects, there are many implementation and tooling design decisions at play. These will also be elaborated on in this paper. Based on the experiments conducted, we conclude that the vario-scale approach indeed supports gradual

  20. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes - but Not Natural Faces - Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer's-Related Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer's-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs - which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings - was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an "island of stability" in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies.

  1. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes – but Not Natural Faces – Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer’s-Related Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs – which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings – was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an “island of stability” in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies. PMID:23471005

  2. An island of stability: art images and natural scenes—but not natural faces—show consistent aesthetic response in Alzheimer’s-related dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eGraham

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of aesthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in aesthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved aesthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar aesthetic stability in early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs—which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings—was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with aesthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face processing in healthy and diseased ageing. Our work also gives insights into general theories of aesthetics, since people with Alzheimer’s disease are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color aesthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with Alzheimer’s disease, basic aesthetic judgment of artistic images represents an island of stability in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, aesthetic response could be a promising route to

  3. Decreased coherent motion discrimination in autism spectrum disorder: the role of attentional zoom-out deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been associated with decreased coherent dot motion (CDM performance, a task that measures magnocellular sensitivity as well as fronto-parietal attentional integration processing. In order to clarify the role of spatial attention in CDM tasks, we measured the perception of coherently moving dots displayed in the central or peripheral visual field in ASD and typically developing children. A dorsal-stream deficit in children with ASD should predict a generally poorer performance in both conditions. In our study, however, we show that in children with ASD, CDM perception was selectively impaired in the central condition. In addition, in the ASD group, CDM efficiency was correlated to the ability to zoom out the attentional focus. Importantly, autism symptoms severity was related to both the CDM and attentional zooming-out impairment. These findings suggest that a dysfunction in the attentional network might help to explain decreased CDM discrimination as well as the "core" social cognition deficits of ASD.

  4. Zooming in on the cause of the perceptual load effect in the go/no-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Cave, Kyle R

    2016-08-01

    Perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) claims that attentional capacity that is not used for the current task is allocated to irrelevant distractors. It predicts that if the attentional demands of the current task are high, distractor interference will be low. One particularly powerful demonstration of perceptual load effects on distractor processing relies on a go/no-go cue that is interpreted by either simple feature detection or feature conjunction (Lavie, 1995). However, a possible alternative interpretation of these effects is that the differential degree of distractor processing is caused by how broadly attention is allocated (attentional zoom) rather than to perceptual load. In 4 experiments, we show that when stimuli are arranged to equalize the extent of spatial attention across conditions, distractor interference varies little whether cues are defined by a simple feature or a conjunction, and that the typical perceptual load effect emerges only when attentional zoom can covary with perceptual load. These results suggest that attentional zoom can account for the differential degree of distractor processing traditionally attributed to perceptual load in the go/no-go paradigm. They also provide new insight into how different factors interact to control distractor interference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teaching Shakespeare in the Digital Age: The eZoomBook Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evain, Christine; De Marco, Chris

    2016-01-01

    What collaborative process can teachers offer in order to stimulate their students' reading of and writing on Shakespeare's plays? How can new technologies contribute to facilitating the classroom experience? The eZoomBook (eZB) template was designed for teachers to create and share multi-level digital books called "eZoomBooks" that…

  6. Design and development of a zoom lens objective for the fast breeder test reactor periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Udupa, D.V.; Shukla, R.P.

    2003-10-01

    A three lens optically compensated zoom lens useful for the 5 meter long periscope in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been designed, fabricated and tested. The zoom lens fabricated using radiation resistant glasses has a zoom ratio of 2.5 with a focal length range of l00 mm to 250 mm. The zoom lens objective has been designed for viewing the objects kept at a distance in the range of 1.5 m to 3 m from the objective lens. It is found that the zoom lens objective can be used for resolving objects with a linear resolution of 0.2 mm inside the reactor when viewed with an eye piece of focal length 50 mm. (author)

  7. Optimization design of periscope type 3X zoom lens design for a five megapixel cellphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Chao, Yu-Hao; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a periscope type 3X zoom lenses design for a five megapixel cellphone camera. The configuration of optical system uses the right angle prism in front of the zoom lenses to change the optical path rotated by a 90° angle resulting in the zoom lenses length of 6 mm. The zoom lenses can be embedded in mobile phone with a thickness of 6 mm. The zoom lenses have three groups with six elements. The half field of view is varied from 30° to 10.89°, the effective focal length is adjusted from 3.142 mm to 9.426 mm, and the F-number is changed from 2.8 to 5.13.

  8. Characterization of microcalcification: can digital monitor zooming replace magnification mammography in full-field digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Oh, Ki Keun; Han, Mooyoung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of microcalcifications in zoomed digital contact mammography with digital magnification mammography. Three radiologists with different levels of experience in mammography reviewed 120 microcalcification clusters in 111 patients with a full-field digital mammography system relying on digital magnification mammogram (MAG) images and zoomed images from contact mammography (ZOOM) using commercially available zooming systems on monitors. Each radiologist estimated the probability of malignancy and rated the image quality and confidence rate. Performance was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. All three radiologists rated MAG images higher than ZOOM images for sensitivity with statistical significance (average value, 92% vs. 87%, P<0.05) and performance by ROC analysis improved with MAG imaging. The confidence rate for diagnosis decision and the assessment of lesion characteristics were also better in MAG images than in ZOOM images with statistical significance (P<0.0001). Digital magnification mammography can enhance diagnostic performance when characterizing microcalcifications. Images zoomed from digital contact mammography cannot serve as an alternative to direct magnification digital mammography. (orig.)

  9. Zooming in on cirrus with the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanof, C.; Stefanof, A.; Beaulne, A.; Munoz Alpizar, R.; Szyrmer, W.; Blanchet, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Canadian Regional Climate Model plus a microphysical scheme: two-moments microphysics with three hydrometeor categories (cloud liquid water, pristine ice crystals and larger precipitation crystals) is used to test the simulation in forecast mode using ECMWF data at 0.4 X 0.4 degree. We are zooming in on cirrus at higher resolutions (9, 1.8, 0.36 km). We are currently using the data set measured in APEX-E3, measurements of radar, lidar, passive instruments and interpreted microphysics for some flights (G-II, C404, B200). The radar and lidar data are available for high level cirrus. The south west of Japon is the flight region. The dates are March 20, March 27 and April 2, 2003. We first focus on the March 27 frontal system. We did a rigorous synoptical analysis for the cases. The cirrus at 360 m resolution are simulated. The cloud structure and some similarities between model simulation and observations will be presented.

  10. Zooming in - zooming out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Vibeke Røn

    This paper presents the use of video diaries in ethnographic educational research among nursing students in Denmark. It is based on the researcher’s experiences from an ongoing ethnographic study focusing on the student perspective of being enrolled in a class following an experimental educational...... model. The paper presents video diaries as a way of generating qualitative data, reflects on the ethical strategies and dilemmas of using video diaries and illuminates the possibilities of allowing students to state their voices when and where they choose....

  11. Electronic zooming TV readout system for an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Matsumura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Kihara, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shimanuki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic zooming TV readout system using the X-ray zooming tube has been developed for purposes of real-time readout of very high resolution X-ray image, e.g. the output image from an X-ray microscope. The system limiting resolution is 0.2∼0.3 μm and it is easy to operate in practical applications

  12. Intuitive tactile zooming for graphics accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, T V Dianne; Ketchum, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    One possibility of providing access to visual graphics for those who are visually impaired is to present them tactually: unfortunately, details easily available to vision need to be magnified to be accessible through touch. For this, we propose an "intuitive" zooming algorithm to solve potential problems with directly applying visual zooming techniques to haptic displays that sense the current location of a user on a virtual diagram with a position sensor and, then, provide the appropriate local information either through force or tactile feedback. Our technique works by determining and then traversing the levels of an object tree hierarchy of a diagram. In this manner, the zoom steps adjust to the content to be viewed, avoid clipping and do not zoom when no object is present. The algorithm was tested using a small, "mouse-like" display with tactile feedback on pictures representing houses in a community and boats on a lake. We asked the users to answer questions related to details in the pictures. Comparing our technique to linear and logarithmic step zooming, we found a significant increase in the correctness of the responses (odds ratios of 2.64:1 and 2.31:1, respectively) and usability (differences of 36% and 19%, respectively) using our "intuitive" zooming technique.

  13. Optimal power distribution for minimizing pupil walk in a 7.5X afocal zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanyue; Zhao, Yang; Berman, Rebecca; Bodell, S. Yvonne; Fennig, Eryn; Ni, Yunhui; Papa, Jonathan C.; Yang, Tianyi; Yee, Anthony J.; Moore, Duncan T.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive design study was conducted to find the best optimal power distribution and stop location for a 7.5x afocal zoom lens that controls the pupil walk and pupil location through zoom. This afocal zoom lens is one of the three components in a VIS-SWIR high-resolution microscope for inspection of photonic chips. The microscope consists of an afocal zoom, a nine-element objective and a tube lens and has diffraction limited performance with zero vignetting. In this case, the required change in object (sample) size and resolution is achieved by the magnification change of the afocal component. This creates strict requirements for both the entrance and exit pupil locations of the afocal zoom to couple the two sides successfully. The first phase of the design study looked at conventional four group zoom lenses with positive groups in the front and back and the stop at a fixed location outside the lens but resulted in significant pupil walk. The second phase of the design study focused on several promising unconventional four-group power distribution designs with moving stops that minimized pupil walk and had an acceptable pupil location (as determined by the objective and tube lens).

  14. Zooming in on AdS3/CFT2 near a BPS bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartong, Jelle; Lei, Yang; Obers, Niels; Oling, Gerben

    2018-05-01

    Any ( d + 1)-dimensional CFT with a U(1) flavor symmetry, a BPS bound and an exactly marginal coupling admits a decoupling limit in which one zooms in on the spectrum close to the bound. This limit is an Inönü-Wigner contraction of so(2 , d+1)⊕ u(1) that leads to a relativistic algebra with a scaling generator but no conformal generators. In 2D CFTs, Lorentz boosts are abelian and by adding a second u(1) we find a contraction of two copies of sl(2, ℝ) ⊕ u(1) to two copies of P 2 c , the 2-dimensional centrally extended Poincaré algebra. We show that the bulk is described by a novel non-Lorentzian geometry that we refer to as pseudo-Newton-Cartan geometry. Both the Chern-Simons action on sl(2, ℝ) ⊕ u(1) and the entire phase space of asymptotically AdS3 spacetimes are well-behaved in the corresponding limit if we fix the radial component for the u(1) connection. With this choice, the resulting Newton-Cartan foliation structure is now associated not with time, but with the emerging holographic direction. Since the leaves of this foliation do not mix, the emergence of the holographic direction is much simpler than in AdS3 holography. Furthermore, we show that the asymptotic symmetry algebra of the limit theory consists of a left- and a right-moving warped Virasoro algebra.

  15. Nonintrusive iris image acquisition system based on a pan-tilt-zoom camera and light stripe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2009-03-01

    Although iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric technologies, it has not yet been widely used in practical applications. This is mainly due to user inconvenience during the image acquisition phase. Specifically, users try to adjust their eye position within small capture volume at a close distance from the system. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel iris image acquisition system that provides users with unconstrained environments: a large operating range, enabling movement from standing posture, and capturing good-quality iris images in an acceptable time. The proposed system has the following three contributions compared with previous works: (1) the capture volume is significantly increased by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera guided by a light stripe projection, (2) the iris location in the large capture volume is found fast due to 1-D vertical face searching from the user's horizontal position obtained by the light stripe projection, and (3) zooming and focusing on the user's irises at a distance are accurate and fast using the estimated 3-D position of a face by the light stripe projection and the PTZ camera. Experimental results show that the proposed system can capture good-quality iris images in 2.479 s on average at a distance of 1.5 to 3 m, while allowing a limited amount of movement by the user.

  16. ZOOM or Non-ZOOM? Assessing Spinal Cord Diffusion Tensor Imaging Protocols for Multi-Centre Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Samson

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate two spinal cord (SC diffusion tensor imaging (DTI protocols, implemented at multiple sites (using scanners from two different manufacturers, one available on any clinical scanner, and one using more advanced options currently available in the research setting, and to use an automated processing method for unbiased quantification. DTI parameters are sensitive to changes in the diseased SC. However, imaging the cord can be technically challenging due to various factors including its small size, patient-related and physiological motion, and field inhomogeneities. Rapid acquisition sequences such as Echo Planar Imaging (EPI are desirable but may suffer from image distortions. We present a multi-centre comparison of two acquisition protocols implemented on scanners from two different vendors (Siemens and Philips, one using a reduced field-of-view (rFOV EPI sequence, and one only using options available on standard clinical scanners such as outer volume suppression (OVS. Automatic analysis was performed with the Spinal Cord Toolbox for unbiased and reproducible quantification of DTI metrics in the white matter. Images acquired using the rFOV sequence appear less distorted than those acquired using OVS alone. SC DTI parameter values obtained using both sequences at all sites were consistent with previous measurements made at 3T. For the same scanner manufacturer, DTI parameter inter-site SDs were smaller for the rFOV sequence compared to the OVS sequence. The higher inter-site reproducibility (for the same manufacturer and acquisition details, i.e. ZOOM data acquired at the two Philips sites of rFOV compared to the OVS sequence supports the idea that making research options such as rFOV more widely available would improve accuracy of measurements obtained in multi-centre clinical trials. Future multi-centre studies should also aim to match the rFOV technique and signal-to-noise ratios in all

  17. Adaptation Computing Parameters of Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras for Traffic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Lin WU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Closed- CIRCUIT television (CCTV cameras have been widely used in recent years for traffic monitoring and surveillance applications. We can use CCTV cameras to extract automatically real-time traffic parameters according to the image processing and tracking technologies. Especially, the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ cameras can provide flexible view selection as well as a wider observation range, and this makes the traffic parameters can be accurately calculated. Therefore, that the parameters of PTZ cameras are calibrated plays an important role in vision-based traffic applications. However, in the specific traffic environment, which is that the license plate number of the illegal parking is located, the parameters of PTZ cameras have to be updated according to the position and distance of illegal parking. In proposed traffic monitoring systems, we use the ordinary webcam and PTZ camera. We get vanishing-point of traffic lane lines in the pixel-based coordinate system by fixed webcam. The parameters of PTZ camera can be initialized by distance of the traffic monitoring and specific objectives and vanishing-point. And then we can use the coordinate position of the illegally parked car to update the parameters of PTZ camera and then get the real word coordinate position of the illegally parked car and use it to compute the distance. The result shows the error of the tested distance and real distance is only 0.2064 meter.

  18. Low-Altitude and Slow-Speed Small Target Detection Based on Spectrum Zoom Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuwang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spectrum zoom processing based target detection algorithm for detecting the weak echo of low-altitude and slow-speed small (LSS targets in heavy ground clutter environments, which can be used to retrofit the existing radar systems. With the existing range-Doppler frequency images, the proposed method firstly concatenates the data from the same Doppler frequency slot of different images and then applies the spectrum zoom processing. After performing the clutter suppression, the target detection can be finally implemented. Through the theoretical analysis and real data verification, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can obtain a preferable spectrum zoom result and improve the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR with a very low computational load.

  19. ZebraZoom: an automated program for high-throughput behavioral analysis and categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirat, Olivier; Sternberg, Jenna R.; Severi, Kristen E.; Wyart, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish larva stands out as an emergent model organism for translational studies involving gene or drug screening thanks to its size, genetics, and permeability. At the larval stage, locomotion occurs in short episodes punctuated by periods of rest. Although phenotyping behavior is a key component of large-scale screens, it has not yet been automated in this model system. We developed ZebraZoom, a program to automatically track larvae and identify maneuvers for many animals performing discrete movements. Our program detects each episodic movement and extracts large-scale statistics on motor patterns to produce a quantification of the locomotor repertoire. We used ZebraZoom to identify motor defects induced by a glycinergic receptor antagonist. The analysis of the blind mutant atoh7 revealed small locomotor defects associated with the mutation. Using multiclass supervised machine learning, ZebraZoom categorized all episodes of movement for each larva into one of three possible maneuvers: slow forward swim, routine turn, and escape. ZebraZoom reached 91% accuracy for categorization of stereotypical maneuvers that four independent experimenters unanimously identified. For all maneuvers in the data set, ZebraZoom agreed with four experimenters in 73.2–82.5% of cases. We modeled the series of maneuvers performed by larvae as Markov chains and observed that larvae often repeated the same maneuvers within a group. When analyzing subsequent maneuvers performed by different larvae, we found that larva–larva interactions occurred as series of escapes. Overall, ZebraZoom reached the level of precision found in manual analysis but accomplished tasks in a high-throughput format necessary for large screens. PMID:23781175

  20. Development of a dry actuation conducting polymer actuator for micro-optical zoom lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Chul; Kim, Hyunseok; Nguyen, H. C.; Cho, M. S.; Lee, Y.; Nam, Jae-Do; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, J. C.; Jeong, H.-S.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) based conducting polymer actuator that is fabricated into a micro zoon lens driver. Unlike the traditional conducting polymer that normally operates in a liquid, the proposed actuator successfully provides fairly effective driving performance for the zoom lens system in a dry environment. And this paper is including the experiment results for an efficiency improvement. The result suggested by an experiment was efficient in micro optical zoom lens system. In addition, the developed design method of actuator was given consideration to design the system.

  1. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori

    2012-10-01

    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  2. Observation of slant column NO2 using the super-zoom mode of AURA-OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrieve slant column NO2 from the super-zoom mode of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI to explore its utility for understanding NOx emissions and variability. Slant column NO2 is operationally retrieved from OMI (Boersma et al., 2007; Bucsela et al., 2006 with a nadir footprint of 13 × 24 km2, the result of averaging eight detector elements on board the instrument. For 85 orbits in late 2004, OMI reported observations from individual "super-zoom" detector elements (spaced at 13 × 3 km2 at nadir. We assess the spatial response of these individual detector elements in-flight and determine an upper-bound on spatial resolution of 9 km, in good agreement with on-ground calibration (7 km FWHM. We determine the precision of the super-zoom mode to be 2.1 × 1015 molecules cm−2, approximately a factor of √8 lower than an identical retrieval at operational scale as expected if random noise dominates the uncertainty. We retrieve slant column NO2 over the Satpura power plant in India; Seoul, South Korea; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and a set of large point sources on the Rihand Reservoir in India using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. Over these sources, the super-zoom mode of OMI observes variation in slant column NO2 of up to 30 × the instrumental precision within one operational footprint.

  3. Optical zoom lens module using MEMS deformable mirrors for portable device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Shiun; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2012-10-01

    The thickness of the smart phones in today's market is usually below than 10 mm, and with the shrinking of the phone volume, the difficulty of its production of the camera lens has been increasing. Therefore, how to give the imaging device more functionality in the smaller space is one of the interesting research topics for today's mobile phone companies. In this paper, we proposed a thin optical zoom system which is combined of micro-electromechanical components and reflective optical architecture. By the adopting of the MEMS deformable mirrors, we can change their radius of curvature to reach the optical zoom in and zoom out. And because we used the all-reflective architecture, so this system has eliminated the considerable chromatic aberrations in the absence of lenses. In our system, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The smallest EFL (effective focal length) is 4.61 mm at a diagonal field angle of 52° and f/# of 5.24. The longest EFL of the module is 9.22 mm at a diagonal field angle of 27.4 with f/# of 5.03.°

  4. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  5. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  6. Real-Time Acquisition of High Quality Face Sequences from an Active Pan-Tilt-Zoom Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad A.; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    -based real-time high-quality face image acquisition system, which utilizes pan-tilt-zoom parameters of a camera to focus on a human face in a scene and employs a face quality assessment method to log the best quality faces from the captured frames. The system consists of four modules: face detection, camera...... control, face tracking, and face quality assessment before logging. Experimental results show that the proposed system can effectively log the high quality faces from the active camera in real-time (an average of 61.74ms was spent per frame) with an accuracy of 85.27% compared to human annotated data.......Traditional still camera-based facial image acquisition systems in surveillance applications produce low quality face images. This is mainly due to the distance between the camera and subjects of interest. Furthermore, people in such videos usually move around, change their head poses, and facial...

  7. Quasistatic zooming of FDTD E-field computations: the impact of down-scaling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Kamer, J.B.; Kroeze, H.; De Leeuw, A.A.C.; Lagendijk, J.J.W. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-05-01

    Due to current computer limitations, regional hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is practically limited to a resolution of 1 cm, whereas a millimetre resolution is desired. Using the centimetre resolution E-vector-field distribution, computed with, for example, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the millimetre resolution patient anatomy it is possible to obtain a millimetre resolution SAR distribution in a volume of interest (VOI) by means of quasistatic zooming. To compute the required low-resolution E-vector-field distribution, a low-resolution dielectric geometry is needed which is constructed by down-scaling the millimetre resolution dielectric geometry. In this study we have investigated which down-scaling technique results in a dielectric geometry that yields the best low-resolution E-vector-field distribution as input for quasistatic zooming. A segmented 2 mm resolution CT data set of a patient has been down-scaled to 1 cm resolution using three different techniques: 'winner-takes-all', 'volumetric averaging' and 'anisotropic volumetric averaging'. The E-vector-field distributions computed for those low-resolution dielectric geometries have been used as input for quasistatic zooming. The resulting zoomed-resolution SAR distributions were compared with a reference: the 2 mm resolution SAR distribution computed with the FDTD method. The E-vector-field distribution for both a simple phantom and the complex partial patient geometry down-scaled using 'anisotropic volumetric averaging' resulted in zoomed-resolution SAR distributions that best approximate the corresponding high-resolution SAR distribution (correlation 97, 96% and absolute averaged difference 6, 14% respectively). (author)

  8. Zooming in: high resolution 3D reconstruction of differently stained histological whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Johannes; Berger, Judith; Müller, Benedikt; Breuhahn, Kai; Grabe, Niels; Heldmann, Stefan; Homeyer, André; Lahrmann, Bernd; Laue, Hendrik; Olesch, Janine; Schwier, Michael; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Warth, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Much insight into metabolic interactions, tissue growth, and tissue organization can be gained by analyzing differently stained histological serial sections. One opportunity unavailable to classic histology is three-dimensional (3D) examination and computer aided analysis of tissue samples. In this case, registration is needed to reestablish spatial correspondence between adjacent slides that is lost during the sectioning process. Furthermore, the sectioning introduces various distortions like cuts, folding, tearing, and local deformations to the tissue, which need to be corrected in order to exploit the additional information arising from the analysis of neighboring slide images. In this paper we present a novel image registration based method for reconstructing a 3D tissue block implementing a zooming strategy around a user-defined point of interest. We efficiently align consecutive slides at increasingly fine resolution up to cell level. We use a two-step approach, where after a macroscopic, coarse alignment of the slides as preprocessing, a nonlinear, elastic registration is performed to correct local, non-uniform deformations. Being driven by the optimization of the normalized gradient field (NGF) distance measure, our method is suitable for differently stained and thus multi-modal slides. We applied our method to ultra thin serial sections (2 μm) of a human lung tumor. In total 170 slides, stained alternately with four different stains, have been registered. Thorough visual inspection of virtual cuts through the reconstructed block perpendicular to the cutting plane shows accurate alignment of vessels and other tissue structures. This observation is confirmed by a quantitative analysis. Using nonlinear image registration, our method is able to correct locally varying deformations in tissue structures and exceeds the limitations of globally linear transformations.

  9. Benefit of the UltraZoom beamforming technology in noise in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, Isabelle; Mathias, Nathalie; Flament, Jonathan; Amar, Dorith; Liagre-Callies, Amelie; Borel, Stephanie; Ambert-Dahan, Emmanuèle; Sterkers, Olivier; Bernardeschi, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to demonstrate the audiological and subjective benefits of the adaptive UltraZoom beamforming technology available in the Naída CI Q70 sound processor, in cochlear-implanted adults upgraded from a previous generation sound processor. Thirty-four adults aged between 21 and 89 years (mean 53 ± 19) were prospectively included. Nine subjects were unilaterally implanted, 11 bilaterally and 14 were bimodal users. The mean duration of cochlear implant use was 7 years (range 5-15 years). Subjects were tested in quiet with monosyllabic words and in noise with the adaptive French Matrix test in the best-aided conditions. The test setup contained a signal source in front of the subject and three noise sources at +/-90° and 180°. The noise was presented at a fixed level of 65 dB SPL and the level of speech signal was varied to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT). During the upgrade visit, subjects were tested with the Harmony and with the Naída CI sound processors in omnidirectional microphone configuration. After a take-home phase of 2 months, tests were repeated with the Naída CI processor with and without UltraZoom. Subjective assessment of the sound quality in daily environments was recorded using the APHAB questionnaire. No difference in performance was observed in quiet between the two processors. The Matrix test in noise was possible in the 21 subjects with the better performance. No difference was observed between the two processors for performance in noise when using the omnidirectional microphone. At the follow-up session, the median SRT with the Naída CI processor with UltraZoom was -4 dB compared to -0.45 dB without UltraZoom. The use of UltraZoom improved the median SRT by 3.6 dB (p noise and for speech understanding in noise (p noise. The use of UltraZoom beamforming technology, available on the new sound processor Naída CI, improves speech performance in difficult and realistic noisy conditions when the

  10. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  11. An all-silicone zoom lens in an optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Cun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    An all-silicone zoom lens is fabricated. A tunable metal ringer is fettered around the side edge of the lens. A nylon rope linking a motor is tied, encircling the notch in the metal ringer. While the motor is operating, the rope can shrink or release to change the focal length of the lens. A calculation method is developed to obtain the focal length and the zoom ratio. The testing is carried out in succession. The testing values are compared with the calculated ones, and they tally with each other well. Finally, the imaging performance of the all-silicone lens is demonstrated. The all-silicone lens has potential uses in cellphone cameras, notebook cameras, micro monitor lenses, etc. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. An all-silicone zoom lens in an optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cun-Hua

    2013-09-01

    An all-silicone zoom lens is fabricated. A tunable metal ringer is fettered around the side edge of the lens. A nylon rope linking a motor is tied, encircling the notch in the metal ringer. While the motor is operating, the rope can shrink or release to change the focal length of the lens. A calculation method is developed to obtain the focal length and the zoom ratio. The testing is carried out in succession. The testing values are compared with the calculated ones, and they tally with each other well. Finally, the imaging performance of the all-silicone lens is demonstrated. The all-silicone lens has potential uses in cellphone cameras, notebook cameras, micro monitor lenses, etc.

  13. Chromatic correction for a VIS-SWIR zoom lens using optical glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Williams, Daniel J. L.; McCarthy, Peter; Visconti, Anthony J.; Bentley, Julie L.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2015-09-01

    With the advancement in sensors, hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared (SWIR 0.9 μm to 1.7 μm) now has wide applications, including night vision, haze-penetrating imaging, etc. Most conventional optical glasses can be material candidates for designing in the SWIR as they transmit up to 2.2 μm. However, since SWIR is in the middle of the glasses' major absorption wavebands in UV and IR, the flint glasses in SWIR are less dispersive than in the visible spectrum. As a result, the glass map in the SWIR is highly compressed, with crowns and flints all clustering together. Thus correcting for chromatic aberration is more challenging in the SWIR, since the Abbé number ratio of the same glass combination is reduced. Conventionally, fluorides, such as CaF2 and BaF2, are widely used in designing SWIR system due to their unique dispersion properties, even though they are notorious for poor manufacturability or even high toxicity. For lens elements in a zoom system, the ray bundle samples different sections of the each lens aperture as the lens zooms. This creates extra uncertainty in correcting chromatic aberrations. This paper focuses on using only commercially available optical glasses to color-correct a 3X dual-band zoom lens system in the VIS-SWIR. The design tools and techniques are detailed in terms of material selections to minimize the chromatic aberrations in such a large spectrum band and all zoom positions. Examples are discussed for designs with different aperture stop locations, which considerably affect the material choices.

  14. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  15. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  16. Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bergamaschi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis inversion based on the atmospheric zoom model TM5 is used to derive top-down estimates of CH4 emissions from individual European countries for the year 2001. We employ a model zoom over Europe with 1° × 1° resolution that is two-way nested into the global model domain (with resolution of 6° × 4°. This approach ensures consistent boundary conditions for the zoom domain and thus European top-down estimates consistent with global CH4 observations. The TM5 model, driven by ECMWF analyses, simulates synoptic scale events at most European and global sites fairly well, and the use of high-frequency observations allows exploiting the information content of individual synoptic events. A detailed source attribution is presented for a comprehensive set of 56 monitoring sites, assigning the atmospheric signal to the emissions of individual European countries and larger global regions. The available observational data put significant constraints on emissions from different regions. Within Europe, in particular several Western European countries are well constrained. The inversion results suggest up to 50-90% higher anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2001 for Germany, France and UK compared to reported UNFCCC values (EEA, 2003. A recent revision of the German inventory, however, resulted in an increase of reported CH4 emissions by 68.5% (EEA, 2004, being now in very good agreement with our top-down estimate. The top-down estimate for Finland is distinctly smaller than the a priori estimate, suggesting much smaller CH4 emissions from Finnish wetlands than derived from the bottom-up inventory. The EU-15 totals are relatively close to UNFCCC values (within 4-30% and appear very robust for different inversion scenarios.

  17. Concurrent image-based visual servoing with adaptive zooming for non-cooperative rendezvous maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Jorge; Felicetti, Leonard; Pérez, Javier; Emami, M. Reza

    2018-02-01

    An image-based servo controller for the guidance of a spacecraft during non-cooperative rendezvous is presented in this paper. The controller directly utilizes the visual features from image frames of a target spacecraft for computing both attitude and orbital maneuvers concurrently. The utilization of adaptive optics, such as zooming cameras, is also addressed through developing an invariant-image servo controller. The controller allows for performing rendezvous maneuvers independently from the adjustments of the camera focal length, improving the performance and versatility of maneuvers. The stability of the proposed control scheme is proven analytically in the invariant space, and its viability is explored through numerical simulations.

  18. Effects of magnification and zooming on depth perception in digital stereomammography: an observer performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Heangping; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Bailey, Janet E; Klein, Katherine; Darner, Katie L; Sahiner, Berkman

    2003-01-01

    We are evaluating the application of stereoscopic imaging to digital mammography. In the current study, we investigated the effects of magnification and zooming on depth perception. A modular phantom was designed which contained six layers of 1-mm-thick Lexan plates, each spaced 1 mm apart. Eight to nine small, thin nylon fibrils were pasted on each plate in horizontal or vertical orientations such that they formed 25 crossing fibril pairs in a projected image. The depth separation between each fibril pair ranged from 2 to 10 mm. A change in the order of the Lexan plates changed the depth separation of the two fibrils in a pair. Stereoscopic image pairs of the phantom were acquired with a GE full-field digital mammography system. Three different phantom configurations were imaged. All images were obtained using a Rh target/Rh filter spectrum at 30 kVp tube potential and a ±3 degrees stereo shift angle. Images were acquired in both contact and 1.8X magnification geometry and an exposure range of 4 to 63 mAs was employed. The images were displayed on a Barco monitor driven by a Metheus stereo graphics board and viewed with LCD stereo glasses. Five observers participated in the study. Each observer visually judged whether the vertical fibril was in front of or behind the horizontal fibril in each fibril pair. It was found that the accuracy of depth discrimination increased with increasing fibril depth separation and x-ray exposure. The accuracy was not improved by electronic display zooming of the contact stereo images by 2X. Under conditions of high noise (low mAs) and small depth separation between the fibrils, the observers' depth discrimination ability was significantly better in stereo images acquired with geometric magnification than in images acquired with a contact technique and displayed with or without zooming. Under our experimental conditions, a 2 mm depth discrimination was achieved with over 60% accuracy on contact images with and without zooming, and

  19. Effect of a combination of flip and zooming stimuli on the performance of a visual brain-computer interface for spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiao; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bei; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2018-02-13

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems can allow their users to communicate with the external world by recognizing intention directly from their brain activity without the assistance of the peripheral motor nervous system. The P300-speller is one of the most widely used visual BCI applications. In previous studies, a flip stimulus (rotating the background area of the character) that was based on apparent motion, suffered from less refractory effects. However, its performance was not improved significantly. In addition, a presentation paradigm that used a "zooming" action (changing the size of the symbol) has been shown to evoke relatively higher P300 amplitudes and obtain a better BCI performance. To extend this method of stimuli presentation within a BCI and, consequently, to improve BCI performance, we present a new paradigm combining both the flip stimulus with a zooming action. This new presentation modality allowed BCI users to focus their attention more easily. We investigated whether such an action could combine the advantages of both types of stimuli presentation to bring a significant improvement in performance compared to the conventional flip stimulus. The experimental results showed that the proposed paradigm could obtain significantly higher classification accuracies and bit rates than the conventional flip paradigm (p<0.01).

  20. Simulations and experiments on vibration damping for zoom-holography and nano-scanning at the GINIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Markus; Luley, Peter; Sprung, Michael; Salditt, Tim

    2017-09-01

    The Göttingen Instrument for Nano-Imaging with X-ray (GINIX) is a holography endstation located at the P10 coherence beamline at PETRA III, designed and operated by the University of Göttingen in close collaboration with DESY Photon science Hamburg [1-2]. GINIX is designed as a waveguide based holography experiment with a Kirkpatrick-Baez nanofocus. Its versatility has stimulated a great manifold of imaging modalities. Today, users choose the GINIX setup not only for its few nm coherent waveguide beams (e.g. for ptychography or holography), but also to carry out scanning SAXS measurements to probe local anisotropies with sub-micron real-space and even higher reciprocal space resolution. In addition, it is possible to combine different detectors for e.g. simultaneous SAXS/WAXS and fluorescence measurements [3]. We summarise our ongoing efforts to reduce vibrations in the setup, and present latest experimental results obtained with GINIX, focusing on the unique capabilities offered by its versatile and flexible design. The overview includes results from different imaging schemes such as waveguide based zoom-tomography and user examples in WAXS geometry. We show how to correlate complementary techniques like holography and scanning SAXS and present first results obtained using a new fast sample scanner for Multilayer Zone Plate imaging..

  1. Galactic Angular Momentum in Cosmological Zoom-in Simulations. I. Disk and Bulge Components and the Galaxy-Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way-sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *-M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ˜ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ˜ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (I.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.

  2. External versus internal triggers of bar formation in cosmological zoom-in simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zana, Tommaso; Dotti, Massimo; Capelo, Pedro R.; Bonoli, Silvia; Haardt, Francesco; Mayer, Lucio; Spinoso, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of a large-scale stellar bar is one of the most striking features in disc galaxies. By means of state-of-the-art cosmological zoom-in simulations, we study the formation and evolution of bars in Milky Way-like galaxies in a fully cosmological context, including the physics of gas dissipation, star formation and supernova feedback. Our goal is to characterize the actual trigger of the non-axisymmetric perturbation that leads to the strong bar observable in the simulations at z = 0, discriminating between an internal/secular and an external/tidal origin. To this aim, we run a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations altering the original history of galaxy-satellite interactions at a time when the main galaxy, though already bar-unstable, does not feature any non-axisymmetric structure yet. We find that the main effect of a late minor merger and of a close fly-by is to delay the time of bar formation and those two dynamical events are not directly responsible for the development of the bar and do not alter significantly its global properties (e.g. its final extension). We conclude that, once the disc has grown to a mass large enough to sustain global non-axisymmetric modes, then bar formation is inevitable.

  3. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  4. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  5. Two-Dimensional Linear Inversion of GPR Data with a Shifting Zoom along the Observation Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Persico

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear inverse scattering problems can be solved by regularized inversion of a matrix, whose calculation and inversion may require significant computing resources, in particular, a significant amount of RAM memory. This effort is dependent on the extent of the investigation domain, which drives a large amount of data to be gathered and a large number of unknowns to be looked for, when this domain becomes electrically large. This leads, in turn, to the problem of inversion of excessively large matrices. Here, we consider the problem of a ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey in two-dimensional (2D geometry, with antennas at an electrically short distance from the soil. In particular, we present a strategy to afford inversion of large investigation domains, based on a shifting zoom procedure. The proposed strategy was successfully validated using experimental radar data.

  6. Determination of Electron Optical Properties for Aperture Zoom Lenses Using an Artificial Neural Network Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Nimet

    2016-04-01

    Multi-element electrostatic aperture lens systems are widely used to control electron or charged particle beams in many scientific instruments. By means of applied voltages, these lens systems can be operated for different purposes. In this context, numerous methods have been performed to calculate focal properties of these lenses. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) classification method is utilized to determine the focused/unfocused charged particle beam in the image point as a function of lens voltages for multi-element electrostatic aperture lenses. A data set for training and testing of ANN is taken from the SIMION 8.1 simulation program, which is a well known and proven accuracy program in charged particle optics. Mean squared error results of this study indicate that the ANN classification method provides notable performance characteristics for electrostatic aperture zoom lenses.

  7. Signal-to-noise analysis of a birefringent spectral zooming imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wu, Haiying; Qi, Chun

    2018-05-01

    Study of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a novel spectral zooming imaging spectrometer (SZIS) based on two identical Wollaston prisms is conducted. According to the theory of radiometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy, we deduce the theoretical equations of SNR of SZIS in spectral domain with consideration of the incident wavelength and the adjustable spectral resolution. An example calculation of SNR of SZIS is performed over 400-1000 nm. The calculation results indicate that SNR with different spectral resolutions of SZIS can be optionally selected by changing the spacing between the two identical Wollaston prisms. This will provide theoretical basis for the design, development and engineering of the developed imaging spectrometer for broad spectrum and SNR requirements.

  8. Fast charged-coupled device spectrometry using zoom-wavelength optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carolan, P.G.; Conway, N.J.; Bunting, C.A.; Leahy, P.; OConnell, R.; Huxford, R.; Negus, C.R.; Wilcock, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Fast charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arrays placed at the output of visible spectrometers are used for multichord Doppler shift analyses on the COMPASS-D and START tokamaks. Unequal magnification in the horizontal and vertical axes allows for optimal matching of throughput and spectral resolution at the CCD detector. This involves cylindrical lenses in an anamorphic mounting. Optical acuity is preserved over a very wide range of wavelengths (220 nm→700 nm) by separate repositioning of all the optical elements which is accomplished by the use of zoom mechanisms. This facilitates rapid changes of wavelength allowing edge and core observations depending on the location of the emitting impurity ions. Changes to the ion temperature and velocity are recorded using 20 chords simultaneously with typical accuracies of Δv i -1 and ΔT i /T i <10% with a time resolution of <1 ms. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. OMI/Aura DOAS Total Column Ozone Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Ozone data product OMDOAO3Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3z_v003.shtml )...

  10. X-ray micro-tomography system for small-animal imaging with zoom-in imaging capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, In Kon; Cho, Myung Hye; Lee, Sang Chul; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2004-01-01

    Since a micro-tomography system capable of μm-resolution imaging cannot be used for whole-body imaging of a small laboratory animal without sacrificing its spatial resolution, it is desirable for a micro-tomography system to have local imaging capability. In this paper, we introduce an x-ray micro-tomography system capable of high-resolution imaging of a local region inside a small animal. By combining two kinds of projection data, one from a full field-of-view (FOV) scan of the whole body and the other from a limited FOV scan of the region of interest (ROI), we have obtained zoomed-in images of the ROI without any contrast anomalies commonly appearing in conventional local tomography. For experimental verification of the zoom-in imaging capability, we have integrated a micro-tomography system using a micro-focus x-ray source, a 1248 x 1248 flat-panel x-ray detector, and a precision scan mechanism. The mismatches between the two projection data caused by misalignments of the scan mechanism have been estimated with a calibration phantom, and the mismatch effects have been compensated in the image reconstruction procedure. Zoom-in imaging results of bony tissues with a spatial resolution of 10 lp mm -1 suggest that zoom-in micro-tomography can be greatly used for high-resolution imaging of a local region in small-animal studies

  11. Quantitative analysis of the improvement in high zoom maritime tracking due to real-time image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the improvement in the performance of tracking small maritime targets due to real-time enhancement of the video streams from high zoom cameras on pan-tilt pedestal. Due to atmospheric conditions these images can frequently...

  12. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  13. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  14. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  15. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yong-Lan, E-mail: ylhe_526@163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Hausmann, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.hausmann@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com [St. John' s Medical Center, Tulsa, OK (United States); Attenberger, Ulrike I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Riffel, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.riffel@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Renal zoomed diffusion-weighted imaging with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses is feasible. • z-EPI offers considerable potential for mitigating the limitations of conventional EPI techniques. • z-EPI of kidney may lead to substantial image quality improvements with reduced artifacts. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years ± 13.4, range 23–83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra{sup ®}, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. Results: With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p < 0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p = 0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or

  16. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yong-Lan; Hausmann, Daniel; Morelli, John N.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Riffel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renal zoomed diffusion-weighted imaging with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses is feasible. • z-EPI offers considerable potential for mitigating the limitations of conventional EPI techniques. • z-EPI of kidney may lead to substantial image quality improvements with reduced artifacts. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years ± 13.4, range 23–83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra ® , Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. Results: With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p < 0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p = 0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or of

  17. Improving the pseudo-randomness properties of chaotic maps using deep-zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2017-05-01

    A generalized method is proposed to compose new orbits from a given chaotic map. The method provides an approach to examine discrete-time chaotic maps in a "deep-zoom" manner by using k-digits to the right from the decimal separator of a given point from the underlying chaotic map. Interesting phenomena have been identified. Rapid randomization was observed, i.e., chaotic patterns tend to become indistinguishable when compared to the original orbits of the underlying chaotic map. Our results were presented using different graphical analyses (i.e., time-evolution, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent, Poincaré diagram, and frequency distribution). Moreover, taking advantage of this randomization improvement, we propose a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) based on the k-logistic map. The pseudo-random qualities of the proposed PRNG passed both tests successfully, i.e., DIEHARD and NIST, and were comparable with other traditional PRNGs such as the Mersenne Twister. The results suggest that simple maps such as the logistic map can be considered as good PRNG methods.

  18. Application of Automatic Zooming and Autofocusing in Microassembly using Visual Servoing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kyung-Nam; Kim, Jong-Seog

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many industrial products and their components are evolving toward miniaturization. To have more functionalities within less dimensional volume, they are usually made of various materials with different characteristics, and they are manufactured using incompatible manufacturing processes with complex geometrical shapes. For these reasons, the assembly technique for mating micro-parts so called microassembly has become important for advanced manufacturing and drawn extensive research interest. Currently, due to various difficulties arising from handling of extremely small size parts, manual assembly method has been widely used. Since this manual method is somehow timeconsuming and not productive enough, automation of micro-assembly has become an essential part for micro parts manufacturing. As an alternative, the vision sensor is widely used in microassembly. The vision sensor has a wide field of view, and it can obtain the wide range data with high speed without contact. In the previous research works, the orientation of the mating parts has not been considered for corrective motion, and, furthermore, the developed vision systems are not adaptive to accommodate various sizes of the mated parts to avoid such criticism, we propose a visual feedback system that accommodates micro parts of various sizes and parts arbitrarily oriented. In this paper, the system that employs adaptive zooming and auto focusing techniques during visual servoing is described

  19. Characterization of the Failure Site Distribution in MIM Devices Using Zoomed Wavelet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gorriz, J.; Monaghan, S.; Cherkaoui, K.; Suñé, J.; Hurley, P. K.; Miranda, E.

    2018-05-01

    The angular wavelet analysis is applied to the study of the spatial distribution of breakdown (BD) spots in Pt/HfO2/Pt capacitors with square and circular areas. The method is originally developed for rectangular areas, so a zoomed approach needs to be considered when the observation window does not coincide with the device area. The BD spots appear as a consequence of the application of electrical stress to the device. The stress generates defects within the dielectric film, a process that ends with the formation of a percolation path between the electrodes and the melting of the top metal layer because of the high release of energy. The BD spots have lateral sizes ranging from 1 μm to 3 μm and they appear as a point pattern that can be studied using spatial statistics methods. In this paper, we report the application of the angular wavelet method as a complementary tool for the analysis of the distribution of failure sites in large-area metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices. The differences between considering a continuous or a discrete wavelet and the role played by the number of BD spots are also investigated.

  20. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  1. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution has been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  2. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMAEROZ) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution have been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  3. OMI/Aura Zoom-in Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMPIXCORZ) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Pixel Corner Product in zoom-in mode, OMPIXCORZ, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  4. CityZoom UP (Urban Pollution): a computational tool for the fast generation and setup of urban scenarios for CFD and dispersion modelling simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grazziotin, Pablo Colossi

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the development of CityZoom UP, the first attempt to extend existing urban planning software in order to assist in modelling urban scenarios and setting up simulation parameters for Gaussian dispersion and CFD models. Based on the previous capabilities and graphic user interfaces of CityZoom to model and validate urban scenarios based on Master Plan regulations, new graphic user interfaces, automatic mesh generation and data conversion algorithms have been created to se...

  5. The shifting zoom: new possibilities for inverse scattering on electrically large domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; De Coster, Alberic; Lambot, Sebastien

    2017-04-01

    Inverse scattering is a subject of great interest in diagnostic problems, which are in their turn of interest for many applicative problems as investigation of cultural heritage, characterization of foundations or subservices, identification of unexploded ordnances and so on [1-4]. In particular, GPR data are usually focused by means of migration algorithms, essentially based on a linear approximation of the scattering phenomenon. Migration algorithms are popular because they are computationally efficient and do not require the inversion of a matrix, neither the calculation of the elements of a matrix. In fact, they are essentially based on the adjoint of the linearised scattering operator, which allows in the end to write the inversion formula as a suitably weighted integral of the data [5]. In particular, this makes a migration algorithm more suitable than a linear microwave tomography inversion algorithm for the reconstruction of an electrically large investigation domain. However, this computational challenge can be overcome by making use of investigation domains joined side by side, as proposed e.g. in ref. [3]. This allows to apply a microwave tomography algorithm even to large investigation domains. However, the joining side by side of sequential investigation domains introduces a problem of limited (and asymmetric) maximum view angle with regard to the targets occurring close to the edges between two adjacent domains, or possibly crossing these edges. The shifting zoom is a method that allows to overcome this difficulty by means of overlapped investigation and observation domains [6-7]. It requires more sequential inversion with respect to adjacent investigation domains, but the really required extra-time is minimal because the matrix to be inverted is calculated ones and for all, as well as its singular value decomposition: what is repeated more time is only a fast matrix-vector multiplication. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C

  6. Development of a parallel zoomed EVI sequence for high temporal resolution analysis of the BOLD response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic impulse response to any short stimulus typically lasts around 20 seconds. Thus, the detection of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is usually performed using a 2D Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, with repetition times on the order of 1 or 2 seconds. This temporal resolution is generally enough for detection purposes. Nevertheless, when trying to accurately estimate the hemodynamic response functions (HRF), higher scanning rates represent a real advantage. Thus, in order to reach a temporal resolution around 200 ms, we developed a new acquisition method, based on Echo Volumar Imaging and 2D parallel acquisition (1). Echo Volumar Imaging (EVI) has been proposed in 1977 by Mansfield (2). EVI intrinsically possesses a lot of advantages for functional neuroimaging, as a 3 D single shot acquisition method. Nevertheless, to date, only a few applications have been reported (3, 4). Actually, very restricting hardware requirements make EVI difficult to perform in satisfactory experimental conditions, even today. The critical point in EVI is the echo train duration, which is longer than in EPI, due to 3D acquisition. Indeed, at equal field of view and spatial resolutions, EVI echo train duration must be approximately equal to EPI echo train duration multiplied by the number of slices acquired in EPI. Consequently, EVI is much more sensitive than EPI to geometric distortions, which are related to phase errors, and also to signal losses, which are due to long echo times (TE). Thus, a first improvement has been brought by 'zoomed' or 'localized' EVI (5), which allows to focus on a small volume of interest and thus limit echo train durations compared to full FOV acquisitions.To reduce echo train durations, we chose to apply parallel acquisition. Moreover, since EVI is a 3D acquisition method, we are able to perform parallel acquisition and SENSE reconstruction along the two phase directions (6). The R = 4 under-sampling consists in the

  7. Structural zooming research and development of an interactive computer graphical interface for stress analysis of cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Engineering problems sometimes involve the numerical solution of boundary value problems over domains containing geometric feature with widely varying scales. Often, a detailed solution is required at one or more of these features. Small details in large structures may have profound effects upon global performance. Conversely, large-scale conditions may effect local performance. Many man-hours and CPU-hours are currently spent in modeling such problems. With the structural zooming technique, it is now possible to design an integrated program which allows the analyst to interactively focus upon a small region of interest, to modify the local geometry, and then to obtain highly accurate responses in that region which reflect both the properties of the overall structure and the local detail. A boundary integral equation analysis program, called BOAST, was recently developed for the stress analysis of cracks. This program can accurately analyze two-dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics problems with far less computational effort than existing finite element codes. An interactive computer graphical interface to BOAST was written. The graphical interface would have several requirements: it would be menu-driven, with mouse input; all aspects of input would be entered graphically; the results of a BOAST analysis would be displayed pictorially but also the user would be able to probe interactively to get numerical values of displacement and stress at desired locations within the analysis domain; the entire procedure would be integrated into a single, easy to use package; and it would be written using calls to the graphic package called HOOPS. The program is nearing completion. All of the preprocessing features are working satisfactorily and were debugged. The postprocessing features are under development, and rudimentary postprocessing should be available by the end of the summer. The program was developed and run on a VAX workstation, and must be ported to the SUN

  8. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-01-01

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 (micro)m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 (micro)m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  9. Subcutaneous ICD screening with the Boston Scientific ZOOM programmer versus a 12-lead ECG machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu C; Patton, Kristen K; Robinson, Melissa R; Poole, Jeanne E; Prutkin, Jordan M

    2018-02-24

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) requires preimplant screening to ensure appropriate sensing and reduce risk of inappropriate shocks. Screening can be performed using either an ICD programmer or a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) machine. It is unclear whether differences in signal filtering and digital sampling change the screening success rate. Subjects were recruited if they had a transvenous single-lead ICD without pacing requirements or were candidates for a new ICD. Screening was performed using both a Boston Scientific ZOOM programmer (Marlborough, MA, USA) and General Electric MAC 5000 ECG machine (Fairfield, CT, USA). A pass was defined as having at least one lead that fit within the screening template in both supine and sitting positions. A total of 69 subjects were included and 27 sets of ECG leads had differing screening results between the two machines (7%). Of these sets, 22 (81%) passed using the ECG machine but failed using the programmer and five (19%) passed using the ECG machine but failed using the programmer (P machine but failed using the programmer. No subject passed screening with the programmer but failed with the ECG machine. There can be occasional disagreement in S-ICD patient screening between an ICD programmer and ECG machine, all of whom passed with the ECG machine but failed using the programmer. On a per lead basis, the ECG machine passes more subjects. It is unknown what the inappropriate shock rate would be if an S-ICD was implanted. Clinical judgment should be used in borderline cases. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  11. Zooming into the Paraná-Etendeka silicic volcanics, southern Brasil: a physical volcanological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.; Harmon, L. J.; Tramontano, S.; Luchetti, A. C. F.; Nardy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Paraná-Etendeka volcanism led to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean during the early Cretaceous. Most Paraná research has focused on the regional scale geochemistry and geochronology. Complementarily, we have taken a physical volcanological approach to elucidate the styles and locations of silicic eruptions with a focus on extrusive vs. explosive varieties, and an ultimate goal to characterise the crustal magmatic conditions. Through satellite to microscopic observations we can zoom from volcanic edifice and deposit morphologies, remarkably preserved in the Mesozoic landscape, to primary microscopic textures. Lava domes appear in clusters with high relief and are surrounded by lower flat-topped terraces comprised of multiple tabular-shaped packages with conspicuous horizontal jointing. Joint thickness coincides with layering from mm-scale laminations to larger lens-shaped blobs up to 20 cm thick and more than a metre long. These layered deposits appear to be compressed and/or stretched into the finer laminations and grade up into the fatter lens-shaped blobs. In other regions, extensive plateaus dominate the landscape with flat-lying flow packages continuous over 10's of kilometres and possibly further. Rheomorphism is evident in places with sub-parallel joints that grade up into a zone of deformation where curvilinear to overturned joint patterns reflect lateral forcing in a more ductile flow regime. Microscopically the blobs and surrounding matrix are almost indistinguishable except for subtle differences in spherulite textures, zonal alteration and distribution of crystal sizes. Although our research is relatively nascent, our observations suggest eruptions may have ranged from edifice building effusive ones to more explosive ones, albeit possibly relatively low fire fountains feeding hybridised lava/pyroclastic flows. Some of these flows are extensive, tens to possibly hundreds of kilometres long, consistent with high eruption rates of hot magma. These

  12. UNA ESTRATEGIA DE EDUCACION AMBIENTAL EN LA ESCUELA DENOMINADA “ZOOM EN MI ENTORNO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando García Cadena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia de educación ambiental en la escuela titulada “Zoom en mi entorno”, surge como una alternativa para retomar el ámbito ambiental desde una perspectiva diferente a la tradicional, buscando que los estudiantes construyan producciones audiovisuales y diseñen herramientas visuales que generen en la comunidad educativa conciencia frente al manejo de los recursos de su entorno inmediato. Particularmente se buscó establecer sentido de pertenencia y apropiación del ambiente, desde la idea que todos podemos ser superhéroes ambientales en la sociedad en la que vivimos.   La estrategia se desarrolló en una línea, que se venía abordando en la institución años atrás llamada “el ambiente desde la comunicación” en la que se propuso el diseño de herramientas audiovisuales ligadas a la visión ambiental de la comunidad (Duarte, et al., 2013.  Sin embargo a medida que la propuesta se ha desarrollado se ha centrado en la construcción de recursos audiovisuales y visuales en busca de propiciar una educación ambiental diferente a la tradicional, que permita el cuidado y reconocimiento del entorno.    De esta manera, se ha planteado la construcción de una propuesta de innovación cuya idea se ha centrado en el diseño e implementación de estrategias que propicien la educación ambiental, desde el reconocimiento de sus problemáticas ambientales, la identificación de su entorno y la utilización de los medios de comunicación y las redes sociales para el cuidado del ambiente, cuyo objetivo gira en la  transformación de la manera de llevar el mensaje del cuidado del ambiente, realizándolo por medios audiovisuales y visuales llamativos para los miembros de la comunidad.

  13. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  14. Detection and precise mapping of germline rearrangements in BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, and MLH1 using zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staaf, Johan; Törngren, Therese; Rambech, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic hybridizat......Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic...... deletions or duplications occurring in BRCA1 (n=11), BRCA2 (n=2), MSH2 (n=7), or MLH1 (n=9). Additionally, we demonstrate its applicability for uncovering complex somatic rearrangements, exemplified by zoom-in analysis of the PTEN and CDKN2A loci in breast cancer cells. The sizes of rearrangements ranged...... from several 100 kb, including large flanking regions, to rearrangements, allowing convenient design...

  15. Un hommage à Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010) : zoom sur une représentation tridimensionnelle de l'ensemble de Mandelbrot avec 'mapping' des arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Colonna , Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    A tribute to Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010) : tridimensional zoom in on the Mandelbrot set with mapping of the arguments (Un hommage à Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010) : zoom sur une représentation tridimensionnelle de l'ensemble de Mandelbrot avec 'mapping' des arguments)

  16. Optimizing pulse shaping and zooming for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.; Watari, T.

    2010-11-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010) ], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target and using the focal zoom capability of Nike to achieve higher densities and velocities. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature achieved upon impact will complement the neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE and Office of Naval Research.

  17. Use of zooming and pulseshaping for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317(2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ~ 1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is using the focal zoom capability of Nike and shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target to achieve higher densities and velocities. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA) and Office of Naval Research. SAIC

  18. Variable diameter CO2 laser ring-cutting system adapted to a zoom microscope for applications on polymer tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Erik; Bohnert, Patrick; Kraus, Matthias; Kilper, Roland; Müller, Ute; Buchmann, Martin; Brunner, Robert

    2016-11-20

    This paper presents the conception and implementation of a variable diameter ring-cutting system for a CO2 laser with a working wavelength of 10.6 μm. The laser-cutting system is adapted to an observation zoom microscope for combined use and is applicable for the extraction of small circular areas from polymer films, such as forensic adhesive tapes in a single shot. As an important characteristic for our application, the variable diameter ring-cutting system provides telecentricity in the target area. Ring diameters are continuously tunable between 500 μm and 2 mm. A minimum width of less than 20 μm was found for the ring profile edge. The basic characteristics of the system, including telecentricity, were experimentally evaluated and demonstrated by cutting experiments on different polymer tapes and further exemplary samples.

  19. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    . Scenario PV+wind - Beside installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, analysis of the influence of 5 kW little wind turbines integrated to the energy system of the island, as well as a few 600 kW bigger wind turbines, is included in this scenario. Data necessary for the calculation is provided from Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP group). Also, survey on energy consumption on the island is done, in collaboration with Energy Regional Agency Kvarner. This papers shows in detail the scenarios above mentioned and presents the results obtained by the calculations. Each scenario also demonstrates that, in order to achieve 100% energy ''renewable'' island the installation of ancillary production capacity is necessary. (author)

  20. Detection and precise mapping of germline rearrangements in BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, and MLH1 using zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staaf, Johan; Törngren, Therese; Rambech, Eva

    2008-01-01

    deletions or duplications occurring in BRCA1 (n=11), BRCA2 (n=2), MSH2 (n=7), or MLH1 (n=9). Additionally, we demonstrate its applicability for uncovering complex somatic rearrangements, exemplified by zoom-in analysis of the PTEN and CDKN2A loci in breast cancer cells. The sizes of rearrangements ranged...

  1. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 zoomed cloud data product OMCLDO2Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omcldo2z_v003.shtml...

  2. Technical assessment of Navitar Zoom 6000 optic and Sony HDC-X310 camera for MEMS presentations and training.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegert, Carl F.

    2006-02-01

    This report evaluates a newly-available, high-definition, video camera coupled with a zoom optical system for microscopic imaging of micro-electro-mechanical systems. We did this work to support configuration of three document-camera-like stations as part of an installation in a new Microsystems building at Sandia National Laboratories. The video display walls to be installed as part of these three presentation and training stations are of extraordinary resolution and quality. The new availability of a reasonably-priced, cinema-quality, high-definition video camera offers the prospect of filling these displays with full-motion imaging of Sandia's microscopic products at a quality substantially beyond the quality of typical video microscopes. Simple and robust operation of the microscope stations will allow the extraordinary-quality imaging to contribute to Sandia's day-to-day research and training operations. This report illustrates the disappointing image quality from a camera/lens system comprised of a Sony HDC-X310 high-definition video camera coupled to a Navitar Zoom 6000 lens. We determined that this Sony camera is capable of substantially more image quality than the Navitar optic can deliver. We identified an optical doubler lens from Navitar as the component of their optical system that accounts for a substantial part of the image quality problem. While work continues to incrementally improve performance of the Navitar system, we are also evaluating optical systems from other vendors to couple to this Sony camera.

  3. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  4. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  5. Zoomed MRI Guided by Combined EEG/MEG Source Analysis: A Multimodal Approach for Optimizing Presurgical Epilepsy Work-up and its Application in a Multi-focal Epilepsy Patient Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ü; Rampp, S; Wollbrink, A; Kugel, H; Cho, J -H; Knösche, T R; Grova, C; Wellmer, J; Wolters, C H

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of source analysis based on electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) has gained considerable attention in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. However, in many cases the source analysis alone is not used to tailor surgery unless the findings are confirmed by lesions, such as, e.g., cortical malformations in MRI. For many patients, the histology of tissue resected from MRI negative epilepsy shows small lesions, which indicates the need for more sensitive MR sequences. In this paper, we describe a technique to maximize the synergy between combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis and high resolution MRI. The procedure has three main steps: (1) construction of a detailed and calibrated finite element head model that considers the variation of individual skull conductivities and white matter anisotropy, (2) EMEG source analysis performed on averaged interictal epileptic discharges (IED), (3) high resolution (0.5 mm) zoomed MR imaging, limited to small areas centered at the EMEG source locations. The proposed new diagnosis procedure was then applied in a particularly challenging case of an epilepsy patient: EMEG analysis at the peak of the IED coincided with a right frontal focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), which had been detected at standard 1 mm resolution MRI. Of higher interest, zoomed MR imaging (applying parallel transmission, 'ZOOMit') guided by EMEG at the spike onset revealed a second, fairly subtle, FCD in the left fronto-central region. The evaluation revealed that this second FCD, which had not been detectable with standard 1 mm resolution, was the trigger of the seizures.

  6. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes

  7. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  8. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  9. Design of two-DMD based zoom MW and LW dual-band IRSP using pixel fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Xu, Xiping; Qiao, Yang

    2018-06-01

    In order to test the anti-jamming ability of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) dual-band imaging system, a zoom mid-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) dual-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) based on two-digital micro-mirror device (DMD) was designed by using a projection method of pixel fusion. Two illumination systems, which illuminate the two DMDs directly with Kohler telecentric beam respectively, were combined with projection system by a spatial layout way. The distances of projection entrance pupil and illumination exit pupil were also analyzed separately. MWIR and LWIR virtual scenes were generated respectively by two DMDs and fused by a dichroic beam combiner (DBC), resulting in two radiation distributions in projected image. The optical performance of each component was evaluated by ray tracing simulations. Apparent temperature and image contrast were demonstrated by imaging experiments. On the basis of test and simulation results, the aberrations of optical system were well corrected, and the quality of projected image meets test requirements.

  10. Zoomed EPI-DWI of the head and neck with two-dimensional, spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffel, Philipp; Michaely, Henrik J.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Haneder, Stefan [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pfeuffer, Josef [Siemens Healthcare Sector, Application Development, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of zoomed diffusion-weighted EPI (z-EPI) in the head and neck in a healthy volunteer population and to compare to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI). Nine volunteers were included in this prospective, IRB-approved study. Examinations were performed on a 3 T-MR system equipped with a two-channel, fully-dynamic parallel transmit array. The acquired sequences consisted of a T2w-TSE, a c-EPI, and two z-EPI acquisitions. For quantitative assessment of distortion artefacts, DW images were fused with T2-TSE images. Misregistration of DW images with T2-TSE images was assessed in the cervical spine. For qualitative assessment, two readers ranked c-EPI and z-EPI sequences in terms of susceptibility artefacts, image blur, and overall imaging preference. ADC values of several anatomical regions were calculated and compared between sequences. Mean maximum distortion with the c-EPI was 5.9 mm ± 1.6 mm versus 2.4 mm ± 1 mm (p < 0.05) with z-EPI. Both readers found more blur and susceptibility artefacts in every case with c-EPI. No statistically significant differences in calculated ADC values were observed. z-EPI of the head and neck leads to substantial image quality improvements relative to c-EPI due to a reduction in susceptibility artefacts and image blur. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of high-resolution and standard zoom imaging modes in cone beam computed tomography for detection of longitudinal root fracture: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taramsari, Mehran; Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Bashizadeh, Parinaz; Salamat, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two imaging modes in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system in detecting root fracture in endodontically-treated teeth with fiber posts or screw posts by selecting two fields of view. In this study, 78 endodontically-treated single canal premolars were included. A post space was created in all of them. Then the teeth were randomly set in one of 6 artificial dental arches. In 39 of the 78 teeth set in the 6 dental arches, a root fracture was intentionally created. Next, a fiber post and a screw post were cemented into 26 teeth having equal the root fractures. High resolution (HiRes) and standard zoom images were provided by a CBCT device. Upon considering the reconstructed images, two observers in agreement with each other confirmed the presence or absence of root fracture. A McNemar test was used for comparing the results of the two modes. The frequency of making a correct diagnosis using the HiRes zoom imaging mode was 71.8% and in standard zoom was 59%. The overall sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing root fracture in the HiRes mode were 71.79% and 46.15% and in the standard zoom modes were 58.97% and 33.33%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the diagnostic values of the two imaging modes used in the diagnosis of root fracture or in the presence of root canal restorations. In both modes, the most true-positive results were reported in the post space group.

  12. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  13. Testing the generality of the zoom-lens model: Evidence for visual-pathway specific effects of attended-region size on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Lawrence, Rebecca K; Edwards, Mark

    2017-05-01

    There are volumes of information available to process in visual scenes. Visual spatial attention is a critically important selection mechanism that prevents these volumes from overwhelming our visual system's limited-capacity processing resources. We were interested in understanding the effect of the size of the attended area on visual perception. The prevailing model of attended-region size across cognition, perception, and neuroscience is the zoom-lens model. This model stipulates that the magnitude of perceptual processing enhancement is inversely related to the size of the attended region, such that a narrow attended-region facilitates greater perceptual enhancement than a wider region. Yet visual processing is subserved by two major visual pathways (magnocellular and parvocellular) that operate with a degree of independence in early visual processing and encode contrasting visual information. Historically, testing of the zoom-lens has used measures of spatial acuity ideally suited to parvocellular processing. This, therefore, raises questions about the generality of the zoom-lens model to different aspects of visual perception. We found that while a narrow attended-region facilitated spatial acuity and the perception of high spatial frequency targets, it had no impact on either temporal acuity or the perception of low spatial frequency targets. This pattern also held up when targets were not presented centrally. This supports the notion that visual attended-region size has dissociable effects on magnocellular versus parvocellular mediated visual processing.

  14. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  15. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  17. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  18. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  19. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  2. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  3. Mimoza: web-based semantic zooming and navigation in metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Anna; Sherman, David J

    2015-02-26

    The complexity of genome-scale metabolic models makes them quite difficult for human users to read, since they contain thousands of reactions that must be included for accurate computer simulation. Interestingly, hidden similarities between groups of reactions can be discovered, and generalized to reveal higher-level patterns. The web-based navigation system Mimoza allows a human expert to explore metabolic network models in a semantically zoomable manner: The most general view represents the compartments of the model; the next view shows the generalized versions of reactions and metabolites in each compartment; and the most detailed view represents the initial network with the generalization-based layout (where similar metabolites and reactions are placed next to each other). It allows a human expert to grasp the general structure of the network and analyze it in a top-down manner Mimoza can be installed standalone, or used on-line at http://mimoza.bordeaux.inria.fr/ , or installed in a Galaxy server for use in workflows. Mimoza views can be embedded in web pages, or downloaded as COMBINE archives.

  4. Zooming into daily life: within-person associations between physical activity and affect in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Petra; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud; Reuter, Merle; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect in daily life is linked to poorer mental and physical health. Activity could serve as an effective, low-cost intervention to improve affect. However, few prior studies have assessed physical activity and affect in everyday life, limiting the ecological validity of prior findings. This study investigates whether daily activity is associated with negative and positive evening affect in young adults. Young adults (N = 189, Mdn = 23.00) participated in an intensive longitudinal study over 10 consecutive days. Participants wore accelerometers to objectively assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity continuously throughout the day and reported their affect in time-stamped online evening diaries before going to sleep. On days when participants engaged in more activity than usual, they reported not only less depressed and angry evening affect but also more vigour and serenity in the evening. Young adults showed both less negative and more positive affect on days with more activity. Physical activity is a promising health promotion strategy for physical and mental well-being.

  5. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  6. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  7. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  8. [Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

    2009-03-01

    Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability.

  9. A DFIG Islanding Detection Scheme Based on Reactive Power Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Liu, C.; He, G. Q.; Li, G. H.; Feng, K. H.; Sun, W. W.

    2017-07-01

    A lot of research has been done on photovoltaic (the “PV”) power system islanding detection in recent years. As a comparison, much less attention has been paid to islanding in wind turbines. Meanwhile, wind turbines can work in islanding conditions for quite a long period, which can be harmful to equipments and cause safety hazards. This paper presents and examines a double fed introduction generation (the “DFIG”) islanding detection scheme based on feedback of reactive power and frequency and uses a trigger signal of reactive power infusion which can be obtained by dividing the voltage total harmonic distortion (the "THD") by the voltage THD of last cycle to avoid the deterioration of power quality. This DFIG islanding detection scheme uses feedback of reactive power current loop to amplify the frequency differences in islanding and normal conditions. Simulation results show that the DFIG islanding detection scheme is effective.

  10. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  11. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  12. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  13. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  14. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  15. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  16. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  17. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  18. Frog size on continental islands of the coast of Rio de Janeiro and the generality of the Island Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Rebouças

    Full Text Available Island Rule postulated that individuals on islands tend to dwarfism when individuals from mainland populations are large and to gigantism when mainland populations present small individuals. There has been much discussion about this rule, but only few studies were carried out aiming to reveal this pattern for anurans. Our study focused on measuring the size of individuals on islands and to find a possible pattern of size modification for insular anurans. Individuals were collected on continental islands, measured and compared to mainland populations. We selected four species with different natural history aspects during these analyses. Island parameters were compared to size of individuals in order to find an explanation to size modification. Three of the four species presented size shifting on islands. Ololygon trapicheiroi and Adenomera marmorata showed dwarfism, Boana albomarginata showed gigantism and in Thoropa miliaris there was no evident size modification. Allometric analysis also revealed differential modification, which might be a result of different selective pressures on islands in respect of mainland populations. Regression model explained most of the size modification in B. albomarginata, but not for the other species. Our results indicate that previous assumptions, usually proposed for mammals from older islands, do not fit to the anurans studied here. We support the assumption that size modification on islands are population-specific. Hence, in B. albomarginata some factor associated to competition, living area and isolation time might likely be responsible for gigantism on islands.

  19. Bifurcated states of the error-field-induced magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Li, B.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    We find that the formation of the magnetic islands due to error fields shows bifurcation when neoclassical effects are included. The bifurcation, which follows from including bootstrap current terms in a description of island growth in the presence of error fields, provides a path to avoid the island-width pole in the classical description. The theory offers possible theoretical explanations for the recent DIII-D and JT-60 experimental observations concerning confinement deterioration with increasing error field

  20. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  1. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  2. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  3. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  4. Fast T1 and T2 mapping methods: the zoomed U-FLARE sequence compared with EPI and snapshot-FLASH for abdominal imaging at 11.7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Géraldine; Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Beraza, Marta; Reese, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    A newly adapted zoomed ultrafast low-angle RARE (U-FLARE) sequence is described for abdominal imaging applications at 11.7 Tesla and compared with the standard echo-plannar imaging (EPI) and snapshot fast low angle shot (FLASH) methods. Ultrafast EPI and snapshot-FLASH protocols were evaluated to determine relaxation times in phantoms and in the mouse kidney in vivo. Owing to their apparent shortcomings, imaging artefacts, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and variability in the determination of relaxation times, these methods are compared with the newly implemented zoomed U-FLARE sequence. Snapshot-FLASH has a lower SNR when compared with the zoomed U-FLARE sequence and EPI. The variability in the measurement of relaxation times is higher in the Look-Locker sequences than in inversion recovery experiments. Respectively, the average T1 and T2 values at 11.7 Tesla are as follows: kidney cortex, 1810 and 29 ms; kidney medulla, 2100 and 25 ms; subcutaneous tumour, 2365 and 28 ms. This study demonstrates that the zoomed U-FLARE sequence yields single-shot single-slice images with good anatomical resolution and high SNR at 11.7 Tesla. Thus, it offers a viable alternative to standard protocols for mapping very fast parameters, such as T1 and T2, or dynamic processes in vivo at high field.

  5. Bone island (enostosis): current concept - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bone island can be virtually diagnosed based on its characteristic clinical and radiologic features. Typically asymptomatic, the lesion is usually an incidental finding, with a preference for the pelvis, femur, and other long bones, although it may be found anywhere in the skeleton, including the spine. Plain radiography reveals a homogeneously dense, sclerotic focus in the cancellous bone with distinctive radiating bony streaks (''thorny radiation'') that blend with the trabeculae of the host bone, creating a feathered or brush-like border. On CT scan, a bone island appears as a low-attenuation focus, and on MRI sequences it shows low signal intensity like cortical bone. A distinguishing feature of bone islands is that they are usually ''cold'' on skeletal scintigraphy. Thus, bone scan has been and continues to be the means of differentiating bone islands from the more aggressive entities. However, reports of histologically confirmed bone islands that were scintigraphically active have raised a note of caution about relying on this modality in the differential consideration of lesions otherwise characteristic of bone islands. Guides to the correct diagnosis should be looked for in the individual clinical situation and in the morphologic features of the lesion on plain radiography, CT, and MRI, without regard to the lesion's activity on bone scan. If such a lesion, however, is symptomatic and ''hot'' on scintigraphy, it demands close observation with follow-up imaging studies. (orig./VHE)

  6. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  7. A fully automated calibration method for an optical see-through head-mounted operating microscope with variable zoom and focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Hummel, Johann; Wanschitz, Felix; Ewers, Rolf; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    Ever since the development of the first applications in image-guided therapy (IGT), the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) was considered an important extension of existing IGT technologies. Several approaches to utilizing HMDs and modified medical devices for augmented reality (AR) visualization were implemented. These approaches include video-see through systems, semitransparent mirrors, modified endoscopes, and modified operating microscopes. Common to all these devices is the fact that a precise calibration between the display and three-dimensional coordinates in the patient's frame of reference is compulsory. In optical see-through devices based on complex optical systems such as operating microscopes or operating binoculars-as in the case of the system presented in this paper-this procedure can become increasingly difficult since precise camera calibration for every focus and zoom position is required. We present a method for fully automatic calibration of the operating binocular Varioscope M5 AR for the full range of zoom and focus settings available. Our method uses a special calibration pattern, a linear guide driven by a stepping motor, and special calibration software. The overlay error in the calibration plane was found to be 0.14-0.91 mm, which is less than 1% of the field of view. Using the motorized calibration rig as presented in the paper, we were also able to assess the dynamic latency when viewing augmentation graphics on a mobile target; spatial displacement due to latency was found to be in the range of 1.1-2.8 mm maximum, the disparity between the true object and its computed overlay represented latency of 0.1 s. We conclude that the automatic calibration method presented in this paper is sufficient in terms of accuracy and time requirements for standard uses of optical see-through systems in a clinical environment.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the Prostate: Advantages of Zoomed EPI with Parallel-transmit-accelerated 2D-selective Excitation Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Scherr, Michael K.; Weiss, Jakob; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Theisen, Daniel [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Dietrich, Olaf [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Pfeuffer, Josef [Siemens Healthcare, Application Development, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of 2D-selective, parallel-transmit excitation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (pTX-EPI) of the prostate, and to compare it to conventional, single-shot EPI (c-EPI). The MRI examinations of 35 patients were evaluated in this prospective study. PTX-EPI was performed with a TX-acceleration factor of 1.7 and a field of view (FOV) of 150 x 90 mm{sup 2}, whereas c-EPI used a full FOV of 380 x 297 mm{sup 2}. Two readers evaluated three different aspects of image quality on 5-point Likert scales. To quantify distortion artefacts, maximum diameters and prostate volume were determined for both techniques and compared to T2-weighted imaging. The zoomed pTX-EPI was superior to c-EPI with respect to overall image quality (3.39 ± 0.62 vs 2.45 ± 0.67) and anatomic differentiability (3.29 ± 0.65 vs 2.41 ± 0.65), each with p < 0.0001. Artefacts were significantly less severe in pTX-EPI (0.93 ± 0.73 vs 1.49 ± 1.08), p < 0.001. The quantitative analysis yielded a higher agreement of pTX-EPI with T2-weighted imaging than c-EPI with respect to coronal (ICCs: 0.95 vs 0.93) and sagittal (0.86 vs 0.73) diameters as well as prostate volume (0.94 vs 0.92). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p > 0.05). Zoomed pTX-EPI leads to substantial improvements in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the prostate with respect to different aspects of image quality and severity of artefacts. (orig.)

  9. Seed islands driven by turbulence and NTM dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraglia, M.; Agullo, O.; Poye, A.; Benkadda, S.; Horton, W.; Dubuit, N.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an issue for tokamak plasmas. Growing magnetic islands expel energetic particles from the plasma core leading to high energy fluxes in the SOL and may cause damage to the plasma facing components. The islands grow from seeds from the bootstrap current effects that oppose the negative delta-prime producing nonlinear island growth. Experimentally, the onset of NTM is quantified in terms of the beta parameter and the sawtooth period. Indeed, in experiments, (3;2) NTM magnetic islands are often triggered by sawtooth precursors. However (2;1) magnetic islands can appear without noticeable MHD event and the seed islands origin for the NTM growth is still an open question. Macroscale MHD instabilities (magnetic islands) coexist with micro-scale turbulent fluctuations and zonal flows which impact island dynamics. Nonlinear simulations show that the nonlinear beating of the fastest growing small-scale ballooning interchange modes on a low order rational surface drive a magnetic islands located on the same surface. The island size is found to be controlled by the turbulence level and modifies the NTM threshold and dynamics.

  10. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  11. Should 3K zoom function be used for detection of pneumothorax in cesium iodide/amorphous silicon flat-panel detector radiographs presented on 1K-matrix soft copies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Karin A.; Zech, C.J.; Reiser, M.F.; Bonel, H.M.; Staebler, A.; Voelk, M.; Strotzer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate observer performance in the detection of pneumothorax with cesium iodide and amorphous silicon flat-panel detector radiography (CsI/a-Si FDR) presented as 1K and 3K soft-copy images. Forty patients with and 40 patients without pneumothorax diagnosed on previous and subsequent digital storage phosphor radiography (SPR, gold standard) had follow-up chest radiographs with CsI/a-Si FDR. Four observers confirmed or excluded the diagnosis of pneumothorax according to a five-point scale first on the 1K soft-copy image and then with help of 3K zoom function (1K monitor). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for each modality (1K and 3K). The area under the curve (AUC) values for each observer were 0.7815, 0.7779, 0.7946 and 0.7066 with 1K-matrix soft copies and 0.8123, 0.7997, 0.8078 and 0.7522 with 3K zoom. Overall detection of pneumothorax was better with 3K zoom. Differences between the two display methods were not statistically significant in 3 of 4 observers (p-values between 0.13 and 0.44; observer 4: p=0.02). The detection of pneumothorax with 3K zoom is better than with 1K soft copy but not at a statistically significant level. Differences between both display methods may be subtle. Still, our results indicate that 3K zoom should be employed in clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  13. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  14. Home range and habitat use of reintroduced Javan Deer in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Javan deer which inhabit Panaitan Island (± 175 Km2 were reintroduced from Peucang Island (± 4.5 Km2 during 1978–1982 (3 males: 13 females. The information of home range and habitat use of these animals were needed for wildlife habitat management especially in the small island habitat. We measured the home range size and habitat use of Javan deer in Peucang Island and Panaitan Island and compared them. The home range size was measured using Minimum Convex Polygon and then the polygon of home ranges were used to measure the habitat use. The results showed that in general the home range size in all age class of Javan deer between both islands did not differ significantly, only subadult males in Peucang Island which have a larger home range size than subadult males in Panaitan Island. Javan deer in Panaitan Island have found suitable conditions.

  15. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  16. Clay minerals in the sediments around the Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P

    on the Island proper and the slope samples show contribution from the Ganges. Distribution of detrital minerals such as quartz and feldspar support the above conclusions. The 2 distinct clay mineral provenances result because the Andaman Islands appear to be a...

  17. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  18. Evolutionary forces shaping genomic islands of population differentiation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofer Tamara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of differentiation among populations depend both on demographic and selective factors: genetic drift and local adaptation increase population differentiation, which is eroded by gene flow and balancing selection. We describe here the genomic distribution and the properties of genomic regions with unusually high and low levels of population differentiation in humans to assess the influence of selective and neutral processes on human genetic structure. Methods Individual SNPs of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP showing significantly high or low levels of population differentiation were detected under a hierarchical-island model (HIM. A Hidden Markov Model allowed us to detect genomic regions or islands of high or low population differentiation. Results Under the HIM, only 1.5% of all SNPs are significant at the 1% level, but their genomic spatial distribution is significantly non-random. We find evidence that local adaptation shaped high-differentiation islands, as they are enriched for non-synonymous SNPs and overlap with previously identified candidate regions for positive selection. Moreover there is a negative relationship between the size of islands and recombination rate, which is stronger for islands overlapping with genes. Gene ontology analysis supports the role of diet as a major selective pressure in those highly differentiated islands. Low-differentiation islands are also enriched for non-synonymous SNPs, and contain an overly high proportion of genes belonging to the 'Oncogenesis' biological process. Conclusions Even though selection seems to be acting in shaping islands of high population differentiation, neutral demographic processes might have promoted the appearance of some genomic islands since i as much as 20% of islands are in non-genic regions ii these non-genic islands are on average two times shorter than genic islands, suggesting a more rapid erosion by recombination, and iii most loci are

  19. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  20. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  1. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  2. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  3. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  4. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  5. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  6. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T. chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T. ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T. chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T. ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T. chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T. ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T. chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  7. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  8. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  9. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  10. A Paleomagnetic Reconnaissance of the Bonin Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Kazuto

    1981-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on the volcanic rocks of the Bonin Islands (27°N, 142°E). A total of 15 sites were visited for sampling; eight sites on Chichi-jima, four on Haha-jima, two on Muko-jima and one on Yome-jima. The directions of natural remanent magnetization of the samples after alternating field demagnetization not only deflect considerably from the present geomagnetic field but they clearly show that Chichi-jima differs from the other islands. That is, the mean direc...

  11. Evolution of magnetic islands in a Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Gardner, H.J.; Meiss, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    Simulations of three-dimensional equilibria in the H-1 Heliac with the HINT code show that the size of a dangerous magnetic island should increase with plasma pressure but that a destruction of the equilibrium at low β is avoided because the rotational transform evolves to exclude the rational surface concerned. At higher pressures there is evidence of near-resonant flux surface deformations which may lead to an equilibrium limit. A reconnected equilibrium at still higher pressures exhibits a double island structure which is similar to homoclinic phase portraits which have been observed after separatrix reconnection in Hamiltonian systems. (author)

  12. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1 reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2 failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3 apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to

  13. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Christoph; Walter, Jörn; Paulsen, Martina; Lengauer, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1) reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2) failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3) apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to their characteristic

  14. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  15. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  16. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  17. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  18. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  19. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  20. The Three-Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    A description is given of the engineering design principles of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) of the Three Mile Island-2 power plant. The successive stages of the incident are recounted, with diagrammatic illustrations, and graphs showing the reactor coolant system parameters at various times after the incident. The consequential events and core damage are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  3. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches

  4. Inspection of aeronautical mechanical parts with a pan-tilt-zoom camera: an approach guided by the computer-aided design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ilisio; Orteu, Jean-José; Cornille, Nicolas; Bugarin, Florian

    2015-11-01

    We focus on quality control of mechanical parts in aeronautical context using a single pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera and a computer-aided design (CAD) model of the mechanical part. We use the CAD model to create a theoretical image of the element to be checked, which is further matched with the sensed image of the element to be inspected, using a graph theory-based approach. The matching is carried out in two stages. First, the two images are used to create two attributed graphs representing the primitives (ellipses and line segments) in the images. In the second stage, the graphs are matched using a similarity function built from the primitive parameters. The similarity scores of the matching are injected in the edges of a bipartite graph. A best-match-search procedure in the bipartite graph guarantees the uniqueness of the match solution. The method achieves promising performance in tests with synthetic data including missing elements, displaced elements, size changes, and combinations of these cases. The results open good prospects for using the method with realistic data.

  5. Radial electric field and transport near the rational surface and the magnetic island in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.

    2002-10-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and heat transport at the magnetic island in the Large Helical Device is investigated by measuring the radial profile of poloidal flow with charge exchange spectroscopy. The convective poloidal flow inside the island is observed when the n/m=1/1 external perturbation field becomes large enough to increase the magnetic island width above a critical value (15-20% of minor radius) in LHD. This convective poloidal flow results in a non-flat space potential inside the magnetic island. The sign of the curvature of the space potential depends on the radial electric field at the boundary of the magnetic island. The heat transport inside the magnetic island is studied with a cold pulse propagation technique. The experimental results show the existence of the radial electric field shear at the boundary of the magnetic island and a reduction of heat transport inside the magnetic island. (author)

  6. Evaluation on island ecological vulnerability and its spatial heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Enkang

    2017-12-15

    The evaluation on island ecological vulnerability (IEV) can help reveal the comprehensive characteristics of the island ecosystem and provide reference for controlling human activities on islands. An IEV evaluation model which reflects the land-sea dual features, natural and anthropogenic attributes, and spatial heterogeneity of the island ecosystem was established, and the southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China were taken as the study area. The IEV, its spatial heterogeneity, and its sensitivities to the evaluation elements were analyzed. Results indicated that the IEV was in status of mild vulnerability in the archipelago scale, and population pressure, ecosystem productivity, environmental quality, landscape pattern, and economic development were the sensitive elements. The IEV showed significant spatial heterogeneities both in land and surrounding waters sub-ecosystems. Construction scale control, optimization of development allocation, improvement of exploitation methods, and reasonable ecological construction are important measures to control the IEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Salt water intrusion on Uznam Island - 'Wydrzany' water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochaniec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Aquifers of Uznam Island have high risk of saline water intrusion due to geographical and geological location. Hydrogeological and geophysical researchers were taken up in order to evaluate changes in intrusion of saline water into aquifer of Uznam Island. Water intake named 'Wydrzany' was built in south part of island in 1973. Since 1975 geophysical research has shown intrusion of salt water from reservoirs and bedrock due to withdrawn of water. In 1997 geoelectrical researches evaluated changes which have taken place since 1975 in saline water intrusion into aquifers of Uznam Island. The last research result showed that intrusion front moved 1100 m to the centre of island in comparison with situation in 1975. (author)

  8. Subharmonic edge waves on a large, shallow island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mostafa A.

    1988-08-01

    Subharmonic resonance of edge waves by incident and reflected waves has been studied thus far for the case of a plane infinite beach. The analysis will be extended here to the case of a curved coastline, with a large radius of curvature and slowly varying beach slope in the longshore direction. It will be shown that the effects of such slow beach slope changes on a propagating edge wave are similar to the familiar shoaling effects on incident waves. The case of subharmonic edge wave generation on large shallow islands will be discussed in detail. The nonlinear analysis will show that within a certain range of island sizes, the generation mechanism can produce a stable standing edge wave around the island. For larger islands the solution disintegrates into two out-of-phase envelopes of opposite-going edge waves. For still larger islands, the generated progressive edge waves become unstable to sideband modulations.

  9. Socio-Spatial Typology In Karanrang Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ishak Rahmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of community life on the small island is influenced by the stimulating factor of harmonious social interaction system through cooperation, kinship, economic activity, children playing, transportation system, religion and other social activities. The social dynamics of small island communities appear in the layout and environment in which they live, how they manage and utilize space, both indoors and outdoors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socio-spatial typology of settlements on Karanrang Island, including a description of the spatial pattern of communalenvironments. Research approaches through spatial similarities and differences in the classification of behavioral setting, including physical, non-physical, socio-spatial arrangements. Karanrang Island as a research focus which has an area of 7.8 Ha is one of small islands inhabited in cluster PangkajeneIslands (Pangkep South Sulawesi, with characteristic of dense settlement, and diversity of tribe, also inhabited by 434 families. The method of this research is observation, data collection through field survey with descriptive analysis based on empirical data on meso / environment which is divided into:1 inter building space; 2 Space in the building; 3 Open space, and; 4 Environmental facilities. The results showed that classification of socio-spatial typology of communal environment is divided into four types of socio-spatial models based on the configuration of social interaction activities, namely:1 Type of Linear Centripetal, at the inter buildings space; 2 Type of Centripetal Cluster, space on the building; 3 Type of Centrifugal Cluster, at green open space/field; 4 Type of cluster Centripetal, at environmental facilities. The socio-spatial type based on actor’s activities, occupancy, and territory, can be distinguished on: 1 Type of children’s activity; 2 Type of mother’sactivity; 3 Type of father’s activity, and 4 Type of combination activity.

  10. Reduction of Islands in Full-pressure Stellarator Equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The control of magnetic islands is a crucial issue in designing Stellarators. Islands are associated with resonant radial magnetic fields at rational rotational-transform surfaces and can lead to chaos and poor plasma confinement. In this article, we show that variations in the resonant fields of a full-pressure stellarator equilibrium can be related to variations in the boundary via a coupling matrix, and inversion of this matrix determines a boundary modification for which the island content is significantly reduced. The numerical procedure is described and the results of island optimization are presented. Equilibria with islands are computed using the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver, and resonant radial fields are calculated via construction of quadratic-flux-minimizing surfaces. A design candidate for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2001], which has a large island, is used to illustrate the technique. Small variations in the boundary shape are used to reduce island size and to reverse the phase of a major island chain

  11. Kinetic theory of magnetic island stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.; Garbet, X.

    1993-10-01

    The non linear behavior of low and large wave number tearing modes is studied. The emphasis is layed on diamagnetic effects. A kinetic equation, including transport processes associated with a background of microturbulence, is used to describe the electron component. Such transport processes are shown to play a significant role in the adjustment of density and temperature profile and also in the calculation of the island rotation frequency. The fluctuating electric potential is calculated self-consistently, using the differential response of electrons and ions. Four regimes are considered, related to island width (smaller or larger than an ion Larmor radius) and transport regime (electron-ion collisions or electro-viscosity dominated). It is shown that diamagnetism does not influence the island stability for small island width in the viscous regime, as long as the constant A constraint is maintained. It turns out that the release of this constraint may strongly modify the previously calculated stability thresholds. Finally, it is found that diamagnetism is destabilizing (stabilizing) for island width smaller (larger) than an ion Larmor radius, in both resistive and viscous regimes. A typical island evolution scenario is studied which shows that even large scale tearing modes with positive Δ ' could saturate to island width of order of a few ion Larmor radii. Illustrative Δ ' threshold and island saturation size are calculated. (authors). 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  13. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  14. Leaking Underground Tanks in Rhode Island; LUSTs12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset shows the location of storage tanks and associated piping used for petroleum and certain hazardous substances that have experienced leaks as determined...

  15. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  16. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  17. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  18. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  19. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  20. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  1. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  2. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  3. Effect of Nearshore Islands on Tsunami Inundation in Shadow Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, J.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Lynett, P. J.; Synolakis, C.

    2017-12-01

    Field surveys performed in the wake of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami event have described the belief of local residents that offshore islands serve as possible tsunami sheltering mechanisms, reducing the corresponding inundation on beaches behind the islands, despite the fact that deduced inundation from debris lines show this to be in fact untrue (Hill et al. 2012). Recent numerical model studies (Stefanakis et al. 2014) have shown that inundation levels on beaches behind conical islands are indeed higher than they are on open coastlines. While work has been done on tsunami amplification on the lee side of islands (Briggs et al. 1995), no work has been done concerning tsunami inundation on beach areas behind the islands. A series of experiments to address this were conducted in the Directional Wave Basin (DWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University in summer 2016. A series of four sheet metal islands (two with a full conical section, two truncated at the water line) were placed at varying distances from the toe of a 1/10 sloping beach. Incident wave conditions consisting of solitary waves and full-stroke "dam break" waves were run over the islands. Free surface elevations, velocities, and beach runup were measured, with the intent of determining relationships between the wave condition, the island geometry and distance from the beach, and the tsunami characteristics. A series of runup measurements from a particular set of experiments can be seen in Figure 1. Based on these preliminary analyses, it was determined that: A) inundation was always amplified behind the island relative to areas outside this shadow zone; and B) inundation was generally highest with the island closest to the beach, except in the case where the tsunami wave broke prior to reaching the island. In this latter scenario, the inundation behind the island increased with island distance from the beach. The development of relationships between the inundation levels

  4. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability. Alternatively, communities on small islands might contain more dissimilar or distantly related species than on large islands because limited space and resource availability result in greater competitive exclusion among species with high niche overlap. Breeding birds were surveyed on 36 islands and two mainland sites annually from 2010 to 2014 in the Thousand Island Lake region, China. We assessed community structure of breeding birds on these subtropical land-bridge islands by integrating species' trait and evolutionary distances. We additionally analysed habitat heterogeneity and variance in size ratios to distinguish biotic and abiotic processes of community assembly. Results showed that functional-phylogenetic diversity increased with island area, and decreased with isolation. Bird communities on the mainland were more diverse and generally less clustered than island bird communities and not different than randomly assembled communities. Bird communities on islands tend to be functionally similar and phylogenetically clustered, especially on small and isolated islands. The nonrandom decline in species diversity and change in bird community structure with island area and isolation, along with the relatively homogeneous habitats on small islands, support the environmental

  5. The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.

  6. Zooming-in on floral nectar: a first exploration of nectar-associated bacteria in wild plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Herrera, Carlos M; de Vega, Clara

    2012-06-01

    Floral nectar of some animal-pollinated plants usually harbours highly adapted yeast communities which can profoundly alter nectar characteristics and, therefore, potentially have significant impacts on plant reproduction through their effects on insect foraging behaviour. Bacteria have also been occasionally observed in floral nectar, but their prevalence, phylogenetic diversity and ecological role within plant-pollinator-yeast systems remains unclear. Here we present the first reported survey of bacteria in floral nectar from a natural plant community. Culturable bacteria occurring in a total of 71 nectar samples collected from 27 South African plant species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Rarefaction-based analyses were used to assess operational taxonomic units (OTUs) richness at the plant community level using nectar drops as sampling units. Our results showed that bacteria are common inhabitants of floral nectar of South African plants (53.5% of samples yielded growth), and their communities are characterized by low species richness (18 OTUs at a 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity cut-off of 3%) and moderate phylogenetic diversity, with most isolates belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. Furthermore, isolates showed osmotolerance, catalase activity and the ability to grow under microaerobiosis, three traits that might help bacteria to overcome important factors limiting their survival and/or growth in nectar. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  8. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  9. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  10. Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS). III. Zooming Into the Methanol Peak of the Prestellar Core L1544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punanova, Anna; Caselli, Paola; Feng, Siyi; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neri, Roberto; Fontani, Francesco; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Vastel, Charlotte; Bizzocchi, Luca; Pon, Andy; Vasyunin, Anton I.; Spezzano, Silvia; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Testi, Leonardo; Viti, Serena; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Alves, Felipe; Bachiller, Rafael; Balucani, Nadia; Bianchi, Eleonora; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Caux, Emmanuel; Choudhury, Rumpa; Codella, Claudio; Dulieu, François; Favre, Cécile; Holdship, Jonathan; Jaber Al-Edhari, Ali; Kahane, Claudine; Laas, Jake; LeFloch, Bertrand; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Ospina-Zamudio, Juan; Oya, Yoko; Pineda, Jaime E.; Podio, Linda; Quenard, Davide; Rimola, Albert; Sakai, Nami; Sims, Ian R.; Taquet, Vianney; Theulé, Patrice; Ugliengo, Piero

    2018-03-01

    Toward the prestellar core L1544, the methanol (CH3OH) emission forms an asymmetric ring around the core center, where CH3OH is mostly in solid form, with a clear peak at 4000 au to the northeast of the dust continuum peak. As part of the NOEMA Large Project SOLIS (Seeds of Life in Space), the CH3OH peak has been spatially resolved to study its kinematics and physical structure and to investigate the cause behind the local enhancement. We find that methanol emission is distributed in a ridge parallel to the main axis of the dense core. The centroid velocity increases by about 0.2 km s‑1 and the velocity dispersion increases from subsonic to transonic toward the central zone of the core, where the velocity field also shows complex structure. This could be an indication of gentle accretion of material onto the core or the interaction of two filaments, producing a slow shock. We measure the rotational temperature and show that methanol is in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) only close to the dust peak, where it is significantly depleted. The CH3OH column density, N tot(CH3OH), profile has been derived with non-LTE radiative transfer modeling and compared with chemical models of a static core. The measured N tot(CH3OH) profile is consistent with model predictions, but the total column densities are one order of magnitude lower than those predicted by models, suggesting that the efficiency of reactive desorption or atomic hydrogen tunneling adopted in the model may be overestimated; or that an evolutionary model is needed to better reproduce methanol abundance. This work is based on observations carried out under project number L15AA with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer and on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  11. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  12. Modeling the Response of Human Altered Natural Barrier Island Dynamics Along Assateague Island National Seashore to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; McNamara, D.; Schupp, C.

    2009-12-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore comprises a long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Geological evidence suggests that over recent centuries Assateague Island has steadily transgressed up the continental shelf in response to rising sea level. More recently, the natural barrier island dynamics governing Assateague’s evolution have been altered by human activity in three ways: the construction of a jetty and the subsequent interruption of alongshore sediment transport on the north end of Assateague and both the ongoing and abandoned maintenance of a continuous dune system along portions of Assateague with the concomitant modification to overwash dynamics. It is unclear how these varied human alterations to the natural barrier island dynamics will influence the response of Assateague to climate change induced shifts in forcing such as increased rates of sea level rise and changing storm patterns. We use LIDAR detected morphological data of Assateague Island as initial conditions in an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of the various human altered segments of Assateague Island to forcing changes. Traditional models exploring barrier island evolution contain only cross-shore dynamics therefore lacking important alongshore-spatial dynamics in aeolian and surf zone sediment transport. Results show that including alongshore dynamics alter the steady state of Assateague relative to simulations that only include cross-shore dynamics. Results will also be presented exploring the potential for regime shifts in steady state behavior under various scenarios for the rate of sea level rise and storm climate and varying management strategies.

  13. From 3D to 4D seismic tomography at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we are going to show the advantages of a dynamic tomography 4D, versus a static image 3D related with a volcanic reactivation and eruption at El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). In this process a high number of earthquakes before and during the eruptive processes have been registered. We are going to show a 3D image as an average of the velocity structure and then the characteristics and physical properties on the medium, including the presence or not of magma. This image will be complemented with its evolution along the time, observing its volcanic dynamic and its influence over the medium properties, including its power as an important element on early warnings protocols. After more than forty years of quiet at Canary Islands, since 1971 with Teneguía eruption at La Palma Island, and more than 200 years on El Hierro Island (The last eruption known at El Hierro took place in 1793, volcán de Lomo Negro), on 19th July on 2011 the Spanish seismic national network, administered by IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional), detected an increase of local seismic activity below El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since this moment an intense swarm took place, with more than 11000 events, until 11th December, with magnitudes (MLg) from 0.2 to 4.4. In this period two eruptive processes have been declared in front of the South coast of El Hierro island, and they have not finished yet. This seismic swarm has allowed carrying out a 3D seismic tomography, using P and S waves traveltimes. It has showed a low velocity from the North to the South. On the other hand, we have performed a 4D seismic tomography, taking the events occurred at different intervals of time. We can observe the evolution of the negative anomaly along the time, from the North to the South, where has taken place La Restinga submarine eruption. 4D seismic tomography is an innovative and powerful tool able to show the evolution in time of a volcanic process.

  14. 77 FR 49730 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and would not create an environmental risk to health or risk to... of the Port Buffalo has determined that hydroplane racing presents significant hazards to public...

  15. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Damare, S.R.

    . 2005, Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the rhizosphere of crop plants of Korea. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 37, 1970–1974. 6. Collins C.H., Lyne P.M., 1980, Microbiological methods. London: Butterworth and Co..., Studies on phosphobacteriain Cochin Backwater. J. Mar. Biolog Associ. India. 29, 297–305. 21. Ramachandran K., Srinivasan V., Hamza S., Anandaraj M., 2007, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere soil and its growth promotion...

  16. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  17. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  18. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  19. Zooming in on children's behavior during delay of gratification: Disentangling impulsigenic and volitional processes underlying self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Blair, Clancy

    2017-02-01

    When delaying gratification, both motivational and regulatory processes are likely to be at play; however, the relative contributions of motivational and regulatory influences on delay behavior are unclear. By examining behavioral responses during a delay task, this study sought to examine the motivational (anticipatory behavior) and regulatory mechanisms (executive function and self-control strategies) underlying children's self-regulation. The participants, 65 5- to 9-year-old children (M age =7.19years, SD=0.89), were video-recorded during a delay procedure and later coded for anticipatory behaviors (e.g., gazing intensely at the tablet) and self-control strategies. Children also completed two executive function (EF) tasks. We found that anticipatory behavior was curvilinearly related to delay time. Children showing either very low or very high levels of anticipatory behavior were not able to wait the entire time. Furthermore, our results indicated that anticipatory behavior interacted with EF to predict delay time. Specifically, anticipatory behavior was negatively related to delay time only if EF abilities were low. Finally, self-control strategies also interacted with EF to predict children's ability to delay. Spontaneous engagement in self-control strategies such as fidgeting and engagement in alternative activities were beneficial for children with low EF but were unrelated to delay time for children with high EF. Results indicate the value of examining motivational and regulatory influences on delay behavior. Lapses in self-regulation may be due to the combination of powerful impulsigenic (i.e., anticipatory behavior) and weak volitional processes (i.e., EF, self-control strategies). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  1. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  2. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  3. Evolution of reproductive life histories in island birds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, Rita

    2012-04-22

    Island environments typically share characteristics such as impoverished biotas and less-seasonal climates, which should be conducive to specific adaptations by organisms. However, with the exception of morphological studies, broad-scale tests of patterns of adaptation on islands are rare. Here, I examine reproductive patterns in island birds worldwide. Reproductive life histories are influenced by latitude, which could affect the response to insularity; therefore, I additionally test this hypothesis. Island colonizers showed mostly bi-parental care, but there was a significant increase in cooperative breeding on islands. Additionally, I found support for previous suggestions of reduced fecundity, longer developmental periods and increased investment in young on islands. However, clutch size increased with latitude at a rate nearly five times faster on the mainland than on the islands revealing a substantially stronger effect of insularity at higher latitudes. Latitude and insularity may also interact to determine egg volume and incubation periods, but these effects were less clear. Analyses of reproductive success did not support an effect of reduced nest predation as a driver of reproductive change, but this requires further study. The effect of latitude detected here suggests that the evolutionary changes associated with insularity relate to environmental stability and improved adult survival.

  4. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN CONTRACTING MAGNETIC ISLANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, D.; Tenishev, V.; Gombosi, T. I. [University of Michigan, Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2143 (United States); Guidoni, S. E. [The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue Northeast, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Electron acceleration in solar flares is well known to be efficient at generating energetic particles that produce the observed bremsstrahlung X-ray spectra. One mechanism proposed to explain the observations is electron acceleration within contracting magnetic islands formed by magnetic reconnection in the flare current sheet. In a previous study, a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an eruptive solar flare was analyzed to estimate the associated electron acceleration due to island contraction. That analysis used a simple analytical model for the island structure and assumed conservation of the adiabatic invariants of particle motion. In this paper, we perform the first-ever rigorous integration of the guiding-center orbits of electrons in a modeled flare. An initially isotropic distribution of particles is seeded in a contracting island from the simulated eruption, and the subsequent evolution of these particles is followed using guiding-center theory. We find that the distribution function becomes increasingly anisotropic over time as the electrons’ energy increases by up to a factor of five, in general agreement with the previous study. In addition, we show that the energized particles are concentrated on the Sunward side of the island, adjacent to the reconnection X-point in the flare current sheet. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that the electron energy gain is dominated by betatron acceleration in the compressed, strengthened magnetic field of the contracting island. Fermi acceleration by the shortened field lines of the island also contributes to the energy gain, but it is less effective than the betatron process.

  5. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  6. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  7. Radionuclide bone image in growing and stable bone island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, R.T.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Wehbe, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A normal radionuclide bone image can facilitate distinction between a bone island and significant pathologic processes, especially an osteoblastic metastasis. This distinction becomes more crucial when growth is detected in an isolated sclerotic bone lesion or if a relatively large sclerotic lesion is detected de novo in patients with a known neoplasm. This report presents three patients with isolated bone islands: two with interval growth, the other with a relatively large stable lesion; all showing a normal radionuclide bone image. (orig.) [de

  8. The timber resources of Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; John R. McGuire; John R. McGuire

    1957-01-01

    This is a report on the first comprehensive survey ever made of the timber resources of Rhode Island. It shows, for the years 1952 and 1953, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume and quality of standing timber, the rates of timber growth and mortality, and the extent of timber cutting for forest products. The survey was made by the Forest Service as...

  9. An Empirical Study on Environmental System Perception of Tourism Island Residents: A Case Study in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the development of island tourism has attracted more and more attention from domestic and international tourism researches. Tourism island has become the important scenic spot in coastal cities in China. Through the empirical research of local residents' awareness of environmental system, we can better hold people's perception of the touristic environment. Method can also be drawn to promote public participation more actively in the tourism development of the islands. This paper mainly shows the residents' attitude towards tourism through their feelings of the changes of economy, local social culture and the island environment brought by tourism. The results show that residents' positive perception of tourism is more intense than negative perception, and the perception of economy is stronger than that of culture and environment. On the overall perception, there exists no significant difference while in the tiny level there are still some differences remained.

  10. Ridge interaction features of the Line Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Storm, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    The sections of Pacific absolute plate motion history that precede the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville chains are based on three chains: the Line Islands-Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Hess Rise-Shatsky Rise, and the Marshall Islands-Wake Islands (Rurutu hotspot). Although it has been clear that the Line Islands do not define a simple age progression (e.g. Schlanger et al., 1984), the apparent similarity to the Emperor Seamount geographic trend has been used to extend the overall Hawaii-Emperor track further into the past. However, we show here that plate tectonic reconstructions suggest that the Mid-Pacific Mountains (MPMs) and Line Islands (LIs) were erupted near a mid-ocean ridge, and thus these structures do not reflect absolute plate motion. Moverover, the morphology and geochemistry of the volcanoes show similarities with Pukapuka Ridge (e.g. Davis et al., 2002) and the Rano Rahi seamounts, presumed to have a shallow origin. Modern 40Ar/39Ar ages show that the LIs erupted at various times along the entire volcanic chain. The oldest structures formed within 10 Ma of plate formation. Given the short distance to the ridge system, large aseismic volcanic ridges, such as Necker Ridge and Horizon Guyot may simply reflect a connection between MPMs and the ridge, similar to the Pukapuka Ridge. The Line Islands to the south (including Karin Ridge) define short subchains of elongated seamounts that are widespread, resembling the Rano Rahi seamount field. During this time, the plate moved nearly parallel to the ridge system. The change from few large ridges to many subchains may reflect a change in absolute plate motion, similar to the Rano Rahi field. Here, significant MPMs volcanism is no longer connected to the ridge along plate motion. Similar to Pukapuka vs. Rano Rahi, the difference in direction between plate motion and the closest ridge determines whether larger ridges or smaller seamount subchains are formed. The difference between the largest structures (MPMs and LIs

  11. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  12. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  13. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  14. Magnetite nano-islands on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel; Zhang, Qiang; Rosenberg, Richard; Vaknin, David

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of ex-situ iron nano-islands grown on graphene reveals that iron oxidation spontaneously leads to the formation of magnetite nano-particles - i.e, the formation of the inverse spinel Fe3O4. Fe islands have been grown with two different heights (20 and 75 MLs) on epitaxial graphene and we have determined their magnetic behavior both as function of temperature and applied external field. Our XAS and XMCD at an applied magnetic field of B = 5 T show that the thin film (20 MLs) is totally converted to magnetite whereas the thicker film (75 MLs) exhibits magnetite properties but also those of pure metal iron. For both samples, temperature dependence of the XMCD shows clear transitions at ~120 K consistent with the Verwey transition of bulk magnetite. XMCD at low temperatures shows a weak hysteresis and provide the average spin and angular-momentum moments, the dipolar term, and the total moment . In addition, manipulation and comparison of the XMCD data from both samples allows us to extract information about the pure iron nano-islands from the thicker sample. Ames Laboratory is supported by the U.S. DOE, BES, MSE Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358. APS is supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  16. Discovery Mondays: Zoom on materials

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the success of the first Discovery Monday, which had over 100 visitors, the series of evening events in Microcosm continues. On Monday 2nd June, discover the world of materials. Find out how CERN scientists examine, manufacture and study different materials, at different scales. Did you know for example that using electrons you can observe a hair at a scale equivalent to looking at a boat with the naked eye? Also, that using ultrasound, you can measure the thickness of an object that is completely inaccessible? Find out more about these techniques, and also the high-tech machining and soldering that is carried out in CERN's central workshop. Plus, see how engineers can detect tiny leaks through solder points - essential for maintaining the vacuum in the LHC. The evening is open to all, without reservation, suggested age 12 and above. Rendez-vous in Microcosm on Monday 2nd June From 19.30 - 21.00 Free entry For more information : http://www.cern.ch/microcosm Using a scanning microscope, the head o...

  17. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  18. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  19. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  20. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  1. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  2. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  3. Frequency Stabilizing Scheme for a Danish Island Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    of wind power is necessary to avoid unwanted power oscillations, which lead to uncontrolled oscillations in the power plant control. Since this might deteriorate power quality including frequency in an island grid, a frequency stabilizing control scheme or strategies using intelligent controller......This paper describes the development of frequency stabilizing control scheme for a small Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from interconnected operation with the Nordic power system to isolated islanding operation. During islanding operation the shedding...... with a battery energy storage system (BESS) has been proposed. The real-time models of distribution grids of Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the performance of centralized load frequency control as well as coordinated control scheme. Case study results show...

  4. The health effects of the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The major healt effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population living in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children, and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect has proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers, who continued to show relatively high levels of demoralization some months after the accident. Moreover, the groups in the general population and the workers, in their differen ways, had continuing problems of trust that stemmed directly from the Three Mile Island accident. For both the nuclear workers and general population, the mental health and behavioral effects are understandable in terms of the objective realities of the threats they faced during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

  5. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore reached island

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Uk

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients' personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. The median age of the patients was 58-years-old (range, 8 to 91) and 43% of them worked in the agricultural, forestry or livestock industry. Regardless of their job, 87% of the patients had a history of either working outdoors or of other activities before developing scrub typhus. The south and southeast regions of Jeju Island, especially Namwon-eup, showed the highest incidence of scrub typhus. Workers in mandarin orange orchards seemed to be the highest risk group for scrub typhus infection. Scrub typhus on Jeju Island showed unique characteristics. To efficiently prevent scrub typhus, each year individual regional approaches should be developed based on the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease.

  7. A comparison of controls on freshwater lens morphology of small carbonate and siliciclastic islands: examples from barrier islands in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, James C.; Kruse, Sarah E.

    2003-12-01

    The freshwater lens on small islands may easily be overexploited or polluted due to dense development combined with improper management. On small carbonate islands complexities in fresh groundwater distribution are most commonly driven by geologic heterogeneities and their attendant impact on permeability and effective recharge patterns. Siliciclastic islands (composed primarily of quartz sand and other silica-based minerals) have been less well studied, and fewer common patterns of lens development have emerged. On some siliciclastic islands correlations between geology and lens geometries are weak; on these islands the freshwater lens geometry may be largely determined by how vegetation and terrain elevation affect recharge. Other factors such as unequal sea level on opposite sides of an island and transient variability (natural island migration and climate variability) may also be locally significant. Two barrier islands in the northeast Gulf of Mexico fall into this category of siliciclastic islands. Relationships between lens morphology, geology, vegetation, terrain, and sea level and transient effects are documented on St George Island and Dog Island, FL. Patterns of fresh groundwater occurrence are deduced with electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods. Although isolated cores show geologic layering that could potentially control freshwater lens development, ground penetrating radar and seismic surveys show no evidence of semi-continuous subhorizontal layering. Inferred lens thickness and geometry suggests that site geology plays a relatively minor role as a cause of complexity in lens formation. Lens geometry does appear to be related to terrain and vegetation variability, and further complicated by the continuous reforming of these islands by coastal processes and human development.

  8. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  9. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  10. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  13. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  14. Detailed profile of m=2 islands with TVTS on JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, T.; Grek, B.; Hoshino, K.; Le Blanc, B.; Johnson, D.; Felt, J.; Shiina, T.; Kurita, G.; Ishige, Y.; Kozawa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The detailed electron temperature profile (spatial resolution: 0.86 cm) of a low density JFT-2M plasma is measured with the TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS). Flat profiles showing the electron temperature shapes of m=2/n=1 islands are presented, which are in contrast to that without islands. On the other hand, the m=2/n=1 islands are effectively suppressed with local ECRH heating. (orig.)

  15. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  16. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  17. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  18. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  19. Phytochemical compounds of Enhalus acoroides from Wanci Island (Wakatobi) and Talango Island (Madura) Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, C. S. U.; Kasitowati, R. D.; Siagian, J. A.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of Enhalus acoroides certainly gives important influence to the ecosystem, both as a producer in the food web and as a living habitat. In the last decade, Enhalus acoroides was widely used as an object of marine bioprospection research. That research showed potential results as antibacterial, antifungal, even as antifouling. This is a good reason to know the content of phytochemical compounds in Enhalus acoroides from two different locations. The purpose of research purpose to determine (1) the crude extract produced by Enhalus acoroides from two different locations; and (2) the phytochemical compounds contained in the crude extract of Enhalus acoroides from two different locations. This study this research was to used samples collected from Wanci Island (Wakatobi), and Talango Island (Madura), Indonesia. The extraction process and phytochemical test were conducted at the Marine Science Laboratory, FPIK, University of Brawijaya, and lasted for two months, from June 2017 to September 2017. The extraction was done by three solvent, are methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Furthermore, phytochemical test was performed qualitatively. The results provided that the yield produced by Enhalus acoroides from Wanci Island, Wakatobi is relatively lower than Talango Island, Madura. Enhalus acoroides is also renowned to contain phytochemical compounds of tannins and saponins.

  20. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  1. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  2. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  3. Sustainable Energy Portfolios for Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szabó

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a cost effective electricity generation portfolio for six island states for a 20-year period (2015–2035. The underlying concept investigates whether adding sizeable power capacities of renewable energy sources (RES options could decrease the overall costs and contribute to a more sustainable, indigenous electricity generation at the same time. Often, island states rely on fossil fuels which, apart from dependence on foreign resources, also includes an additional, significant transport cost. This is an extra motive to study the extent in which island states represent primary locations for RES technologies. For the aims of the present study an optimization model has been developed and following numerous runs the obtained results show that installing PV and battery capacities can delay-reduce the huge investments in fossil options in early periods. Thus, investment on RES can have a positive, long-term effect on the overall energy mix. This prompt development can happen without adding new subsidies but there is a need to address the existing socio-economic barriers with intelligent design of financing and economic instruments and capacity building as discussed in the conclusions.

  4. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  5. Mercury Test on macroalgae from Burung and Tikus Island, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianty, H.; Herandarudewi, S. M. C.; Suratno

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution, caused by the introduction of hazardous substances such as heavy metals into coastal waters, affects not only the condition of the waters but also the source of food that will be contaminated by hazardous metals, one of them is mercury (Hg). Mercury is toxic metal which could cause damage to the human body in certain threshold amounts. The aim of this study was to determin the content of mercury in several species of algae from Burung and Tikus Island, Jakarta. This study was using a descriptive method. The samples were collected from Burung and Tikus Island by simple rundown sampling. Mercury level was measured by NIC3000 mercury analyzer tool. The results showed that none of the mercury levels have passed 0.5 mg/kg (the safety standart level of mercury by SNI (Indonesian National Standard)7387 in 2019) mangrove. From tikus Island had lower total mercury than the ones from Burung Island. Burung Island is located near Pari Island which is a residential area, where pollution is more likely to occur.

  6. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  7. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail

  8. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Rong, E-mail: haven21c@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Man [University of Incheon, Songdo-dong, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  9. The real bounty: marine biodiversity in the Pitcairn Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available In 2012 we conducted an integrated ecological assessment of the marine environment of the Pitcairn Islands, which are four of the most remote islands in the world. The islands and atolls (Ducie, Henderson, Oeno, and Pitcairn are situated in the central South Pacific, halfway between New Zealand and South America. We surveyed algae, corals, mobile invertebrates, and fishes at 97 sites between 5 and 30 m depth, and found 51 new records for algae, 23 for corals, and 15 for fishes. The structure of the ecological communities was correlated with age, isolation, and geomorphology of the four islands. Coral and algal assemblages were significantly different among islands with Ducie having the highest coral cover (56% and Pitcairn dominated by erect macroalgae (42%. Fish biomass was dominated by top predators at Ducie (62% of total fish biomass and at Henderson (35%. Herbivorous fishes dominated at Pitcairn, while Oeno showed a balanced fish trophic structure. We found high levels of regional endemism in the fish assemblages across the islands (45%, with the highest level observed at Ducie (56% by number. We conducted the first surveys of the deep habitats around the Pitcairn Islands using drop-cameras at 21 sites from depths of 78 to 1,585 m. We observed 57 fish species from the drop-cams, including rare species such as the false catshark (Pseudotriakis microdon and several new undescribed species. In addition, we made observations of typically shallow reef sharks and other reef fishes at depths down to 300 m. Our findings highlight the uniqueness and high biodiversity value of the Pitcairn Islands as one of the least impacted in the Pacific, and suggest the need for immediate protection.

  10. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  11. Mercury concentration on Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii at Seribu Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratno; Irawan, Andri

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal element that can damage embryo development. Although this element is highly toxic, some human activities such as mining and industries are still using it. The uncontrolled usage of this element leads to pollution problem in the environment, which includes the seagrass ecosystem in the coastal area of Seribu Islands. For that, to gather more information about mercury pollution in the seagrass beds of these islands, the concentration of mercury (Hg) was measured in sediment, rhizomes, roots and leaves of two species of seagrass (Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii) from Lancang Island, Pari Island and Panggang Island at Seribu Islands, Indonesia in April-May 2017. The highest concentration of mercury was found in sediment on Lancang Island. The concentration of mercury was significantly higher on leaves compare to on roots or rhizomes in E. acoroides on Lancang Island and Panggang Island. T. hemprichii accumulate mercury higher than E. acoroides on Lancang Island. Overall, mercury accumulation on both species ranges at 7.12 - 87.41 ug/kg dw and this shows that they have the potential as bio-indicator of mercury bio accumulation.

  12. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  13. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saraceno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the strongest regional seismic events and site acceleration; long-term tilt variations analyzed in combination with other ground deformation data seem to represent the evidence of a contraction of the La Fossa cone. We also analyzed how the tilt device has the capability to detect possible magma migrations; we considered previous studies that have imaged spatially well-defined levels of magma accumulation beneath La Fossa, and Vulcanello; we concluded that the Vulcano tilt network should be capable of detecting the upward migration of small magma volumes. Finally, we show that no evidence of changes are visible on tilt signals during anomalous degassing episodes (linked to a building up input of magmatic fluids at the La Fossa thereby evidencing that no magma migration occurred during such events.

  14. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA. 165.1319 Section 165.1319 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Peninsula; thence northerly along the shore of Mercer Island to the point of origin. [Datum: NAD 1983] (c...

  15. Immigration and the competitiveness of an island tourism destination: a knowledge-based reputation analysis of Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Juan García-Almeida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds light on the relationship between immigration and tourism competitiveness on the island of Lanzarote through the analysis of reputation from the demand perspective. The tourists’ knowledge about news on immigration from a destination, their contact with immigrants in the area, and the influence of the presence of immigrants there are studied, as all these factors can have a major impact on island competitiveness in tourism. The empirical work has been conducted with a survey of tourists on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain. A total of 359 valid questionnaires were obtained. Results show a relatively low impact and retention of immigration news about the destination, and a low perceived contact with non-European immigrants when visiting the island. Moreover, tourists tend to recognize the positive value created by immigrants on the island, though some negative effects are also indicated. Finally, immigration seems to have a positive impact on the tourist’s global satisfaction and loyalty to the island destination.

  16. Reconstructed Marine Fisheries Catches at a Remote Island Group: Pitcairn Islands (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Coghlan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote Pitcairn Island Group in the South Pacific was designated one of the world's largest marine reserves in 2016, encompassing some of the few remaining near-pristine areas within EEZ boundaries. Pitcairn's domestic fisheries are small-scale, and consist mainly of subsistence (non-commercial and limited artisanal (commercial catches. There is no locally-based industrial (large-scale commercial fishery and the level of foreign industrial activity in recent times has been minimal, due in part to the low biomass of commercially valuable species, along with economic constraints of the EEZ's geographic isolation. Using a catch reconstruction method we estimated the total domestic marine catches for the Pitcairn Islands from 1950 to 2014. We show that overall the Pitcairn Islands' small-scale fisheries catches were almost 2.5 times higher than the data reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations on behalf of the Pitcairn Islands, however, this primarily reflects discrepancies prior to the 1980s. Overall, catches for the subsistence and artisanal sectors started with around 12 t·year−1 in 1950, but declined to 4 t·year−1 by 2014. Domestic reconstructed subsistence catch levels were entirely driven by changes in the human population on the island, with reconstructed artisanal catches only occurring in recent years (2000 onwards. Industrial fishing is entirely executed by foreign vessels, this catch is considerably variable throughout the years and ceases entirely in 2006. The implementation of one of the world's largest marine reserves surrounding the offshore waters of Pitcairn Island has been specifically designed not to affect the rates of subsistence and artisanal fishing conducted by the resident population. Although there is no industrial fishing in the Pitcairn EEZ at present, climate change is predicted to influence the routes of migrating commercially-targeted species, potentially altering fishing

  17. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  18. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caralis, G.; Zervos, A.; Rados, K.

    2010-01-01

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  19. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  20. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  1. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall

  2. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  3. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  4. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  5. Water table in Long Island, New York, March 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszalka, Edward J.; Koch, Ellis

    1971-01-01

    The geologic framework and the hydrologic situation in Long Island are periodically reviewed by the U.S. Geological Survey as new knowledge is obtained from current investigations. This work is done through cooperative programs with Nassau and Suffolk County agencies and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A unique opportunity to update many of the hydrogeologic maps occurred when the Geological Survey's Mineola, N.Y., office participated in the New England River Basins Commission's "Long Island Sound Study." This map, one of a series of open-file maps showing the updated information, was compiled from data obtained from G. E. Kimmel (written commun., July 1972) and Jensen and Soren (in press). Comparison of the March 1971 data with similar data for March 1970 (Kimmel, 1970) shows virtually no change in water levels on Long Island during the 12 month period, except for a slight decline in levels in central Suffolk County.

  6. Opportunity Examining Composition of 'Cook Islands' Outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This image taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's arm extended to examine the composition of a rock using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. Opportunity took this image during the 1,826th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's Mars-surface mission (March 13, 2009). The spectrometer is at a target called 'Penrhyn,' on a rock called 'Cook Islands.' As Opportunity makes its way on a long journey from Victoria Crater toward Endeavour Crater, the team is stopping the drive occasionally on the route to check whether the rover finds a trend in the composition of rock exposures.

  7. The importance of shallow hydrothermal island arc systems in ocean biogeochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkes, J.A.; Connelly, D.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Achterberg, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrothermal venting often occurs at submarine volcanic calderas on island arc chains, typically at shallower depths than mid-ocean ridges. The effect of these systems on ocean biogeochemistry has been under-investigated to date. Here we show that hydrothermal effluent from an island arc caldera was

  8. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S.

    2001-01-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident

  9. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the "Vulcano Porto" area (Aeolian Islands, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, S; Basile, S; Brai, M; Hauser, S; Puccio, P; Rizzo, S

    2001-04-01

    Air kerma was measured in the "Vulcano Porto" area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  10. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dune–beach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ∼4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites.Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast.National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human

  11. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  12. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  13. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  15. The Flooding of Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Lewis, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Between the Last Glacial Maximum (22-19 ka) and the Holocene (10 ka) regions marginal to the Laurentide Ice Sheets saw complex environmental changes from moraines to lake basins to dry land to estuaries and marginal ocean basins, as a result of the interplay between the topography of moraines formed at the maximum extent and during stages of the retreat of the ice sheet, regional glacial rebound, and global eustatic sea level rise. In New England, the history of deglaciation and relative sea level rise has been studied extensively, and the sequence of events has been documented in detail. The Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent (Long Island) at 21.3-20.4 ka according to radiocarbon dating (calibrated ages), 19.0-18.4 ka according to radionuclide dating. Periglacial Lake Connecticut formed behind the moraines in what is now the Long Island Sound Basin. The lake drained through the moraine at its eastern end. Seismic records show that a fluvial system was cut into the exposed lake beds, and a wave-cut unconformity was produced during the marine flooding, which has been inferred to have occurred at about 15.5 ka (Melt Water Pulse 1A) through correlation with dated events on land. Vibracores from eastern Long Island Sound penetrate the unconformity and contain red, varved lake beds overlain by marine grey sands and silts with a dense concentration of oysters in life position above the erosional contact. The marine sediments consist of intertidal to shallow subtidal deposits with oysters, shallow-water foraminifera and litoral diatoms, overlain by somewhat laminated sandy silts, in turn overlain by coarser-grained, sandy to silty sediments with reworked foraminifera and bivalve fragments. The latter may have been deposited in a sand-wave environment as present today at the core locations. We provide direct age control of the transgression with 30 radiocarbon dates on oysters, and compared the ages with those obtained on macrophytes and bulk organic carbon in

  16. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  17. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  18. Drivers of shoreline change in atoll reef islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Salvat, Bernard; Salmon, Camille

    2017-11-01

    This paper increases by around 30% the sample of atoll reef islands studied from a shoreline change perspective, and covers an under-studied geographical area, i.e. the French Tuamotu Archipelago. It brings new irrefutable evidences on the persistence of reef islands over the last decades, as 77% of the 111 study islands exhibited areal stability while 15% and 8% showed expansion and contraction, respectively. This paper also addresses a key research gap by interpreting the major local drivers controlling recent shoreline and island change, i.e. tropical cyclones and seasonal swells, sediment supply by coral reefs and human activities. The 1983 tropical cyclones had contrasting impacts, depending on the shoreline indicator considered. While they generally caused a marked retreat of the stability line, the base of the beach advanced at some locations, as a result of either sediment reworking or fresh sediment inputs. The post-cyclone fair weather period was characterised by reversed trends indicating island morphological readjustment. Cyclonic waves contributed to island upwards growth, which reached up to 1 m in places, through the transfer of sediments up onto the island surface. However, the steep outer slopes of atolls limited sediment transfers to the reef flat and island system. We found that 57% of the study islands are disturbed by human activities, including 'rural' and uninhabited islands. Twenty-six percent of these islands have lost the capacity to respond to ocean-climate related pressures, including the 'capital' islands concentrating atolls' population, infrastructures and economic activities, which is preoccupying under climate change.

  19. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...

  20. Morphology and microstructure of Ag islands of aggregated atoms on oil surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chu-Hang; Lü Neng; Zhang Xiao-Fei; Saida Ajeeb; Xia A-Gen; Ye Gao-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The morphology evolution of silver islands on silicone oil surfaces is measured and the microstructure of the islands is studied. The deposited Ag atoms diffuse and aggregate on the oil surface and then Ag islands with the width of the order of 102-nm form. After the samples are removed from the vacuum chamber, the immediate measurement shows that the apparent Ag coverage of the total area decays with the magnitude up to (23.0±3.8)% in few minutes. In the following two hours, the samples are kept in the ambient atmosphere and several unexpected results are detected: 1)as the topological structure of the islands evolves, the total area of each island decreases gradually and the maximum decrement measured is around 20%; 2) if an island breaks and becomes two small pieces, the total area decreases obviously; 3) however, if two small islands meet and stick together, a sudden increment of the total area is observed.These phenomena, mirroring the evolution process of the island microstructure, are resulted from both the diffusion of the atoms and the combination of the defects inside the islands.

  1. Ordered Arrays of SiGe Islands from Low-Energy PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrastina D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SiGe islands have been proposed for applications in the fields of microelectronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. Although most of the works in literature are based on MBE, one of the possible advantages of low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LEPECVD is a wider range of deposition rates, which in turn results in the possibility of growing islands with a high Ge concentration. We will show that LEPECVD can be effectively used for the controlled growth of ordered arrays of SiGe islands. In order to control the nucleation of the islands, patterned Si (001 substrates were obtained by e-beam lithography (EBL and dry etching. We realized periodic circular pits with diameters ranging from 80 to 300 nm and depths from 65 to 75 nm. Subsequently, thin films (0.8–3.2 nm of pure Ge were deposited by LEPECVD, resulting in regular and uniform arrays of Ge-rich islands. LEPECVD allowed the use of a wide range of growth rates (0.01–0.1 nm s−1 and substrates temperatures (600–750°C, so that the Ge content of the islands could be varied. Island morphology was characterized by AFM, while μ-Raman was used to analyze the Ge content inside the islands and the composition differences between islands on patterned and unpatterned areas of the substrate.

  2. Impacts of category 5 tropical cyclone Fantala (April 2016) on Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles Islands, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Volto, Natacha; Salmon, Camille

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides new insights on the impacts of a category 5 tropical cyclone on Indian Ocean atoll reef islands. Using multi-date aerial imagery and field observations, the contribution of tropical cyclone Fantala to shoreline and island change, and to sediment production and transport, was assessed on Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles Islands. Results show that the two largest islands (> 3 km2) only suffered limited land loss (- 1.19 to - 8.35%) while small islets lost 13.17 to 28.45% of their initial land area. Islands and islets exhibited contrasting responses depending on their location, topography and vegetation type. Depending on islands, the retreat of the vegetation line occurred either along all shorelines, or along ocean shoreline only. The structure (wooded vs. grassy) and origin (native vs. introduced) of the vegetation played a major role in island response. Five days after the cyclone, beach width and beach area were multiplied by 1.5 to 10, depending on the setting, and were interpreted as resulting from both sediment reworking and the supply of large amounts of fresh sediments by the reef outer slopes to the island system. Fourth months after the cyclone, extended sheets of loose sediments were still present on the reef flat and in inter-islet channels and shallow lagoon waters, indicating continuing sediment transfer to islands. As a reminder (see Section 3.1.4), beach width uncertainty equals to 6 m for all beach sections.

  3. HYDROGEOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON KARSTIFIED ISLANDS - VIS ISLAND CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Terzić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  5. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  6. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  7. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  8. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  9. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  10. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  11. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    ) policy stipulates that natural coastal processes be maintained to the greatest extent possible and not be impeded so as to conserve landforms, habitats and natural ecosystem resources that reply on the landforms and processes for long-term sustainability of the national park. Storms and associated processes such as waves, tides, currents and relative sea-level change are critical elements for the formation and evolution of these barrier islands, sand dunes, back-barrier sand flats and lagoons and vegetated wetlands. Processes such as wave run-up, overwash and barrier beaching, which occur during elevated storm surge are all necessary processes in enabling the efficient transfer of sediments, nutrients and marine water from the Atlantic Ocean across barriers and into Great South Bay. A large body of scientific data and information published over the past 50 years shows that such transfers of sediment and water from the ocean to the bays are essential for the long-term maintenance of the barrier island and back-bay systems and their biologically diverse habitats an d ecosystems. Current relative sea-level rise (~12 in/century) is chronic and pervasive in driving Long Island coastal change and with the likelihood of accelerating sea level rise in the near future, coastal hazards such as erosion, inundation, and storm surge flooding will increase, with corresponding increased risk to life and property on both Fire Island and on the mainland. In addition, the cumulative effects over the past century and more, both direct and indirect, of human impacts on the Long Island coast have altered the barrier beach and dunes and sediment transport processes. These impacts have likely increased the potential for breaching and increased risk to life and property on the coast and the mainland. Examples of direct impacts are: the stone jetties at Moriches, Shinnecock, and Fire Island tidal inlets and groin field structures at Westhampton that alter littoral processes, armoring and erosion

  12. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  13. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  14. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  15. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  16. Satellite air temperature estimation for monitoring the canopy layer heat island of Milan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichierri, Manuele; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    across the city center from June to September confirming that, in Milan, urban heating is not an occasional phenomenon. Furthermore, this study shows the utility of space missions to monitor the metropolis heat islands if they are able to provide nighttime observations when CLHI peaks are generally......In this work, satellite maps of the urban heat island of Milan are produced using satellite-based infrared sensor data. For this aim, we developed suitable algorithms employing satellite brightness temperatures for the direct air temperature estimation 2 m above the surface (canopy layer), showing...... 2007 and 2010 were processed. Analysis of the canopy layer heat island (CLHI) maps during summer months reveals an average heat island effect of 3–4K during nighttime (with some peaks around 5K) and a weak CLHI intensity during daytime. In addition, the satellite maps reveal a well defined island shape...

  17. Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsby, E; Flåm, S T; Woldseth, B; Dupuy, B M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Fernandez-Vina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Available evidence suggests a Polynesian origin of the Easter Island population. We recently found that some native Easter Islanders also carried some common American Indian (Amerindian) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which probably were introduced before Europeans discovered the island in 1722. In this study, we report molecular genetic investigations of 21 other selected native Easter Islanders. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers showed no traces of an Amerindian contribution. However, high-resolution genomic HLA typing showed that two individuals carried some other common Amerindian HLA alleles, different from those found in our previous investigations. The new data support our previous evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island.

  18. Phylogeography and genetic structure of endemic Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus (Fabaceae) across the California Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lisa E; Wheeler, Gregory L; McGlaughlin, Mitchell E; Bresowar, Gerald; Helenurm, Kaius

    2017-05-01

    Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago. We studied phylogeography of insular Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus to determine whether infraspecific taxa are genetically divergent and to elucidate patterns of diversification across these islands. DNA sequences were collected from nuclear (ADH) and plastid genomes ( rpL16 , ndhA , psbD-trnT ) from >450 samples on the Channel Islands and California. We estimated population genetic diversity and structure, phylogenetic patterns among populations, and migration rates, and tested for population growth. Populations of northern island A. argophyllus var. niveus are genetically distinct from conspecific populations on southern islands. On the southern islands, A. argophyllus var. argenteus populations on Santa Catalina are phylogenetically distinct from populations of var. argenteus and var. adsurgens on the other southern islands. For A. dendroideus , we found the varieties to be monophyletic. Populations of A. dendroideus var. traskiae on San Clemente are genetically differentiated from other conspecific populations, whereas populations on the northern islands and Santa Catalina show varying degrees of gene flow. Evidence of population growth was found in both species. Oceanic barriers between islands have had a strong influence on population genetic structure in both Acmispon species, although the species have differing phylogeographic patterns. This study provides a contrasting pattern of dispersal on a near island system that does not follow a strict stepping-stone model, commonly found on isolated island systems. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  20. Impacts of fishing and environmental factors driving changes on littoral fish assemblages in a subtropical oceanic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Martín-García, Laura; Hernández, José Carlos; Concepción, Laura; Fernández, Raúl; Clemente, Sabrina

    2013-08-01

    The structure of demersal fish assemblages of commercial interest was studied at 51 sites on La Palma Island (Canary Islands, northeastern Atlantic). On this island, demersal fish populations are limited and independent from other islands. As deep water separates the islands and the shallow sublittoral platforms are not continuous, adult inter-island migrations are not possible except between the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Otherwise, each island functions as a closed system, and the status of an island fish assemblage depends on local environmental conditions and activities performed in situ by the islanders. These circumstances provide a unique opportunity to test the intrainsular variability of fish assemblages. With this background, environmental parameters, fishing pressure and distance to the MPA were considered to identify the main factors explaining the spatial variation of fish assemblages off La Palma Island. Twenty-six fish species were recorded, but 60% of the total fish biomass was represented by only five species (Sparisoma cretense, Pomadasys incisus, Canthidermis sufflamen, Diplodus cervinus cervinus and Bodianus scrofa). However, the structure of assemblages was heterogeneous in response to different variables and showed substantial spatial variation. The assemblages were strongly modified by the presence of upright seaweed cover, fishing activities, and certain environmental variables. Differences were more pronounced in species that occupied the higher trophic levels. The most disturbed assemblages were those located in areas with lower upright seaweed cover and with higher fishing pressure, whereas the best-preserved assemblages corresponded to sites with controlled fishing activities, located within the MPA.

  1. Nano-islands Based Charge Trapping Memory: A Scalability Study

    KAUST Repository

    Elatab, Nazek; Saadat, Irfan; Saraswat, Krishna; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and zirconia (ZrO2) metal oxides have been studied extensively in the past few decades with several potential applications including memory devices. In this work, a scalability study, based on the ITRS roadmap, is conducted on memory devices with ZnO and ZrO2 nano-islands charge trapping layer. Both nano-islands are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD), however, the different sizes, distribution and properties of the materials result in different memory performance. The results show that at the 32-nm node charge trapping memory with 127 ZrO2 nano-islands can provide a 9.4 V memory window. However, with ZnO only 31 nano-islands can provide a window of 2.5 V. The results indicate that ZrO2 nano-islands are more promising than ZnO in scaled down devices due to their higher density, higher-k, and absence of quantum confinement effects.

  2. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  3. Cell proliferation along vascular islands during microvascular network growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly-Goss Molly R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observations in our laboratory provide evidence of vascular islands, defined as disconnected endothelial cell segments, in the adult microcirculation. The objective of this study was to determine if vascular islands are involved in angiogenesis during microvascular network growth. Results Mesenteric tissues, which allow visualization of entire microvascular networks at a single cell level, were harvested from unstimulated adult male Wistar rats and Wistar rats 3 and 10 days post angiogenesis stimulation by mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80. Tissues were immunolabeled for PECAM and BRDU. Identification of vessel lumens via injection of FITC-dextran confirmed that endothelial cell segments were disconnected from nearby patent networks. Stimulated networks displayed increases in vascular area, length density, and capillary sprouting. On day 3, the percentage of islands with at least one BRDU-positive cell increased compared to the unstimulated level and was equal to the percentage of capillary sprouts with at least one BRDU-positive cell. At day 10, the number of vascular islands per vascular area dramatically decreased compared to unstimulated and day 3 levels. Conclusions These results show that vascular islands have the ability to proliferate and suggest that they are able to incorporate into the microcirculation during the initial stages of microvascular network growth.

  4. Nano-islands Based Charge Trapping Memory: A Scalability Study

    KAUST Repository

    Elatab, Nazek

    2017-10-19

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and zirconia (ZrO2) metal oxides have been studied extensively in the past few decades with several potential applications including memory devices. In this work, a scalability study, based on the ITRS roadmap, is conducted on memory devices with ZnO and ZrO2 nano-islands charge trapping layer. Both nano-islands are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD), however, the different sizes, distribution and properties of the materials result in different memory performance. The results show that at the 32-nm node charge trapping memory with 127 ZrO2 nano-islands can provide a 9.4 V memory window. However, with ZnO only 31 nano-islands can provide a window of 2.5 V. The results indicate that ZrO2 nano-islands are more promising than ZnO in scaled down devices due to their higher density, higher-k, and absence of quantum confinement effects.

  5. Near-island biological hotspots in barren ocean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Jamison M; McManus, Margaret A; Neuheimer, Anna B; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Smith, Craig R; Merrifield, Mark A; Friedlander, Alan M; Ehses, Julia S; Young, Charles W; Dillon, Amanda K; Williams, Gareth J

    2016-02-16

    Phytoplankton production drives marine ecosystem trophic-structure and global fisheries yields. Phytoplankton biomass is particularly influential near coral reef islands and atolls that span the oligotrophic tropical oceans. The paradoxical enhancement in phytoplankton near an island-reef ecosystem--Island Mass Effect (IME)--was first documented 60 years ago, yet much remains unknown about the prevalence and drivers of this ecologically important phenomenon. Here we provide the first basin-scale investigation of IME. We show that IME is a near-ubiquitous feature among a majority (91%) of coral reef ecosystems surveyed, creating near-island 'hotspots' of phytoplankton biomass throughout the upper water column. Variations in IME strength are governed by geomorphic type (atoll vs island), bathymetric slope, reef area and local human impacts (for example, human-derived nutrient input). These ocean oases increase nearshore phytoplankton biomass by up to 86% over oceanic conditions, providing basal energetic resources to higher trophic levels that support subsistence-based human populations.

  6. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  7. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  8. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  9. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  10. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  11. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  12. Nutritional habits of the inhabitants of the island of Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2009-12-01

    The island of Vis belongs to middle Dalmatian group of islands with caracteristics Mediterranean climate. The assumption was that the dominant diet of the inhabitants is also Mediterranean. Such diet is considered to be one of the best for the prevention of many complex and chronic diseases, as confirmed by numerous studies in different parts of the World. This study showed a shift in dietary habits in the direction of a more globalized diet. Such sudden shift may prove to be an important trigger for the development of complex diseases such as diabetes melitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, as well as certain types of cancer.

  13. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  14. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  15. Electron teleportation and statistical transmutation in multiterminal Majorana islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Karen; Landau, L. Aviad; Sela, Eran; Fu, Liang

    2017-11-01

    We study a topological superconductor island with spatially separated Majorana modes coupled to multiple normal-metal leads by single-electron tunneling in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that low-temperature transport in such a Majorana island is carried by an emergent charge-e boson composed of a Majorana mode and an electronic excitation in leads. This transmutation from Fermi to Bose statistics has remarkable consequences. For noninteracting leads, the system flows to a non-Fermi-liquid fixed point, which is stable against tunnel couplings anisotropy or detuning away from the charge-degeneracy point. As a result, the system exhibits a universal conductance at zero temperature, which is a fraction of the conductance quantum, and low-temperature corrections with a universal power-law exponent. In addition, we consider Majorana islands connected to interacting one-dimensional leads, and find different stable fixed points near and far from the charge-degeneracy point.

  16. Continuous SO2 flux measurements for Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Fossa cone of Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy is a closed conduit volcano. Today, Vulcano Island is characterized by sulfataric activity, with a large fumarolic field that is mainly located in the summit area. A scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument designed by the Optical Sensing Group of Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, was installed in the framework of the European project "Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change", in March 2008. This study presents the first dataset of SO2 plume fluxes recorded for a closed volcanic system. Between 2008 and 2010, the SO2 fluxes recorded showed average values of 12 t.d–1 during the normal sulfataric activity of Vulcano Island, with one exceptional event of strong degassing that occurred between September and December, 2009, when the SO2 emissions reached up to 100 t.d–1.

  17. Sustainable power planning for the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giatrakos, Georgios P.; Tsoutsos, Theocharis D.; Zografakis, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Crete, as one of the largest and most touristic islands of the Mediterranean, is facing abrupt population and economic growth tendencies that result in the incessant problem of inability to meet power demand increase. This paper evaluates the island's present electrical energy status, and examines the possibility of further penetration of sustainable energy. Various energy modelling software solutions are examined and evaluated, in order to form scenarios according to the governmental and EU directives for renewable energy sources (RES), as well as to the planned conventional power plant upgrades and LNG transition. RES are fully exploited in the plan's scenarios, always taking into account all technical and legislative limitations. Analysis shows that even the most modest and realistic RES implementation scenarios, combined with a partially successful demand restriction, could indeed contract the island's environmental footprint. RES penetration in Crete's electric seems to be able to surpass 30% by 2020, surpassing even the optimistic EU targets for 20% RES by 2020

  18. The island rule of body size demonstrated on individual hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Freerk; Depoilly, Alexandre; Vernon, Philippe; Müller, Jörg; Bailey, Richard; Jarzabek-Müller, Andrea; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Under spatial isolation on oceanic islands, species tend to show extreme body sizes. From the point of view of many colonizers, individual hosts surrounded by phylogenetically distant neighbours are phylogenetically isolated. This study addresses for the first time how phylogenetic isolation

  19. Chronic Stress and Three Mile Island: Toxic Exposure and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Laura M.; And Others

    Although many researchers expected the psychological effects of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant to be short-lived, area residents continued to show elevated levels of stress. To examine stress levels of TMI residents 28 months after the accident, 141 subjects were chosen from nearby areas, and from a town 80 miles away.…

  20. (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Osmundea is a strongly supported monophyletic group within the Laurencia complex and shows a disjunct distribution occurring in the North-East and South-West Pacific, the Indian and Atlantic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Its phenotypic plasticity on the Canary Islands may be the result of the high ...

  1. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  2. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  3. Non-overlapping distributions of feral sheep (Ovis aries) and Stout Iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Kalyvaki, Maria; McGaughey, Kathleen; Mougey, Krista; Navarrete, Laura; Rondeau, Renée; Boal, Clint W.; Perry, Gad

    2013-01-01

    Stout Iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) remain one of the most critically endangered reptiles in the world. Factors contributing to that status include habitat loss, predation by introduced species, and competition with introduced herbivores. On Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, the presence of feral sheep (Ovis aries) has been a hypothesized detriment to iguanas. Using motion sensitive cameras, we documented the distribution of feral sheep on Guana Island in 2010. We also quantified the impact of feral sheep on ground vegetation by comparing plant abundance at longterm sheep exclosures and areas where sheep were absent to areas where sheep were present. Finally, we compared sheep distribution to iguana distribution on the island. The co-occurrence of sheep and Stout Iguanas was less than expected, indicating possible competition. Although we detected no difference in vegetative cover between areas where sheep were present and absent, the long-term exclosures showed that the exclusion of sheep allowed the abundance of many plant species to increase. Our data support the hypothesis that feral sheep are altering the abundance of ground-level vegetation and limiting iguana distribution on the island.

  4. SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ISLANDS IN THE SOLAR WIND AND THEIR ROLE IN PARTICLE ACCELERATION. I. DYNAMICS OF MAGNETIC ISLANDS NEAR THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabarova, O. [Heliophysical Laboratory, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Zank, G. P.; Li, G.; Roux, J. A. le; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Malandraki, O. E. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2015-08-01

    Increases of ion fluxes in the keV–MeV range are sometimes observed near the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) during periods when other sources are absent. These resemble solar energetic particle events, but the events are weaker and apparently local. Conventional explanations based on either shock acceleration of charged particles or particle acceleration due to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary current sheets (CSs) are not persuasive. We suggest instead that recurrent magnetic reconnection occurs at the HCS and smaller CSs in the solar wind, a consequence of which is particle energization by the dynamically evolving secondary CSs and magnetic islands. The effectiveness of the trapping and acceleration process associated with magnetic islands depends in part on the topology of the HCS. We show that the HCS possesses ripples superimposed on the large-scale flat or wavy structure. We conjecture that the ripples can efficiently confine plasma and provide tokamak-like conditions that are favorable for the appearance of small-scale magnetic islands that merge and/or contract. Particles trapped in the vicinity of merging islands and experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events are accelerated by the induced electric field and experience first-order Fermi acceleration in contracting magnetic islands according to the transport theory of Zank et al. We present multi-spacecraft observations of magnetic island merging and particle energization in the absence of other sources, providing support for theory and simulations that show particle energization by reconnection related processes of magnetic island merging and contraction.

  5. Remote sensing and GIS based study of potential erosion and degradation areas on the island Fogo (Cape Verde Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olehowski, Claas; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The Island of Fogo (Cape Verde) is affected by processes of erosion and degradation, caused mainly by a high population growth and global change. With its small scaled climatic, floristic and geo-ecological differentiation, the island of Fogo is an optimal research space for understanding semiarid island ecosystems in the marginal tropics and their behaviour to erosion and degradation processes. For that reason, a change detection analysis over the past two decades is generated, showing the level and direction of land cover and land use change. Two satellite images from 1984 and 2007 will classified by a Maximum Likelihood approach. In a further step, an image of 1974 will be also integrated in this change detection analysis, enlarging the study over the last three decades.

  6. A Sein Island in renewable electric power autonomy? Analysis of the Government's project for the Sein Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, Hubert; Le Gorgeu, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Even if the Sein Island emits less CO 2 emissions than 700 vehicles, the Government set an objective of 50 per cent for renewable energy production within its multi-year energy planning (PPE). The objectives of the authors is herein to analyse the credibility of these PPE objectives, more particularly as far as electric power autonomy is concerned. They used available and precise data related to the island's energy consumption. They show that this 50 per cent coverage can indeed be reached, but with investments which are not justified when the population size and current resulting pollution are considered. They also outline that diesel engines will still be used from time to time, and that their emissions will not even be reduced as diesel units will not operate in optimal regime. Therefore, they regret that such objectives have been imposed to the island without any detailed preliminary study

  7. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic

    2016-01-01

    and numerically the formation of an equilibrium island using a two-dimensional continuous model. We have found that these equilibrium island-like solutions have a maximum height h_{0} and they sit on top of a flat wetting layer with a thickness h_{w}. We then consider two islands, and we report that they undergo...... and leads to the shrinkage of the smallest island. Once its height becomes smaller than a minimal equilibrium height h_{0}^{*}, its mass spreads over the entire system. Our results pave the way for a future analysis of coarsening of an assembly of islands....

  8. The Role of Social and Cultural Values in Public Education in Remote Island: a Case Study in Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yety Rochwulaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze education problems in remote islands especially in Parang island of Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia. Specifically, this paper aims to identify socio-cultural values and its role in education both formal and nonformal. The research was conducted in the Parang Island one of thousand  remote islands in Indonesia. The result shows that education in Parang island encounter strategic issues including the teacher attendance who mostly comes from outside of the island. Their mobility of certain matters force the teachers to go out from the island but sometime because of geographical condition their return to the island is unable to be ensured. This natural constraints precisely construct typical socio-cultural values especially in local education. The values which include multiculturalism, mutual cooperation, and togetherness has integrated into some subjects such as, Citizenship Education, Indonesian Language, Islamic Education, and some local contents such as Marine Education. It has been internalized into empirical experiences of the students as part of marine community that is typically open and egalitarian in character. Meanwhile, Islamic tend to be patterned in syncretism which promote balance and harmony of life. These values have been practices transmitted in religious education such as madrasah and some of informal Islamic institutions. The multiculturalism live, in harmony is effectively socialized through education, family life and community.Artikel ini mengkaji permasalahan bagaimana kondisi pendidikan di Pulau Parang sebagai pulau terpencil berlangsung dan bagaimana peranan nilai-nilai sosial budaya di dalamnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pendidikan di Pulau Parang menghadapi berbagai persoalan strategis antara lain eksistensi guru tetap yang hampir semuanya berasal dari luar pulau dengan mobilitas yang tinggi harus sering ke luar pulau dan karena gelombang laut yang besar sering tidak dapat dipastikan

  9. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  10. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    the last 130 years and through reconstruction of the vegetation from the end of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (5528 ± 75 cal year BP) using meta-barcoding of plant DNA recovered from the nunatak sediments (sedaDNA). Our results show that several of the plant species detected with sedaDNA are described from...

  11. Meltdown on Long Island

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, A

    2000-01-01

    The closure of the neutron-scattering facility at Brookhaven after it was discovered that radioactive water had been leaking into the ground for more than a decade, shows what can happen if researchers do not take public feeling seriously (7 p).

  12. The influence of terrain forcing on the initiation of deep convection over Mediterranean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlott, Christian; Kirshbaum, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The influence of mountainous islands on the initiation of deep convection is investigated using the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model. The study day is 26 August 2009 on which moist convection occurred over both the Corsica and Sardinia island in the Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity runs with systematically modified topography are explored to evaluate the relative importance of the land-sea contrast and the terrain height for convection initiation. Whereas no island precipitation is simulated when the islands are completely removed, all simulations that represent these land surfaces develop convective precipitation. Although convection initiates progressively earlier in the day over taller islands, the precipitation rates and accumulations do not show a fixed relationship with terrain height. This is due to the competing effects of different physical processes. First, whereas the forcing for low-level ascent increases over taller islands, the boundary-layer moisture supply decreases, which diminishes the conditional instability and precipitable water. Second, whereas taller islands enhance the inland propagation speeds of sea-breeze fronts, they also mechanically block these fronts and prevent them from reaching the island interior. As a result, the island precipitation is rather insensitive to island terrain height except for one particular case in which the island precipitation increases considerably due to an optimal superposition of the sea breeze and upslope flow. These results demonstrate the complexity of interactions between sea breezes and orography and reinforce that an adequate representation of detailed topographic features is necessary to account for thermally induced wind systems that initiate deep convection.

  13. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen A.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Systematic study of influence of growth parameters on island morphology during molecular beam epitaxy growth: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Prasad Shrestha; Park, C.-Y.

    2006-05-01

    We have made a systematic study of influence of diffusion flux ratio (D/F), diffusional anisotropy (DA) and sticking anisotropy (SA) on island morphology to show the influence of each growth parameter on island morphology in presence of the other growth parameters. Our results show that the influence of D/F ratio and DA on island morphology depends on the sticking anisotropy of the adatoms. At the intermediate anisotropic case, increase in D/F ratio results in transition of the island morphology from 1d nature to 2 d nature. In anisotropic diffusion case, D/F ratio can change the growth direction of the island morphology. We also find that only sticking anisotropy is not sufficient to produce elongated islands, low D/F ratio is also essential. (author)

  15. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  16. An anhinga shows its iridescent plumage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The greenish iridescence of a male Anhinga nearly blends into the green vegetation behind it on the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center. The mostly black-bodied bird is also known as a 'snakebird' because, when swimming, only its head and long, slender neck are visible above water. The anhinga inhabits freshwater ponds and swamps with thick vegetation and ranges the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from North Carolina to Texas, the Mississippi Valley north to Arkansas and Tennessee, and south to southern South America. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  17. Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Salzedas, F. [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Galvão, R. M. O., E-mail: rgalvao@if.usp.br; Sanada, E. K. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.

  18. Under-Frequency Load Shedding Technique Considering Event-Based for an Islanded Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmaini Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenge for an islanding operation is to sustain the frequency stability. A large power imbalance following islanding would cause under-frequency, hence an appropriate control is required to shed certain amount of load. The main objective of this research is to develop an adaptive under-frequency load shedding (UFLS technique for an islanding system. The technique is designed considering an event-based which includes the moment system is islanded and a tripping of any DG unit during islanding operation. A disturbance magnitude is calculated to determine the amount of load to be shed. The technique is modeled by using PSCAD simulation tool. A simulation studies on a distribution network with mini hydro generation is carried out to evaluate the UFLS model. It is performed under different load condition: peak and base load. Results show that the load shedding technique have successfully shed certain amount of load and stabilized the system frequency.

  19. Selective virtual capacitive impedance loop for harmonics voltage compensation in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Parallel inverters having LCL output filters cause voltage distortions at the point of common coupling (PCC) in islanded microgrids when non-linear loads are present. A capacitive virtual impedance loop could be used to provide selective harmonic compensation in islanded microgrids, instead of in...... resistance for selective harmonic compensation in islanded microgrids. Simulation results were given to show the suitability of the proposed algorithms in reducing the voltage harmonics at the PCC.......Parallel inverters having LCL output filters cause voltage distortions at the point of common coupling (PCC) in islanded microgrids when non-linear loads are present. A capacitive virtual impedance loop could be used to provide selective harmonic compensation in islanded microgrids, instead...... of introducing additional active or passive filters into the system that could compromise the stability of the microgrid. However, the performance of these compensation loops becomes degraded when a virtual resistance is introduced with the aim to improve the overall stability of the parallel inverters...

  20. The general dynamic model of island biogeography revisited on the level of major plant families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzner, Bernd; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Patrick, Weigelt

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The general dynamic model (GDM) proposed by Whittaker et al. (2008) is a widely accepted theoretical framework in island biogeography. In this study, we explore whether GDM predictions hold when overall plant diversity is deconstructed into major plant families. Location: 101 islands from 14...... oceanic archipelagos worldwide. Methods: Occurrence data for all species of nine large, cosmopolitan flowering plant families were used to test predictions derived from the GDM. We analyzed the effects of island area and age on species richness as well as number and percentage of single-island endemic...... species per family using mixed-effect models. Results: Total species and endemic richness as well as the percentage of endemic species showed a hump-shaped relationship with island age. The overall pattern was mainly driven by few species-rich plant families. Varying patterns were found for individual...

  1. Multi-agent based controller for islanding operation of active distribution networks with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    -bus system was used to investigate the dynamic and steady state performance of the active distribution system during islanding operation. Case studies have been carried out using the Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based simulation platform. Case study results show that the proposed multi......The increasing amount of distributed generation (DG) in today’s highly complex restructured power networks gives more options for distribution system operators (DSOs) under contingency conditions. A low voltage distribution network with a large amount of DG can be operated as an islanded system...... if the distribution system is disconnected from the main grid due to the contingency. In order to successfully operate distribution systems under islanding mode, the possibility of small power islands within the distribution system needs to be considered. The control and management of these small power islands...

  2. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  3. Impact of the urban heat island on residents’ energy consumption: a case study of Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Pang, Huaji; Guo, Wenhui

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines impact of urban heat island on residents’ energy consumption through comparative analyses of monthly air temperature data observed in Qingdao, Laoshan and Huangdao weather stations. The results show effect of urban heat island is close related with urbanization speed. Recently, effects of urban heat island of Laoshan and Huangdao exceed that of Qingdao, consistent with rapid urbanization in Laoshan and Huangdao. Enhanced effect of urban heat island induces surface air temperature to rise up, further increase electricity energy consumption for air conditioning use in summer and reduce coal consumption for residents heating in winter. Comparing change of residents’ energy consumption in summer and winter, increments in summer are less than reduction in winter. This implicates effect of urban heat island is more obvious in winter than in summer.

  4. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of three-dimensional self-assembled quantum dot islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin; Feng Hao; Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Yin Hao-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    By three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, the effects of the temperature, the flux rate, the total coverage and the interruption time on the distribution and the number of self-assembled InAs/GaAs (001) quantum dot (QD) islands are studied, which shows that a higher temperature, a lower flux rate and a longer growth time correspond to a better island distribution. The relations between the number of islands and the temperature and the flux rate are also successfully simulated. It is observed that for the total coverage lower than 0.5 ML, the number of islands decreases with the temperature increasing and other growth parameters fixed and the number of islands increases with the flux rate increasing when the deposition is lower than 0.6 ML and the other parameters are fixed. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  5. Ecological release and venom evolution of a predatory marine snail at Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Thomas F; Lee, Taehwan

    2009-05-20

    Ecological release is coupled with adaptive radiation and ecological diversification yet little is known about the molecular basis of phenotypic changes associated with this phenomenon. The venomous, predatory marine gastropod Conus miliaris has undergone ecological release and exhibits increased dietary breadth at Easter Island. We examined the extent of genetic differentiation of two genes expressed in the venom of C. miliaris among samples from Easter Island, American Samoa and Guam. The population from Easter Island exhibits unique frequencies of alleles that encode distinct peptides at both loci. Levels of divergence at these loci exceed observed levels of divergence observed at a mitochondrial gene region at Easter Island. Patterns of genetic variation at two genes expressed in the venom of this C. miliaris suggest that selection has operated at these genes and contributed to the divergence of venom composition at Easter Island. These results show that ecological release is associated with strong selection pressures that promote the evolution of new phenotypes.

  6. Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Natália; Barnett, Ross; Cucchi, Thomas; Struchen, Rahel; Pascal, Marine; Pascal, Michel; Fischer, Martin C; Higham, Thomas; Brace, Selina; Ho, Simon Y W; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; O'Higgins, Paul; Excoffier, Laurent; Heckel, Gerald; Hoelzel, A Rus; Dobney, Keith M; Searle, Jeremy B

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range of species, including those with low dispersal capabilities. We use morphology, modern and ancient sequences of cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite genotypes to examine colonization history and evolutionary change associated with occupation of the Orkney archipelago by the common vole (Microtus arvalis), a species found in continental Europe but not in Britain. Among possible colonization scenarios, our results are most consistent with human introduction at least 5100 bp (confirmed by radiocarbon dating). We used approximate Bayesian computation of population history to infer the coast of Belgium as the possible source and estimated the evolutionary timescale using a Bayesian coalescent approach. We showed substantial morphological divergence of the island populations, including a size increase presumably driven by selection and reduced microsatellite variation likely reflecting founder events and genetic drift. More surprisingly, our results suggest that a recent and widespread cytb replacement event in the continental source area purged cytb variation there, whereas the ancestral diversity is largely retained in the colonized islands as a genetic 'ark'. The replacement event in the continental M. arvalis was probably triggered by anthropogenic causes (land-use change). Our studies illustrate that small offshore islands can act as field laboratories for studying various evolutionary processes over relatively short timescales, informing about the mainland source area as well as the island. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genetic diversity of a clonal angiosperm near its range limit: The case of Cymodocea nodosa at the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, Filipe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrao, Ester Álvares

    2006-01-01

    The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa forms a unique community in the Canary Islands, where it is classified as an endangered species. Biogeographic theory predicts that clonal species on islands near their distributional limits might show lower proportions of sexual (versus clonal) reproduction, lower genetic diversity, and higher differentiation. We addressed these hypotheses by comparing the genetic structure of C. nodosa from 10 meadows in the 4 main Canary Islands with 2 Iberian sites (Atlantic ...

  8. Observation of the bootstrap current reduction at magnetic island in a neoclassical tearing mode plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Hayashi, N.; Fujita, T.; Naito, O.; Tuda, T.; Kurita, G.

    2005-01-01

    Evolution of the current density profile associated with magnetic island formation in a neoclassical tearing mode plasma is measured for the first time in JT-60U by using a motional Stark effect diagnostic. As the island grows, the current density profile turns flat at the radial region of the island and a hollow structure appears at the rational surface. As the island shrinks the deformed region becomes narrower and finally diminishes after the disappearance of the island. In a quiescent plasma without magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, on the other hand, no deformation is observed. The observed deformation in the current density profile associated with the tearing mode is reproduced in a time dependent transport simulation assuming the reduction of the bootstrap current in the radial region of the island. Comparison of the measurement with a calculated steady-state solution also shows that the reduction and recovery of the bootstrap current at the island explains the temporal behaviours of the current density and safety factor profiles. From the experimental observation and simulations, we reach the conclusion that the bootstrap current decreases within the island O-point

  9. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  10. Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity.

  11. Control of size and density of InAs/(Al,Ga)As self-organized islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, P.; Smathers, J. B.; Yang, H.; Workman, C. L.; Salamo, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the influence of the chemical composition of the (Al,Ga)As surface on the formation of strain induced three-dimensional (3D) InAs islands. The experiments have been carried out using a molecular beam epitaxy facility combined with a scanning tunneling microscope enabling in situ surface characterization. The evolution of the density and morphology of these islands is investigated as a function of the Al composition. The InAs deposition, substrate temperature, and annealing time effects on the island formation and morphology are studied. The morphologies of the (Al,Ga)As surface as well as that of the reconstructed InAs 'wetting layer' are also described. Results indicate that there are major differences between the InAs/GaAs and the InAs/AlAs systems despite the same lattice mismatch. We observe these differences varying the aluminum content in the starting (Al,Ga)As surface. We show that control of the Al fraction leads to control of the size and density of the 3D islands. The control of island density and size as well as the growth mode of these islands is explained by considering the difference in surface mobility and cation intermixing between these two systems. Our observation is that strain energy is not the only parameter governing the formation of 3D islands but the chemical nature of the different layers involved is proved to significantly affect island properties. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    relatively simple models can describe the processes that take place. New data are presented which provide a detailed description of the last 16,000 years of climate and sea level change influence on the forces that have formed the island. This geological history can be used to provide information...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...

  13. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  14. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  15. Half- coalescence of the m/n = 1 magnetic island in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.

    1986-01-01

    We show that a configuration containing an m/n = 1 magnetic island is unstable to an ideal MHD mode. The expected nonlinear implications of this instability could explain the disruptive phase of the classical sawtooth behaviour of Tokamak plasmas

  16. Estimating flexural rigidity and load magnitude required for formation of Ross Island flexure moat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Harry, D. L.; Wenman, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lithospheric flexural subsidence around Ross Island in West Antarctica led to formation of the Ross Island flexure moat. This subsidence was caused by two major volcanic phases on Ross Island. The first phase saw the first surficial expression of Ross Island and volcanism at Mt. Bird to the north of Ross Island, which lasted from 5.2 - 2.9 Ma. The second phase lasted from 1.78 Ma to present and is comprised of eruptions from Mt. Terror to the east, Mt. Erebus to the west and Hut Point Peninsula (HPP) to the south of Ross Island. Flexural subsidence of the lithosphere due to volcanism on Ross Island led to formation of a sedimentary moat around the island, which is preserved in stratigraphy imaged on seismic reflection profiles. We identified 5 unconformities (from deepest upward Ri, RMU1, RMU2, RMU3, RMU4) in the seismic surveys which correspond to flexural subsidence episodes around Ross Island since early Pliocene. Ri (4.4 Ma) lies near the bottom of the flexural moat and RMU4 near the seafloor and top of the moat fill. These unconformities were used to make isopach maps to constrain flexure modeling of the area. Isopach maps show circular or semi-circular flexure basins around Ross Island which is approximated using a continuous plate, point load flexure model. We used Ri - sea floor isopach to constrain flexure models for 5 profiles centered on 4 volcanic centers and trending radially out of Ross Island. Flexure models along two profiles beginning on Mt. Bird and one profile off HPP show a flexural rigidity range of 1.47 - 6.44 x 1018 Nm with load center of mass on Mt. Bird and on HPP, respectively. A similar model along a profile initiating on Mt. Terror, passing through Mt Erebus and extending west of Ross Island across the moat, yielded a higher flexural rigidity estimate of 2.03 x 1019 Nm with load centered at Mt. Erebus. A flexure model to the north east of Ross Island along a profile beginning at Mt Terror and trending north, provide the highest flexural

  17. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  18. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  19. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  20. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  1. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  2. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  3. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    OpenAIRE

    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino

    2007-01-01

    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  4. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  5. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  6. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  7. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  8. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  9. The role of Ag buffer layer in Fe islands growth on Ge (111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tsu-Yi, E-mail: phtifu@phy.ntnu.edu.tw; Wu, Jia-Yuan; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Rd, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    Sub-monolayer iron atoms were deposited at room temperature on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates with and without Ag buffer layers. The behavior of Fe islands growth was investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) after different annealing temperatures. STM images show that iron atoms will cause defects and holes on substrates at room temperature. As the annealing temperature rises, iron atoms pull out germanium to form various kinds of alloyed islands. However, the silver layer can protect the Ag/Ge(111)-(√3×√3) reconstruction from forming defects. The phase diagram shows that ring, dot, and triangular defects were only found on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates. The kinds of islands found in Fe/Ge system are similar to Fe/Ag/Ge system. It indicates that Ge atoms were pulled out to form islands at high annealing temperatures whether there was a Ag layer or not. But a few differences in big pyramidal or strip islands show that the silver layer affects the development of islands by changing the surface symmetry and diffusion coefficient. The structure characters of various islands are also discussed.

  10. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.

    1998-08-01

    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  11. Analysis of Island Land Use Change Based on Transfer Matrix'a Case Study of Dongtou Island in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and

  12. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 × 10"5 m"3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 × 10"4 m"3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a six-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land

  13. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  14. Topography changes monitoring of small islands using camera drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drone aerial photogrammetry was conducted for monitoring topography changes of small islands in the east sea of Korea. Severe weather and sea wave is eroding the islands and sometimes cause landslide and falling rock. Due to rugged cliffs in all direction and bad accessibility, ground based survey methods are less efficient in monitoring topography changes of the whole area. Camera drones can provide digital images and movie in every corner of the islands, and drone aerial photogrammetry is powerful to get precise digital surface model (DSM) for a limited area. We have got a set of digital images to construct a textured 3D model of the project area every year since 2014. Flight height is in less than 100m from the top of those islands to get enough ground sampling distance (GSD). Most images were vertically captured with automatic flights, but we also flied drones around the islands with about 30°-45° camera angle for constructing 3D model better. Every digital image has geo-reference, but we set several ground control points (GCPs) on the islands and their coordinates were measured with RTK surveying methods to increase the absolute accuracy of the project. We constructed 3D textured model using photogrammetry tool, which generates 3D spatial information from digital images. From the polygonal model, we could get DSM with contour lines. Thematic maps such as hill shade relief map, aspect map and slope map were also processed. Those maps make us understand topography condition of the project area better. The purpose of this project is monitoring topography change of these small islands. Elevation difference map between DSMs of each year is constructed. There are two regions showing big negative difference value. By comparing constructed textured models and captured digital images around these regions, it is checked that a region have experienced real topography change. It is due to huge rock fall near the center of the east island. The size of fallen rock can be

  15. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of ocean shoreline location on the Virginia barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Shoreline change along the Eastern Atlantic shore of Virginia has been studied for the individual barrier islands but not as an integrated system. This study combines the Atlantic shoreline locations for eleven barrier islands obtained from LANDSAT 5, 7, and 8 images. Approximately 250 shoreline locations over a 24-year period from Jan 1990 to Dec 2014 were extracted from the digitized shoreline data at 338 transects. The resulting 338 by 250 matrix was analyzed by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) technique. The first four principal components (PC) explained 86 percent of the sample variance. Since the data was not detrended, the first PC was the overall trend of the data with a discontinuity in 2004-2005. The 2004-2005 interval included storm events and large shoreline changes. PCs 2 to 4 reflect the effects of El Nino events and tropical and non-tropical storms. Eigenvectors 1 to 4 all show the effects of the nine inlets in the island group. Eigenvector (EV) 1 explains 59 percent of the shoreline spatial variance and shows the largest changes at the northern and southern island ends. EVs 2 to 4 reflect the pattern of EV1 but at sequentially smaller percentages of the spatial variance. As a group, the eleven islands are losing ocean side shoreline. The lone exception is Hog Island. Sea level had the strongest correlation with the shoreline loss trend of PC1. The coefficient of determination was 0.41. The NAO and MEI also correlated with PC1 with correlations of determination of 0.05 and 0.12 respectively. These confidence level for the three factors was better than 99 percent. Sea level also correlated with PC3 and PC4. The PCs as a group show that the year intervals 2004-2005 and 2009-2010 had large effects on the shoreline change pattern for the island group. EVs 1 to 4 had the highest range of shoreline change at the island ends indicating the effect the changes of the inlets have on the adjacent islands. The smaller islands as a group had a higher level

  16. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jen Teng

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  17. Radial electric field evolution in the vicinity of a rotating magnetic island in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Golant, V E; Kornev, V A; Lebedev, S V; Tukachinsky, A S; Vildjunas, M I; Zhubr, N A

    2006-01-01

    Radial electric field is known to be an important factor affecting transport and confinement in toroidal fusion plasmas. Langmuire probe measurements of peripheral radial electric field evolution in the presence of a rotating MHD island were performed on the TUMAN-3M tokamak in order to clear up the possible connection between the radial electric field and the island rotation, both in L and H-modes. The measurements showed that E r became positive, if the island was large enough, in spite of the constant direction of the island's rotation. Comparing similar ohmic H-mode discharges with or without a rotating MHD island, it was found that in the presence of the large island E r was always more positive. Possible explanations of this observation are discussed

  18. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  19. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  20. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  2. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  3. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  4. Geothermal research in the Vulcano Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvano, A.

    1985-03-01

    In 1952-1953 AGIP drilled some geothermal wells in the Vulcano Island: these wells had experimental peculiarity, reaching a depth of about 230 meters. Located near the famous ''Porto di Levante'' hot springs, they were tested showing a low production (a mixture of water and steam). For several reasons the exploration in the area has been stopped for years until 1982 when some geological and geophysical surveys were carried on by a joint-venture among AGIP S.p.A., Ente Minerario Siciliano and Ente Nazionale Energia Elettrica. With the financial support of ECC a well has been drilled (total depth 2050 meters): all the sediments have volcanic nature with very low or absent permeability, but with very high temperature gradient (more than 420/sup 0/C at the bottom), encouraging to continue the research.

  5. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  6. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  7. ACCELERATED EVOLUTION OF LAND SNAILS MANDARINA IN THE OCEANIC BONIN ISLANDS: EVIDENCE FROM MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    1999-04-01

    An endemic land snail genus Mandarina of the oceanic Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands shows exceptionally rapid evolution not only of morphological and ecological traits, but of DNA sequence. A phylogenetic relationship based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences suggests that morphological differences equivalent to the differences between families were produced between Mandarina and its ancestor during the Pleistocene. The inferred phylogeny shows that species with similar morphologies and life habitats appeared repeatedly and independently in different lineages and islands at different times. Sequential adaptive radiations occurred in different islands of the Bonin Islands and species occupying arboreal, semiarboreal, and terrestrial habitat arose independently in each island. Because of a close relationship between shell morphology and life habitat, independent evolution of the same life habitat in different islands created species possesing the same shell morphology in different islands and lineages. This rapid evolution produced some incongruences between phylogenetic relationship and species taxonomy. Levels of sequence divergence of mtDNA among the species of Mandarina is extremely high. The maximum level of sequence divergence at 16S and 12S ribosomal RNA sequence within Mandarina are 18.7% and 17.7%, respectively, and this suggests that evolution of mtDNA of Mandarina is extremely rapid, more than 20 times faster than the standard rate in other animals. The present examination reveals that evolution of morphological and ecological traits occurs at extremely high rates in the time of adaptive radiation, especially in fragmented environments. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Vertical and lateral ordering of Ge islands grown on Si(001): theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalenti, F; Marzegalli, A; Capellini, G; Seta, M De; Miglio, Leo

    2007-01-01

    A set of recent results concerning lateral and vertical ordering of Ge islands grown on Si(001) is reviewed. Experimental data generated by chemical vapour deposition and analysed by atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are compared with computer simulations and modelling based on atomistic approaches and continuum theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to probe experimentally the detailed strain field generated by buried Ge islands at the surface of the Si capping layer. The observed arrangement of small Ge islands grown over the capping layer is demonstrated to be very close to the one predicted by a simple model where the local chemical potential is inferred from the strain field at the atomic scale, as given by Tersoff-potential molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we review recent experimental evidence for lateral ordering, triggered by partial Si capping, in the first layer of Ge islands on Si(001). Theoretical support is given by showing that when two islands lie in close proximity the elastic field is likely to generate a flow of atoms leading to an effective gliding motion along opposite directions of both islands, eventually stopped by the presence of further neighbouring islands

  9. Determining coding CpG islands by identifying regions significant for pattern statistics on Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Meromit; Engström, Alexander; Schönhuth, Alexander; Pachter, Lior

    2011-09-23

    Recent experimental and computational work confirms that CpGs can be unmethylated inside coding exons, thereby showing that codons may be subjected to both genomic and epigenomic constraint. It is therefore of interest to identify coding CpG islands (CCGIs) that are regions inside exons enriched for CpGs. The difficulty in identifying such islands is that coding exons exhibit sequence biases determined by codon usage and constraints that must be taken into account. We present a method for finding CCGIs that showcases a novel approach we have developed for identifying regions of interest that are significant (with respect to a Markov chain) for the counts of any pattern. Our method begins with the exact computation of tail probabilities for the number of CpGs in all regions contained in coding exons, and then applies a greedy algorithm for selecting islands from among the regions. We show that the greedy algorithm provably optimizes a biologically motivated criterion for selecting islands while controlling the false discovery rate. We applied this approach to the human genome (hg18) and annotated CpG islands in coding exons. The statistical criterion we apply to evaluating islands reduces the number of false positives in existing annotations, while our approach to defining islands reveals significant numbers of undiscovered CCGIs in coding exons. Many of these appear to be examples of functional epigenetic specialization in coding exons.

  10. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  11. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  12. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  13. Simple method for calculating island widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs

  14. RAINDROP DISTRIBUTIONS AT MAJURO ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAINDROPS, MARSHALL ISLANDS ), (*ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, TROPICAL REGIONS), PARTICLE SIZE, SAMPLING, TABLES(DATA), WATER, ATTENUATION, DISTRIBUTION, VOLUME, RADAR REFLECTIONS, RAINFALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS

  15. The Kuril Islands: Russian-Japanese Relations (1920–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of Russian-Japanese relations on the Kuril Islands. A number of international documents, determining national ownerships of those islands are reviewed in the article. In particular, it analyzes the provisions of the Convention on basic principles of relations between the USSR and Japan of 1925. It denotes that the Yalta Agreement of 1945 established the territorial boundaries of Japan. From the international law perspective, which was back then effective, the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration of 1945 are considered. Potsdam Declaration (as well as the Yalta Agreement is an integral part of a unified system of political and legal decisions made by the Allied Powers. The author points out that by signing the Act of Surrender of September 2, 1945, Japan agreed on the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The provisions of the acts of the United States and Japan are reviewed, as well as the position of their representatives in the 40-50s of last century, which showed the Japan's renunciation of claims for Kuril Islands. Comprehensive investigation exposed to provisions of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951. А due attention is paid to the analysis of the Joint Soviet-Japanese Declaration of 1956. The article represents international legal arguments supporting the affiliation of Kuril Islands to the Russian Federation. The author characterizes a current state of Russian-Japanese territorial issue.

  16. Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T.

    The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1) historical documents, (2) aerial photographs and (3) field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1) the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2) the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

  17. Topographic stress and catastrophic collapse of volcanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Martel, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Flank collapse of volcanic islands can devastate coastal environments and potentially induce tsunamis. Previous studies have suggested that factors such as volcanic eruption events, gravitational spreading, the reduction of material strength due to hydrothermal alteration, steep coastal cliffs, or sea level change may contribute to slope instability and induce catastrophic collapse of volcanic flanks. In this study, we examine the potential influence of three-dimensional topographic stress perturbations on flank collapses of volcanic islands. Using a three-dimensional boundary element model, we calculate subsurface stress fields for the Canary and Hawaiian islands to compare the effects of stratovolcano and shield volcano shapes on topographic stresses. Our model accounts for gravitational stresses from the actual shapes of volcanic islands, ambient stress in the underlying plate, and the influence of pore water pressure. We quantify the potential for slope failure of volcanic flanks using a combined model of three-dimensional topographic stress and slope stability. The results of our analysis show that subsurface stress fields vary substantially depending on the shapes of volcanoes, and can influence the size and spatial distribution of flank failures.

  18. Biogeographical Evidences Help Revealing the Origin of Hainan Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Both the continental or island origin of Hainan, and the Indo-Malaysian or East Asian affinity of its flora, are debatable. In this study, 196 families, 1283 genera and 3894 species of Hainan plants were recognized. Patterns of seed plant distribution were quantified at the generic and the family levels. The floras of Vietnam, and the adjacent Guangxi and Guangdong provinces of mainland China, were compared with Hainan. The results showed that the flora of Hainan Island is dominated by families and genera with tropical distributions. Among its floristic elements, tropical Asian distributions make up 23.85% of the total flora, while East Asian distributions contribute only 3.74%. There are only 7 genera and c. 10% of species endemic to Hainan Island. The Hainan flora has strong similarities to the flora of Vietnam at the family and the generic levels, and also to the flora of Guangxi, but less with the adjacent Guangdong province. The main conclusions are: Hainan's flora is tropical in nature with a strongly tropical Asian affinity, and it has very low endemism at the generic and species levels, which implies a continental origin. We conjecture that Hainan Island could have been adjacent to northern Vietnam and the Guangxi at least in Eocene. This suggestion is supported by palaeobotanical, palaeomagnetic and volcanism studies.

  19. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  20. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  1. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  2. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.

  3. Storm Damage Reduction Project Design for Wallops Island, Virginia, Version 1.01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    photograph. Figure 2-4 shows the erosion and storm damage to the Wallops Island Association Clubhouse at the north end of the island in May 1949. Figure 2...uncertainty in what future rates will be. By the Bruun rule (Bruun 1962), small changes in sea level can be expected to have dramatic effects on shoreline...known. What is clear is that the north end of Wallops Island is accreting. Therefore, more sand is being delivered to this area than is leaving. 9.2

  4. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...

  5. Spatio-temporal forest cover characterisation of mascareignite zones of reunion Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouar, S.

    1998-01-01

    The endo-soils of the reunion island often present a particularity: the presence of a light soil level on surface, of vegetable composition, the mascareignite. In the framework of this study, mascareignite soils have been localized on the wet face of the island and have been compared with those of the dry face. The floristic past of these soils has been reconstituted with the pedo-anthracology tool (charcoal dating and identification). Ages given by the 14 C measures show that the mascareignite genesis is anterior to the human being presence in the island. The study of the actual vegetable cover distribution has been realized by satellite data. (A.L.B.)

  6. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  7. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  8. Organic agriculture as a precondition for development of eco-agrotourism on the islands - a case study of Korcula Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andelko VRSALJKO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine possibility of developing eco-agrotourism on the Korcula Island. Due to growing diversification within agriculture and tourism, the combination of organic agriculture and ecotourism gives a new product- eco-agrotourism, which is increasingly recognized in the world tourism. Eco-agrotourism at the highest level combines the sustainability of both activities. In addition to the mentioned it supports and protects the diversity of ecosystems, the preservation of natural landscapes; promotes biodiversity, preserves rural architecture and cultural content, encourages the promotion and sale of ecological products as well as the synergy of the economy with the environment and the growth and development of local tourism. Eco-agrotourism is an opportunity for employment of the domicile population especially young people. This is particularly pronounced in less favored areas, such as islands. The results showed that the agrotourism farm owners have the ecological awareness about the importance of nature, authenticity and origin of products through organic agriculture, which is connected with the tradition and culture of the islands, and creates a strong interaction unified in eco-agrotourism. Also, the island of Korcula has basic preconditions for the development of agrotourism, in particular eco-tourism, such as: favorable climatic and geographical conditions, attractive landscapes, specific flora and fauna, tradition of agricultural production, availability of healthier and quality food, but also wealth of cultural goods, way of life, various events, dialects, folklore and gastronomy.

  9. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérubin, Laurent Marcel; Garavelli, Lysel

    2016-01-01

    The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns. PMID:26942575

  10. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marcel Chérubin

    Full Text Available The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.

  11. Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roger S; Surget-Groba, Yann; Johansson, Helena

    2010-04-29

    From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong primae facie case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species

  12. Sable Island: A heritage to preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, C.

    1997-09-01

    Sable Island is strategically located on the edge of the teeming fisheries of the Newfoundland Grand Banks and near one of the main sea routes between North America and Europe. It has been the bane of navigators from 1583 onward, with 250 ships running aground, the latest in 1947. Marine productivity around Sable Island is very high owing to the temperature differences between the currents and the adjacent underwater topography. Dolphins and whales abound in the area known as the `Gully`, and there are no fewer than 36 fish species present in the waters surrounding the Island. Approximately 35 per cent of the Island is covered by vegetation which is limited to species adapted to sandy soil containing little organic matter and few nutrients. Some plants, such as the American beachgrass, grow in dense colonies and help to stabilize the dunes. Bird diversity is limited to species adapted to open areas, ponds and the littoral. Some 324 species have been recorded on the Island, but only 25 are known to nest there. The Island is one of world`s most important breeding sites for grey seals where they can be observed in great numbers during mating, whelping and moulting season. Among the many introduced animals only the legendary horses of Sable Island remain to this day. Despite its remoteness and isolation, the Island faces many threats, one of the most worrysome being the erosion of the eastern extremity of the Island during severe winter storms. The Island benefits from its status as a Migratory Bird Sanctuary, and is legally protected under Sable Island Regulations of the Navigation Act.

  13. Surficial geology of Coats and Mansel Islands, Northwest Territories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aylsworth, J. M; Shilts, W. W

    1991-01-01

    ... islands.A second objective was to determine the maximum level of marine submergence on Coats Island and, if possible, to collect marine shells for dating purposes from the extensive flights of beaches developed on both islands...

  14. Updating Rhode Island's strategic highway safety plan (SHSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the peer exchange sponsored by the Rhode Island : Department of Transportation (RIDOT) that focused on Rhode Islands SHSP : update. : Rhode Islands goals for the peer exchange included learning from other States : expe...

  15. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  16. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  17. A genome-wide map of aberrantly expressed chromosomal islands in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castanos-Velez Esmeralda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer development is accompanied by genetic phenomena like deletion and amplification of chromosome parts or alterations of chromatin structure. It is expected that these mechanisms have a strong effect on regional gene expression. Results We investigated genome-wide gene expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and normal epithelial tissues from 25 patients using oligonucleotide arrays. This allowed us to identify 81 distinct chromosomal islands with aberrant gene expression. Of these, 38 islands show a gain in expression and 43 a loss of expression. In total, 7.892 genes (25.3% of all human genes are located in aberrantly expressed islands. Many chromosomal regions that are linked to hereditary colorectal cancer show deregulated expression. Also, many known tumor genes localize to chromosomal islands of misregulated expression in CRC. Conclusion An extensive comparison with published CGH data suggests that chromosomal regions known for frequent deletions in colon cancer tend to show reduced expression. In contrast, regions that are often amplified in colorectal tumors exhibit heterogeneous expression patterns: even show a decrease of mRNA expression. Because for several islands of deregulated expression chromosomal aberrations have never been observed, we speculate that additional mechanisms (like abnormal states of regional chromatin also have a substantial impact on the formation of co-expression islands in colorectal carcinoma.

  18. Geochemical mapping study of Panjang island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Sumardjo

    2010-01-01

    Impact of industrial and regional development are not only related to an improvement of socio-economic, but also to an environmental conservation and sustainable. This impact could be observed on a change of geochemical mapping before and after an operational of the industry. In the relation with a regional development and resources utilization, the geochemical mapping have been done in the aim to know a resources and an elemental distribution at Panjang island. In this research, ko-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k_0-INAA) have been applied in an elemental quantification on the geochemical mapping. Pencuplikan of geochemical sample have been carried out by using a grid systematic method with a sample density of about 10 sample per square kilometre involved 85 pencuplikan point. The geochemical sample of sediment and soil have been provided as a dry weight of 100 mesh. Internal quality control have done by using a number of Standard Reference Materials obtained from US. Geological Survey. Fifteen elements of Sc, Co, In, Rb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu, La, Yb, Th, U, lr and Hf contained in standard materials have been evaluated. The analysis result show that a relative standard deviation less than 11 %, except for Mo (13 %) and lr (26 %). Fourteen elements of Al, Br, Ca, Co, Eu, Fe, La, U, Na, Ce, Mn, As, Sc and Th have been mapped and presented in this paper. The major elements of Ca, Al and Fe, and minor elements of Mn, U and Sc are distributed at all region. The lanthanide elements of La, Ce and Eu have vary concentration and could be found at the middle to the north of the island. (author)

  19. [Epidemiological dynamics of Dengue on Easter Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; González, Christian; Canals, Andrea; Figueroa, Daniela

    2012-08-01

    Dengue is considered an emerging disease with an increasing prevalence especially in South America. In 2002, an epidemic of classic Dengue (DENV-1) occurred unexpectedly on Easter Island, where it had never been detected before. It reappeared in 2006-2007 and 2008, 2009 and 2011. The aim of this study was to estimate the most relevant parameters of the epidemiological dynamics of transmission of Dengue on Easter Island and to model the dynamics since 2002, comparing the predictions with the actual situation observed. Of the total cases, 52.27% were females and 47.73% men. The average age of infection was 31.38 ± 18.37 years, similar in men and women. We estimated the reproductive number R0 = 3.005 with an IC0,95 = [1.92, 4.61]. The inter-epidemic period reached an estimated T = 5.20 to 6.8 years. The case simulation showed recurrent epidemics with decreasing magnitude (damped oscillations), which is a known phenomenon in models of dengue and malaria. There was good qualitative fit to the epidemiological dynamics from 2002 onwards. It accurately predicted the rise in cases between 2006 and 2011. The predicted number of cases during the 2002 epidemic is greater than the confirmed cases and the predicted epidemic was faster than notified cases. Interepidemic period in the simulation was 6.72 years between 2002 and 2008 and 4.68 years between 2008 and 2013. From the theoretical perspective, the first epidemic had affected 94% of the population (approximately 3500 cases), but 639 were reported suggesting underreporting and a lot of sub-clinical cases occurred. Future epidemic of decreasing size are expected, although the main danger are epidemics of hemorrhagic dengue fever resulting from the introduction of different dengue virus serotypes.

  20. Sustainable energy planning for 27 small Danish Islands. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A methodology has been developed and implemented, whereby detailed assessment of a few model or archetype islands may be used as basis for subsequent estimation of possibilities for other islands of similar kind, provided certain key data for present day energy consumption are available. A consistent interaction with the population on the model islands has been important in that process. The technical-economical results of the study show, that a number of measures seem cost-effective with the aim of contributing to a sustainable energy supply for the small Danish islands. Most prominent are energy savings for both heat and electricity, grid connected wind turbines for electricity production and collective heat supply, in decreasing order of cost-effectiveness. It has become clear, that an organisational structure based on the cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the fram work of cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the framework of cooperatives. This means that it is a well proven concept, in Denmark well established in the legal and financial structure including the tax laws. Consequently such energy cooperatives represent the organisational structure recommended by the project also for other sustainable energy initiatives on the small Danish islands. The implication on a European level is that the methodology developed in the project, as well as the concrete recommendations of the project including organisational structures, seem well suited to be applied on a European level in the context of local communities with a strong identity. (LN)

  1. Maximum Historical Seismic Intensity Map of S. Miguel Island (azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, D.; Gaspar, J. L.; Ferreira, T.; Queiroz, G.

    The Azores archipelago is situated in the Atlantic Ocean where the American, African and Eurasian lithospheric plates meet. The so-called Azores Triple Junction located in the area where the Terceira Rift, a NW-SE to WNW-ESE fault system with a dextral component, intersects the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with an approximate N-S direction, dominates its geological setting. S. Miguel Island is located in the eastern segment of the Terceira Rift, showing a high diversity of volcanic and tectonic structures. It is the largest Azorean island and includes three active trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas) placed in the intersection of the NW-SE Ter- ceira Rift regional faults with an E-W deep fault system thought to be a relic of a Mid-Atlantic Ridge transform fault. N-S and NE-SW faults also occur in this con- text. Basaltic cinder cones emplaced along NW-SE fractures link that major volcanic structures. The easternmost part of the island comprises an inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste). Since the settle- ment of the island, early in the XV century, several destructive earthquakes occurred in the Azores region. At least 11 events hit S. Miguel Island with high intensity, some of which caused several deaths and significant damages. The analysis of historical documents allowed reconstructing the history and the impact of all those earthquakes and new intensity maps using the 1998 European Macrosseismic Scale were produced for each event. The data was then integrated in order to obtain the maximum historical seismic intensity map of S. Miguel. This tool is regarded as an important document for hazard assessment and risk mitigation taking in account that indicates the location of dangerous seismogenic zones and provides a comprehensive set of data to be applied in land-use planning, emergency planning and building construction.

  2. Moessbauer Study of Sedimentary Rocks from King George Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Souza, P. A. de; Schuch, L. A.; Oliveira, A. C. de; Garg, R.; Garg, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    The separation of continents at the periphery of Antarctica occurred about 180 ma ago due to volcanic activity. Geological faults can be very important in the study of geological occurrences. Such geological faults occur across the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, and have been studied in detail previously. Controversial statements were given in earlier works, based on conventional geological investigations, as to whether altered 'Jurassic' and unaltered Tertiary rocks were separated by a major fault which goes across the Admiralty Bay, or whether there is no difference in the alteration of the rocks located at either side of the fault. The aim of our work is to investigate rock samples from the Admiralty Bay of King George Island, Antarctica, from different locations on both sides of the geological fault. For these investigations 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used. We have found that the phase composition, and the iron distribution among the crystallographic sites of iron-bearing minerals, are characteristic of the location of the rock samples from the Admiralty Bay of King George Island. There is a much higher amount of iron oxides in the rocks from the south part of the geological fault than in the north part. The differences in the mineral composition and iron distribution showed that the rocks in the southern part of the geological fault of King George Island are significantly altered compared to the rocks in the northern part. Our present results support and complement well the results obtained earlier on soils from King George Island.

  3. Nonlinear resonance islands and modulational effects in a proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examine one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. The authors examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, the authors examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: Tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three parameters: The strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. The tune modulation model is successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. The authors present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and the authors make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment. The authors apply the tune modulation stability diagram to the explicitly two-dimensional phenomenon of modulational diffusion in the Fermilab Tevatron with beam-beam kicks as the source of nonlinearity. The amplitude growth created by this mechanism in simulation is exponential rather than root-time as predicted by modulational diffusion models. The authors comment upon the luminosity and lifetime limitations such a mechanism implies in a proton storage ring

  4. Nonlinear evolution of magnetic islands in a two fluid torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, L.E.; Park, W.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical model MH3D-T for the two fluid description of macroscopic evolution in a full three dimensional torus has been developed. Based on the perturbative drift ordering, generalized to arbitrary perturbation size, the model follows the full temperature evolution, including the thermal equilibration along the magnetic field. It contains the diamagnetic drifts, ion gyroviscous stress tensor, and the Hall term in Ohm's law. Electron inertia is neglected. The numerical model solves the same equations in a torus and in several simplified configurations. It has been benchmarked against the diamagnetic ω* i stabilization of the resistive m = 1, n = 1 reconnecting mode in a cylinder. The nonlinear evolution of resistive magnetic islands with m,n ≠ 1,1 in a cylinder is found to agree with previous analytic and reduced-torus results, which show that the diamagnetic rotation vanishes early in the island evolution and the saturated island size is determined by the same external driving factor Δ' as in MHD. The two fluid evolution in a full torus, however, differs from that in a cylinder and from the resistive MHD evolution. The poloidal rotation velocity undergoes a degree of poloidal momentum damping in the torus, even without neoclassical effects. The two fluid magnetic island grows faster, nonlinearly, than the resistive MHD island, and also couples different toroidal harmonics more effectively. Plasma compressibility and processes operating along the magnetic field play a much more important role than in MHD or in simple geometry. The two fluid model contains all the important neoclassical fluid effects except for the b circ ∇ circ Π parallelj viscous force terms. The addition of these terms is in progress

  5. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Two Tomato Species from the Galapagos Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Pailles, Yveline

    2017-02-15

    Endemic flora of the Galapagos Islands has adapted to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. The wild tomato species from the Galapagos Islands, Solanum cheesmaniae and S. galapagense, are tolerant to various stresses, and can be crossed with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through the genotyping-by-sequencing technique, DArTseq, to elucidate the genetic diversity and population structure of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes (compared to two S. lycopersicum varieties and one S. pimpinellifolium accession). Two clustering methods, Principal Component Analysis and STRUCTURE, showed clear distinction between the two species and a subdivision in the S. cheesmaniae group corresponding to geographical origin and age of the islands. High genetic variation among the accessions within each species was suggested by the AMOVA. High diversity in the S. cheesmaniae group and its correlation with the islands of origin were also suggested. This indicates a possible influence of the movement of the islands, from west to east, on the gene flow. Additionally, the absence of S. galapagense populations in the eastern islands points to the species divergence occurring after the eastern islands became isolated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the population structure of the Galapagos tomatoes collection partially explains the evolutionary history of both species, knowledge that facilitates exploitation of their genetic potential for the identification of novel alleles contributing to stress tolerance.

  7. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  8. IslandFAST: A Semi-numerical Tool for Simulating the Late Epoch of Reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yue, Bin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We present the algorithm and main results of our semi-numerical simulation, islandFAST, which was developed from 21cmFAST and designed for the late stage of reionization. The islandFAST simulation predicts the evolution and size distribution of the large-scale underdense neutral regions (neutral islands), and we find that the late Epoch of Reionization proceeds very fast, showing a characteristic scale of the neutral islands at each redshift. Using islandFAST, we compare the impact of two types of absorption systems, i.e., the large-scale underdense neutral islands versus small-scale overdense absorbers, in regulating the reionization process. The neutral islands dominate the morphology of the ionization field, while the small-scale absorbers dominate the mean-free path of ionizing photons, and also delay and prolong the reionization process. With our semi-numerical simulation, the evolution of the ionizing background can be derived self-consistently given a model for the small absorbers. The hydrogen ionization rate of the ionizing background is reduced by an order of magnitude in the presence of dense absorbers.

  9. Community Involvement in Tourism Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in Tioman Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiza Md Sharif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector is one of the major economic contributors to most countries. Island tourism is one of the important tourism products of a country and is able to catalyse socio-economic development for the local communities. In Malaysia, studies on local entrepreneurship development in Tioman Island has not been given much attention by researchers. To fill this gap, this study aims to provide information on the field of entrepreneurial tourism in Tioman Island. The main objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of the island community as a tourism entrepreneur and to analyse the problems and challenges faced by the island's tourism entrepreneurs. The findings show that the majority of entrepreneurs are male, aged between 25 to 44, receive education until secondary school and married. Most of the local tourism entrepreneurs run the food and beverage business and manage their businesses for 11 to 15 years and earn a monthly income of RM2001 to RM4000. The local tourism operators also face a few problems such as capital and finance, marketing, business management and infrastructure. At the same time, the entrepreneurs also expect collaboration from the government to play an important role in advancing the island's tourism industry. At the same time, local tourism entrepreneurs also expect cooperation from the government and other authorities to play a role in developing the island's tourism industry.

  10. Coupling Analysis of Heat Island Effects, Vegetation Coverage and Urban Flood in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, Q.; Fan, W.; Wang, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, satellite image, remote sensing technique and geographic information system technique are main technical bases. Spectral and other factors comprehensive analysis and visual interpretation are main methods. We use GF-1 and Landsat8 remote sensing satellite image of Wuhan as data source, and from which we extract vegetation distribution, urban heat island relative intensity distribution map and urban flood submergence range. Based on the extracted information, through spatial analysis and regression analysis, we find correlations among heat island effect, vegetation coverage and urban flood. The results show that there is a high degree of overlap between of urban heat island and urban flood. The area of urban heat island has buildings with little vegetation cover, which may be one of the reasons for the local heavy rainstorms. Furthermore, the urban heat island has a negative correlation with vegetation coverage, and the heat island effect can be alleviated by the vegetation to a certain extent. So it is easy to understand that the new industrial zones and commercial areas which under constructions distribute in the city, these land surfaces becoming bare or have low vegetation coverage, can form new heat islands easily.

  11. User acceptance of diesel/PV hybrid system in an island community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuangpornpitak, N.; Kumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at a rural (island) community to understand the role of PV hybrid system installed on an island. Until 2004, most islanders had installed diesel generators in their homes to generate electricity, which was directly supplied to appliances or stored in the batteries for later use. A field survey was carried out to study the user satisfaction of the PV hybrid system in the island community. The attitude of islanders to the PV hybrid system was mostly positive. The islanders can use more electricity, the supply of which can meet the demand. A comparison of pollutions before and after installation of the PV hybrid system was made along with the interviews with the users. The data show that the users are highly satisfied with the PV hybrid system which can reduce environmental impact, especially air and noise pollutions. New opportunities as a result of access to electric service include studying and reading at night that were not possible earlier. All the islanders use the PV hybrid system and more importantly, no one found that the system made their life worse as compared to the earlier state of affairs. (author)

  12. Modeling and simulation of storm surge on Staten Island to understand inundation mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Michael E.; Benimoff, Alan I.; Fritz, William J.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Blanton, Brian O.; Dzedzits, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, near Brigantine, New Jersey, and had a transformative impact on Staten Island and the New York Metropolitan area. Of the 43 New York City fatalities, 23 occurred on Staten Island. The borough, with a population of approximately 500,000, experienced some of the most devastating impacts of the storm. Since Hurricane Sandy, protective dunes have been constructed on the southeast shore of Staten Island. ADCIRC+SWAN model simulations run on The City University of New York's Cray XE6M, housed at the College of Staten Island, using updated topographic data show that the coast of Staten Island is still susceptible to tidal surge similar to those generated by Hurricane Sandy. Sandy hindcast simulations of storm surges focusing on Staten Island are in good agreement with observed storm tide measurements. Model results calculated from fine-scaled and coarse-scaled computational grids demonstrate that finer grids better resolve small differences in the topography of critical hydraulic control structures, which affect storm surge inundation levels. The storm surge simulations, based on post-storm topography obtained from high-resolution lidar, provide much-needed information to understand Staten Island's changing vulnerability to storm surge inundation. The results of fine-scale storm surge simulations can be used to inform efforts to improve resiliency to future storms. For example, protective barriers contain planned gaps in the dunes to provide for beach access that may inadvertently increase the vulnerability of the area.

  13. Limited overwater dispersal and genetic differentiation of the snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus) in the Oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Fumio; Shima, Akina; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Kawakami, Kazuto; Segawa, Ryoko D; Aotsuka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2009-08-01

    The genetic differentiation and speciation of lizards on oceanic islands may be affected by their rate of overwater dispersal. Cryptoblepharus is one of the most geographically widespread scincid lizards throughout the Indo-Pacific and Australian regions. Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus is the northernmost species of the genus, dwelling on several small Pacific islands. To examine the colonization history of this lizard, mitochondrial 16S rDNA and D-loop sequences were compared among populations of the Ogasawara Islands consisting of four island groups (the Muko-jima, Chichi-jima, Haha-jima, and Kazan groups), and an isolated island, Minamitori-shima (Marcus Island). These four groups and Minamitori-shima have not been connected to each other because each is surrounded by deep sea (>100 m). DNA analyses showed that the lizard populations on individual islands had each representative haplotypes. The ancestors of C. nigropunctatus probably arrived on the islands from the southern Pacific Ocean via wave dispersal and differentiated to produce the present state. They appear to have dispersed from their origin along two independent pathways: one between Kitaiwo-to (Kazan group) and the Muko-jima and Chichi-jima groups, and the other among the Minamitori-shima, Minamiiwo-to (Kazan group), and Haha-jima groups. Limited long-distance overwater dispersal may be responsible for the genetic structure of the C. nigropunctatus populations on these oceanic islands. However, among the small islands within the same island group, D-loop haplotypes were shared and the local genetic diversity was usually high, suggesting frequent gene flow across the same group of islands.

  14. ANCIENT SHIPYARD ON TURKEY’S DANA ISLAND: ITS 3D MODELLING WITH PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a small island 2 km off the southern coast of Turkey, Dana Island offers a rich history which is likely to shed light upon the Dark Ages. Starting from 2015 our archaeological team discovered through continuing coastal and underwater excavations 274 shipsheds/slipways there. This discovery places Dana Island among the biggest shipyards of antiquity. The slipways varied in dimensions suitable for vessels of different sizes from small boats to large warships. Historical sources suggest that the name of the island may stem from Yadnana, Yadana or Adana which was mentioned in an Assyrian tablet of the 8th century BC, as an island in the vicinity of Cyprus. Archaeological evidence exists that shows Dana Island had played a significant role in seamanship activities in Levant starting from Neolithic times. A substantial part of the naval campaigns must have involved Dana Island which used be the biggest shipyard/naval base of the Eastern Mediterranean. A 3D model of the island has been made by using photogrammetry and computer graphics methods and simulations were executed to check the hypotheses related to the involvement of Dana Island in the major sea battles of antiquity, such as Sea Battle of Lade in 495 BC.

  15. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Epitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on face-centered cubic (FCC) crystalline conducting substrate surfaces under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast diffusion direction. For larger than critical island sizes on {110} and {100} FCC substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including void-containing islands, mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The analysis reveals that the pattern formation kinetics follows a universal scaling relation. Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (Award No.: DE-FG02-07ER46407).

  16. The contributions of Donald Lee Johnson to understanding the Quaternary geologic and biogeographic history of the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Over a span of 50 years, native Californian Donald Lee Johnson made a number of memorable contributions to our understanding of the California Channel Islands. Among these are (1) recognizing that carbonate dunes, often cemented into eolianite and derived from offshore shelf sediments during lowered sea level, are markers of glacial periods on the Channel Islands; (2) identifying beach rock on the Channel Islands as the northernmost occurrence of this feature on the Pacific Coast of North America; (3) recognizing of the role of human activities in historic landscape modification; (4) identifying both the biogenic and pedogenic origins of caliche “ghost forests” and laminar calcrete forms on the Channel Islands; (5) providing the first soil maps of several of the islands, showing diverse pathways of pedogenesis; (6) pointing out the importance of fire in Quaternary landscape history on the Channel Islands, based on detailed stratigraphic studies; and (7), perhaps his greatest contribution, clarifying the origin of Pleistocene pygmy mammoths on the Channel Islands, due not to imagined ancient land bridges, but rather the superb swimming abilities of proboscideans combined with lowered sea level, favorable paleowinds, and an attractive paleovegetation on the Channel Islands. Don was a classic natural historian in the great tradition of Charles Darwin and George Gaylord Simpson, his role models. Don’s work will remain important and useful for many years and is an inspiration to those researching the California Channel Islands today.

  17. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  18. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  19. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  20. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  1. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  2. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  3. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  4. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  5. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  6. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  7. Stabilization of a magnetic island by localized heating in a tokamak with stiff temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maget, Patrick; Widmer, Fabien; Février, Olivier; Garbet, Xavier; Lütjens, Hinrich

    2018-02-01

    In tokamaks plasmas, turbulent transport is triggered above a threshold in the temperature gradient and leads to stiff profiles. This particularity, neglected so far in the problem of magnetic island stabilization by a localized heat source, is investigated analytically in this paper. We show that the efficiency of the stabilization is deeply modified compared to the previous estimates due to the strong dependence of the turbulence level on the additional heat source amplitude inside the island.

  8. Study of Marine Ecotourism Potential of Cubadak Island West Sumatera Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yulan, Nofri Andri; Nasution, Syafruddin; Yoswaty, Dessy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study is to identify tourist object of Cubadak island and its potential level for marine ecotourism by used of survey method. Both primary and secondary data were collected by meaning, interviewing, and investigating directly. Interviewing sampling method was used purposively, particularly for tourist sample were used as accidental sampling. The result showed that Cubadak Island has a big potential in marine tourism and possess a big chance to develop in marine ecotourism sector. I...

  9. Evaluation of possibilities of revitalized HPP Zvornik in island operation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of revitalized units in HPP Zvornik for islanding, with proposed parameters and characteristics. For the selected scenario and specific disturbances, dynamic response of aggregates have been identified for sufficiently long period, by using the computer program Primcont. Achieved results show the ability of HPP Zvornik islanding, for one scenario considered. However, the complexity of this problem requires its general quantitative treatment, which was emphasized at the end of the paper.

  10. Quasi-adiabatic Switching for Metal-Island Quantum-dot Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Geza; Lent, Craig S.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a working cell suitable for implementing the Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) paradigm. These experiments have been performed using metal island clusters. The most promising approach to QCA operation involves quasi-adiabatically switching the cells. This has been analyzed extensively in gated semiconductor cells. Here we present a metal island cell structure that makes quasi-adiabatic switching possible. We show how this permits quasi-adiabatic clocking...

  11. Multi-stage volcanic island flank collapses with coeval explosive caldera-forming eruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, James E.; Cassidy, Michael; Talling, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic flank collapses and explosive eruptions are among the largest and most destructive processes on Earth. Events at Mount St. Helens in May 1980 demonstrated how a relatively small (<5 km3) flank collapse on a terrestrial volcano could immediately precede a devastating eruption. The lateral collapse of volcanic island flanks, such as in the Canary Islands, can be far larger (>300 km3), but can also occur in complex multiple stages. Here, we show that multistage retrogressive lands...

  12. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decheng Zhou; Shuqing Zhao; Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/ rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (...

  13. Experimental evaluation of voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid based on the proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converter is proposed. In this method, active and reactive power control loops are considered to control the power sharing among the DGs. Also......, a virtual impedance loop and voltage and current proportional-resonant controllers are included. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for compensating voltage unbalance to an acceptable level....

  14. Tomographic imaging of subducted lithosphere below northwest Pacific island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hilst, R.; Engdahl, R.; Spakman, W.; Nolet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The seismic tomography problem does not have a unique solution, and published tomographic images have been equivocal with regard to the deep structure of subducting slabs. An improved tomographic method, using a more realistic background Earth model and surf ace-reflected as well as direct seismic phases, shows that slabs beneath the Japan and Izu Bonin island arcs are deflected at the boundary between upper and lower mantle, whereas those beneath the northern Kuril and Mariana arcs sink into the lower mantle.

  15. Political Socialization Media of Selayar Islands General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Gau Kadir; Nurlinah; Rahmatullah

    2017-01-01

    - This paper aims to identify the most influential political socialization media in shaping the political culture of maritime communities in the Selayar Islands District. The research method used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with data collection methods in the form of surveys, interviews and document studies. Data analysis uses quantitative analysis in the form of cross-tabulation of data and qualitative analysis. The results showed that there was no significant...

  16. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  17. Study of low dimensional SiGe island on Si for potential visible Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Alhan Farhanah Abd; Zainal Badri, Nur'Amirah; Radzali, Rosfariza; Mahmood, Ainorkhilah

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an investigation of design and simulation of silicon germanium (SiGe) islands on silicon (Si) was presented for potential visible metal semiconductor metal (MSM) photodetector. The characterization of the performances in term of the structural, optical and electrical properties of the structures was analyzed from the simulation results. The project involves simulation using SILVACO Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tools. The different structures of the silicon germanium (SiGe) island on silicon substrate were created, which were large SiGe, small SiGe, combination SiGe and bulk Ge. All the structures were tested for potential Metal Semiconductor Metal (MSM) photodetector. The extracted data such as current versus voltage characteristic, current gain and spectral response were obtained using ATLAS SILVACO tools. The performance of SiGe island structures and bulk Ge on Si substrate as (MSM) photodetector was evaluated by photo and dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. It was found that SiGe islands exhibited higher energy band gap compared to bulk Ge. The SiGe islands current-voltage characteristics showed improved current gain compared to bulk Ge. Specifically the enhancement of the islands gain was contributed by the enhanced photo currents and lower dark currents. The spectral responses of the SiGe islands showed peak response at 590 nm (yellow) which is at the visible wavelength. This shows the feasibility of the SiGe islands to be utilized for visible photodetections.

  18. Study of low dimensional SiGe island on Si for potential visible Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim Alhan Farhanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation of design and simulation of silicon germanium (SiGe islands on silicon (Si was presented for potential visible metal semiconductor metal (MSM photodetector. The characterization of the performances in term of the structural, optical and electrical properties of the structures was analyzed from the simulation results. The project involves simulation using SILVACO Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD tools. The different structures of the silicon germanium (SiGe island on silicon substrate were created, which were large SiGe, small SiGe, combination SiGe and bulk Ge. All the structures were tested for potential Metal Semiconductor Metal (MSM photodetector. The extracted data such as current versus voltage characteristic, current gain and spectral response were obtained using ATLAS SILVACO tools. The performance of SiGe island structures and bulk Ge on Si substrate as (MSM photodetector was evaluated by photo and dark current-voltage (I-V characteristics. It was found that SiGe islands exhibited higher energy band gap compared to bulk Ge. The SiGe islands current-voltage characteristics showed improved current gain compared to bulk Ge. Specifically the enhancement of the islands gain was contributed by the enhanced photo currents and lower dark currents. The spectral responses of the SiGe islands showed peak response at 590 nm (yellow which is at the visible wavelength. This shows the feasibility of the SiGe islands to be utilized for visible photodetections.

  19. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  20. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.