Pammo, R.; Ripatti, P.
The TTS Institute has carried out a study concerning forest owners' timber sales. The material was collected in 2002 via a mail inquiry that targeted forest owners who sold timber during the years 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. Three quarters of the forest owners sold timber to the same timber buying company during both periods of 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. The most important reasons for selling to the same buyer were that they purchased all timber assortments, reliability and good timber price. Mainly the same reasons also applied when changing the timber buying company. The most sensitive groups to changing timber buyer were 60-69 year old, entrepreneurs, men, and owners of forest holdings between 20-29 hectares, owners of inherited forests and joint forest ownerships. The forest owners assessed the timber buying company's operations and its staff on the basis of the last timber sale. The forest owners gave best values for the timber buyer's reliability, the purchase of all timber assortments and the timber buyers' reputation. The worst values were given for cross-cutting and response to complaints. No less than 95 percent of forest owners were prepared to recommend their timber trade partner to acquaintances, friends or other forest owners. Yet only half of the forest owners recognized that their last timber sale experience would not affect which company will be selected for the nest timber sale process
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.32 Timber sale operating plan. Sale contracts with a term of 2 years or more shall provide...
Office National des Forets
For the first time since the 1999 storms, forest owners have experienced a favourable market. The combination of buoyant demand for both industrial round-wood and timber and consolidation of supply led to a significant increase in prices. With a logging volume of 15 million m 3 (standing timber equivalent), state forest timber supply has remained at a high level, slightly above that of 1999. The improved business cycle situation has pushed prices up, including for beech for which rates had stagnated for some time. However, in spite of the 15% rise compared to 2005, the average per cubic metre price sold by the ONF (31.20 euros), all categories of timber and all state forests taken together, remains well below the average for the 1996-1999 period (37.80 euros). While unsold stocks have fallen considerably, the ONF has sought to facilitate access to products by industry by modernising its sales methods in line with the new 2005 legislative and regulatory provisions. Greater flexibility in the rules applicable to privately negotiated spot sales and supply contracts should over time contribute to stabilizing and reducing the accessory costs of supply. The changes implemented over the last decade in favour of private sales, which now account for nearly 40% of volumes sold, should continue in the future. Of those volumes, 20% were sold under supply contracts, a proportion that is rising sharply. These contracts covered more than one million m 3 in 2006, encouraging the ONF to adopt a new sales scheme and establish structures for consultations with both forest municipalities and the downstream component of the industry. (authors)
Roland H. Ferguson; John R. McGuire; John R. McGuire
This is a report on the first comprehensive survey ever made of the timber resources of Rhode Island. It shows, for the years 1952 and 1953, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume and quality of standing timber, the rates of timber growth and mortality, and the extent of timber cutting for forest products. The survey was made by the Forest Service as...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.24 Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Wild Land Recreation. The cutting, sale, or removal of timber is...
... with the contract terms. 36 CFR 223.35. Generally, the Performance Bond, as defined in 13 CFR 115.10, ensures that the Principal, as defined in 13 CFR 115.10, complies with all contract terms and conditions... timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public or private landowners. DATES...
... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures. 644.551 Section 644.551 National Defense Department of Defense...
Full Text Available Since 2010, the Czech State Forest Enterprise has been inviting timber-harvesting tenders while insisting on the forestry company purchasing the timber from the felled trees as well. To win, a tender must offer the greatest difference between the price of the timber purchased and the cost of the operations. Thus, the forest companies are now facing new problem: apart from minimizing the logging costs they are searching for a cross-cutting and mill-distribution strategy that maximizes the selling price of the harvested timber. The optimization model devised by the present paper provides support for finding an optimal timber selling strategy and, as an important contribution, include a detailed plan for cross-cutting the logs and assign them to the particular customers. We keep the support accessible via common office software and the cross-cutting and customer-assigning problem is formulated as a linear programming model for EXCEL, a particular real-world problem is solved and, using expert comparison, the model appears to provide very good results.
... reinstate an appeals process for decisions concerning recomputation of Small Business Set-Aside shares... to purchase a fair proportion of National Forest System timber offered for sale. Under the program... businesses every 5 years based on the actual volume of sawtimber that has been purchased by small businesses...
... that are in breach, or (6) contracts when the purchaser's processing facility has not operated during... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of contract extensions...
... further advertisement, at not less than appraised value, any timber previously advertised for competitive... degradation or resource damage, or as the result of administrative appeals, litigation, or court orders... any applicable appeals or objection process has been completed may be considered for replacement...
... appeal: (i) The appellant's name, mailing address, and daytime telephone number; (ii) The title or type... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal process for small... FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.118 Appeal process for small...
Lietzke, K. R.
This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.
.... Forest Service officers collect the information from contractors who may be individuals, private sector... timber and other forest products, in order to: (1) Plan and schedule contract administration workloads...
... the anticipated sale of Plum Island, New York and an ancillary support facility at Orient Point, New...) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY AGENCY: Office of Real Property Utilization & Disposal; General...: Plum Island is an 840-acre island located approximately 1.5 miles off the northeast tip of Orient Point...
Full Text Available Merchandising at point of sale comprises a set of techniques aimed at encouraging the purchase at the point of sale. This paper analyzes the impact on sales of two of these techniques, especially used in the context of non-specialized food stores and rarely distinguished in academic research: (1 the presentation of product in the ends of the aisles or main aisles, leading from the side aisle access and, (2 the presentation of the product in islands within the main aisles. This research combines cross-sectional and longitudinal data and analyzes specific information on sales and commercial stimulus for all references in two large categories of products from a hypermarket over ten weeks. Results show that both the ends of aisle and the islands have a positive effect on sales and their relative importance depends on the nature of the category analyzed. There are also greater synergies between ends of aisle and price promotions. Finally, the results provide some evidence into the impact of the extension or termination of these merchandising stimuli.
... on March 13, 2012 (77 FR 14727). This corrected NOI is being published because the project will now... not expected until after September 27, 2013, the Wrangell Island Project is now subject to these new... include 1) timber supply and timber sale economics, 2) old-growth reserve designs, and 3) road access and...
On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant No. 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Mpntagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.
On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Montagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.
Gorelick, Susan Shim
This dissertation uses the hedonic pricing model to study the impact of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island house sales prices. The first two manuscripts are on lake water quality and use RI house sales transactions from 1988--2012. The third studies wind turbines using RI house sales transactions from 2000--2013. The first study shows that good lake water quality increases lakefront property price premium. It also shows that environmental amenities, such as forests, substitute for lake amenity as the property's distance from the lake increases. The second lake water quality study incorporates time variables to examine how environmental amenity values change over time. The results show that property price premium associated with good lake water quality does not change as it is constant in proportion to housing prices with short term economic fluctuations. The third study shows that wind turbines have a negative and significant impact on housing prices. However, this is highly location specific and varies with neighborhood demographics. All three studies have policy implications which are discussed in detail in the manuscripts below.
Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.
construction but also for anchors. During exploration of shipwreck off Minicoy doorframe hinge, latch, porthole, flanges, J hook were found and all these artefacts are made of brass. Moreover timber remains noticed on doorframe hinge and latch. In order...
Gamble, H.B.; Downing, R.H.
The study examined the effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and number of sales within a 25-mile radius of the plant. Regression analyses, using data on 583 actual market sales of single family homes from 1977 through 1979, examined the effects before and after the accident on the basis of distance and direction from the plant and on three different property value classes. All valid single family property sales between 1975 and 1979 within the 25-mile area were examined in a time series analysis. Interviews were conducted with realtors, financial institution officials and building contractors in the area. The accident had no measurable effects, positive or negative, on the value of single family residential properties within a 25-mile radius of the plant, or in any direction from the plant, or on low, medium, or high value properties. The plant had no measurable effects on residential property values for the 2 years prior to the accident. Immediately following the accident there was a sharp decline in the number of residential sales within 10 miles of the plant, but the real estate market returned to near normal conditions within 4-8 weeks. The interviews basically confirmed the above findings
... Plan, page C-39). Specifically for the Eden Ridge Timber Sales project, Needs include: Improvement of... District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber Sales AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement for the Eden Ridge Timber Sales. The original...
... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if... timber is appraised and sold on such basis, purchaser credit for road construction, not to exceed the estimated construction cost of such roads or other developments specified in the timber sale contract, shall...
Magnussen, Marita D; Gaini, Shahin; Gislason, Hannes
The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and correlate the findings with the sales of erythromycin and tetracycline. General practitioners in the Faroe Islands were recruited to send oropharyngeal swabs. From an ongoing pneumococcal...
Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary
This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Timber Curtain is a site specific architectural installation, which is part of a research project conducted at the Aarhus School of Architecture as collaboration between Ph.D. and associate professor Niels Martin Larsen and the author. Through a digitally scripted associative model we performed s...... of pinewood timber, machined with a CMS Antares 5-axis CNC router. The digital process generation and simulation was implemented with Rhinoceros 3D, Grasshopper and GHPython, and AlphaCAM was used for preparing the CNC-routing....
Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry
Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...
... Plan, page C-39). Specifically for the Eden Ridge Timber Sales project, Needs include: Improvement of... District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber Sales AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... Forest's Probable Sale Quantity. The planning area is located approximately four (4) air miles southeast...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised value...
Jeff M. Halbrook; Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Tara M. Barrett
This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2005, describes the composition and operations of the state's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, and sales of primary wood products....
Erik C. Berg; Charles B. Gale; Todd A. Morgan; Allen M. Brackley; Charles E. Keegan; Susan J. Alexander; Glenn A. Christensen; Chelsea P. McIver; Micah G. Scudder
This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2011, describes the composition and operations of the stateâs primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, export, sales of primary wood products,...
Arasumani, M; Khan, Danish; Das, Arundhati; Lockwood, Ian; Stewart, Robert; Kiran, Ravi A; Muthukumar, M; Bunyan, Milind; Robin, V V
Tropical montane habitats, grasslands, in particular, merit urgent conservation attention owing to the disproportionate levels of endemic biodiversity they harbour, the ecosystem services they provide, and the fact that they are among the most threatened habitats globally. The Shola Sky Islands in the Western Ghats host a matrix of native forest-grassland matrix that has been planted over the last century, with exotic timber plantations. The popular discourse on the landscape change is that mainly forests have been lost to the timber plantations and recent court directives are to restore Shola forest trees. In this study, we examine spatiotemporal patterns of landscape change over the last 40 years in the Palani Hills, a significant part of the montane habitat in the Western Ghats. Using satellite imagery and field surveys, we find that 66% of native grasslands and 31% of native forests have been lost over the last 40 years. Grasslands have gone from being the dominant, most contiguous land cover to one of the rarest and most fragmented. They have been replaced by timber plantations and, to a lesser extent, expanding agriculture. We find that the spatial pattern of grassland loss to plantations differs from the loss to agriculture, likely driven by the invasion of plantation species into grasslands. We identify remnant grasslands that should be prioritised for conservation and make specific recommendations for conservation and restoration of grasslands in light of current management policy in the Palani Hills, which favours large-scale removal of plantations and emphasises the restoration of native forests.
... procedures required herein. (f) Waiver of branding requirements. Regional Foresters may waive the branding... individual timber sale basis, all or a portion of the branding requirements pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of...) Regions 5 and 6. On an individual timber sale basis, the branding requirement pursuant to paragraph (c)(2...
The Slovak timber business is changing. The state-owned company, SR Forests, which cuts more then 50% of Slovak timber has signed long term agreements with major domestic timber processing companies - Smrecina, the Rettenmeier Tatra Timber saw mill in Liptovsky Mikulas and two paper mills - Mondi SCP Ruzomberok and Kappa Sturovo. In the past, only quarterly contracts were signed. Now, for the first time, two-year contracts have been signed that should help the timber processing industry and the forestry sector. The General Director of Lesy SR (SR Forests), Karol Vins, hopes for better sale prices. Company headquarters wants to maintain better control of prices than under the old system of timber sales by its branches. In the opinion of the General Director of the Forestry Section at the Ministry of Agriculture, long term contracts will guarantee a stable delivery of timber to processing companies, giving investors in new production capacity a better position in negotiations with banks regarding financing. According to K. Vins, long term contracts have so far only been negotiated with major timber processing companies which are mostly controlled by foreign capital and therefore have good payment discipline. The Association of the Timber Processing Industry is unhappy regarding developments and Lesy SR has not invited domestic companies to these negotiations
Antibacterial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in the Faroe Islands, Associations with Antibacterial Sales, and Comparison with Iceland and Denmark
Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gislason, Hannes; Gaini, Shahin
, and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...... methods and criteria. Logistic regression (quasibinomial) of the antibacterial resistance proportions versus mean sales during the period of 2008-2011 was used to determine association. Nonsusceptibility to at least 1 of the 14 antibacterial drugs investigated was found in 54% of the E. coli isolates...... and was most common to ampicillin (46%), followed by sulfamethoxazole (39%), trimethoprim (27%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%), and
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs will...
Key point to development of environmentally friendly timber structures, appropriate to urban ways of living, is the development of high-rise timber buildings. Comfort properties are nowadays one of the main limitations to tall timber buildings, and an enhanced knowledge on damping phenomena is therefore required, as well as improved prediction models for damping. The aim of this work has consequently been to estimate various damping quantities in timber structures. In particular, models h...
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a free-use area without permit in cases of emergency, but the person taking such material shall promptly notify...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting... or designated by forest officers may be cut and removed for personal use for domestic purposes...
Balaganskiy, S Ye; Aksanov, Sh I; Ardashev, K A; Mednik, L Ye; Mikhaylov, P G
A section of mechanized timbering is claimed which contains a base, roof timber, hydraulic stand, hydraulic packing cylinders, packing telescopic shield hinged to the roof timber by means of guides. To improve the reliability of forming the filling massif, the packing telescopic shield is made in the form of individual telescopic beams with guards which are interconnected by means of cross beams, while the gaps between the telescopic beams are covered with elasic plates.
Ten thousands of tree trunks have ended up in the Liptovska Mara lake. The fact that state owned company Lesy SR decided to store the timber in the reservoir as it could not sell it on the market represents a small revolution in the industry. About a year ago timber processing companies were fighting for timber and suddenly it cannot be sold and has to be stored in the reservoir waiting for better times. When the forestry and timber processing industry will not be in such a difficult situation as it is now. Timber, floor and furniture manufacturers claim that the demand for their products and consequently also prices are falling. Some have already started to decrease production and started making redundancies. And when manufacturers complain, the timber suppliers are not happy either. The reason is that the industry has been hit by several blows at the same time. In last three to four years forests in Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Scandinavia and in Canada have suffered several heavy windstorms after which large volumes of timber had to be processed quickly. So there was an excess of timber, particularly spruce. This created an ideal situation for the processing industry where the more agile companies increased their market share and offered timber at more competitive prices. (authors)
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes
Timber salvage is commonly done following natural disturbances, to recover some value from damaged forests. Decision making about salvage, however, is affected by ownership objectives, the nature of the damage agent, site factors, and the strength of the local timber market. For profit-maximizing landowners, salvage decisions must balance the cost of harvesting...
Logs of Apa timber were air-dried and along the stem, 324 pieces of test specimens were ..... (machine) manual with the load rate of 1mm/min .....  Desch, H. E., Timber properties, 6th. Edition,. Revised by J. M. Dinwoodie. Macmillan ...
Brian R. Wall
The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.
Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.
Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text
Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt
This report traces the flow of Idahoâs 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idahoâs industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Robert C. Abt
This chapter describes historical, current, and projected timber inventories and timber product outputs from southern forests. It also attempts to place these quantities in national and international perspectives. Timber is the most valuable commercial commodity taken from most forests, and its removal strongly influences the character of those forests. Timber is...
The purpose of this final year project was to study the properties of timber as a structural material and the suitability of wood in load bearing members for bridge structures. For a case study, an existing timber bridge was selected. Due to its condition the bridge should be replaced. The design of a new bridge with steel beams holding a glulam deck was made. During the case study the replacement of steel beams by glulam timber ones was discussed. Some calculations were made in order to ...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the committee...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1) For...
... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.3 Sale of seized material. Seized material (trees, portions of trees or other forest products cut in trespass from National Forest... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of seized material. 223...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products § 223.278 Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. The responsible Forest Officer shall...
Patricia M. Bassett
This report presents statistics from a 1973 inventory of timber resources of Douglas County and from a 1974 inventory of timber resources of Coos, Curry, Jackson, and Josephine Counties, Oregon. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality.
Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik
A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....
Perdok, U.; Crossman, M.; Verhagen, H.J.; Howard, S.; Simm, J.
The performance and durability of timber groynes (or 'groins') is highly dependent on the design and detailing of the structure. Using knowledge and experience developed over generations an effective functional design can be achieved, which may ultimately result in lower whole life costs and provide
It was recently learned that a number of innovations in structural timber components are available to the construction industry, but that they were largely unknown to bridge designers. The purpose of this study was to develop for the Department a fea...
Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David
The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...... to integrate the behaviour of networked systems into structures made from wooden material....
Richard W. Haynes; Darius M. Adams; John R. Mills
This update reports changes in the Nation's timber resource since the 1989 RPA timber assessment. The timber resource situation is analyzed to provide projections for future cost and availability of timber products to meet demands. Prospective trends in demands for and supplies of timber, and the factors that affect these trends are examined. These include changes...
Peter J. Ince
Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...
Office National des Forets
The economic environment in 2012 was adverse, with the consequences of the crisis in sovereign debts in the Euro zone and an 18% decrease in housing starts in France. The drop in sales these conditions entail has in turn led to a 4% decrease in logging volumes from state forests and a 7% decrease in those from community-owned forests. Similarly, the average price has dropped 5%. As a result, the turnover for state forest timber sales has declined by 12%. Consolidated timber supply contracts cover 21% of the volumes and their annual average prices are stable. Finally, stave-wood and fuelwood markets have maintained their vigour. (authors)
Susan J. Alexander
Non-timber forest products in the United States include floral greens, Christmas ornamentals, wild edibles, medicinals, crafts, and transplants. Non-timber forest products are important to many people for many reasons. People harvest products from forests for personal use, cultural practices, and sale. The tremendous variety of species harvested for the many markets...
Neal P. Kingsley; Carl E. Mayer
Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. A resurvey of the timber resources of Ohio was made in 1966 and 1967 by...
Magina, Miguel Jorge
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Estruturas e Geotecnia This dissertation covers the study of historic timber roof structures in Transylvania area - Romania, the structures type, its elements and connection variety between them. Procedures to study a structure of this category are approached. It is also referred semi and non-destructive tests that can be done to better understand the present wood characteristics, and potential reparation or strengthening...
Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves
This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...
Kurz, Jochen Horst
Timber structures have been in use for centuries, with proven durability. In recent years, timber has become particularly important, due to its standing as a truly renewable material for construction and carbon storage purposes. The material behaviour of wood is known and understood. The current design concepts for timber structures are also well developed. Nevertheless, the underlying processes of the ageing and deterioration of wood are complex, and the anisotropic structure of wood require...
Richard C. Field
By using goal programming to enhance the linear programming of Timber RAM, multiple decision criteria were incorporated in the timber management planning of a National Forest in the southeastern United States. Combining linear and goal programming capitalizes on the advantages of the two techniques and produces operationally feasible solutions. This enhancement may...
Wlllem W.S. van Hees
The 1978 inventory of the forest resources of Prince William Sound and Afognak Island was designed to produce estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber. Estimates of timber resource quantities were also categorized by owner. Nearly 56 percent of the available timberland area is under Forest Service management, and almost 40...
Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.
Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research
During recent years the sale of timber from national forests in the Douglas-fir region has developed into big business. As the demand for stumpage steadily increases, and the allowable annual cut is approached or reached on a number of working circles, sale administration problems also increase and become more complex.
Brian Roy Lockhart
Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (
Ozelton, E C
This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including
Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg
The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....
Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro
The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) [Joint Committee of Structural Safety. Probabilistic Model Code, Internet...... Publication: www.jcss.ethz.ch; 2001] and of the COST action E24 ‘Reliability of Timber Structures' [COST Action E 24, Reliability of timber structures. Several meetings and Publications, Internet Publication: http://www.km.fgg.uni-lj.si/coste24/coste24.htm; 2005]. The present proposal is based on discussions...... and comments from participants of the COST E24 action and the members of the JCSS. The paper contains a description of the basic reference properties for timber strength parameters and ultimate limit state equations for timber components. The recommended probabilistic model for these basic properties...
Chris B. LeDoux
ECOST utilizes data from stand inventory, cruise data, and the logging plan for the tract in question. The program produces detailed stump-to-mill cost estimates for specific proposed timber sales. These estimates are then utilized, in combination with specific landowner objectives, to assess the economic feasibility of cable logging a given area. The program output is...
Marynak, Kristy; Kenemer, Brandon; King, Brian A; Tynan, Michael A; MacNeil, Allison; Reimels, Elizabeth
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most frequently used tobacco product among U.S. youths, and past 30-day e-cigarette use is more prevalent among high school students than among adults (1,2). E-cigarettes typically deliver nicotine, and the U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that nicotine exposure during adolescence can cause addiction and can harm the developing adolescent brain (2). Through authority granted by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibits e-cigarette sales to minors, free samples, and vending machine sales, except in adult-only facilities (3). States, localities, territories, and tribes maintain broad authority to adopt additional or more stringent requirements regarding tobacco product use, sales, marketing, and other topics (2,4). To understand the current e-cigarette policy landscape in the United States, CDC assessed state and territorial laws that 1) prohibit e-cigarette use and conventional tobacco smoking indoors in restaurants, bars, and worksites; 2) require a retail license to sell e-cigarettes; 3) prohibit e-cigarette self-service displays (e.g., requirement that products be kept behind the counter or in a locked box); 4) establish 21 years as the minimum age of purchase for all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes (tobacco-21); and 5) apply an excise tax to e-cigarettes. As of September 30, 2017, eight states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico prohibited indoor e-cigarette use and smoking in indoor areas of restaurants, bars, and worksites; 16 states, DC, and the U.S. Virgin Islands required a retail license to sell e-cigarettes; 26 states prohibited e-cigarette self-service displays; five states, DC, and Guam had tobacco-21 laws; and eight states, DC, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands taxed e-cigarettes. Sixteen states had none of the assessed laws. A comprehensive approach that combines state-level strategies to reduce youths' initiation of
Photochemical degradation of timber, the outcome of exposure of timber to ultraviolet radiation, is a light induced chemical and physical decay. Timber is a collection of dead wood cells. Impacts of radiation on the growing tree are therefore outside the scope of this paper, which is primarily concerned with timber as a material. (author). 5 refs. 2 figs
Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro
The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present...... proposal is based on discussions and comments from participants of the COST E24 action and the members of the JCSS. The paper contains a description of the basic reference properties for timber strength parameters and ultimate limit state equations for components and connections. The recommended...
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; čizmar, D.
The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....
... (Advertisement and Short-Form Bid): This form will be used for soliciting and receiving bids on short-notice... and included in the request for Office of Management and Budget approval. All comments also will...
Shestov, P I; Golub, A G; Yefremov, V I
A hinged roof timer is suggested which includes a beam with prong and loop on the end which have openings in the form of ring slits for the distance wedges and round for the pins. In this case the opening of the distance wedge in the ring is arranged in relation to the opening for the pin closer to the end of the beam, and in the prong, in the opposite order. In order to improve the operating quality by guaranteeing active support of the cantilever roof timber without increasing its overall dimensions for the height of the opening for the distance wedge in the prong and the ring, beams are arranged axisymmetrically to the longitudinal axis.
This paper describes a device development at Gedling Colliery, Nottinghamshire Area, United Kingdom. It is a gripping attachment, designed to overcome the safety hazards involved in cross cutting timbers with a circular saw.
Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-Fei
Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...
Structural timber is the timber used in framing and load bearing ... The main challenge in design with timber as structural member is to .... is the classification of timber based on particular ..... Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile.
Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald
This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald
This report summarizes a 1980 timber resource inventory of the 16 forested counties in Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Andrew N. Gray; Charles F. Veneklase; Robert D. Rhoads
This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for an inventory of the 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. The inventory in 2000 sampled all private and public lands except those...
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...
Richard W. Haynes; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; Peter J. Ince; John R. Mills; Xiaoping. Zhou
This update reports changes in the Nation's timber resource since the Analysis of the Timber Situation in the United States was completed in 2003. Prospective trends in demands for and supplies of timber, and the factors that affect these trends are examined. These trends include changes in the U.S. economy, increased salvage of British Columbia beetle-killed...
Yule, R A; Kennedy, M J
The authors studied timber attack in Queensland mines by auger beetles and powder post beetles. When infested timber is taken into a mine the insects thrive at the temperatures (20 to 25 C) and relative humidities (70-90%) they encounter. Seven timber treatments were tested, and all were satisfactory except spraying with wood-preserving oil which contained a moderately effective insecticide.
Jorissen, A.J.M.; Fragiacomo, M.
The paper discusses the implications of ductility in design of timber structures under static and dynamic loading including earthquakes. Timber is a material inherently brittle in bending and in tension, unless reinforced adequately. However connections between timber members can exhibit significant
Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean
This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...
General Services Administration — This dataset contains sale data information for Agency reported items sold via GSA Auctions® Sales. The data is for closed sales during FY2009. GSA Auctions® offers...
After dropping to 32.8 million m 3 in 2003, sales of wood harvests continue the recovery that began in 2004 and have reached 37.2 million m 3 (+ 5%) i.e., slightly more than the level reached prior to the 1999 storms (36.9 million m 3 ). Workable timber sales have increased by 5.9% up to 22.1 million m 3 but are nonetheless 4.5% below their 1999 level (23.2 million m 3 ). Industrial round-wood harvests have remained stable at 12.2 million m 3 (of which 11.8 are pulpwood). Sales of firewood have increased 23% (2.9 million m 3 ). Pre-tax roadside value of the entire wood harvest is estimated to be 1.64 billion Euro. French production of sawing timber is 9.7 million cubic metres with sawn softwood timber stagnating (+ 0.5%) and a drop in sawn hardwood timber (- 4.6%). The effects of the storms at the end of 1999 on the business cycle are no longer perceptible. Their consequences on the structure of harvests and of businesses are beginning to be understood. Average wood prices increased considerably in 2005 and 2006. These rosier market conditions for unprocessed timber could be an opportunity to continue with restructuring of the sector, in particular so as to further streamline harvests and narrow the wide gap between loggable and actually logged volumes, as well as to review the distribution of added value between the various players in the forest-based industries. (authors)
Douglas R. Rammer
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the residual shear capacity of large Douglas-fir timbers used in a military facility in Ardeen Hills, MN. A S-point and 4-point bending test was used to determine the effects of checks and splits on the shear strength capacity. Experimental results are compared to past shear and flexural studies.
Henry H. Webster
The Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters serves the people in managing state forest lands and in helping private owners manage their forest lands. To produce more timber from Pennsylvania forests, the Department applies many different forestry practices. But the more effort it spends in one direction, the less it can spend in others. So the Department must...
Sally Campbell; Paul Dunham; David. Azuma
This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for all ownerships in Oregon. Data were collected as part of several statewide multiresource inventories, including those conducted by the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 6) on National Forest System lands in Oregon, by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on BLM lands in western Oregon, and by the Pacific...
John Greene; Michael Jacobson
Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...
Sales of petroleum products rose by 4.3 % in 1998 compared to 1997, and totalled 9.15 million tonnes. Sales of traffic fuels increased by 1.1 %, and those of heating and fuel oil by 3.7 %. The last time sales of petroleum products were at an equivalent level was back in 1990
The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.
Juan M. Pulhin
Full Text Available Forest tenure reform has no doubt attained significant gains in promoting social justice and equity in the forest sector, through legal recognition of the communities’ property rights over forest lands in many developing countries. This includes the right to harvest and market trees that the communities planted. Along these lines, the Philippines’ community-based forest management (CBFM and smallholder forestry have the potential to meet the country’s wood demand and contribute to its poverty alleviation goal. Realities on the ground, however, make this lofty aspiration seems too far-fetched. Formal and informal barriers along the timber value chain restrict the growth and obstruct opportunities for community-based timber enterprises (CBTEs and smallholder forestry. Using the case of CBFM and smallholder forestry in the Visayas and Mindanao Islands in the Philippines, respectively, this paper examines the hurdles posed by regulations and informal practices, such as restrictive policies and increased transaction costs, through a segment analysis of the timber value chain. It argues that failure to address these barriers would lead to the decline of CBTEs and smallholder enterprises, thus undermining the merits of the forest tenure reform.
John H. Beuter
The relationship between estimated timber values and actual timber prices is discussed. Timber values are related to how, where, and when the timber is used. An analysis demonstrates the relative values of a typical Douglas-fir stand under assumptions about timber use.
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-know that structural systems can redistribute internal forces due to ductility of a connection, i.e. some additional loads can be carried by the structure. The same effect is also possible for reinforced concrete structures and structures of steel. However, for timber structures codes do not award that ductility......For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key...
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hald, Frederik
The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many mo...... with respect to robustness of timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many...... modern building codes consider the need for the robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore, a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues...
Blundell, Arthur G
Foresters are currently confronted with a new challenge. For the first time a commonly traded timber species has been listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). At the 12th Conference of the Parties in November 2002, countries voted 68 to 30 to place the premier timber species of Latin America, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]), on CITES Appendix II. Under Appendix II regulations, trade in mahogany requires that exporting countries verify that each shipment was legally obtained and that its harvest was non-detrimental to the survival of the species. Unfortunately, implementation has been weak, in part because countries have yet to develop a common, pragmatic, cost-effective system to make the legal and non-detriment findings. This paper recommends what such a system might include.
Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel
Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....
Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter
, weathering effect on coatings, price, growth and availability of the timber. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, breaking strength, breaking strain and Brinell's hardness of selected Nepalese timbers are presented. The effects of weathering on timbers without coating...
D.J. Brooks; R.W. Haynes
Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. By using a spread-sheet model, material flows in the Alaska forest sectorare fully accounted for. Demand for Alaska national forest timber is projected and depends on product output and harvest by other owners. Key...
P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid
TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...
....103 Award of small business set-aside sales. If timber is advertised as set aside for competitive bidding by small business concerns, award will be made to the highest bidder who qualifies as a small... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award of small business set...
Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann
Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.
Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen
Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.
Jerold T. Hahn; Alexander Vasilevsky
The third timber inventory of Missouri's Prairie Forest Survey Unit shows substantial declines in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area declined by one-fifth. Presents highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use in 1972.
Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn
Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes
Catastrophic shocks to existing stocks of a renewable resource can cause long-run price shifts. With timber, these long-run price shifts may be accompanied by a short-run price drop due to salvage. Hurricane Hugo damaged 20 percent of southern pine timber in the South Carolina Coastal Plain in 1989. To estimate the...
Jorissen, A.J.M.; Leijten, A.J.M.
In the last few decades, structural timber for residential buildings has lost popularity because of problems related to floor vibrations, acoustics and fire resistance. In recent years, however, solutions to these problems have been developed and timber-framed housing is becoming increasingly
Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.
Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different
This paper demonstrates the possibility of optimal planning and control of timber harvesting activ-ities with mathematical optimization models. The separate phases of timber harvesting are represented by coordinated models which can be used to select the optimal decision for the execution of any given phase. The models form a system whose components are connected and...
Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard
to its sustainable profile. In parallel to this, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Among these are the engineered timber-based product Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) that show enhanced structural properties compared to unrefined timber. However, the question...... an undefined aesthetic potential that may innovate how we construct and perceive timber architecture, the overall aim of the thesis is to inquire into the architectural and aesthetic qualities of CLT. Through three chapters this thesis examines and discusses 1) the architectural qualities of CLT, 2......) the materiality of CLT, and 3) how one can deal with these qualitative aspects in the design process. This leads to: firstly, the development of an explicit model to help structuring the analysis and evaluation of the materiality of CLT, and secondly, a clarification and articulation of the aesthetic qualities...
Jorge Luís Nunes de Góes
Full Text Available The employment of built-up timber beams, made of commercial dimensions pieces, is becoming increasingly important in timber structures in Brazil, mainly due to the ever-growing scarcity of timber elements in larger sizes. The built-up system has vast application, from beams for residential buildings to girders for small bridges. The objective of this work is the theoretical and experimental study of nailed timber beams with composed cross section I. The design procedure of EUROCODE 5/93 and NBR 7190/97 are shown and evaluated, as well as the theory about the subject matter. The experimental evaluation of the theoretical models was made by means of bending tests in prototypes of built-up timber beams. The obtained results shows that the EUROCODE 5/93 procedure is the most indicated for evaluating effective bending stiffness, normal and shear stresses as well as the load on fasteners.
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.
Structural systems like timber trussed rafters and roof elements made of timber can be expected to have some degree of redundancy and nonlinear/plastic behaviour when the loading consists of for example snow or imposed load. In this paper this system effect is modelled and the statistic...... of variation. In the paper a stochastic model is described for the strength of a single piece of timber taking into account the stochastic variation of the strength and stiffness with length. Also stochastic models for different types of loads are formulated. First, simple representative systems with different...... types of redundancy and non-linearity are considered. The statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined by reliability analysis. Next, more complex systems are considered modelling the mechanical behaviour of timber roof elements I stressed skin panels made of timber. Using...
Funded and administered by NASA, the Affiliated Research Center (ARC) program transfers geospatial technologies from the Space Agency and participating universities to commercial companies, non-profit and trade organizations, and tribal governments. The origins of the ARC program date back to 1988, when NASA's Stennis Space Center initiated the Visiting Investigator Program to bring industry closer to spatial information technologies. The success of this trial program led to an expansion into the ARC program, whose goal is to enhance competitiveness of U.S. industries through more efficient use of remote sensing and related technologies. NASA's ARC program served as the foundation for the development of International Hardwood Resources, which then grew into Falcon Informatics with the acquisition of a technology from a European software company and a change of business models. Doylestown, Pennsylvania-based Falcon Informatics is now a world-leading information services company that combines in-depth timber industry experience with state-of-the-art software to serve the needs of national governments, international paper companies, and timber-investment management organizations.
Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.
Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...
Manja Kitek Kuzman
Full Text Available The book presents Slovenia' s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs, and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office, as well as tourist, educational, and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.
... Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore...), Interior. ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for commercial leasing for wind power on the Outer Continental Shelf... sale of commercial wind energy leases on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Rhode Island and...
... Management Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts-- Final Sale Notice and Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...
Egbe BASSEY ETOWA
Full Text Available In recent times some economists view Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs extraction and marketing as a better alternative to timber exploitation as a rural livelihood strategy. Harvesting and sale of NTFPs have the potential for accomplishing the dual goals of natural forest conservation and income generation for the rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, realization of these dual goals in Nigeria, require an understanding of how NTFPs functions in the face of marketing, ecological, geographic and institutional constraints. Following a conceptualization of NTFPs, this paper provides a vivid overview of the simultaneous roles of NTFPs in rural livelihood enhancement and forest conservation in Nigeria. It highlights governmental initiatives with respect to conservation, the challenges and prospects of NTFPs as a conservation strategy. Conclusively, the paper suggests that appropriate NTFPs development policies are required to simultaneously address forest depletion and poverty in rural areas of Nigeria.
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes
Catastrophic shocks to existing stocks of a renewable resource can cause long-run price shifts. With timber, these long-run price shifts may be accompanied by a short-run price drop due to salvage. Hurricane Hugo damaged 20% of southern pine timber in the South Carolina Coastal Plain in 1989. To estimate the short- and long-run effects of the hurricane on the prices of timber stocks, we estimated an intervention model of the residuals of cointegration of South Carolina sawtimber and pulpwood ...
Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wraber, Ida Kristina
In recent years, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus and, in parallel, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Many of these novel timber building materials have gained significantly enhanced technical qualities, and the question is whether...... this is at the expense of wood’s sensuous and poetic qualities. The proposed method to deal with these questions is to develop a discursive model that can clarify aspects essential for analyzing and discussing the materiality of timber in its contemporary engineered forms. Firstly, this paper presents a theoretical...
Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto
Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.
Roxana L. IONESCU
Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.
Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... and steel. However, reliability models applied to timber were always related to individual components but not the systems. as any real structure is a complex system, system behaviour must be of a particular interest. In the chapter 1 of this document an overview of stochastic models for strength and loads...... (deterministic, probabilistic and risk based approaches) of the robustness are given. Chapter 3 deals more detailed with the robustness of timber structures....
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.
Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull...
Moss, R; Thompson, J
The sales professional course "Introduction to the Operating Room" offered by the AORN Center for Nursing Practice, Health Policy, and Research is an introductory program in OR etiquette. Its purpose is to provide sales professionals a working knowledge of OR protocol for them to function appropriately in OR settings. Sales professionals who have completed this course establish mutually beneficial perioperative partnerships with OR personnel. Sales professionals' effectiveness is strengthened as a result of their newly acquired knowledge of OR protocol, and patient safety is protected. An AORN Certificate of Recognition is awarded on completion of the course.
The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we f...
Full Text Available The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we find a good sales person?" In short, his answer is "Don't." This is not meant as a slight to sales professionals, but rather, Zimmerman is advocating that companies should not equate having sales professionals to having a sales strategy. Sales professionals have a critical role to play in a company's success, but they are being given an impossible task if asked to sell something that has not been validated with customers. Zimmerman explains that sales professionals should be hired only once a company has validated that the value proposition resonates with customers and that the sales model will be effective. This lesson also applies to established companies, where existing sales staff require this same foundation to be effective. So how does a company determine whether its value proposition resonates with customers? The answer, of course, is to talk to customers. In the OSBR and elsewhere, the need for early customer input is a dominant theme in recent discussions of product development, marketing, and now sales strategy. By talking to customers, listening to how they describe their needs, and interpreting how their needs could be met, a value proposition can tested and refined. It is far more efficient and effective to iteratively refine a value proposition before attempting to sell than to attempt a salvage operation in response to slumping sales. Customer input is also a critical ingredient in developing an effective sales strategy. In this issue of the
Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....
In co-operation with the major companies contracting out forestry work and Statistics Finland, Metsaeteho carried out a project with the objective of analysing the economic profitability of timber harvesting and transportation enterprises in 1994. The calculation of profitability was based on utilisation of last livelihoods taxation data (EVR) that Statistics Finland was in possession of. The basic material comprised data that the companies contracting out forestry work had full-time entrepreneurs. There were 255 forestry machine contractor enterprises and 270 trucking enterprises. Statistics Finland was responsible for computations of the results of the project. The calculation of the indicators of profitability was based on the recommendations of Yritystutkimusneuvottelukunta, a committee looking into the functioning of enterprises. The year 1994 was a good year from the viewpoint of profitability of both forestry machine contractors as well as trucking enterprises. With full depreciations and salary adjustments attended to, both enterprise groups still showed a mean profitability of ca. 8 %. The yield of invested capital was ca. 25 %. The differences in profitability among enterprises were great in both groups and in different parts of the country
EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.
Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.
Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...
Tony G. Johnson; Jim R. Gober; J. Stephen Nix
Output of Industrial Timber Products.Note: The reader must understand that certain terms, namely-retained, export, import, production, and receipts-have specialized meanings and relationships. unique to the Forest Inventory and Analysis Units across the country that deal with timber products output.In 1995, the combined...
Canei, Robert A.
The manual is a 12-hour program for adults who are working or preparing to work as retail salespeople. It can also be used as a summarization manual for high school students. The manual consists of five sessions which take the individual from the human aspect of sales to the related sales technique. The sessions are entitled: employee and customer…
The state owned company, Lesy SR (state forests) enjoys great power in the timber industry. It can influence which timber processing companies in Slovakia will be successful and which will not have easy access to the raw material. It manages half of the forests in Slovakia. It is the only seller of timber in this country. Four years ago, the former cabinet appointed banker, Karol Vins, as the director of the company. And he started making changes. He centralized the timber business and thousands of people left the company. The goal was clear -to increase quality and efficiency. The economic performance of the company improved. The company has finally managed to post a profit. Last year, the government changed and so has the director of the company The former banker was replaced by a new head from a forestry research background, Jozef Mindas. He approves of some of the changes introduced by his predecessor and plans to continue implementing them, although there also those he would like to change. The new manager is not concerned regarding the big change from research where he used to work in the past to director of a big company and rejects the allegation that he was nominated by HZDS. I was approached as an expert and I won a tender. I have never been a member of a political party, he stated. He appreciates that his predecessor managed to revitalize the company, which was assisted by the positive effect of out-sourcing. But on the other hand, during transformation forests were not divided up correctly. The division into units did not always take into account the specific requirements of forestry, i.e. some employees in forest units have too much work and some, working in another forest unit, less. We have to make sure that the workload is approximately at the same level everywhere. He is aware of the fact that Lesy SR, which controls two thirds of the timber market, effectively decides which factory will succeed and which one will not. But he adds that Lesy SR do
Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.
Antonio Alves Dias
Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.
Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing, treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied timber species into property levels. The final objective of this study was to develop relationships between the end-uses of timber and their property requirements and levels with reference to 20 Sri Lankan timber species. Timber selection for the use in Sri Lanka is species-oriented and sometimes it is based on the traditional use. Based on wood properties of 20 Sri Lankan timber species selected, an attempt was made to recognise the most important wood properties and their levels to develop a four end-use property classification. In general, the proposed end-use property classification in this study could be differentiated as (i. for building construction, (ii. for furniture and joinery (iii. for light construction, and (iv. for miscellaneous uses. Among the selected timber species, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is eminently suitable for under-water work. Eucalyptus microcorys is regarded as one of the best timbers for dancing floors. These specialty and causative factors of timber, however, must be explored and documented in order to prepare end-use property classification for miscellaneous use.
Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett
The purpose of this paper is to discuss those factors that affect the profitability of manufacturing timbers and show that the combined manufacture of both lumber and timbers will provide a greater daily income than the manufacture of lumber alone.
Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald
This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
The combined sales of petroleum products in Finland during 1999 totalled more than nine million tonnes, which was little changed from the figure for 1998. Sales of traffic fuels increased, while those of fuel oil fell. Diesel fuel sales reached a record level, while sales of gasoline continued their downward trend
Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.
Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…
Panagiotis P. Koulelis
Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.
Panagiotis P. Koulelis
Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.
Sousa, Hélder S.
Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil The past decades have seen a renewed interest in timber research related topics. As instance, timber engineering is not only confined to the design of new construction with innovative wood based products, but also an increasing awareness for the preservation of existing timber structures is visible in nowadays society. Therefore, arises the need for a better understanding of timber performance as a construction material aiming at a bette...
Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars
Design of joints in timber structures is crucial to reach both elegant and structural efficient designs. Design of joints should therefore be an integral part of the conceptual design phase. Traditionally this is not the case, and joints are often solely designed and analysed in the engineering...... but also increase timbers competitiveness in the building industry. The paper is part of an ongoing research project aiming at providing tools for an integrated design process for timber structures. The focus of the paper is to identify how structure and its joints contributes to architecture and vice...... design phase. The result is joints that function structurally but do not add value to the design, and may even compromise the architectural ideas. With an approach, integrating both structural and architectural design from the beginning, one should not only gain better structures and architecture...
Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for grading of timber in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics play an important role...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and the format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures...
Kovryga, A.; Stapel, P.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.
The quality assurance of timber properties is important for the safety of timber structures. In the current study, the quality control options of timber are analysed under the prism of the different growth regions. Therefore, these options - machine and output control - are simulated in accordance
Shiratori, T.; Komatsu, K.; Leijten, A.J.M.
Embedment is a key feature of timber joints envisioned as the ultimate solution in avoiding the devastating full collapse of timber structures in seismic countries. The Japanese traditional timber post-and-beam structural system utilizes moment-resisting joints based on embedment. Despite the
Kulish, S A; Ponikarov, V D
An analysis is made of the system of supplying coal mining production associations with timber materials. The potential for greater efficiency in the use and processing of timber is indicated. The possibility of using methods of mathematical modelling and forecasting to improve the efficiency of supplying timber to coal associations is demonstrated. 1 table.
Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen
This report traces the flow of Californiaâs 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...
Due to large area disturbed and great deal of energy cost during-its operations, introducing or applying the appropriate timber extracting techniques could significantly reduce the impact of timber extraction operations to forest environment while pursuing the reasonable operation costs. Four environmentally sound timber extraction techniques for small tree harvesting...
Gina H. Mohammed
Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...
David N. Wear; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak
Timber supply modeling is a means of formalizing the production behavior of heterogeneous landowners managing a wide variety of forest types and vintages within a region. The critical challenge of timber supply modeling is constructing theoretically valid and empirically practical aggregate descriptions of harvest behavior. Understanding timber supply is essential for...
This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...
City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...
Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...
Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David
Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages.
Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....
Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.
Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from a large number of specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analysis and fits have been investigated for the following distribution types: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull...... fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the Log Normal distribution generally gives a poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used. The implications on the reliability level of typical structural elements and on partial safety factors...... for timber are investigated....
Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang
Whereas climate change mitigation involving payments to forest landowners for accumulating carbon on their land may increase carbon stored in forests, it will also affect timber supply and prices. This study estimated the effect on US timber and primary forest product markets of hypothetical timber set-aside scenarios where US forest landowners would be paid to forego...
Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko
Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.
Noone, B. M; Hultberg, T.
Revenue management and sales staffs collaborate substantially in making decisions regarding rate setting, accepting group business, and forecasting. However, according to a survey of 82 sales and revenue management executives at three hotel chains (47 revenue managers and 35 sales executives), hotels could foster even better coordination between revenue management and sales by educating each group regarding the other group’s responsibilities. This might reduce sales staff frustrations about t...
Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard
This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...
Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno
A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...
James P. Wacker; Matthew S. Smith
These standardized bridge plans are for superstructures consisting of treated timber. Seven superstructure types are includes: five longitudinal and two transverse deck systems. Both HS520 and HS25 loadings are included, along with L/360 and L/500 deflection criteria.
Jerold T. Hahn; W. Brad Smith
The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Prairie Unit shows that although commercial forest area decreased 31.7% between 1962 and 1977, growing-stock volume increased 22%. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area as well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.
Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou
Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...
Kuilen, J.W.G. van de
Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and
David E. Kretschmann
When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...
David E. Kretschmann; Roland Hernandez
Because of its biological nature, which is influenced by many factors as discussed in Chapter 6, the quality of timber is enormously variable. Therefore, some sort of arrangement or classification must be undertaken prior to its use, in order to get the most out of this valuable resource. It is obvious that not all lumber can be used for the same purposes because not...
Prawira, Soewanda A.; Tantra, I.G.M.; Whitmore, T.C.
Indonesia as yet does not have a comprehensive account of the forest trees which reach timber size (35 cm dbh = 14 inch or 105 cm gbh = 42 inch). A project has been started in August 1983 by the Botany Section of the Forest Research Institute in Bogor, Indonesia, to prepare pocket checklists of the
Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman
Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...
Elvida Yosefi Suryandari
Full Text Available International market requires producers to proof the legality of their wood products to address the issues of illegal logging and illegal trade. Timber Legality Verification System (TLVS has been prepared by the Government of Indonesia that covering the upstream and downstream wood industries. This paper aims to evaluate gaps in the implementation of TLVS policy and its impact on the sustainability of timber industry. This study was using gap, descriptive and costs-structure analyzes. The study was conducted in three provinces, namely: DKI Jakarta, West Java and D.I. Yogyakarta. Research found that the effectiveness of the TLVS implementation was low due to relatively rapid policy changes. This situation became disincetive for investments in timber business. Private sector perceived that TLVS policy should be applied in the upstream of timber business. Hence, the industry and market in the downstream have not been fully support to this system. Furthermore, TLVS policy implementation was considered ineffective by timber industry as well as private forest managers, especially by micro industry and smallholder private forests. This situation threatened the sustainability of timber industry and private forests. Therefore, Institutions should be strengthened in order to improve the quality of human resources and the competitiveness of products.
Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar
From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari
General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...
Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.
This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.
T.B. Klos (Tomas); D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); J.A. La Poutré (Han)
htmlabstractWhen we look at successful sales processes occurring in practice, we find they combine two techniques which have been studied separately in the literature. Recommender systems are used to suggest additional products or accessories to include in the bundle under consideration, and
Describes the programs and courses of the sales training department at British Airways from induction to management level. The staff uses one of the largest commercial computer facilities in the world to provide seat reservations, fare quotations and tickets, hotel reservations, and tours. (MF)
Duker, Laurie, Ed.
Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…
Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka
This paper investigates sales and operations planning (S&OP) at four Scandinavian industrial food producers in order to explore how the use of S&OP might help leaders to deal with the challenges set by the planning environment. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g., frequency of new...
Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka
This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...
Decisions in the sales area, including customer and product selection and margin discipline, shape profits for companies in agribusiness. Management of the sales function takes place at the organizational, managerial, and practitioner level, each of which requires data about the process. Individual salespeople benefit from better knowledge of customers (Dixon & Adamson, 2011), and sales managers benefit from understanding the activities of salespeople. Organizationally, data on sales activiti...
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential. Further, the collapse of the Ballerup Super Arena, the bad Reichenhall Ice-Arena and a number of other structural systems during the last 10 years has...... increased the interest in robustness. Typically, modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized, the code requirements...
Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin
of the generative phase to fabrication of the artefact. Brought together by various conceptual and structural elements the Timber Curtain forms a 4.5 x 2.5 x 0.5 m construct of assembled wood components, digitally crafted through advanced production techniques. Concerned with materiality and processing of the wood......Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning...... an associative digital model that could gather and compute in put from material behaviour and out put manufacturing data was scripted. This method enables material capacity to be pushed to the limit of its performance allowing novel sensuous and structural qualities to emerge. The method is developed with use...
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern buildi...... to robustness of spatial timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues with respect...
Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be quantified and compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics plays...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and their format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures....
The objective of this project was to research the potential for solar kilns for drying timber in tropical countries (Guyana, Honduras and Belize) and produce a manual which will provide the knowledge necessary to build and operate a solar kiln. The main output of the project is the manual Solar Heated Timber Drying Kilns - a Manual on their Design and Operation. The manual covers:- background information; selection of construction materials; methods of kiln construction; kiln operation and maintenance procedure. The manual has been designed to provide the necessary knowledge and confidence to build and operate a solar kiln, and ultimately benefit from an improved product. Specifically, the manual will benefit small building construction units, furniture and joinery manufacturers and sawmill operators in developing and developed countries worldwide. (author)
Dutu, A.; Gomes Ferreira, J.; Guerreiro, L.; Branco, F.; Gonçalves, A. M.
Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their struc...
Dutu, A.; Gomes Ferreira, J.; Guerreiro, L.; Branco, F.; Gonçalves, A. M.
Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their str...
Shirokov, A P; Kuntsevich, V IK; Pishchulin, V V; Seryi, A M; Volkov, P A
The roof timber for fortifying mining works includes spring-mounted hinged elements made from a special rolled metal. In order to increase the carrying capacity of the support by increasing the deformation threshold, the springs are mounted by their expanded section to the lower side of the hinge; their ends are connected in turn to the elements made from the special rolled metal on both sides of the hinge.
Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.
This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....
Clark, Rulon W; Brown, William S; Stechert, Randy; Zamudio, Kelly R
Anthropogenic habitat modification often creates barriers to animal movement, transforming formerly contiguous habitat into a patchwork of habitat islands with low connectivity. Roadways are a feature of most landscapes that can act as barriers or filters to migration among local populations. Even small and recently constructed roads can have a significant impact on population genetic structure of some species, but not others. We developed a research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. We examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Our results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites (7 to 10 generations of rattlesnakes), the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads.
Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno
Chinaâs domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that Chinaâs timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...
Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon
A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratioâthe last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percentâto determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...
Oba, S; Takiguchi, I
From the results of a model study described in a previous paper (I), (Vol.23, No.4), a timber factor Kr is determined as a specific parameter for type of timber and as a function of spacing ratio d/e where d and e are the spacing and the height of sets respectively. A general formula for the determination of the friction coefficient of timbered airways is also proposed.
Loos, M.B.M.; Schelhaas, H.
If the Common European Sales Law (CESL) is adopted, commercial parties will have the opportunity to choose between two international legal instruments for the regulation of their international commercial sales contracts. Whereas CESL is available to both consumer and commercial sales contracts, the
Bolander, William; Bonney, Leff; Satornino, Cinthia
Sales education is on the rise and for good reason. Statistics say that sales jobs will continue to grow at a rapid rate over the next few years. Many universities are preparing their students to start their careers in the professional selling function through the inclusion of sales education in their business curriculum. Yet little research…
Gonçalves, A. M.
Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con
Jeffrey E. Jarrett
Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to shed light on problems associated with lost sales and the incurring of cost associated with lost sales. An investigation is made to determine if seasonality in sales and lost sales have effects on the efficient operations of supply chains. Optimization is always a goal of management supply chains, but cost increases due to insufficient inventory, low-quality product and the like lead to customers not returning. These are lost sales that occur for many reasons. We study a data set to determine if the ignoring of time series component also has an effect on the variation in lost sales. If so, can we measure the magnitude of the effects of seasonal variation in lost sales, and what are their consequences?
Full Text Available Experience from prior successful sale of many companies from different business activities, tells us that it is necessary to create approach system, flexible to different buyers and environment. The base of this system is a belief that salesmen can stimulate big buyers to make buying decisions, if the selling process is done well. Emphasis is made on practical selling techniques which are used in the whole selling process.
Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.
Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic
Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...
David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel
Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.
Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten
Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.
W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple
Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.
Boström, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Solli, Kjell-Helge
Special setting values based on tensile properties of Norway spruce are established for four different strength grading machines. The machines included are Computermatic, Cook-Bolinder, Ersson and Dynagrade.The study shows that the yield of timber to be used in tension, such as laminations...
M.V.C. Falanruw; Francis Ruegorong
On Yap Island, indigenous management of the fallow in shifting agriculture has resulted in the development of site-stable taro patch and tree garden agroforestry systems. These systems are relatively sustainable and supportive of household economies , with some surplus for local market sales. however, a broad range of crops whose harvest is complementary to those...
Keith B. Leffler; Randal R. Rucker; Ian A. Munn
Measurement efforts to reduce the uncertainty concerning the attributes of heterogeneous goods may simply redistribute wealth and result in social waste. Individuals bearing the cost of such distributional measurement have incentives to develop buying and selling practices that limit such measurement. We examine, both theoretically and empirically, the determinants...
...-resistant tree species in the area; there is a need to increase age class diversity in lodgepole pine... proposed, most of which would be removed with cable logging systems. Approximately 55- 75 acres would be... trees. To access proposed harvest areas, approximately 3.1 miles of new, permanent road would need to be...
Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha
The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...
This study examines demand and supply of timber products in Benue State Nigeria with a view to highlighting the responsiveness of forest policy implementation. The scope of the study lies on plantation establishment targets and costs for 1999 to 2003, actual plantation establishment, timber supply and demand from ...
Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Martin Vavra; Jennifer M. Boyd; Priscilla K. Coe; John G. Kie; Alan A. Ager; Norman J. Cimon
Forested habitats for cattle and elk (Cervus elaphus) in the western United States have changed substantially in response to intensive timber management during the latter half of the 20th century. Consequently, the subject of how elk and other ungulates respond to timber management is a high-profile, long-standing issue that continues to be studied...
James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares
The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...
The dendrochronological analyses of a large number of timbers from two sites are described. Nybro causeway in west Jutland, Denmark, which was built in the 8th century AD, consists of numerous phases, identifiable due to the large number of dendrochronologically dated timbers, of which many had...
Review of factors influencing wood durability shows although density varies depending on trunk position, its role appears controversial for many timber species. Thus, for the first time, the influence of density on the durability of three Ghanaian timbers (Nauclea diderrichii (de Wild.) Merr., Nesogordonia papaverifera (A. Chev ...
Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line
Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...
W. Brad Smith; Tom D. Wardle
Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Nebraska for the decade 1983 - 1992. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 52 percent of Nebraska''s commercial forest land would benefit from timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.
John R. Mills; Xiaoping. Zhou
National forest inventories were projected in a study that was part of the 2000 USDA Forest Service Resource Planning Act (RPA) timber assessment. This paper includes an overview of the status and structure of timber inventory of the National Forest System and presents 50-year projections under several scenarios. To examine a range of possible outcomes, results are...
James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw
As engineers begin to utilize life-cycle-cost design approaches for timber bridges, there is a necessity for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This national study was...
Abstract. This study investigated timber dealers' knowledge of the forest law and regulations in Uyo Senatorial District. Five timber markets were selected through two-stage sampling. Data were collected from 238 traders in the selected markets using structured questionnaires and subjected to descriptive and inferential ...
John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim McDonald; Dana Mitchell
The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...
Leijten, A.J.M.; Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.
In recent years timber infill panels have been proposed for multi-story column-beam frame structures with the aim to substitute the stabilizing function of column-beam moment connections. The preliminary study reported in this paper considers a column-beam timber frame where stability is assured by
Leijten, A.J.M.; Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.; Haddad, Y.M.
In recent years timber infill panels have been proposed for multi-story column-beam frame structures with the aim to substitute the stabilizing function of column-beam moment connections. The preliminary study reported in this paper considers a column-beam timber frame where stability is assured by
Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman
To many woodland owners âharvestingâ typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...
12 Studies on timber members recycled from old timber structures...55 Figure 63. The load cell-hydraulic ram setup with spreader beam.....................................................56 Figure 64. The MTS...actuator and spreader beam................................................................................56 Figure 65. Effectiveness of a repair method
Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald
This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...
Klorik' yan, S Kh
Opinion is expressed that the two basic parameters characterizing mechanical timbers, the specific force in ton-forces per square meter of the supported roof surface over the working area and the one-meter length of installed timbering, do not permit selection of the optimum type of timber for a roof of the corresponding class. Experience has demonstrated that the most precise parameter is specific strength of the timber in ton-forces per meter and the determined ratio of the strength of all posts in a section to spacing of the section along the longwall. Also an operating width not exceeding 0.4 meter should serve as a criterion for using timbers on unstable hanging walls. (In Russian)
Hedley, M E
After early failures of reinforced concrete silencers and because of high costs of concrete-lined steel structures, preliminary tests were undertaken to assess the suitability of timber for silencer construction. Tests indicated that radiata pine treated with pentachlorophenol/oil or untreated red beech had most potential for timber silencer fabrication. One prototype silencer of each material was constructed and both were installed on operational bores in 1965. The red beech silencer had a service life of 4 years. The radiata pine silencer operated for 12/sup 1///sub 2/ years, although replacement had been recommended 1 year before this time expired. The performance of this silencer encouraged the general use of timber for silencer construction and further units were built. Procurement of satisfactory grades of timber has proved difficult and has limited silencer fabrication. Ways of improving timber supply, which require modification of silencer design, are discussed.
With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division
The aim of this thesis was to find a best way to advertise short-term sales and reduce paper waste. Another aim was to help the seller to identify a potential customer for a specific product, by means of providing a number of people accessing an advertisement. A mobile phone is one of the widely used electronic devices by many people. Modern mobile phones support a good internet connection. Also, people carry their mobile devices with them even outside their homes. So a mobile application ...
Courty, Pascal; Li, Hao
We present a model of timing of seasonal sales where stores choose several designs at the beginning of the season without knowing wich one, if any, will be fashionable. Fashionable designs have a chance to fetch high prices in fashion markets while non-fashionable ones must be sold in a discount market. In the beginning of the season, stores charge high prices in the hope of capturing their fashion market. As the end of the season approaches with goods still on the shelves, stores adjust down...
Komtesse af Rosenborg, Desiree Christina; Buhl-Andersen, Ida; Nilsson, Line Bygvrå
This paper examines the relationship between social media engagement and financial performance of the global fast fashion company, H&M. We analyze big social data from Facebook on the seven H&M style collections that occurred during 2012 and 2013 to investigate if style icon campaigns have a larger...... effect on quarterly sales than designer collaborations. We find that style icons such as David Beckham generate more social buzz than designer collaborations. Social Set Analysis of the Facebook data shows that the overlap between the users H&M reach with their different style collections is fairly small...
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled spirits...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed with favor. Generally, such negotiated sales will be approved...
Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.
Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made at...
Full Text Available Construction of modern timber bridges has greatly increased during the last 20 years in Sweden. Wood as a construction material has several advantageous properties, e.g., it is renewable, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing, but it is also susceptible to deterioration. To protect wood from deterioration and ensure the service life, the wood is either treated or somehow covered. This work evaluates a technology to monitor the moisture content in wood constructions. Monitoring the moisture content is important both to verify the constructive protection and for finding areas with elevated levels of moisture which might lead to a microbiological attack of the wood. In this work, a timber bridge was studied. The structure was equipped with six wireless sensors that measured the moisture content of the wood and the relative humidity every hour. Data for 744 days of the bridge are presented in this paper. Results show that the technology used to monitor the bridge generally works; however, there were issues due to communication problems and malfunction of sensors. This technology is promising for monitoring the state of wood constructions, but a more reliable sensor technology is warranted continuous remote monitoring of wood bridges over long periods of time.
Levin, Michael A.; Peterson, Lori T.
Job openings for nonscientific business-to-business sales professionals will increase over the next 10 years. A small private university in the Midwest has developed an innovative sales course to help create professionals who are ready to fill this need. This article addresses the challenges of creating a meaningful, hands-on, experiential course…
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.
Brian J. MacGowan; Zachary J. Walker
The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is a species of conservation concern throughout much of its geographic range and may serve as a sentinel species in investigations of the effects of timber harvesting on forest reptiles. Our objective was to determine the effect of even-aged timber management regimes on timber rattlesnake home range and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a) Each...
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.
Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.
A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales. ...
The Gas, Electricity and Water Works Cologne (GEW) supplies 4,115 objects with district heat. The connected load totals 830,000 kJ/s, which over the last 10 years has been expanded by an average of 5.3% annually and is currently 2.2% above the national average. The extension of district heat supply has been accomplished without subsidies from the two ZIP programmes. The major objects in Cologne city are to a large extent linked to the GEW district heating network. The goal now is to win more smaller objects in the supply area. To achieve notable new connected load increases in the future, the GEW is conducting a sales promotion drive together with Cologne heating construction firms. The promotion is running under the slogan 'Magically Simple: Heating with District Heat'. Its strategy and execution are described here by the author.
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Čizmar, Dean
The present paper considers the evaluation of timber structures with the focus on robustness due to connection ductility. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework applied to a simplified mechanical system. The structural timber system is depicted as a parallel system....... An evaluation method of the ductile behaviour is introduced. For different ductile behaviours, the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation. A correlation between the strength of the structural elements is introduced. The results indicate that the reliability of a structural timber system...
Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....
Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter
When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...
This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels
pinguecula and uveitis, each, accounting for 39.52%, 31.10%, 12.53%, 7.34% and 2.16% respectively ... Timber workers, eye diseases, work environment, prevalence, environmental pollutants. ... there was no interested family member to take.
Timber Forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the selection of markets and respondents. The sample size was 60 and instrument of data collection was structured and ...
Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest Products in the Nilgiri ... This project will allow Keystone Foundation to design, implement and test a ... traders, forest department officials and other stakeholders in the process.
ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...
Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker
This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.
Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux
Evaluates the impact of cable logging technology, transportation network standards, and transport vehicles on stand management. Managers can use results to understand the impact of timber production costs on eastern hardwood management.
Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.
The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength...... values. The dominant failure mode of glulam specimens is shown to be fundamentally different from that of structural timber specimens. Glulam specimens often show tension perpendicular to grain failure before the compression strength value is reached. Such failure mode is not seen for structural timber....... Nonetheless test results show that the levels of characteristic compression strength perpendicular to grain are of the same order for structural timber and glulam. The values are slightly lower than those appearing in EN 1194 and less than half of those appearing in EN 338. The paper presents a numerical...
The main purpose of the pursued research presented in this thesis is to increase knowledge of the effects of knots in structural timber so that characteristics of weaker timber may be determined and applied to improve current grading techniques. In the process, a three-dimensional fiber paradigm...... are given to Shigo's knot formation theory, and thus predicts two separate patterns of fiber direction within annual growth layers related to live knots. In order to determine the possibility to practically and non destructively predict local material directions in structural timber with the three...... was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot...
Reliability analysis of structures for the purpose of code calibration or reliability verification of specific structures requires that the relevant failure modes are represented and analyzed. For structural timber, sustaining a life load, two failure cases for each failure mode have......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...... to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades...
..., the total quantity under consideration, and the location of the timber in question with reference to... or shares, royalties and rentals, valuation for local or State taxation, partnership accountings...
ENGR. J. I. AGUWA
Jul 2, 2013 ... Structural analysis and deterministic design of a timber bridge beam using the Nigerian ... practice especially when it involves naturally occuring materials .... the beam due to distributed loads is; from . (4). It is assumed that ...
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn in North-Western Nigeria. *1A. ... further research should be carried out on wood in service to study the peculiarities of timber behaviour under actual .... eastern Nigeria, Neem (Azadirachta indica) was found.
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.
Willem W.S. van Hees
Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1976 timber inventory of the Yakataga unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 209.3 thousand acres (84.7 thousand ha), net growing stock volume at 917.1 million cubic feet (26.0 million m3), and annual net growth and...
Reynolds, Thomas Peter; Sharma, Bhavna; Harries, Kent; Ramage, Michael Hector
Structural sections of laminated bamboo can be connected using methods common in timber engineering, however the different material properties of timber and laminated bamboo suggest that the behaviour of connections in the two materials would not be the same. This study investigates the dowelled connection, in which a connector is passed through a hole in the material, and load is resisted by shear in the connector and embedment into the surrounding material. Steel dowels were used in a conne...
Paul A. Morgan; Steven E. Taylor; Michael A. Ritter; John M. Franklin
This paper describes the design, modeling, and testing of two portable timber bridges, each consisting of two noninterconnected longitudinal glued-laminated timber (glulam) deck panels 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. One bridge is 12.2 m (40 ft) long while the other bridge is 10.7 m (35 ft) long. The deck panels are fabricated in a unique double-tee cross section. The bridges...
Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...... of the structure, thus, being possible to evaluate reliability based in time dependent factors, as well to categorize that structure in terms of robustness. For exemplification of the underlined concepts, three different types of structures are studied....
Dhonju, R..; D’Amico, B..; Kermani, A..; Porteous, J..; Zhang, B..
This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the racking performance of partially anchored timber framed walls, based on experimental tests. A total of 17 timber framed wall specimens, constructed from a combination of materials under different load configurations, were tested. The experimental study was designed toexamine the influence of a range of geometrical parameters, such as fastener size and spacings, wall length, arrangement of studs and horizontal members, as well as the effect ...
Gur' yev, D K; Tomashevskiy, L P; Vorotnyak, M V
A section of mechanized timbering of an installation layer is suggested which includes roof timber, base with cantilever, hydrostand, safety guard which consists of a lower and upper shield, where the lower shield in the lower part has a roll whose upper part is hinged to the cantilever base, and the upper shield is hinged to the roof timber. Its lower part is connected by a linkage to the cantilever of the base. There is also a correcting device, tie rod and holder with rolled material. In order to guarantee stability of the timbering section during work on thick beds and adaptability of the roof timber to the roofing of the bed, the connection between the cantilever and the lower part of the upper shield is made from a longitudinal slit on the cantilever and slide bar placed in it. It is attached by a pin to the lower part of the upper shield. In this case the tie bar is hinged to the linkage and by means of the slide bar to the roof timber, while the correcting device is made of an extension-type support with level which contacts with the wedge and the tightening element installed on the cantilever of the base.
The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity
A fusion machine, in the form of a sphere small enough to fit on a desktop, is described. It can be switched on and off at will and produces virtually no radioactive waste. The fusion sphere creates an electric potential which forms deuterium ions into beams and accelerates them towards the centre. Nuclei of deuterium inside a central spherical wire grid fuse to create neutrons, helium -3 and traces of hydrogen and tritium. The rudimentary device is expected to go on sale in a commercial form in 1998. The immediate applications are those which require a yield of neutrons falling in the range 10 7 to 10 10 neutrons per second. This is expected to be well within the capability of the sphere and would allow neutron activation analysis to be carried out for the detection of hidden high explosives in airport baggage checks, or impurities in ores as they are mined for example. With higher neutron yields other applications such as the treatment of tumours could become viable but the technical problems are likely to multiply with the increasing yields. (UK)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2013 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the competitive...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291....90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may, in... following methods of sale: (a) Future REO acquisition method. The Future Real Estate-Owned (REO) acquisition...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated sale...
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated under...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sales services. 245.7306... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7306 Sales services. When sale services are needed, the plant clearance officer will document the reasons in...
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...
Gjedrem, William Gilje
Master's thesis in Finance In this paper I analyze whether an intervention program increases productivity and sales, by reducing potential procrastination problems that employees face at work. The intervention was introduced to stores in a large retail chain in Norway, and contained different tools that could lead to lower perceived costs of higher effort. In a difference-in-differences analysis I find that the intervention increases sales after a 14 weeks long implementation period. Fu...
This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)
Danny Pimentel Claro
Full Text Available This paper argues that an informal network can itself be a basis for the increase in a sales manager’s performance. Informal networks create a structure that surpasses the formal hierarchical structure defined by the firm. We concentrated on the advice network and considered two different views of network structure that claim to have impact on performance. To explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers develop either a highly cohesive network structure (i.e. Coleman’s view or one containing structural holes (i.e. Burt’s view in order to achieve higher sales. We also investigated the matter of tie strength put forward by Granovetter in his seminal 1973 work. Census data was collected from about 500 personnel from an agricultural input retailer having 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers showed the importance of a highly cohesive structure (degree centrality for the three measures of sales manager’s performance. The strong ties have a positive impact on performance, suggesting the importance of building up strong bonds with network contacts. Sales managers’ age, time within the retailer and education also influence performance. These results imply that firms should stimulate contacts among personnel to spread technical and commercial information.
Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones.
This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads.
The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.
Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.
This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.
Vishal Chandr Jaunky
Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.
Full Text Available This article highlights the challenges of community sustainability in the emerging market economy of Solomon Islands as it grows increasingly reliant on imported foodstuffs. It examines the ways in which Solomon Islanders from neighbouring Savo Island engage with HCM and the opportunities it brings. Using Renzaho and Mellor’s (2010 conceptual framework for analysis of food security assessment we explore the symbiotic relationship that provides food security for those living in and around Honiara city, and income for the mostly subsistence farmers who supply Honiara’s growing population with fresh agricultural produce. Data from five focus groups from three villages on Savo Island reveals the critical importance of income from market sales at the HCM. The article demonstrates the mix of logistical and environmental challenges that confront people when trying to earn money through farming and sales of surplus food.
The aim of this action based thesis was to create new sales material in English for international sales of Holiday Club Katinkulta. The material concentrates on the services offered in the spa hotel side. The spa hotel was sold to its former owner Holiday Club Resorts ltd during the thesis writing process and all sales material required updating after the ownership change. The new sales material is produced for the aid of daily sales work of sales representatives in the field of internati...
The procurement of timber to the forest industries in the Nordic countries is based on the log-length or shortwood system, and employs load-carrying forwarders and chainsaw of single-grip harvesters. This technology is characterized by high productivity, safety, suitability for small-sized trees, high recovery of timber, and environmental friendliness. About one fourth of the industrial timber in the whole world is harvested using the log-length system. The challenge of ecological sustainability, multiple use of forests, adoption of thinnings as a tool of management, trend toward improved utilization of forest biomass, and shift from natural forests to plantations all increase the global interest in the log-length system. The paper presents a review of the Finnish forest sector, the technology of timber harvesting and transport, productivity of logging work, and costs of timber at the mill. The highly mechanized logging systems of the forest industries and the lighter technology of self-employed forest owners are discussed separately. Furthermore, the use of residual biomass as a source of clean and renewable energy, the Finnish logging machine industry, and forest operations research in Finland are also reviewed. (46 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.)
... cutting of standing timber by local rural residents for appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood or... materials for subsistence uses, and the noncommerical gathering of dead or downed timber for firewood, shall...
Full Text Available The fundamental objective of this paper was to identify and analyze the main antecedents of sales organization effectiveness in order to offer the guidelines for improving the standard sales practice. In addition to the customary challenges of achieving anticipated sales results, rising pressures of the contemporary business environment underscore the importance of establishing a more effective sales organization. The aim of the empirical research was to identify the sources of effectiveness of sales organizations based on the comparison between two groups of organizations, namely, the relatively high and low performing ones. The concept of sales performance was observed through five distinct factors: sales management activities, sales force characteristics, sales organization design and sales force effectiveness with regard to the sales outcome of these organizations and their behavior. The analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the most important sources of sales effectiveness are the activities of sales managers targeted towards monitoring and rewarding. Moreover, sales managers in relatively more effective organizations reported much higher satisfaction with the design of sales territories. Sales people in effective companies are highly motivated and committed to the organization. In addition, they are also considerably better at achieving high levels of outcome performance. The research presents an addition to a number of similar studies conducted worldwide but, more importantly, it contributes to the exceptionally small number of sales management studies carried out in Croatia. For a more complete analysis it would be necessary to include the variables of the external environment and examine the potential moderating impact of product type and industry on the overall sales effectiveness.
Brett J. Butler; Charles J. Barnett; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale Gormanson; William N. Hill; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya Lister; Christopher Martin; Patrick D. Miles; Randall Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall
This report summarizes the results of the fifth forest inventory of the forests of Southern New England, defined as Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and analysis program. Information on forest attributes, ownership, land use change, carbon, timber products, forest health, and statistics and quality...
Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)
Treu, A.; Larnoy, E.; Ribeiro Nunes, L. M.; Duarte, S.; Halvorsen, H.
Timber constructions are often built in combination with other materials such as concrete. These materials can influence the timber construction. Moist concrete can e.g. lead to development of molds which creates an unhealthy living area for people. Furthermore, moisture in wood buildings can negatively affect the wood material, which can lead to negative biological activity in timber and possible reduction of strength properties of timber constructions. The present paper introduces ...
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obatined. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based robustness analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...
Sousa, Hélder; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
The first part of this document presents, in chapter 2, a description of timber characteristics and common used NDT and MDT for timber elements. Stochastic models for timber properties and damage accumulation models are also referred. According to timber’s properties a framework is proposed...... for a safety reassessment procedure. For that purpose a theoretical background for structural reliability assessment including probabilistic concepts for structural systems and stochastic models are given in chapter 3. System models, both series and parallel systems, are presented as well as methods...... for robustness are dealt in chapter 5. The second part of this document begins in chapter 6, where a practical application of the premise definitions and methodologies is given through the implementation of upgraded models with NDT and MDT data. Structural life-cycle is, therefore, assessed and reliability...
Poinet, Paul; Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin
.The research explores the design probe of free-form structures composed of glue-laminated timber beams and looks at the different types of data that need to be shared among each discipline and across multiple scales from which different levels of resolution can be defined. A particular focus lies...... in the segmentation strategy of glue-laminated timber structures that depend on structural requirements and the different types of constraints related to fabrication, transportation and assembly. Where current working practices decouple segmentation processes within a discrete digital workflow, this research aims...... and techniques as a means to work within a continuous design environment in which an abstract network of timber beams is iteratively updated through geometrical and structural optimizations at different levels of resolution....
Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.
This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)
Jinglong Mo; Thomas Straka; Richard Harper
Timberland ownership patterns and national forest timber harvesting policy have undergone significant changes in South Carolina over the past five decades. Timber output studies for the state commonly focused on short time frames and seldom addressed timberland ownership patterns in detail. We describe fifty-year timber output for South Carolina, allowing us to address...
Terry J. Wipf; Michael A. Ritter; Sheila Rimal Duwadi; Russell C. Moody
A timber bridge, once a thing of the past, is now becoming a thing of the present. Interest in timber bridges and other transportation structures has been rapidly increasing. Much of this is due to new technologies in design and construction as well as advances in material manufacturing and presevative treatments. Although timber bridges and other transportation...
Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe
The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...
Čizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness assessment. The complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes...... material ductility of timber is taken into account. The robustness is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index....
Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes
The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solidwood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50...
Jean M. Daniels; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz; Susan J. Alexander
Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for logs, lumber, residues, and niche products, and timber harvest by owner are developed by using a trend-based analysis. This is the fifth such analysis performed since 1990 to assist planners in meeting statutory requirements for estimating planning cycle demand for timber from the Tongass National...
In some stoping faces on beds which are dangerous for mine impacts, mechanized timbering is successfully used which is not equipped with protection from the effect of these dynamic phenomena. This generated the idea that in the indicated conditions, mechanized timbering may not be equipped with protective devices against dynamic loads. Theoretical studies have shown that the effects of mine impacts depends on the total energy of the impact, distance of this stoping face from the epicenter of the impact, as well as the capacity of the rock massif to transmit and absorb energy of the mine impact. This means that the effect of the mine impact under different conditions is not the same, the mine impacts of lower energy under definite conditions can result in greater damages to the mechanized timbering than mine impact with higher energy. It is believed that the effect of absorption of energy of the mine impact depends on the method of control of the roofing in the stoping face, the presence of hydraulic fill quarantees absorption of up to 80% of its energy. The experience of working beds which are dangerous for mine impacts in the upper Silesia coal basin indicated that the designs of the mechanized timbering, especially shield, in which the stands are not rigidly connected to the roof timber, during operation on beds with thickness 2.5-4 m withstand mine impacts with energy 10/sup 7/ J without significant disorders (mine impacts with this energy occur very frequently . For energy of mine impact of 108 J (impacts with this energy are observed comparatively rarely), the mechanized timberings are considerably damaged.
Svensson, Staffan; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen
A theory on the lateral load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners is presented. The base of the theory is the coupled mechanical phenomena acting in the connection, while the wood and the slender fastener deform and yield prior to failure. The objective is to derive...... a sufficient description of actions and responses which have determining influence on the load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners. Model assumptions are discussed and made, but simplifications are left out. Even so, simple mathematical equations describing the lateral capacity......-carrying capacity of the tested connections....
Roda Jean-Marc; Rohana Abd Rahman; Ismariah Ahmad; Lim Hin Fui; Mohd Parid Mamat
Since the 1960s, the global timber trade has gradually evolved from a South-North trade to a South-South trade, with an acceleration of the phenomenon in the mid 1990s. Nowadays, Asia consumes more than 70% (in round wood equivalent) of the forest products originating from the tropics. Africa becomes the new frontier for the supplies of wood material for Asian giants, which now source raw wood from all over the world. Since the mid 1990s, the dynamics of the tropical timber trade have been in...
This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.
Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber...
An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)
Arie Putra Usman
Full Text Available Indonesia is a tropical country with abundant tropical timber that can be used as a building material. Wood is a renewable material, thus making it an environmentally friendly construction material. However, the dimensional limitations of solid wood may pose problems in structural constructions. Wood material also has some disadvantages, such as brittle failure. However, the ductility of wood can be increased because of plasticity occurring in the compression zone. Wood material with good ductility can be obtained by reinforcing it in the tensile zone. This study is about the strength of wood material for use as a material for structural elements. Based on the analytical findings, the bending capacity of wood can be improved by adding reinforcements to the tensile zone.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...
General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...
Grimmett, Richard F
This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...
Grimmett, Richard F
This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....
A total of 36 samples of Cassava flour were randomly collected inside clean polythene bag at each point of sale in three (3) major markets in Zaria, these are: Samaru, Sabon Gari and Zaria City Markets and transported to the laboratory for the department of microbiology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria for further analysis.
Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo
The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...
Loos, M.B.M.; Sagaert, V.; Storme, M.; Terryn, E.
This paper looks into several aspects of Book IV.A of the Draft Common Frame of Reference and, in particular with regard to remedies, of Book III DCFR. Where appropriate, these provisions are compared with the corresponding provisions in the Principles of European Law on Sales (PELS) and,
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.
This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…
B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)
textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal
Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.
Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the
The thesis gives comprehensive overview on the topic of sales promotions. The special focus is devoted to activities of Procter & Gamble on the Czech market. With increasing importance of sales promotions on the Czech market, the thesis aims to introduce main academic findings concerning sales promotions and test them on brands of Procter & Gamble. The next goal is to find out whether sales promotion strategies of Procter & Gamble provide a competitive advantage for the company on the Czech m...
Marcos-Cuevas, Javier; Critten, Peter; Squire, Phil; Speakman, James I. F.
Sales education has grown in importance, particularly throughout the last decade, with an increasing number of university sales centers offering programs to prepare new generations of sales professionals. In this article, we describe how work-based learning, action research, and reflective practice used in a sales master program can be used in…
Mani, Sudha; Kothandaraman, Prabakar; Kashyap, Rajiv; Ashnai, Bahar
Sales competitions provide students with opportunities to apply their understanding of sales. Despite a long tradition of scholarship on sales role-plays, the answer to what drives student performance in sales competitions remains elusive. In this research, we examine how motivation (work engagement) and ability (cognitive aptitude and…
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,575; TA-W-74,575D] International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business Manager Roles; One Teleworker Located in Charleston, WV; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...
strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20
laCour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders
How do prices affect the choice of types of alcohol in Denmark? We study the Danish sale of alcoholic beverages in a time series framework. First, we look at annual data from 1980 investigating the hypothesis of a fairly stable level of sales. We conclude stationarity of sales and we also find...
Zliobaite, I.; Bakker, J.; Pechenizkiy, M.
Sales prediction is a complex task because of a large number of factors affecting the demand. We present a context aware sales prediction approach, which selects the base predictor depending on the structural properties of the historical sales. In the experimental part we show that there exist
... complexity of the sale. When the services of a professional auctioneer are advisable, the services will be... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales...
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers may sell or offer for sale, and operate, as principal, Public Charter flights under...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...
... Definitions § 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and... SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1) No... booking must be returned within 3 business days. (2) Upon acceptance of the money for a sale, the operator...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an...
Balko S. V.
Full Text Available the article discusses the effective sales of agricultural products. The authors recommend the directions of improving sales management system. Moreover, the research proves that sales and production activity should be based on complex analysis and monitoring of the market conditions.
The over exploitation of African mahogany in tropical forest has threatened the genetic base of this useful timber and medicinal tree species and as such, an experiment was conducted on the in vitro culture of Khaya grandifoliola, an endangered tree species commonly found in the high forest zones of West Africa to explore ...
Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander
This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...
Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt
While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...
Dec 19, 2011 ... 3Department of Botany, Post Graduate College Abbottabad, Pakistan. Accepted 17 March, 2011. A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration.
This thesis examines the process of institutional change in British Columbia’s timber sector. It is composed of a series of essays which highlight the underlying political and economic factors that have shaped past and current reforms. Taking center stage in the analysis, are the resource rents
James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes
The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...
James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil
Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...
Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans
In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....
Jerold T. Hahn
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.
John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...
N. C. S. FORTI
Full Text Available AbstractIn the search for sustainable construction, timber construction is gaining in popularity around the world. Sustainably harvested wood stores carbon dioxide, while reforestation absorbs yet more CO2. One technique involves the combination of a concrete slab and a timber beam, where the two materials are assembled by the use of flexible connectors. Composite structures provide reduced costs, environmental benefits, a better acoustic performance, when compared to timber structures, and maintain structural safety. Composite structures combine materials with different mechanical properties. Their mechanical performance depends on the efficiency of the connection, which is designed to transmit shear longitudinal forces between the two materials and to prevent vertical detachment. This study contributes with the implementation of a finite element formulation for stress and displacement determination of composite concrete-timber beams. The deduced stiffness matrix and load vector are presented along to numerical examples. Numerical examples are compared to the analytical equations available in Eurocode 5 and to experimental data found in the literature.
Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...
W. Brad Smith
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.
Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson
Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State Universityâs Bridge Engineering Center (ISUâBEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...
Donald R. Gedney
Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...
John R. Mills
Two consecutive timberland inventories collected from permanent plots in the natural pine type in North Carolina were used to evaluate the timber resource inventory model (TRIM). This study compares model predictions with field measurements and examines the effect of inventory data aggregation on the accuracy of projections. Projections were repeated for two geographic...
James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman
The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...
Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux
Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...
F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips
We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...
It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low ... sector of the economy by providing major raw materials (saw logs, ... the trees also produce industrial raw materials like latex, ... villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of ..... enzymes of rats with carbon tetrachloride.
Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The results of the marketing margin reveal that charcoal commanded the highest margin of ₦2500, followed by bush meat (₦300), while wrapping had the ...
than steel or concrete . Fire is an emotive sub ... Kaura1, I. Abubakar2, U. Hassan3 and I. Aliyu4 ... portal frame in fire is the failure of the rafter-column connection that re column ...... Thin-webbed Timber Beams”, Asian Journal of Civil.
... such product is identified as required in such permit or contract. (f) Selling or exchanging any timber... 74 FR 26091, June 1, 2009, the amendment was delayed indefinitely. For the convenience of the user..., memorandum of agreement, memorandum of understanding, or personal-use authorization (f) Selling or exchanging...
Crielaard, R.; van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Terwel, K.C.; Ravenshorst, G.J.P.; Steenbakkers, P.; Breunesse, A.
Cross-laminated timber, or CLT, is receiving attention for its potential use in tall buildings. As a combustible material, one of the challenges for the construction of these buildings is the fire risk that results from its use in the structure. Unprotected CLT can burn along with the fuel load
Eric H. Wharton; Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Douglas S. Powell; Douglas S. Powell
An analytical report on the volume of wood used by the wood-turning industry in Maine, and the volume of timber from the state's timberlands that may be suitable for turnstock. Findings are based on the third forest resource survey of Maine timberlands, and an industry canvass of primary manufacturing mills using wood from Maine timberlands, both conducted in 1982...
... generally recognized by the industry as setting a selling standard; and, (ii) A statement by the... setting a selling standard. (3) Lumber, construction timbers, or cants for remanufacture, except western... or better, with a maximum cross section of 2,000 square centimeters (310 square inches) for any...
Mohammad Mohammad; Bradford Douglas; Douglas Rammer; Steven E. Pryor
The light weight of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products combined with the high level of prefabrication involved, in addition to the need to provide wood-based alternative products and systems to steel land concrete, have significantly contributed to the development of CLT products and systems, especially in mid-rise buildings (5 to 9 stories). While this product is...
Sylvan Gagnon; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Lisa Podesto; Pablo Crespell
Cross-laminated timber ( CLT), a new generation of engineered wood product developed initially in Europe, has been gaining increased popularity in residential and non-residential applications in several countries. Many impressive low- and mid-rise buildings built around the world using CLT showcase the many advantages this product has to offer to the construction...
Leijten, A.J.M.; Schoenmakers, J.C.M.
In timber structures, beams which are loaded perpendicular to grain by connections along the span may fail by splitting, resulting in the collapse of the beam. In the past, empirical, semi-empirical and fracture mechanical models have been developed aiming at predicting the splitting failure load.
Houjiang Zhang; Lei Zhu; Yanliang Sun; Xiping Wang; Haicheng Yan
During maintenance of ancient timber architectures, it is important to determine mechanical properties of the wood component materials non-destructively and effectively, so that degraded members may be replaced or repaired to avoid structural failure. Experimental materials are four larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.) components, which were taken down from the...
David N. Wear; Jeffrey P. Prestemon
The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...
M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey
Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...
David L. Peterson; James K. Agee; Gregory H. Aplet; Dennis P. Dykstra; Russell T. Graham; John F. Lehmkuhl; David S. Pilliod; Donald F. Potts; Robert F. Powers; John D. Stuart
Timber harvest following wildfire leads to different outcomes depending on the biophysical setting of the forest, pattern of burn severity, operational aspects of tree removal, and other management activities. Fire effects range from relatively minor, in which fire burns through the understory and may kill a few trees, to severe, in which fire kills most trees and...
Dennis L. Schweitzer
A computer program has been written in Fortran IV to calculate probability distributions of present worths of investments in timber production. Inputs can include both point and probabilistic estimates of future costs, prices, and yields. Distributions of rates of return can also be constructed.
C Brand Wessels, Nils-Olaf Petersen. Abstract. The main objective of this study was to determine which property, of the six strength and stiffness properties used in structural timber design, was the most influential in the design of nail-plated roof trusses. Thirty recently completed nail-plated roof truss designs were randomly ...
Colin B. Sorenson; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Micah G. Scudder; Chelsea P. McIver; Mike T. Thompson
This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2012, describes the composition and operations of the regionâs primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Recent changes in the wood products industry are discussed, as well as trends...
Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson
This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...
Millions of people, especially those living in rural areas in developing countries collect Non-Timber Forest products (NTFPs) daily. Women are known to play a prominent role in forestry and agricultural production in Nigeria despite not been captured as economically productive. This work looked into gender dimension ...
... contracts. However, no advance payment will be required that would make the sum of such payment and of... required, advance payments will operate the same as provided for in § 163.23(a) of this part. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163...
The paper examined the contribution of timber exports to the economic growth in Nigeria, using an econometric approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration techniques were respectively used to test for unit root and examine the relationship between the variables used. In addition, Granger ...
as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, ... reduced biodiversity (Wikipedia, 2007). In many countries massive timber extraction is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. logging affects the amount of water in the soil and groundwater and the moisture in the atmosphere. Forests support considerable biodiversity, providing.
William C. Siegel
Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code defines capital expenditures. In general, these are amounts spent to acquire real estate or equipment, or to make improvements that increase the value of real estate or equipment already owned. Forestry examples include land, buildings, standing timber, reforestation costs, and tractors and trucks. Property owners who incur...
Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett
This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...
Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate
Timber resource statistics to January 1, 1973, for the State of Washington show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973.
Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate
Timber resource statistics as of January 1, 1973, for the State of Oregon show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973, as well as each Bureau of Land Management...
Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear
Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...
Maksym Polyakov; David N. Wear; Robert Huggett
Timber supply has traditionally been modelled using aggregate data. In this paper, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products for the US state of North Carolina from a stand-level harvest choice model applied to detailed forest inventory. The simulated elasticities of pulpwood supply are much lower than reported by previous studies. Cross price...
Krishna P. Rustagi
Explicit forest management planning for timber production beyond the first few years at any time necessitates use of information which can best be described as suspect. The two-step approach outlined here concentrates on the planning strategy over the next few years without losing sight of the long-run productivity. Frequent updating of the long-range and short-range...
A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...
Office National des Forets
After two years of diminishing demand in both volume and prices, all products experienced a recovery in 2010 that was significant for coniferous workable timber and for industrial timber but less so for deciduous workable timber particularly beech. Taking all species together, the supply of timber increased 10%, volumes sold went up 19% while the average unit price grew 12%. As a result, the overall turnover for French state-owned forests went up by 34%. Concerning the marketing channels for timber, supply contract volumes increased by 250,000 m 3 and accounted for 18% of overall volumes sold; their prices followed the general trends observed on the market. (authors)
The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs
The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.
Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.
Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H
Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.
Full Text Available When transporting timber, the high variability of species, assortments and moisture content of the wood raw material does not allow the weight of the transported timber to be precisely determined. This often contributes to the excessive weight loading of the entire truck unit. The aim of the research is to present the variability of the total weight of truck units with wood cargoes (GVW—gross vehicle weight depending on the weight of the empty unit and the transported timber load, as well as to analyze the changes in GVW, unit loads of wood and load on individual truck unit axles depending on the season. This study analyzes the total weight of truck units for 376 transports of Scots pine timber at different times of the year. The total weight of the truck units depends on the weight of an empty unit and the weight of the load. GVW was determined by using a weighbridge to weigh the vehicles and then the empty unit after unloading. The weight of the load was obtained as the difference between GVW and the tare. It was found that GVW differed significantly depending on the truck unit used, ranging from 43.60–58.80 Mg, often exceeding permissible limits for public roads. The individual axle loads for various truck units were also analyzed. The obtained results indicate that these loads are more equally distributed in the case of five-axle trucks compared to six-axle ones.
Full Text Available We explore in this paper the performance of sales rebate contracts in fashion supply chains. We conduct both analytical and numerical analyses via a mean-variance framework with reference to real empirical data. To be specific, we evaluate the expected profits and variance of profits (risk of the fashion supply chains, fashion retailers, and manufacturers under (1 the currently implemented sales rebate practices, (2 the case without sales rebate, and (3 the theoretical coordination situation (if target sales rebate is adopted. In addition, we analyze how sales effort affects the performances of the supply chain and its agents. Our analysis indicates that the rebate contracts may hurt the retailer and the manufacturer of a fashion supply chain when it is inappropriately set. Moreover, a properly designed sales rebate contract not only can coordinate the supply chain (with retail sales effort but can also improve expected profits and lower the levels of risk for both the manufacturer and the retailer.
Energy sector based on the fossil fuels combustion has the largest greenhouse gases emissions, causing the actual climate change with numerous negative impacts. Therefore, different measures for the climate change mitigation are performed, mostly by increasing ENEF-energy efficiency (saving), and by substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy (RE), mainly with limited results. One of the most serious obstacles for implementation of these measures is an opposition of the energy utilities (power and natural gas), whose energy sales, revenue and profit are thus reduced. Consequently, new solutions are asked to decouple utilities revenues from energy sales. Decoupling has started in the US, where most states have at least one utility with some decoupling experience. California has pioneering role since 1982., with impressive results. (author)
The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)
Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C
To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.
Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.
This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author
Nor Haniza Ishak
Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.
Full Text Available This article intends to outline the challenges faced by a local timber company in struggle to resist on medium-term on the market. There will be revealed the challenges the company is facing, and also the ways to adapt to the changing world of timber industry. There will be presented a short history of the founding and the evolution of the company on the local and international market, pointing out the relevant events which have marked the life of the company during the years. There will also be presented a short review of the competition on the market and the marketing strategy and policies which the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.
Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.
Parisi, Maria A.; Cordie, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio
The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario
to the future development of typologies of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kinds of structures can have a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness in structures and provides strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper outlines robustness issues related...
Parisi, Maria A.; Cordié, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio
The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented.
On extensive areas of small scale forests, significant opportunities for improving the value of future timber harvests while also improving other resource values are now being missed. A new focus on practical extensive management research is needed, especially as implementation of intensive practices has been declining in many areas, and new ââclose to natureââ...
Kenneth L. Quigley
Twenty oak species in the eastern United States account for one-third of the hardwood sawtimber volume and almost 10 percent of both hardwood and softwood growing-stock volume. The oak-hickory and oak-pine forest types occupy about 38 percent of the forest land in the eastern United States. Oak timber volume is increasing. Annual growth exceeds annual removals by about...
Full Text Available The paper includes conclusions from evaluation of results obtained from long-termmeasuring of innovative atypical roof timber structures. Based on the results ofmeasurements of vertical and horizontal deformation components it is possible to analyzethe real behavior of structures in given conditions. By assessing deformations in variousstages, including particularly external and internal environment temperatures, relative airhumidity and moisture content of wood, decisive parameters for real structure behaviorcan be established. The data are processed from period 2001 – 2013.
Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.
Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth S; Kim, Patrick S; Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Mickley, Loretta J; Myers, Samuel S
Fires associated with agricultural and plantation development in Indonesia impact ecosystem services and release emissions into the atmosphere that degrade regional air quality and contribute to greenhouse gas concentrations. In this study, we estimate the relative contributions of the oil palm, timber (for wood pulp and paper), and logging industries in Sumatra and Kalimantan to land cover change, fire activity, and regional population exposure to smoke concentrations. Concessions for these three industries cover 21% and 49% of the land area in Sumatra and Kalimantan respectively, with the highest overall area in lowlands on mineral soils instead of more carbon-rich peatlands. In 2012, most remaining forest area was located in logging concessions for both islands, and for all combined concessions, there was higher remaining lowland and peatland forest area in Kalimantan (45% and 46%, respectively) versus Sumatra (20% and 27%, respectively). Emissions from all combined concessions comprised 41% of total fire emissions (within and outside of concession boundaries) in Sumatra and 27% in Kalimantan for the 2006 burning season, which had high fire activity relative to decadal emissions. Most fire emissions were observed in concessions located on peatlands and non-forested lowlands, the latter of which could include concessions that are currently under production, cleared in preparation for production, or abandoned lands. For the 2006 burning season, timber concessions from Sumatra (47% of area and 88% of emissions) and oil palm concessions from Kalimantan (33% of area and 67% of emissions) contributed the most to concession-related fire emissions from each island. Although fire emissions from concessions were higher in Kalimantan, emissions from Sumatra contributed 63% of concession-related smoke concentrations for the population-weighted region because fire sources were located closer to population centers. In order to protect regional public health, our results
Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman
Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.
Nicolas Berman; Antoine Berthou; Jérôme Héricourt
How do firms’ sales interact across markets? Are foreign and domestic sales complements or substitutes? Using a large French firm-level database that combines balance-sheet and product-destination specific export information over the period 1995-2001, we study the interconnections between exports and domestic sales. We identify exogenous shocks that affect the firms’ demand on foreign markets to instrument yearly variations in exports. We use alternatively as instruments product-destination s...
Daniel Mihai Vasiliu
This paper aims to demonstrate that a complex of factors, which I called “the success factors", which decisively influence the sale process. Currently, companies spend significant amounts of money each year to train sales representatives in the art sale. Banking institutions are designed to successfully meet the financial needs of the customers, to identify new needs, to reshape banking products and services, to create and launch new products and services on market.
Dekimpe, Marnik; Hanssens, DM
Are marketing efforts able to affect long-term trends in sales or other performance measures? Answering this question is essential for the creation of marketing strategies that deliver a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper introduces persistence modeling to derive long-term marketing effectiveness from time-series observations on sales and marketing expenditures. First, we use unit-root tests to determine whether sales are stable or evolving (trending) over time. If they are evolvin...
Arnold, Marc; Hackbarth, Dirk; Puhan, Tatjana-Xenia
This paper analyzes the decision of firms to sell assets to fund investments (financing asset sales). For a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms during the 1971-2010 period, we document new stylized facts about financing asset sales that cannot be explained by traditional motives for selling assets, such as financial distress or financing constraints. Using a structural model of financing, investment, and macroeconomic risk, we show that financing asset sales attenuate the debt overhang problem...
Daniel Mihai Vasiliu
Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate that a complex of factors, which I called “the successfactors", which decisively influence the sale process. Currently, companies spend significant amountsof money each year to train sales representatives in the art sale. Banking institutions are designed tosuccessfully meet the financial needs of the customers, to identify new needs, to reshape bankingproducts and services, to create and launch new products and services on market.
Caglayan, M.; Maioli, S.; Mateut, S.
We investigate the empirical linkages between sales uncertainty and firms´ inventory investment behavior while controlling for firms´ financial strength. Using large panels of manufacturing firms from several European countries we find that higher sales uncertainty leads to larger stocks of inventories. We also identify an indirect effect of sales uncertainty on inventory accumulation through the financial strength of firms. Our results provide evidence that financial strength mitigates the a...
USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise, develops and manages security assistance programs and foreign military sales cases to build...that leads to cost savings and cost avoidance. The Shadow’s FMS sales are currently 1.6% of the total units in operation and accounts for the same...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales December 2015 MAJ James P. Allen, USA MAJ Scott A. Bailey, USA CPT
Nigon, D L
Health-care sales continues to be an area of opportunity for many laboratory professionals. For those who possess the necessary skills and the desire to enthusiastically embrace the unique challenges of a sales career, a new CLMA publication by CLMR contributor Donna L. Nigon, MT(ASCP), titled Sales Skills for Health-Care Professionals, will provide the knowledge of sales structure and techniques needed to succeed. This Sales Skills excerpt, "The Emotional Side of Sales," describes many of the emotional aspects of sales and selling, including how to handle the transition from a technical or medical role to that of sales representative, relationship building, maintaining personal and professional support systems, dealing with rejection, avoiding burnout, time management, and customer concerns. For more information about this book, please see the order form that accompanies this excerpt, or visit www.clma.org.
Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.
The Burnt Timber Creek map-area lies in the southern Foothills of Alberta and includes a narrow strip of the Front Range of the Rocky Mts. along its western edge. The area may be divided into 3 principal structural units, underlain from west to east by the McConnell, Burnt Timber, and Fallentimber thrusts, respectively. McConnell thrust underlies the eastern edge of the mountains. Subsidiary folding and faulting are locally evident in the Paleozoic strata above the thrust. Beneath the McConnell thrust, Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata of the Burnt Timber thrust sheet are strongly overturned in the Panther anticline. The axis of this anticline trends northwest. A culmination along it, in the vicinity of Sheep Creek, deforms the McConnel thrust as well. A total of 16 wells have been drilled to date in 4 separate groups. Each group has revealed the presence of gas and 8 of the wells have been capped as potential gas producers. The reservoir rocks are of Mississippian and Devonian age. Shell Panther River No. 1 well (5-19-30-10W5) is remarkable in having tested at about 86% hydrogen sulfide.
Unlike coffee and cotton, timber has yet to become a fair trade commodity. But now its time has come. Rights over forest resources are increasingly ceded to small-scale community forest enterprises (CFEs), as large-scale industrial logging is now largely discredited in the sustainable development context. The fair trade emphasis on just pricing for poorer producers is exactly what CFEs need as incentive to invest in sustainable forest management — and secure environmental and poverty reduction benefits at one stroke. With fair trade timber, CFEs could boost their entrepreneurial capacity using democratic business models with in-built social and environmental responsibility. The Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International and Forest Stewardship Council are exploring the ways and means through a new partnership, but more is needed. Consumers must be made aware of why paying higher prices is key to creating CFE incentives for sustainable forest management and poverty reduction. Time and money are needed for consumer education and installing fair trade timber in producer country forest policies, market segregation and procurement policies at all levels.
la Cour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders
the reader that the total sale of alcohol has been fairly constant we will present graphs and various indicators and tests of the degree of temporal dependence in this series. The overall impression from this analysis is that our first hypothesis seems to be supported -at least not contradicted - by the data...... are: First we want to convince the reader that the total sale of alcohol in Denmark since 1980 has been fairly stable. By total sale we mean the total sale of 100% alcohol so the three categories - beer, wine and spirits are measured in litres of 100% alcohol equivalents. In order to convince...
Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the surprising rapid growth of new light-vehicle sales in Turkey in 2015. Domestic sales grew 25%, dramatically surpassing the industry estimates of around 8%. Our approach is to inform the sales trend estimate with the information obtained from the light-vehicle stock (the number of cars and light trucks officially registered in the country, and the scrappage data. More specifically, we improve the sales trend estimate by estimating the trend of its stock. Using household data, we show that an important reason for the rapid sales growth is that an increasing share of household budgets is spent on automobile purchases. The elasticity of light-vehicle sales to cyclical changes in aggregate demand is high and robust; its estimates are around 6 with a standard deviation of about 0.5. The price elasticity of light-vehicle sales is estimated to be about 0.8, but the estimates are imprecise and not robust. We estimate the trend level of light-vehicle sales to be roughly 7 percent of the existing stock. A remarkable out-of-sample forecast performance is obtained for horizons up to nearly a decade by a regression equation using only a cyclical gap measure, the time trend and obvious policy dummies. Various specifications suggest that the strong 2015 growth of light-vehicle sales was predictable in late 2014.
Lounsbury, John W; Foster, Nancy A; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W
Sales managers are crucial for producing positive sales outcomes for companies. However, there has been a relative dearth of scholarly investigations into the personal attributes of sales managers. Such information could prove important in the recruitment, selection, training needs identification, career planning, counseling, and development of sales managers. Drawing on Holland's vocational theory, we sought to identify key personality traits that distinguish sales managers from other occupations and are related to their career satisfaction. The main sample was comprised of a total of 978 sales managers employed in a large number of companies across the United States (along with a comparison sample drawn from 79,512 individuals from other professional occupations). Participants completed an online version of Resource Associates' Personal Style Inventory as well a measure of career satisfaction. Our sample of 978 sales managers had higher levels of Assertiveness, Customer Service Orientation, Extraversion, Image Management, Optimism, and Visionary Style; and lower levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Intrinsic Motivation, Openness, and Tough-Mindedness than a sample of 79,512 individuals in a variety of other occupations. Nine of these traits were significantly correlated with sales managers' career satisfaction. Based on the results, a psychological profile of sales managers was presented as were implications for their recruitment, selection, training, development, and mentoring.
Kurz, Jochen Horst; Boller, Christian
Extension of the life of existing and historic timber structures has increased steadily in the last decade. Sustainability and low carbon emission have influenced activities in the construction industry. In the frame of the European COST Action FP 1101, several activities related to timber structures have been clustered. The COST Action FP 1101 consists of three working groups, namely Assessment (Working Group 1), Reinforcement (Working Group 2) and Monitoring (Working Group 3) of Timber Stru...
Antwi-Boasiako, Charles; Boadu, Kwadwo Boakye
Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS) that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and ...
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.
This paper considers robustness evaluation of a wide span timber truss structure where the ductile behavior is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a timber truss system. A measure of ductile...... behaviour is introduced and for different values of this measure the robustness indices are estimated. The results indicate that the robustness of a timber truss system can be increased by taking the ductile behavior into....
Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul
Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 300 Timber Firms from Ghana primarily through questionnaires using the stratified random sampling technique. Results: Continuous decline and non-availability of preferred traditional timbers and competition from imported furniture were the main challenges confronting the furniture industry. Data obtained indicated that most manufacturers (85% hardly use any LUS; 44% of these mentioned lack of information on their properties and prospective uses and 32% attributed it to non-availability on the domestic timber markets. However, 22% of these producers rely on traditionally ‘well-known’ timbers (e.g. mixed red wood, Guarea cedrata and Tectona grandis owing to their strength properties, 20% due to their strength and durability and 14% because of their strength and aesthetic properties. Many LUS (with prospects for furniture-making available in great quantities in many tropical forests could substitute the over-dependent timbers. However, information on their properties and uses are hardly available to local producers, which affects their popularity among timber suppliers and manufacturers. Conclusion: To improve on the level of utilization of secondary timbers, wood workers must be supplied with comprehensive information about their properties and economic values. This will contribute to reducing pressure on the primary timbers, ensuring consistent supply of timber and keeping the sector operational.
Piao, Jinji; Fujimoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Nagata, Soji
In this study, proper applied stage of the radio-frequency (RF) heating during kiln drying based on the quality concerning the surface checks of the boxed heart timbers was examined. At the stage of the RF heating the moisture contents decreased clearly at the internal parts of timbers. The surface stress of the sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) boxed heart timber changed into the compression stress by the RF heating in any drying stage. The surface checks increased according to the decrease...
Yörük, Barış K
To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. United States. Five treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990-2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine and spirits. Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P = 0.964 and P = 0.367). Three out of five states in the United States that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990-2007 experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
This article describes sales documents in purchase and sale transactions of steam coal in Poland. In relation to introducing the excise tax on steam coal at the beginning in 2012, additional requirements appeared in documents during the sale of goods. Now the seller is obliged to issue various documents depending on the type of the buyer and the destination of goods. The article presents the coal sales documents for households, companies with no tax payment and companies with tax payment. The...
The area of sales management and technology is an expanding and dynamic field of research. Examining the impact and facets of technology in the arena of sales management has been steadily increasing over the past few decades as sales managers and industry seek to benefit from the multiple uses of technology. Large scale quantitative sales research itself in Ireland has been limited over the past 15 years and not since De Burca and Lambkin (1991) performed an analysis of the industry has there...
Full Text Available Small-scale timber growers access commercial timber markets in KwaZulu-Natal through three mechanisms. These are; highly structured contractual arrangements (SAPPI, Lima and Mondi); membership in commercial forest-owners associations or timber...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 7 or more years of sales history, a new sales...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard sales provisions. 625.3 Section 625.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan asset sales. 120.546 Section....546 Loan asset sales. (a) General. Loan asset sales are governed by § 120.545(b)(4) and by this... consented to SBA's sale of the loan (guaranteed and unguaranteed portions) in an asset sale conducted or...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misleading sales practices. 1715.25... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS Sales Practices and Standards § 1715.25 Misleading sales practices. Generally...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates for sales. 292... § 292.305 Rates for sales. (a) General rules. (1) Rates for sales: (i) Shall be just and reasonable and... to rates for sales to other customers served by the electric utility. (2) Rates for sales which are...
Sandau, A. (Alexander)
Abstract This research revolves around two major theoretical topics: international network and international sales. The study aims to combine both distinct research areas in order to understand how changes in the sales network influence the sales strategy of the firm. The focus is hereby on born global companies respectively international new ventures. ...
Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt
With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.73 Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of...
... haul routes, non-commercial thinning, hardwood restoration, meadow restoration, and landscape... of Elgin, Oregon, is approximately 20 miles to the southwest. Troy and Eden Bench Wildland Urban... provide additional coarse woody debris. Landscape Prescribed Fire--Landscape prescribed fire would occur...
..., and policies in making the decision and stating the rationale in the Record of Decision. Scoping... supply for local economies; and Reduce fuel loading in strategic locations to improve fire protection and... loading would be reduced on approximately 2,700 acres within 20 fuel treatment units and 7 strategic fuel...
...; 1415 W. Rose; Walla Walla, Washington 99362. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kimpton Cooper, 509-522... can be found on the Umatilla National Forest Web site at ( http://www.fs.fed.us/nepa/nepa_test/fs-usda...
... Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Time, Monday... transition to a sustainable wood product industry based on young-growth managment. The underlying need for... provide their comments at such times and in such manner that they are useful to the agency's preparation...
Ledingham, Dianne; Kovac, Mark; Simon, Heidi Locke
For years, sales managers at many companies have relied on top performers and sheer numbers of sales reps to stay competitive. But while they may have squeaked by on this wing-and-a-prayer technique, their sales teams haven't thrived the way they once did. Today's most successful sales leaders are taking a more scientific approach. Savvy managers are reshaping their tactics in response to changing markets. They are reaching out to new customers in innovative ways. And they are increasing productivity by helping the reps they already have make the most of their skills and resources. Leaders who take a scientific approach to sales force effectiveness have learned to use four levers to boost their reps' productivity in a predictable and manageable way. First, they systematically target their firms' offerings, matching the right products with the right customers. Second, they optimize the automation, tools, and procedures at their disposal, providing reps with the support they need to boost sales.Third, they analyze and manage their reps' performance, measuring both internal processes and results to determine where their teams' strengths and weaknesses are. Fourth, they pay close attention to sales force deployment--how well sales, support, marketing, and delivery resources are matched to customers. These four levers can help sales leaders increase productivity across the board, the authors say, though they have the greatest impact on lower-ranked performers. The overall effect of increasing the average sales per employee can be exponential; it means a company won't have to rely on just a few talented individuals to stay competitive. This is especially important because finding and keeping star salespeople is more difficult than ever. What's more, managers who optimize the sales forces they already have can see returns they never thought possible.
Patricia A McDaniel
Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.
Wood, SM; Browne, S
The science of store location decision making and sales forecasting has received a huge degree of attention throughout retail management and retail geography research. This literature has focused on the conceptualisation of techniques for determining the optimal location and sales, primarily of the food supermarket.
Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick
consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...
... cubic yards must be advertised on the same day once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the material is located, and in a trade or industrial newspaper when... other access to the sale area which is available to anyone qualified to bid. (b) Advertising—(1) Sales...
Spijkerman, F.M.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.
Sales promotion wordt binnen de marketing gehanteerd als instrument om op de korte termijn direct koopgedrag in de gewenste richting te beïnvloeden. Daarbij wordt vaak voorbijgegaan aan de mogelijke effecten op de langere termijn. F.M. Spijkerman en H.M.J.J. Snelders geven evenwel aan dat sales
This study combines the perspective of students (n = 137) and sales instructors (n = 248). It compares how well selling and sales management simulation games, case discussions, and traditional lectures are perceived to conform to the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. The study further compares each method's performance…
Keszney, Tamara; Biemans, Wim
The role of sales-has changed dramatically during the last two decades, with sales becoming increasingly strategic and encroaching on domains that traditionally belong to marketing. Many studies address the role of marketing in new product development (NPD) success, but research on the increasing
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel
We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...
Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…
Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.
A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…
This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994
... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting sales. 1962.45 Section 1962.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... sales. Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-3, “Advice of Property Acquired...
... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (``Commission'') published a final rule on August 10, 2010, adopting amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the...
... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48458), with new provisions to..., Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary sale. 904.505 Section 904.505 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.505 Summary sale. (a) In view of the perishable nature of fish, any...
Pedersen, Per Henrik (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))
In the past years, the use of impulse coolers has increased considerably and it is estimated that at least 30.000 are installed in shops in Denmark. In addition, there are many small barrel-shaped can coolers. Most impulse coolers are open, which results in a large consumption of energy, and the refrigeration systems are often quite inefficient. A typical impulse cooler uses app. 5 - 8 kWh/day corresponding to a consumption of energy in the magnitude of 60 GWh/year. For several years, the Danish company Vestfrost A/S has produced an impulse sales cooler in the high-efficiency end and the energy consumption of the cooler is measured to be 4.15 kWh/day. The POS72 cooler formed the baseline of this project. At the start-up meeting in 2008, several ideas were discussed with the objective to reduce energy consumption and to use natural refrigerants. Among the ideas were better air curtains, removable lids, better condensers, use of R600a refrigeration system and better insulation. Three generations of prototypes were built and tested in a climate chamber at Danish Technological Institute and the third generation showed very good performance: the energy consumption was measured to 2.215 kWh/day, which is a 47% reduction compared to the baseline. That was achieved by: 1) Improving the cold air cycling system including the air curtain. 2) Using the natural refrigerant R600a (isobutane) and the Danfoss NLE9KTK compressor, which has better efficiency compared to the compressor in the baseline product. 3) Using a box type condenser without fins (preventing dust build-up) and with a relatively high surface area. 4) Improving the insulation value of the plastic cabinet by reducing turbulence in the air gap between the plastic walls and improving the insulation value of the EPS moulded insulation surrounding the refrigeration system at the bottom of the cooler. 5) Preventing short-circuit of warm air around the condenser. 6) The improvements are cost efficient and will not add
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7307 Non-competitive sales. ...
T.B. Sitser (Thomas)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance
George J. Avlonitis
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effectiveness of marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms. As the body of knowledge on this domain is scarce, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in such firms. The objective of this paper is to expand existing knowledge regarding marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms, in order to identify the effectiveness of each configuration. Based on quantitative data collected from marketing or sales managers of 98 B2B firms, the study identifies the most effective marketing-sales interface in terms of smooth relationships and enhanced performance. The implications of the study are discussed.
Large-scale land-use transitions can occur with astonishing speed, and landscape stability can change with equal suddenness: for example, the catastrophic dustbowl that paralyzed the Midwestern US in the early 1930s came barely 40 years after the derby for homestead land in Oklahoma in 1889. Some human-landscape systems, like the large prehistoric settlements in the Brazilian Amazon, persisted for centuries without environmental collapse. Others quickly exhausted all of the environmental resources available, as occurred with phosphate mining on the Pacific Island of Nauru. Although abrupt shifts from resource plenty to resource scarcity are theoretically interesting for their complexity, the very real consequences of modern social and environmental boom-bust dynamics can catalyze humanitarian crises. Drawing on historical examples and investigative reporting of current events, I explore the hypothesis that land speculation drives rapid transitions in physical landscapes at large spatial scales. "Land grabs" is one of four core environmental justice and equality issues Oxfam International is targeting in its GROW campaign, citing evidence that foreign investors are buying up vast tracts of land in developing countries, and as a consequence exacerbating food scarcity and marginalization of poor families. Al Jazeera has reported extensively on land-rights disputes in Honduras and investment deals involving foreign ownership of large areas of agricultural land in New Zealand, India, Africa, and South America. Overlapping coverage has also appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the BBC News, the Guardian, and other outlets. Although land itself is only one kind of natural resource, land rights typically determine access to other natural resources (e.g. water, timber, minerals, fossil fuels). Consideration of land speculation therefore includes speculative bubbles in natural-resource markets more broadly. There are categorical commonalities in agricultural
Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.
This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements
Stephens, Steve; Schurle, Bryan
Land prices in Western Kansas are analyzed using regression to estimate the influence of rainfall, sales method, and time of sale. The estimates from regression indicate that land prices decreased about $27 for each range that was farther west which can be converted to about $75 per inch of average rainfall. In addition, the influence of method of sale (private sale or auction) is estimated along with the impact of time of sale. Auction sales prices are approximately $100 higher per acre than...
Hahn, Benjamin; Hatt, Fred
Up to now chemical adhesives based on polyurethane are used for the assembling of timber planks to large-scale structural elements, in particular cross-laminated timber panels (CLT), which opened new possibilities for architects and engineers in timber construction. The use of these adhesives still implicates, beside others, concerns about their impact on health and environment during application as well for later disposal. In order to overcome the geometrical limitations of timber by maintai...
Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.
The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....
Darius Adams; John Mills; Ralph Alig; Richard. Haynes
Two recent studies provide alternative views of the current state and future prospects of southern forests and timber supply: the Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SOFRA) and the Fifth Resources Planning Act Timber Assessment (RPA). Using apparently comparable data but different models and methods, the studies portray futures that in some aspects are quite similar...
James Wacker; Ursula Deza; Brent M. Phares; Terry J. Wipf
Past timber bridge evaluation and maintenance efforts in the USA have principally focused on the internal integrity of timber components using various non-destructive evaluation tools to supplement visual inspection data. This project is part of a comprehensive effort to develop smart structure concepts for improving the long-term performance, maintenance, and...
Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje
Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker
The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...
F Fanous; D. Rammer; T. Wipf
During the 19th century, the economic material to build bridges was timber due to its abundant availability, cost, and ease of construction. Many of the well-known timber bridge types are the Burr arch, Town lattice, Howe, Queen and King type of trusses. This paper summarizes an investigation that was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the USDA Forest...
L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter
The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...
David N. Wear; Peter J. Parks
The joint supply of timber and other services from forest environments plays a central role in most forest land debates. This paper defines a general conceptual model of timber supply that provides the context for discussing both individual harvest choice and aggregate supply models. While the structure and breadth of these models has developed considerably over the...
Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.
Xiping Wang; James P. Wacker; Angus M. Morison; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Robert J. Ross
This paper describes an effort to develop a global dynamic testing technique for evaluating the overall stiffness of timber bridge superstructures. A forced vibration method was used to measure the natural frequency of single-span timber bridges in the laboratory and field. An analytical model based on simple beam theory was proposed to represent the relationship...