WorldWideScience

Sample records for island drains stations

  1. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  2. Crud separation from equipment drain of BWR atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Moriya, Yasuhiro; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Ota, Yoshiharu.

    1977-01-01

    In the primary cooling systems of BWR nuclear power stations, radioactive crud is generated and accumulates in reactors and circulating systems, which causes the radiation exposure of workers at the time of the inspection and maintenance of reactors. The chemical composition and grain size distribution of crud differ largely according to the construction of primary systems, the operational conditions of reactors, and the process of operation. The study on the application of nuclear pore membrane filter NPMF to the separation of crud in the waste water from equipment drain systems has been carried out. With the NPMF, clarified filtrate can be obtained without any filter aid, therefore the secondary waste of filter sludge is not generated. When the filter is clogged, the filtration capability can be regenerated by reverse flow washing, and continuous filtration is possible actually because the regeneration takes only short time. The NPMF is the polycarbonate membrane of about 10 μm thick, to which charged particles are irradiated vertically, and the flight tracks are etched with alkali solution, thus the required pore treatment is applied. The basic investigation of waste liquid, the endurance test of actual filters, the filtration test with the pilot apparatus, the demonstration test with an actual equipment, and the design of the actual equipment have been carried out for three years. (Kako, I.)

  3. Chilean Antarctic Stations on King George Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutada Kaminuma

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my visit to Chilean Antarctic Stations was to assess the present status of geophysical observations and research, as the South Shetland Island, West Antarctica, where the stations are located, are one of the most active tectonic regions on the Antarctic plate. The Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH kindly gave me a chance to stay in Frei/Escudero Bases as an exchange scientist under the Antarctic Treaty for two weeks in January 2000. I stayed in Frei Base as a member of a geological survey group named "Tectonic Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula" which was organized by Prof. F. Herve, University of Chile, from January 05 to 19,2000. All my activity in the Antarctic was organized by INACH. During my stay in Frei Base, I also visited Bellingshausen (Russian, Great Wall (China and Artigas (Uruguay stations. All these stations are located within walking distance of Frei Base. King Sejong Station (Korea, located 10km east from Frei Base, and Jubany Base (Argentine, another 6km south-east from King Sejong Station, were also visited with the aid of a zodiac boat that was kindly operated for us by King Sejong Station. All stations except Escudero Base carry out meteorological observations. The seismological observations in Frei Base are operated by Washington State University of the U. S. monitoring of earthquake activity and three-component geomagnetic observations are done at King Sejong and Great Wall stations. Earth tide is monitored at Artigas Base. Continuous monitoring of GPS and gravity change are planned at King Sejong Station in the near future. Scientific research activities of each country in the area in the 1999/2000 Antarctic summer season were studied and the logistic ability of all stations was also assessed for our future international cooperation.

  4. Chilean Antarctic Stations on King George Island

    OpenAIRE

    Katsutada Kaminuma

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of my visit to Chilean Antarctic Stations was to assess the present status of geophysical observations and research, as the South Shetland Island, West Antarctica, where the stations are located, are one of the most active tectonic regions on the Antarctic plate. The Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH) kindly gave me a chance to stay in Frei/Escudero Bases as an exchange scientist under the Antarctic Treaty for two weeks in January 2000. I stayed in Frei Base as a member of a geol...

  5. Investigation of radioactive contamination at non-radioactive drains of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hiroaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Toru; Kawano, Shinji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1982-05-01

    In April, 1981, it was disclosed that a drainage area at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was so much contaminated with radioactivites. Although Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) officially provided an explanation of a process that resulted in the contamination, many problems remain unsolved on account of insufficient and limited investigations. The authors collected mud samples from contaminated manholes and examined radioactivities in them through the measurement of #betta#- and #betta#-spectra. Chemical separation of the samples was carried out in order to obtain precise concentration of radioactive cesium. Results are as follows: i) the concentration of radioactivities does not show monotonous decrease along the stream line but an anomalous peak at downstream manholes, ii) at the manhole specified No. 6 located rather downstream, 137 Cs concentration is significantly high and the composition of radioactive nuclides is quite different from that in the other manholes, and iii) additional radioactive contamination was observed in other manholes of non-radioactive drains which would not be influenced by the accident explained by MITI. Our present work has provided much more data than by MITI and made it clear that the overall data cnnot be consistent with the simple MITI explanation; a single radioactive release accident caused the disclosed contamination. It is concluded that non-radioactive water drains at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station had been under continual contamination. (author)

  6. Molybdenum, vanadium, and uranium weathering in small mountainous rivers and rivers draining high-standing islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.; Lyons, W. Berry; Goldsmith, Steven T.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Trierweiler, Annette M.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers draining high standing islands (HSIs) and small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are known to have extremely high sediment fluxes, and can also have high chemical weathering yields, which makes them potentially important contributors to the global riverine elemental flux to the ocean. This work reports on the riverine concentrations, ocean flux, and weathering yields of Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V), and Uranium (U) in a large number of small but geochemically important rivers using 338 river samples from ten lithologically-diverse regions. These redox-sensitive elements are used extensively to infer paleo-redox conditions in the ocean, and Mo and V are also important rock-derived micronutrients used by microorganisms in nitrogen fixation. Unlike in large river systems, in which dissolved Mo has been attributed predominately to pyrite dissolution, Mo concentrations in these rivers did not correlate with sulfate concentrations. V was found to correlate strongly with Si in terrains dominated by silicate rocks, but this trend was not observed in primarily sedimentary regions. Many rivers exhibited much higher V/Si ratios than larger rivers, and rivers draining young Quaternary volcanic rocks in Nicaragua had much higher dissolved V concentrations (mean = 1306 nM) than previously-studied rivers. U concentrations were generally well below the global average with the exception of rivers draining primarily sedimentary lithologies containing carbonates and shales. Fluxes of U and Mo from igneous terrains of intermediate composition are lower than the global average, while fluxes of V from these regions are higher, and up to two orders of magnitude higher in the Nicaragua rivers. Weathering yields of Mo and V in most regions are above the global mean, despite lower than average concentrations measured in some of those systems, indicating that the chemical weathering of these elements are higher in these SMR watersheds than larger drainages. In regions of active boundaries

  7. Weather Station: Palau: Koror: Ngeanges Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 2007, the Coral Reef Research Foundation (CRRF) has operated a Campbell Scientific automatic weather station (AWS) in Palau designed to measure...

  8. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  9. 78 FR 77726 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption... License No. DPR-50, which authorizes operation of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (TMI-1... Facility Operating License No. DPR-50, which authorizes operation of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station...

  10. 75 FR 36700 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (TMI-1), located... Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, NUREG-0552, dated December 1972, and Generic...

  11. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by a...

  12. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  13. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and...

  14. Meteorological observations from Dauphin Island Sea Lab Weather Station 1974-1997 (NCEI Accession 0156662)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DISL Weather Station collected twice daily meteorological observations at the east end of Dauphin Island, Alabama (30 degrees 14' 57" N, 88 degrees 04' 38" W)...

  15. A research on the environmental impact on nearby waters range at low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunling; Xu Zitu; Xiao Zhang.

    1987-01-01

    The possible influence of the low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station upon nearby waters range is discussed. The contents of the article contains the numerical simulation on tidal currents and pollutant diffusion, the calculation of concentration distribution of radioactive contaminants in the water area and of polluted field, and the criterion on radioactive contaminant influence on nearby residents and aquatic biologicals. The result shows that when the Dayawan nuclear power station is on normal operation and after the low-level radioactive waste water has been drained off into the sea, the radioactive concentration is even lower than the natural background radiation just out-side the area of about 4 km 2 round the water outlet. As a result, it won't cause any danger to the water environment. Due to the fact that the concentration of the low-level radioactive waste water from the nuclear power station fully accords with the national standard GB4792-84 and the sea water quality sandard GBH2, 3-82. It is no harm to either residents and aquatic biologicals or ecological balance

  16. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.; Guieze, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations [fr

  17. Lichen flora around the Korean Antarctic Scientific Station, King George Island, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Ahn, In-Young; Hong, Soon Gyu; Andreev, Mikhail; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Oh, Mi Jin; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2006-10-01

    As part of the long-term monitoring projects on Antarctic terrestrial vegetation in relation to global climate change, a lichen floristical survey was conducted around the Korean Antarctic Station (King Sejong Station), which is located on Barton Peninsula, King George Island, in January and February of 2006. Two hundred and twenty-five lichen specimens were collected and sixty-two lichen species in 38 genera were identified by morphological characteristics, chemical constituents, TLC analysis and ITS nucleotide sequence analysis.

  18. Performance of an island seismic station for recording T-phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J. A., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    As part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) a worldwide hydroacoustic network consisting of 6 hydrophone and 5 island seismic stations has been planned which will monitor for underwater or low altitude atmospheric explosions. Data from this network is to be integrated with other IMS networks monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. The seismic (T-phase) stations are significantly less sensitive than hydrophones to ocean borne acoustic waves. T-phase signal strength at seismic stations depends on the amplitude of the signal in the water column, the hydroacoustic-seismic conversion efficiency, and loss on the seismic portion of the path through the island. In order to understand how these factors influence the performance of T-phase stations seismic and hydroacoustic data are examined from instruments currently deployed on or around Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. T-phase recordings for the last 3 years have been collected from the GSN seismic station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surrounding the island are 5 hydrophones which are part of the U.S. Air Force Missile Impact Locating System (MILS). Data from this system have been obtained for some of the events observed at ASCN. Four of the hydrophones are located within 30 km of the coast while the fifth instrument is 100 km to the south. Amplitude spectral estimates of the signal-to-noise levels (SNL) are computed and generally peak between 3 and 8 Hz for both the seismometer and hydrophone data. The seismic SNL generally decays to 1 between 10 and 15 Hz while the hydrophone SNL is still large well above 20 Hz. The ratios of the hydrophone-to-seismometer SNL, at their peak in energy, range between 10 and 100 (20-40 dB) unless a hydrophone is partially blocked by the Ascension Island landmass.

  19. Three Mile Island Nuclear Station steam generator chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Three Mile Island-1 steam generators were chemically cleaned in 1991 by the B and W Nuclear Service Co. (BWNS). This secondary side cleaning was accomplished through application of the EPRI/SGOG (Electric Power Research Institute - Steam Generator Owners Group) chemical cleaning iron removal process, followed by sludge lancing. BWNS also performed on-line corrosion monitoring. Corrosion of key steam generator materials was low, and well within established limits. Liquid waste, subsequently processed by BWNS was less than expected. 7 tabs

  20. Design and realization of an automatic weather station at island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Li, Si-ren

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an automatic weather station monitoring is described. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed & direction, rain fall, visibility, etc.). To increase the reliability of the system, wind speed & direction are measured redundantly with duplicate sensors. The sensor signals are collected by the data logger CR1000 at several analog and digital inputs. The CR1000 and the sensors form a completely autonomous system which works with the other systems installed in the container. Communication with the master PC is accomplished over the method of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) with the Compact Caimore6550P CDMA DTU. The data are finally stored in tables on the CPU as well as on the CF-Card. The weather station was built as an efficient autonomous system which operates with the other systems to provide the required data for a fully automatic measurement system.

  1. 33 CFR 334.85 - New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area. 334.85 Section 334.85 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.85 New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island...

  2. Use of photographic film to estimate exposure near the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuping, R.E.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents the methodology and results of a Bureau of Radiological Health study of the use of photographic film samples for estimating exposure levels near the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The study was conducted to provide an independent assessment of the radiation levels near TMI following the accident on March 28, 1979

  3. Hydrogeological characteristics of aquifer near Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on King George Island (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulec, Ewa; Krogulec, Tomasz; Małecki, Jerzy; Pietrzykowski, Paweł; Dobak, Paweł

    2018-06-01

    During the Antarctic summer season of 2015/2016, the groundwater studies were performed in the area of Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on King George Island (South Shetland Islands) in Admiralty Bay of Antarctica. Rock and groundwater samples were collected from 14 research excavations down to a depth of 0.8-2.5 m b.g.l. Analyses of surface waters were performed on water samples from streams, mossland, and a drinking water reservoir. The scope of hydrochemical studies comprised analyses of temperature, pH, mineralization, phosphates, nitrates, macroelements and selected microelements. Using empirical formulas, granulometric analysis of rock samples from various depths, measurements of sample moisture, and calculations of the hydraulic conductivity were performed. The groundwater is poorly mineralized, representing chloride-sulfate-bicarbonate-sodium and chloride-bicarbonate-sodium-calcium types. Studies on hydrochemical indicators show a small range of the effect of animal ecosystems on the waters; no effects of organic matter have been identified in the study area. Results of hydrogeochemical studies of waters and observations of groundwater levels in the summer season indicate groundwater recharge in a shallow groundwater circulation system, lateral inflow direction from land toward the seashore, and a low rate of rainwater infiltration. Groundwater drainage occurs through evapotranspiration and water runoff to the sea.

  4. Safety of Ikata Nuclear Power Station from the accident of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The leak of radioactive substances occurred on March 28, 1979, in the No. 2 plant of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, and this accident must be put to use to prevent similar accidents and to secure safety hereafter in the nuclear power stations being operated in Japan. In the TMI accident, too many problems concerning the operation management seemed to exist in a series of events. In this paper, a few matters related to the TMI accident among the aspects of the operation management in Ikata Nuclear Power Station are reported. As the problems of operation management, it is considered that the operation of the TMI plant was continued as the exit valve of auxiliary feed line was closed, that it took long time to close the root valve for a pressurizer relief valve manually, and that the ECCS was stopped manually. In TMI, the abnormal phenomenon of losing main feed water has occurred 6 times since the attainment of criticality in March, 1978, and the opening and sticking of pressurizer relief valves occurred at least twice in about 150 times of their actuation in the nuclear reactors designed by Babcock and Wilcox Co. In Ikata Nuclear Power Station, these problems are detected early and the suitable measures are taken immediately, therefore it never happens to continue the operation as the problems are left as they are. It is not conceivable that similar troubles occur many times. (Kako, I.)

  5. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  6. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  7. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  8. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-320; NRC-2013-0065] GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain Security Requirements AGENCY: Nuclear... and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  9. Study of the active layer at the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla”, Deception Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, M.A. de; Molina, A.; Recio, C.; Ramos, M.; Goyanes, G.; Ropero, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of permanent frozen ground (permafrost) and the increase in the thickness of the active layer may be caused both by natural processes (such as global climate change) and by anthropic activity, which changes the natural environmental conditions that allow its existence, as has been widely reported to occur in the northern polar and subpolar regions. In the case of Antarctica, some scientific research stations are located in areas with permafrost, such as the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla” on Deception Island. In the place where the station is located, an important increase in erosion has been observed in recent years, including the excavation of new gullies and the erosion of the coastal cliffs. In order to develop an initial analysis of the possible effects of the station on the permafrost degradation, ground temperature has been monitored since 2012 and the thickness and of the active layer and the temperature, both inside and beneath the station, have also been sporadically measured. Here we show the results and discuss how the station reduces the freezing of the ground during the winter when the station is closed and facilitates the warming of the ground during the living periods of the station in the Antarctic summer. Those initial results and conclusions make necessary to continue the study of the permafrost and the active layer in the station site by systematic monitoring of the ground temperature and the thickness of the active layer. [es

  10. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  11. Thermal characteristics of soil and water during summer at King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Soil temperatures, water temperatures, and weather parameters were monitored at a variety of locations in the vicinity of King Sejong station, King George Island, Antarctica, during summer 2010-2011. Thermal characteristics of soil and water were analysed using time-series analyses, apparent thermal diffusivity (ATD), and active layer thickness. The temperatures of pond water and nearby seawater showed the distinctive diurnal variations and correlated strongly with solar radiation (r = 0.411-0.797). Soil temperature (0.1-0.3 m depth) also showed diurnal fluctuations that decreased with depth and were directly linked to air temperature (r = 0.513-0.783) rather than to solar radiation; correlation decreased with depth and the time lag in the response increased by 2-3 hours per 0.1 m of soil depth. Owing to the lack of snow cover, summertime soil temperature was not decoupled from air temperature. Estimated ATD was between 0.022 and 29.209 mm2/sec, showed temporal and spatial variations, and correlated strongly with soil moisture content. The maximum estimated active layer thickness in the study area was a 41-70 cm, which is consistent with values reported in the previous work.

  12. Geochemical markers of soil anthropogenic contaminants in polar scientific stations nearby (Antarctica, King George Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Wojciech; Fabiańska, Monika J; Łabno, Radosław

    2015-06-15

    The organic contamination of Antarctic soils and terrestrial sediments from nearby of five polar scientific stations on King George Island (Antarctica) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to find composition of dichloromethane extracts of soil and terrestrial sediments. The presence of geochemical markers, such as n-alkanes, steranes, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and alkyl PAHs, their distribution types, and values of their ratios indicates the predominating source of organic fossil fuels and products of their refining rather than from the natural Antarctic environment. Fossil fuel-originated compounds well survived in conditions of Antarctic climate over long times thus enabling to characterize geochemical features of source fossil fuel identified as petroleum expelled from kerogen II of algal/bacterial origins deposited in sub-oxic conditions and being in the middle of catagenesis. Both microbial activity and water leaching play an important role in degradation of terrestrial oil spills in the Antarctica climate, and petroleum alteration occurs lowly over long periods of time. Synthetic anthropogenic compounds found in terrestrial Antarctica sediments included diisopropylnaphthalenes, products of their sulfonates degradation in paper combustion, and organophosporus compounds used as retardants and plasticizers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photovoltaic power supply for the bird and weather station on Scharhoern Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The aim of the project was to commission a reliable power supply for a bird sanctuary station which would take particular consideration of the requirements in a seabird protection area. The conventional type of power supply with a diesel generator was unsuitable due to problems caused by noise, exhaust and costly maintenance. Wind generators also cause noise and have to be protected from birds in flight, and thus also pose problems. A sea cable for connection to the mains is extremely uneconomical, considering the low power requirements and the large expense in order to have control over high and low tide. The requirements put on the power supply are: (i) no disturbing noise (especially during breeding time); (ii) no exhausts (especially during breeding time); (iii) no moving parts which could be of disturbance to the birds (e.g. wind generator); (iv) unobtrusively embedded in the countryside; (v) low maintenance and easy handling; (vi) high availability and reliability, considering the restricted access to the plant because of its exposed position. An important task within this project was the development of a special base construction for the solar generator frames, taking into consideration the specific conditions on Scharhoern. The island of Scharhoern is a sand dune in the mud flats, which is washed over by the sea when there are heavy storm floods. In addition, extreme wind speeds are often measured (up to 200 km/h). (author). figs., tabs., photos., appendices.

  14. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  15. THESEUS: the first-scale 50 MEw THErmal Solar EUropean power station for the Island of Crete, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhof, Rainer [Pilkington Solar International (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The first solar power plant to receive funding from the European Union is to be constructed on the Island of Crete, Greece. This utility-scale 50 MWe plant is based on technology known as THERMIE (THErmal Solar European power station) and it represents a major breakthrough for Europe`s small solar thermal power community. The proposed THESEUS project uses an advanced parabolic trough collector field as the primary heat source and will be constructed between 1977 and 1999. (UK)

  16. Horizontal Displacement Vector Analysis in Ujong Muloh GPS Station (UMLH) Sumatra Island on March 27 – April 25, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, S. S.; Koesuma, S.; Legowo, Budi

    2018-03-01

    Sumatra Island is an area that has high tectonic activities. This is because the island of Sumatra is located in two major plates of the world, the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasia plate. The subduction zone causes Sumatra to deform from time to time. The deformation of Sumatra Island can be observed by continuous recording coordinates using the GPS Station. Continous-GPS (C-GPS) in Sumatra Island is named Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), one of them named UMLH. The UMLH GPS station used to observe the displacement in the Aceh City of Sumatra Island, is located in Ujung Muloh. The changes of GPS coordinate recording data can represent the deformation pattern that occurred in Sumatra. On April 11, 2012, according to USGS data, there had been an earthquake in the city of Aceh about 8.6 at coordinates of 2.433°N, 93.072°E. The purpose of this research is to analyze the horizontal displacement due to the occurrence of the earthquake. Data processing is carried out using software GAMIT/GLOBK. The magnitude of the displacement of Sumatra Island before the earthquake, during the earthquake, and after the quake on component X were respectively: 0.04 mm/day, 56.63 mm/day, and 8.28 mm/day; while on component Y were respectively: 0.03 mm/day, 23.78 mm/day, and 1.22 mm/day. The direction of displacement was 253.8° towards Southwest with the assumption that 0° was in the North.

  17. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Dauphin Island Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2015-01-01 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0159582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains meteorological and hydrographic data from Dauphin Island station. Meteorological data was collected every minute and hydrographic data was...

  18. Meteorological and hydrographic monitoring data collected at Dauphin Island Station in Alabama from 1999-11-06 to 2001-03-01 (NODC Accession 0122658)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and hydrographic data were collected from a monitoring station on Dauphin Island from Nov 1999 to Feb 2001. Variables measured include air...

  19. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Middletown, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during October 26 to 30, 1982. The survey covered an 82-square-kilometer area centered on the nuclear plant and encompassed the communities of Middletown, York Haven, Goldsboro and Royalton, Pennsylvania. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 200 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were inferred from data measured directly over the TMI facilities. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal plant operations. Similar activity is routinely observed in aerial surveys over nuclear power plants which have been or are presently in an operational mode. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 6 to 14 μR/h. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area, along the river banks upstream and downstream of the survey area, and at the ground-based locations used for a previous aerial survey which was conducted in 1976. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the corresponding aerial data. With the exception of the activity observed within the TMI facilities, no evidence of any contamination which might have occurred as a result of past reactor operations or the 1979 TMI Unit 2 accident was detected from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analyses and the comparison with the 1976 aerial survey data. 7 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  20. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Sulfate in the Fresh Water, King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, B.; Mayer, B.; Kaufman, A. J.; Park, S.; Kim, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18O) were measured for the sulfate of the fresh water near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Sejong station is located in the Barton peninsular of the King George Island. The geology around King Sejong station mainly composed of basalt-andesite, quart monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Lapilli tuff, conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone occur along the southern and eastern shore of the Barton peninsula. Lapilli tuff also occurs on the highland located on southeastern part of the Barton peninsula. The δ34S values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 13.7 to 16.3 per mil excluding 1 sample. These sulfur values are very narrow in their range compared with those from anthropogenic sources. These sulfur values are 5 to 7 per mil lower than those of typical present seawater. Considering the rocks occurring near the King Sejong station, these sulfur isotopic values do not seem to be related to any evaporites of certain age. In Antarctic region the natural source of sulfate dissolved in water could be originated from marine biogenic source (DMS), sea-salt, volcanic source, or other continental sources. Most of the δ34S values of sulfate at King Sejong station seems to indicate the dominance of marine biogenic origin for the source of sulfur. The δ18O values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 1.9 to 6.4 per mil excluding 1 sample. These oxygen isotope values are lower than those of the sulfate in the present seawater by 6 per mil. However, both sulfur and oxygen isotope values strongly represent the influence of the seawater sulfate. One sample have 2.6 and -1.1 per mil in its δ34S and δ18O values, respectively, that are quite different from the isotopic values of other samples. This sample was collected in the highland far from the King Sejong station. Therefore this sample might reflect the composition of

  1. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites: the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1973 and 1974 pertaining to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 1, which began operation in early 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Terrestrial biotic resources were considered for this plant. The effects of the operation of Unit 1 on the local terrestrial organisms were found to be undetectable. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data acquired, method of analysis, and results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  2. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Station Nuclear Power Plant (Goldsboro, Pennsylvania). Date of survey: August 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1977-03-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 2143 km 2 area surrounding the Three Mile Island Station was made during August 2 to August 4, 1976. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Areal average exposure rates equivalent to one meter above the ground are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types; a brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site is also included

  3. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  4. Post-accident cleanup of radioactivity at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Armento, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    The technical staff of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepare documentation concerned with the cleanup of radioactivity on the Three Mile Island site following the March 28, 1979 accident. The objective of this report is to provide information in a summarized form, which will be of direct usefulness to the commissioners. The information contained herein includes discussion of on-site assistance and accomplishments following the accident, flowsheet development for the TMI recovery team (by the Technical Advisory Group), and the numerous reports already generated on the TMI cleanup and recovery

  5. Implementation of an advanced digital feedwater control system at the Prairie Island nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, R.E.; Gaydos, K.A.; Hill, J.O.; Whitson, S.G.; Wirkkala, R.

    1990-05-01

    EPRI Project RP2126-4 was a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and Westinghouse which resulted in the demonstration of a prototype of a full range, fully automatic feedwater control system, using fault tolerant digital technology, at the TVA Sequoyah simulator site. That prototype system also included advanced signal validation algorithms and an advanced man-machine interface that used CRT-based soft-control technology. The Westinghouse Advanced Digital Feedwater Control System (ADFCS) upgrade, which contains elements that were part of that prototype system, has since been installed at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Unit 2. This upgrade was very successful due to the use of an advanced control system design and the execution of a well coordinated joint effort between the utility and the supplier. The project experience is documented in this report to help utilities evaluate the technical implications of such a project. The design basis of the Prairie Island ADFCS signal validation for input signal failure fault tolerance is outlined first. Features of the industry-proven system control algorithms are then described. Pre-shipment hardware-in-loop and factory acceptance testing of the Prairie Island system are summarized. Post-shipment site testing, including preoperational and plant startup testing, is also summarized. Plant data from the initial system startup is included. The installation of the Prairie Island ADFCS is described, including both the feedwater control instrumentation and the control board interface. Modification of the plant simulator and operator and I ampersand C personnel training are also discussed. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Experience with intermediate strong base anion resins at three mile island nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federick, K.H.; Reed, J.G.; Glass, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A-104 resin appears to have been an excellent replacement for upflow regenerated Stratabeds at Three Mile Island. It has resulted in a 50% increase in operating throughputs, lower maintenance and greater ease of operation for the makeup trains. It should be stressed that differences in raw water characteristics or equipment design might render this experience not applicable to any given specific installation. A thorough evaluation of all aspects of such a conversion is recommended before any changes are attempted. 1 ref

  7. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  8. Migrations et fuite des cerveaux dans les économies insulaires caribéennes : éléments de réflexion Reflections on Migration and Brain Drain in the Caribbean Island Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny-Aude Bellemare

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Loin d’être un phénomène nouveau, les mobilités internationales se sont fortement accrues depuis les années 1960. Aujourd’hui, le contexte de mondialisation tend à accélérer les dynamiques migratoires alors que dans le même temps s’observe une élévation des niveaux d’éducation. Ainsi, la soutenabilité de l’augmentation de la fuite des cerveaux dans le monde soulève interrogations et réflexions.Le poids des flux de migrants qualifiés allié à la fragilité relative des données, pose la nécessité d’aborder en profondeur le problème de la fuite des cerveaux. Une analyse au cas par cas s’impose. A partir de données se rapportant à la diaspora caribéenne sur la base statistique de Docquier et Marfouk, cet article propose une réflexion sur les facteurs explicatifs de la fuite des cerveaux dans les territoires insulaires caribéens.Far from being a new phenomenon, the international motilities have increased since the 60’s. Today, the context of globalization tends to accelerate the migratory dynamics while at the same time observed a rise of the educational levels. The increase of the brain drain has respite to many questions.Nevertheless, image, nature of flows of skilled migrants combined with relative data’s fragility and the necessity to approach the problem and presenting appropriate policies, impose an analysis case by case. Using data relating to the Caribbean diaspora on the statistical basis of Docquier and Marfouk, this article purpose a reflection on the factors that explain the brain drain in the Caribbean islands.

  9. TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station] fuel canister and core sample handling equipment used in INEL hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Shurtliff, W.T.; Lynch, R.J.; Croft, K.M.; Whitmill, L.J.; Allen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the specialized remote handling equipment developed and used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to handle samples obtained from the core of the damaged Unit 2 reactor at Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TM-2). Samples of the core were removed, placed in TMI-2 fuel canisters, and transported to the INEL. Those samples will be examined as part of the analysis of the TMI-2 accident. The equipment described herein was designed for removing sample materials from the fuel canisters, assisting with initial examination, and processing samples in preparation for detailed examinations. The more complex equipment used microprocessor remote controls with electric motor drives providing the required force and motion capabilities. The remaining components were unpowered and manipulator assisted

  10. Three Mile Island nuclear generating station accident of March 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.H.; Johnson, A.C.; Kelly, R.J.; Wong, K.Y.

    1979-04-01

    The government of Ontario dispatched a Scientific Assessment Team to the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant to assess the consequences of an accident which occurred at unit 2 on 1979 March 28. The team's objectives were to acquire up-to-the-minute information concerning the accident, study the potential for environmental impacts on Ontario, observe the outcome of off-site emergency procedures, and offer assisance from Ontario should it appear of value. The findings, observations, and impressions of the team are summarized. (OST)

  11. Nonpoint Pollution Discharge Permit Testing and Control Strategies at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    were published in the 16 November 1990 Federal Recister in response to the Water Quality Act of 1987. The existing station permit expires in 1992 and...anaerobic decomposition potential may be of major significance. Biodegradation may not occur, however, if other factors needed for bacterial growth are not... bacterially mediated oxidation of ammonia-nitrogen, these compounds can be toxic to humans or other mammals if present at excessive levels. Sources include

  12. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E.; Perez, N.; Snelling, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs

  14. Temporal variability of atmospheric radon-222 concentration at Gosan Station, Jeju Island, Korea, during 2009-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hyung; Kang, Chang Hee [Dept. of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae Young; Lee, Chul Kyu [Korea Global Atmosphere Watch Center, Korea Meteorological Administration, ChungNam (Korea, Republic of); Chambers, S.; Williams, A. G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Atmospheric radon-222 (radon) measurements were made from 2009 to 2013 at the Gosan station of Jeju Island, one of the cleanest regions in Korea, in order to characterize the temporal variability (on diurnal, seasonal, and annual scales) and analyze the influence of changing air mass transport pathways on observed radon concentrations. The mean hourly radon concentration over the whole period was 2441 ± 1037 mBq/m{sup 3}. The seasonal cycle of radon at the Gosan station was characterized by a fall maximum and summer minimum, consistent with a reduction in nonfrozen terrestrial fetch from fall to summer. In order, the seasonal mean radon concentrations were 2962 mBq/m{sup 3} (fall) >2907 mBq/m{sup 3} (winter) >2219 mBq/m{sup 3} (spring) >1756 mBq/m{sup 3} (summer). Based on a 5-year composite, the maximum mean monthly radon concentration in October (3100 mBq/m{sup 3}) was more than twice the July minimum (1471 mBq/m{sup 3}). Diurnal composite radon concentrations for the whole period increased throughout the night to a maximum of 2788 mBq/m{sup 3} at around 7 a.m., and then gradually decreased to a minimum of 2050 mBq/m{sup 3} at around 3 p.m. The winter diurnal cycle had a small amplitude due to the low variability in atmospheric mixing depth associated with recent air mass fetch over the Yellow Sea. The diurnal cycle in summer, however, exhibited a relatively large amplitude due to changes in atmospheric mixing depth associated with recent fetch over Jeju Island. Back trajectory analysis showed that high radon events were typically associated with long-term air mass fetch over continental Asia. Specifically, the average radon concentration of air masses originating from China was about 2.4 times higher than that of air masses originating from the North Pacific Ocean.

  15. Temporal variability of atmospheric radon-222 concentration at Gosan Station, Jeju Island, Korea, during 2009-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hyung; Kang, Chang Hee; Lee, Hae Young; Lee, Chul Kyu; Chambers, S.; Williams, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric radon-222 (radon) measurements were made from 2009 to 2013 at the Gosan station of Jeju Island, one of the cleanest regions in Korea, in order to characterize the temporal variability (on diurnal, seasonal, and annual scales) and analyze the influence of changing air mass transport pathways on observed radon concentrations. The mean hourly radon concentration over the whole period was 2441 ± 1037 mBq/m"3. The seasonal cycle of radon at the Gosan station was characterized by a fall maximum and summer minimum, consistent with a reduction in nonfrozen terrestrial fetch from fall to summer. In order, the seasonal mean radon concentrations were 2962 mBq/m"3 (fall) >2907 mBq/m"3 (winter) >2219 mBq/m"3 (spring) >1756 mBq/m"3 (summer). Based on a 5-year composite, the maximum mean monthly radon concentration in October (3100 mBq/m"3) was more than twice the July minimum (1471 mBq/m"3). Diurnal composite radon concentrations for the whole period increased throughout the night to a maximum of 2788 mBq/m"3 at around 7 a.m., and then gradually decreased to a minimum of 2050 mBq/m"3 at around 3 p.m. The winter diurnal cycle had a small amplitude due to the low variability in atmospheric mixing depth associated with recent air mass fetch over the Yellow Sea. The diurnal cycle in summer, however, exhibited a relatively large amplitude due to changes in atmospheric mixing depth associated with recent fetch over Jeju Island. Back trajectory analysis showed that high radon events were typically associated with long-term air mass fetch over continental Asia. Specifically, the average radon concentration of air masses originating from China was about 2.4 times higher than that of air masses originating from the North Pacific Ocean

  16. Process improvement studies for the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.

    1982-05-01

    Tests were made to investigate flowsheet modifications which might improve the expected performance of the reference Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontaminating the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2. The tests included one series designed to show the effects of aging time, temperature, and pH on reduction of the concentrations of residual 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and a second series designed to evaluate the physical sorption of 125 Sb on silica gel or other inorganic sorbents. Results of the tests indicated that the most promising method for reducing 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations below 10 -4 μCi/mL is to age the effluent water from the zeolite columns for at least 2 h at 75 0 C prior to its passage through another zeolite column. Sorption of the 125 Sb on silica gel or other inorganic sorbents did not show sufficient promise to be considered for practical use. A previously identified method for removal of 125 Sb requires deionization of the water by removal of the sodium on a cation exchange resin prior to sorption of 125 Sb on anion exchange resin; however, this method would generate a relatively large amount of low-activity-level solid waste

  17. Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission products and fuel from the damaged reactor core. The bulk of this contamination is loosely adherent to the drain pipe walls; however, significant amounts of contamination have become incorporated into pipe wall oxide and corrosion layers and embedded in microscopic pits and fissures in the pipe wall material. The need to remove this contamination was recognized early in the TMI-2 cleanup effort. A program consisting of development and laboratory testing of floor drain decontamination techniques was undertaken early in the cleanup with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Based on this initial research, two techniques were judged to show promise for use at TMI-2: a rotating brush hone system and a high-pressure water mole nozzle system. Actual use of these devices to clean floor drains at TMI-2 has yielded mixed decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness that has been obtained is highly dependent on the nature of the contamination in the drain pipe and the combination of decontamination techniques used

  18. Thailand and brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.

  19. Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and revi...

  20. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  1. Thailand and brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a sou...

  2. Evaluation of zeolite mixtures for decontaminating high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1984-05-01

    Mixtures of Linde Ionsiv IE-96 and Ionsiv A-51 were evaluated for use in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) that was installed at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station to decontaminate approx. 2780 m 3 of high-activity-level water. The original SDS flowsheet was conservatively designed for removal of cesium and strontium and would have required the use of approx. 60 SDS columns. Mixed zeolite tests were made on a 10 -5 scale and indicated that the appropriate ratio of IE-96/A-51 was 3/2. A mathematical model was used to predict the performance of the mixed zeolite columns in the SDS configuration and with the intended method of operation. Actual loading results were similar to those predicted for strontium and better than those predicted for cesium. The number of SDS columns needed to process the HALW was reduced to approx. 10. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  3. Non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fisheries of the Susquehanna River from the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, C.R. Jr.; Samworth, R.B.

    1979-11-01

    The non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fishes of the Susquehanna River from the March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station were assessed through the post-accident period of July 1979. Thermal and chemical discharges during the period did not exceed required effluent limitations. Several million gallons of treated industrial waste effluents were released into the river which were not of unusual volumes compared with normal operation and were a very small proportion of the seasonally high river flows. The extent and relative location of the effluent plume were defined and the fisheries known to have been under its immediate influence were identified, including rough, forage, and predator/sport fishery species

  4. Final supplement to the final environmental statement related to operation of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2: (Docket No. 50-320)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The proposed action is the continuation of construction permit CPPR-66 and the issuance of operating license to Metropolitan Edison Company, Jersey Central Power and Light Company, and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (the Applicants) for the operation of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320, near Harrisburg in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit Number 2 has a designed thermal rating of 2772 megawatts with a maximum electrical output of 959 megawatts. Two natural draft cooling towers are utilized for dissipating the waste heat from the closed cycle cooling system. Extension of TMINS-Bechtelsville 500 kV transmission line an additional 7.36 miles from Bechtelsville to Hosensack required acquisition of additional 175 foot wide right-of-way along an existing 150 foot wide 230 kV corridor. Construction of this line segment resulted in clearing of 21 acres of woodland, spanning over 134.5 acres of agricultural land and diverting of 0.4 acres from agriculture to use under tower bases. About 550 curies of radionuclides in liquid effluents (0.24 Ci/yr excluding tritium and 550 Ci/yr of tritium) will be released to the environment annually. Gaseous releases will be approximately 6700 Ci/yr of noble gases, 0.01 Ci/yr of iodine-131, 560 Ci/yr of tritium, 25 Ci/yr of argon-41, and 0.06 Ci/yr of particulates. No significant environmental impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactive materials. The calculated dose to the estimated year 1990 US population is less than 540 manrem/yr. This value is less than the natural fluctuation in the approximately 28,000,000 manrem/yr dose this population would receive from background radiation

  5. Mesospheric front observations by the OH airglow imager carried out at Ferraz Station on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Gabriel Augusto; Valentin Bageston, José; Prado Batista, Paulo; Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Dornelles Bittencourt, Gabriela; Paulino, Igo; Paes Leme, Neusa Maria; Fritts, David C.; Janches, Diego; Hocking, Wayne; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2018-02-01

    The main goals of this work are to characterize and investigate the potential wave sources of four mesospheric fronts identified in the hydroxyl near-infrared (OH-NIR) airglow images, obtained with an all-sky airglow imager installed at Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (EACF, as per its Portuguese acronym) located on King George Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. We identified and analyzed four mesospheric fronts in 2011 over King George Island. In addition, we investigate the atmospheric background environment between 80 and 100 km altitude and discuss the ducts and propagation conditions for these waves. For that, we used wind data obtained from a meteor radar operated at EACF and temperature data obtained from the TIMED/SABER satellite. The vertical wavenumber squared, m2, was calculated for each of the four waves. Even though no clearly defined duct (indicated by positive values of m2 sandwiched between layers above and below with m2 wind in the wave propagation direction (near to south) above the OH peak (88-92 km). The likely wave sources for these four cases were investigated by using meteorological satellite images and in two cases we could find that strong instabilities were potential sources, i.e., a cyclonic activity and a large convective cloud cell. In the other two cases it was not possible to associate troposphere sources as potential candidates for the generation of such wave fronts observed in the mesosphere and secondary wave sources were attributed to these cases.

  6. Drains and Drainage Capabilities: Quantitative Analysis of Drain Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andaç Aykan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the efficiency of the same type of but different-sized silicone drains at different surgical procedures. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, who had different diagnoses and were operated between 2011 and 2013, were included. In all patients, 7- and 10-mm silicone-ended, Jackson–Pratt drains were used. Drains that were under 30 cc/day removed. The connection tube and perforated silicone end were examined due to the clot content. All drain efficiencies were calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Seven of the 24 patients (29.2% were males and 17 (70.8% were females; the mean age was 39.0±11.4 years. Totally, 49 drains were used, of which 25 (51% were 7 mm and 24 (49% were 10 mm in size. Median removal time was the 5th day (2–12 for the 7-mm drains and the 6th day (3–14 for the 10-mm drains. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for drain removal time (p=0.268. Further, there was no difference at the connection tube and silicone end for clot content between the 7- and 10-mm drains (p=0.58. For the drainage volume and efficiency, no difference was observed between the groups (p=0.146. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that there is no difference in the drainage volume and efficiency between different-sized Jackson–Pratt drains.

  7. GENOTOXICITY OF SHALLOW WATERS NEAR THE BRAZILIAN ANTARCTIC STATION "COMANDANTE FERRAZ" (EACF, ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur José da Silva Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Series of biomonitoring surveys were undertaken weekly in February 2012 to investigate the genotoxicity of the shallow waters around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF. The comet assay was applied to assess the damage to the DNA of hemocytes of the crustacean amphipods Gondogeneia antarctica collected from shallow waters near the Fuel Tanks (FT and Sewage Treatment Outflow (STO of the research station, and compare it to the DNA damage of animals from Punta Plaza (PPL and Yellow Point (YP, natural sites far from the EACF defined as experimental controls. The damage to the DNA of hemocytes of G. antarctica was not significantly different between sites in the biomonitoring surveys I and II. In survey III, the damage to the DNA of animals captured in shallow waters near the Fuel Tanks (FT and Sewage Treatment Outflow (STO was significantly higher than that of the control site of Punta Plaza (PPL. In biomonitoring survey IV, a significant difference was detected only between the FT and PPL sites. Results demonstrated that the shallow waters in front of the station may be genotoxic and that the comet assay and hemocytes of G. antarctica are useful tools for assessing genotoxicity in biomonitoring studies of Antarctic marine coastal habitats.

  8. Plumbing the brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  9. Mesospheric front observations by the OH airglow imager carried out at Ferraz Station on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Giongo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of this work are to characterize and investigate the potential wave sources of four mesospheric fronts identified in the hydroxyl near-infrared (OH-NIR airglow images, obtained with an all-sky airglow imager installed at Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (EACF, as per its Portuguese acronym located on King George Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. We identified and analyzed four mesospheric fronts in 2011 over King George Island. In addition, we investigate the atmospheric background environment between 80 and 100 km altitude and discuss the ducts and propagation conditions for these waves. For that, we used wind data obtained from a meteor radar operated at EACF and temperature data obtained from the TIMED/SABER satellite. The vertical wavenumber squared, m2, was calculated for each of the four waves. Even though no clearly defined duct (indicated by positive values of m2 sandwiched between layers above and below with m2 < 0 was found in any of the events, favorable propagation conditions for horizontal propagation of the fronts were found in three cases. In the fourth case, the wave front did not find any duct support and it appeared to dissipate near the zenith, transferring energy and momentum to the medium and, consequently, accelerating the wind in the wave propagation direction (near to south above the OH peak (88–92 km. The likely wave sources for these four cases were investigated by using meteorological satellite images and in two cases we could find that strong instabilities were potential sources, i.e., a cyclonic activity and a large convective cloud cell. In the other two cases it was not possible to associate troposphere sources as potential candidates for the generation of such wave fronts observed in the mesosphere and secondary wave sources were attributed to these cases.

  10. Uranium from Seawater Marine Testing Program at the University of Miami’s Broad Key Island Research Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; D' Alessandro, Evan [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-09-30

    Marine testing at Broad Key Island (BKI), Florida was conducted to validate adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics results obtained for several formulations of the ORNL amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents in Sequim Bay, Washington in another location with different oceanographic and water quality conditions (e.g. temperature, dissolved organic carbon, salinity and trace element content). Broad Key is a small island off the southeast coast of Florida at the southern end of Biscayne Bay. Flow-through column and recirculating flume experiments were conducted at BKI using ambient filtered seawater and identical exposure systems as were used at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Sciences laboratory (MSL). Testing was conducted in two periods in FY 2015 and FY 2016 with five different amidoxime-based adsorbent materials, four produced by ORNL (AF1, AI8, AF8, and AF1-DMSO) and one by LCW technologies (LCW-10). All exposures were conducted at ambient seawater temperatures, with moderate temperature control on the ambient seawater to mitigate large daily swings in the seawater temperature. The ORNL adsorbents AF1, AI8 and AF1-AO-DMSO all had fairly similar adsorption capacities (6.0 to 6.6 g U/ kg adsorbent) after 56 days of exposure at ambient temperature (26 to 31 °C) and salinity (35.7 to 37.4), but the AF8 adsorbent was considerably lower at 4.4 g U/kg adsorbent. All the adsorbents tested at BKI had higher capacities than was observed at PNNL, with the higher temperatures likely a major factor contributing to this difference. In general, the elemental distribution (expressed as a relative percentage) on all the adsorbents agreed well, including good agreement with the elemental distribution pattern for AF1 adsorbent exposed at PNNL. The most notable exception to a uniform elemental distributional pattern across the various adsorbents occurs with vanadium. The relative mass percentage for vanadium retained by the adsorbents ranged from a

  11. Urban Heat Islands of the World's Major Cities Revealed at Multiple Scales Using Both Station Observations and Complementary Remotely Sensed Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Krehbiel, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) have long been studied using both ground-based observations of air temperature and remotely sensed data. In the rapidly urbanizing world, cross-comparison between various datasets will allow us to characterize and model UHI effects more generally. Here we analyze UHIs of the world's major cities using station observations from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN), surface air temperatures derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSRs), and land surface temperatures (LST) estimated from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compute the two measurements of thermal time (accumulated diurnal degree-days or ADDD and nocturnal degree-days or ANDD) and the normalized difference accumulated thermal time index (NDATTI) to characterize urban and rural thermal differences and day-night dynamics over multiple growing seasons. Our preliminary results for 27 major cities and 83 urban-rural groupings in the USA and Canada indicate that daytime urban thermal accumulations from the passive microwave data (AMSRs) were generally lower than in adjacent rural areas, with only 18% of urban-rural groupings showing higher thermal accumulations in cities. In contrast, station observations and MODIS LST showed consistently higher ADDD in cities (82% and 93% for GHCN and MODIS data respectively). UHIs are more pronounced at night, with 55% (AMSR), 93% (GHCN) and 100% (MODIS) of urban-rural groupings showing higher ANDD in cities. Humidity appears to be a common factor driving the day-night thermal dynamics throughout all three datasets (Figure 1). Normalized day-night differences in thermal time metrics were consistently lower (>90% of urban-rural groupings) in urban than rural areas for both air temperature datasets (GHCN and AMSRs). With MODIS LST, only 70% of urban-rural groupings show lower NDATTI in cities. We will present results for the rest of the globe.

  12. Geoenvironments from the vicinity of Arctowski Station, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica: vulnerability and valuation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G.R.; Santana, Rogério Mercandelle; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello; Francelino, Márcio R.; Filho, Elpídio Inácio Fernandes; Albuquerque, Miriam Abreu; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The use of a geographic information system (GIS) allows the mapping and quantification of biotic and physical features of importance to the environmental planning of Antarctic areas. In this paper we examined the main aspects of the geoenvironments of Arctowski Station vicinity (Admiralty bay, Maritime Antartica), by means of a photointerpretation of an orthomosaic at 1:6000 scale, produced by non-conventional aerial photographs obtained by the Brazilian Cryosols project. We carried out a preliminary environmental valuation and vulnerability assessment of the area. Hence, geoenvironments were classified and ranked according with their biological valuation and vulnerability (fragility), mapping 20 units covering approximately 150 ha. The most fragile geoenvironmental units were former and present penguin rookeries with different vegetation covers, all very prone to degradation by over-trampling and human perturbations. The relationships between each geoenvironment were also explored, emphasizing the ecological aspects and their valuation. In quantitative terms, the most vulnerable and fragile units (classes 4 and 5) occupy nearly 22 % of the total area, being highly concentrated near the coastal areas. There, ornithogenic input is an important factor favoring the vegetation development.

  13. Optimization design for drain to nuclear power condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jiapeng; Jiang Chengren

    2010-01-01

    Characters and varieties of drain to nuclear power condenser are discussed in this paper. Take the main steam system of a nuclear power as an example, normal and detailed optimization design are introduced, related expatiate are used as a reference for the drain of other systems. According to the characters of nuclear power instant operation, the influence and needed actions related with the optimization design are also analyzed. Based on the above research, the scheme has been carried out in a nuclear power station and safety for the condenser operation of the nuclear power has been improved largely. (authors)

  14. Population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. Preliminary estimates for the period March 28, 1979--April 7, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battist, L.; Congel, F.; Buchanan, J.; Peterson, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a preliminary assessment of the radiation dose and potential health impact of the accident on March 28, 1979 at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This assessment was prepared by a task group composed of technical staff members from The Environmental Protection Agency, The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The estimated dose that might have been received by an individual is less than 100 mrem. The collective dose received by the 2,164,000 people estimated to live within 50 miles of the reactor site is calculated to be 3,300 person-rem (with a range of 1600 to 5300 person-rem). This corresponds to an average dose of approximately 1.5 mrem. The potential number of fatal cancers that is projected to occur as a result of the accident is less than 1. This potential impact would be undetectable compared to the 325,000 cancer deaths that would normally be expected to occur in a population of 2,164,000. The estimated total health impact, including fatal and non-fatal cancers and genetic effects to all future generations is approximately 2 health effects

  15. Solar thermal power stations for activities implemented jointly. The Theseus 50 MWe solar thermal power plant for the island of Crete, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, Georg [Fichtner, Stuttgart (Germany); Aringhoff, Rainer [Pilkington Solar International (United Kingdom); Cobi, Arend [PreussenElektra (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    THESEUS, the proposed commercial 50 MWe (net) Thermal Solar European Power Station for the Island of Crete is a solar hybrid plant with parabolic trough collectors and an advanced high efficiency Rankine reheat steam cycle. At the end of 1996 the DG XVII (Energy) of the European Commission has accepted the THERMIE application of the THESEUS consortium for the design phase. THESEUS reduces the required oil imports by 28 000 t/a, thereby saving the Greek economy every year 4 million ECU in foreign currency. During its 25 years technical lifetime 2.2 million tons of CO{sub 2} emissions will be avoided. Supply, construction, erection and operation of THESEUS creates 2 000 qualified employments (man-years). Because of the high manpower intensity of solar plants and their larger capital income from interest payments in contrast to the high fuel import intensity of fossil plants, THESEUS will generate larger tax revenues for Greece and for the supplier`s countries. The investment cost of THESEUS is some 135 million ECU. Even without any subsidies this would result in electricity generation cost of some 0.085 ECY/kWh, which is lower than the current average cost from the existing power plants of Crete. (author)

  16. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  18. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gloves. Put a new bandage around the drain tube site. Use surgical tape to hold it down ... small amount of redness is normal). There is drainage from the skin around the tube site. There is more tenderness and swelling at ...

  19. Method of processing laundry drain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Oda, A; Yusa, H; Kitamura, M; Horiuchi, S

    1979-09-28

    Purpose: To subject the laundry drain to flocculation precipitation treatment in the prior stage of an inverse osmotic treatment, and subject only the supernatant to the inverse osmotic treatment and the precipitate directly to the condensation treatment, thereby decreasing the frequency of exchange of the inverse osmotic membranes, and reducing the quantity of purifying water. Method: The laundry drain is supplied to a flocculation precipitation tank, and added and mixed with a flocculant and a neutralizing agent, thus being subjected to a flocculation precipitation treatment. The supernatant is transported to a circulation tank through a transportation pipe, and is subjected to an inverse osmotic treatment in inverse osmotic module through the circulation tank, a filter and a high tension pump, and then returned to the circulation tank. The supernatant is thus concentrated to a predetermined concentration by repeating such operations. On the other hand, the precipitate at the bottom part of the flocculation precipitation tank is supplied through the transportation pipe to an evaporator supply tank together with the concentrate from the drain circulation tank, and evaporated and concentrated in the evaporator.

  20. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  1. Population dose estimation from a hypothetical release of 2.4 x 106 curies of noble gases and 1 x 104 curies of 131I at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.; Cotter, S.J.; Miller, C.W.; Glandon, S.R.

    1981-09-01

    Beginning on March 28, 1979, a sequence of events occurred at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 (TMINS-2) nuclear power reactor which resulted in the accidental release of approximately 2.4 x 10 6 Ci of noble gases and 13 to 15 Ci 131 I. A comprehensive study of this incident has been reported by the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island. As part of this study, the Technical Assessment Task Group for the Commission addressed a series of alternative event scenarios, including the potential for a higher release of 131 I. As a continuation of this task, this report presents the estimated collective dose to the population within 50 miles of TMINS-2 from a hypothetical release of 2.4 x 10 6 Ci of noble gases and 1 x 10 4 Ci 131 I by the methodology of atmospheric dispersion modeling and population dose estimation through the inhalation, ingestion and immersion exposure pathways

  2. Programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320): Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the Commission's implementing regulations and its April 27, 1981 Statement of Policy, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 NUREG-0683 (PEIS) is being supplemented. This draft supplement updates the environmental evaluation of accident-generated water disposal alternatives published in the PEIS, utilizing more complete and current information. Also, the draft supplement includes a specific environmental evaluation of the licensee's recently submitted proposal for water disposition

  3. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Dauphin Island Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  4. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Katrina Cut Station near Dauphin Island, AL from 04/15/2011 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide...

  5. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Bon Secour Station near Dauphin Island, AL from 01/01/2014 - 12/31/2014 (NCEI Accession 0140527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide...

  6. An Archaeological Curation-Needs Assessment for Fort Irwin, Naval Air Station, North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Louis District, conducted an investigation of all archaeological materials and associated records in the care of NAS North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Fort Irwin, and MCAGCC Twentynine Palms...

  7. Involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division in contaminated air and water handling at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; King, L.J.

    1979-08-01

    The President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generate documents concerning two areas in which ORNL personnel provided on-site assistance following the accident on March 28, 1979. These are: instrumentation diagnostics, and the treatment of radioactive wastes and liquid effluents stemming from the accident. This report describes the involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division (CTD) in contaminated air and water handling at Three Mile Island

  8. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  9. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-19 (NCEI Accession 0159139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Pacific Remote...

  11. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Katrina Cut Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama,from 2015-01-01 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0159583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains meteorological and hydrographic data from Katrina Cut station. Meteorological data was collected every minute and hydrographic data was...

  12. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Cedar Point Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama from 2015-01-01 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0159581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains meteorological and hydrographic data from Ceder Point station. Meteorological data was collected every minute and hydrographic data was...

  13. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Middle Bay Light Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama, from 2015-01-01 to 2015-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0159585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains meteorological and hydrographic data from Middle Bay Light station. Meteorological data was collected every minute and hydrographic data was...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  15. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  16. 谈三沙市永兴岛驻岛官兵宿舍设计%On Sansha City Yongxing island soldier's stationed in the island dormitory design sense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣

    2014-01-01

    通过对某些高校大学生宿舍的调查结果分析,结合宿舍设计的新趋势,从宿舍平面类型、驻岛官兵心理需求、宿舍环境及宿舍设施布置等方面入手,探讨了在新形势下驻岛官兵宿舍设计的新模式。%The findings of the analysis of some university student’s dormitory, dormitory design combined with the new trend, from dorm plane type, the psychological needs of officers and soldiers live in the island, dormitory environment and hostel facilities layout, and explore the island to live in the new situation soldiers the new model dormitory design.

  17. Quick-Reaction Report on the Audit of Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for Naval Station Treasure Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-19

    the audit of two projects: P-608T, Building Modifications, valued at...Island, California, to the Naval Training Center Great Lakes, Illinois. The audit also evaluated the implementation of the DoD Internal Management...related to the two projects in this report and is discussed in Report No. 94-109, Quick-Reaction Report on the Audit of Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for the Naval Training Center Great Lakes, Illinois, May 19,

  18. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominants in the selected events are events from Meditterranian, East Kazakhstan, India/Burma/China, South and Central America and North Ascension island regions. The limited number of events reporting at the station was due to low operational gain at the station which permitted only events whose magnitudes are ...

  19. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  20. Evaluation of zeolite mixtures for decontamination of high-activity-level water in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Mixtures of Linde Ionsiv IE-96 and Ionsiv A-51 zeolites were evaluated for use in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) that was installed at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 (TMI-2) for decontaminating approx. 3000 m 3 (approx. 700,000 gal) of high-activity-level water in the containment building sump. Small-scale, tracer-level column tests were made using various mixtures of the zeolites to evaluate the capability for simultaneous removal of cesium and strontium. A column loading test was made in a hot cell using a mixture of equal parts of the zeolites to evaluate the performance of the mixture in removing cesium and strontium from a sample of TMI-2 sump water. A computerized mathematical model of the mixed-bed SDS system was used to evaluate the test data in order to select a zeolite mixture and predict system performance

  1. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320). Final supplement dealing with occupational radiation dose. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Related to Decontamination and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Resulting from March 28, 1979 Accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 has been supplemented. The supplement was required because current information indicates that cleanup may entail substantially more occupational radiation dose to the cleanup work force than originally anticipated. Cleanup was originally estimated to result in from 2000 to 8000 person-rem of occupational radiation dose. Although nearly 2000 person-rem have resulted from cleanup operations performed up to now, current estimates now indicate that between 13,000 and 46,000 person-rem are expected to be required. Alternative cleanup methods considered in the supplement either did not result in appreciable dose savings or were not known to be technically feasible

  2. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Commission's implementing regulations, and the Commission's April 27, 1981 Statement of Policy, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 NUREG-0683 (PEIS) is being supplemented. This supplement updates the environmental evaluation of accident-generated water disposal alternatives published in the PEIS, utilizing more complete and current information. Also, the supplement includes a specific environmental evaluation of the licensee's proposal for water disposition. Although no clearly preferable water disposal alternative was identified, the supplement concluded that a number of alternatives could be implemented without significant environmental impact. The NRC staff has concluded that the licensee's proposed disposal of the accident-generated water by evaporation will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Further, any impacts from the disposal program are outweighed by its benefits

  3. Summary and discussion of findings from: population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (a preliminary assessment for the period March 28-April 7, 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This report was prepared by technical staff members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), who constitute an Ad Hoc Population Dose Assessment Group. It is an assessment of the health impact on the approximately 2 million offsite residents within 50 miles of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station from the dose received by the entire population (collective dose). The Ad Hoc Group has examined in detail the available data for the period up to and including April 7, 1979. The report also addresses several areas of concern about the types of radionuclides released, about the contribution to population exposure due to beta radiation (which does not penetrate the clothing and skin) emitted from the released radionuclides, about the degree of coverage afforded by available radiation measurements, and about the range of health effects that may result from the estimated collective dose

  4. Final programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) related to the decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to a directive issued by the Commission on November 21, 1979. This statement is an overall study of the activities necessary for decontamination of the facility, defueling, and disposition of the radioactive wastes. The available alternatives considered ranged from implementation of full cleanup to no action other than continuing to maintain the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. Also included are comments of governmental agencies, other organizations, and the general public on the Draft PEIS on this project, and staff responses to these comments. (author)

  5. Programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320). Draft supplement dealing with occupational radiation dose. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Related to Decontamination and Disposal of Radioactive Waste for the 1979 Accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 has been supplemented. The supplement was required because current information indicates that cleanup will entail substantially more occupational radiation dose to the cleanup work force than originally anticipated. Cleanup was originally estimated to result in from 2000 to 8000 person-rem of occupational radiation dose. Although only 1700 person-rem have resulted from cleanup operations performed up to now, current estimates now indicate that between 13,000 and 46,000 person-rem are expected to be required. Alternate cleanup methods considered in the supplement either did not result in appreciable dose savings or were not known to be technically feasible

  6. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addressed. A number of safety rules based on European standards apply to AC charging equipment up to 44 kW. The connection interlock and the automatic de......-energization are identified as fundamental requirements for safety in such a charging station. The connection interlock is a solution which ensures that no power is applied to the DC cable when the EV connector is not connected. The automatic de-energization device ensures that whenever a strain on the cable is detected, e...

  7. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  8. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  9. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  10. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped countries experience the negative consequences of the brain drain and suffer from the decreases in their human capital. The paper explains the phenomenon of skilled international migration, or brain drain, and summarizes the main global trends in this area.

  11. Simulation of the Three Mile Island transient in Semiscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Loomis, G.G.; Shumway, R.W.

    1979-07-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review and analysis of the data obtained from eight simulations of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Generating Station transient (March 28, 1979) that have been conducted in the Semiscale Mod-3 System. The Semiscale simulations of the Three Mile Island (TMI) transient were basically conducted from the same sequence of events as those recorded in the plant. System initial conditions representative of those in the TMI system were established and the transient was initiated by terminating steam generator feedwater and steam valve flow. The steam generator secondaries were drained to control primary to secondary heat transfer. The pressurizer power operated relief valve, pressurizer code safety valve, and core power trip were operated on system pressure. High pressure safety injection was activated for about one minute during the Semiscale simulations. In addition, both primary loop coolant pumps were shut off in the Semiscale simulation at the same time that the Three Mile Island loop 2A pump was shut off

  12. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling of the system in the DTU lab is done to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple with less components...... and that the performance can be enhanced. A combination of the drain back- and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. Small initial problems with installation and proposals for design improvements to avoid these in practice are described in the paper. Installer education and training is an important step to have...

  13. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  14. Penrose Drain Migration After Laparoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki AbdolReza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy has made a revolution in surgical procedures and treatment of various diseases but its complications are still under investigation. Intra-abdominal visceral and vessel injuries, trocar site hernia, and leaving foreign bodies into the peritoneal cavity are among some laparoscopic surgery complications. This is a rare report of Penrose drain migration following incomplete laparoscopic Fundoplication surgery. The patient was a 47- year- old woman, who was a candidate for Touplet Fundoplication via laparoscopic approach due to refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. While wrapping a Penrose drain around the esophagus, the patient had a cardiorespiratory arrest. Attempts to remove the Penrose drain were unsuccessful and the surgical procedure was terminated due to patient's condition. Four months later, after a long period of dysphagia and abdominal pain, the Penrose drain was defecated via rectum.

  15. Brain drain of China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Under the background of globalization, brain drain is a common phenomenon in many countries. Talents flow from developing countries to developed countries, and this phenomenon unavoidably exerts various and profound influences to both the source countries and the receiving countries. This thesis deals with the phenomenon of brain drain with the aim to investigate the phenomenon further and carry out two case studies of China and India. The research method is main...

  16. Necessity of suction drains in gynecomastia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent; Karacaoglan, Naci

    2014-05-01

    The aim of gynecomastia surgery is to restore a normal chest contour with minimal signs of breast surgery. The authors examine the rate of complications in gynecomastia surgery when no closed-suction drains are placed. One hundred thirty-eight consecutive male patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery without drains were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the absence of drains adversely affected patient outcomes. Patients were managed by ultrasonic-assisted liposuction both with and without the pull-through technique. The mean age of the patients was 29 years, and the mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 350 mL per beast. Pull-through was needed in 23 cases. There was only 1 postoperative hematoma. These results are comparable with previously published data for gynecomastia surgery in which drains were placed, suggesting that the absence of drains does not adversely affect postoperative recovery. Routine closed-suction drainage after gynecomastia surgery is unnecessary, and it may be appropriate to omit drains after gynecomastia surgery.

  17. How to remove a chest drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-07

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  18. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  19. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  20. Airborne cloud tracking measurements during the Three Mile Island nuclear station accident, Middletown, Pennsylvania. Date of survey: March-June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, R.H.; Burson, Z.G.; Maguire, T.C.; Shipman, G.R.

    1984-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) flew aerial monitoring missions in response to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. The first flight was made at 1600 hours EST on 28 March 1979, the first day of the accident. Over 150 flights were made during the period of greatest concern. Measurements included isotope identification, plume direction, and maximum radiation levels inside the plume. The highest exposure rate measured (15 milliroentgen per hour, mR/h) was at 300 feet altitude, 1/4 mile from the plant, at 1030 hours on 30 March 1979. The highest measurement at 1 mile was 4.5 mR/h; this occurred at 1600 hours the same day. The Nuclear Emergency Search Team's (NEST's) communication system and logistic support contributed significantly to the overall DOE coordination of off-site radiation measurements. The AMS also provided real time measurements of radioactive krypton gas during purging operations in June 1980. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  1. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in ventilator...

  2. Development of the ISOLDE Decay Station and γ spectroscopic studies of exotic nuclei near the N=20 “Island of Inversion”

    CERN Document Server

    Lica, Razvan; Garcia Borge, Maria Jose; Marginean, Nicolae Marius

    2017-10-03

    The main topic of my PhD Thesis is related to nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich nuclei following the beta-decay of 34Mg isotopes produced at the ISOLDE facility of CERN and measured using one of the newest permanent experimental setups, the ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS). I will also describe this setup and some of developments I contributed to during the three years spent as a PhD Student at CERN. This Thesis is divided into 6 chapters: The first chapter contains a description of the radioactive ion-beam production techniques with an emphasis on the ISOL technique and an overview of the capabilities of the ISOLDE facility of CERN. The second chapter is dedicated to the IDS setup, its capabilities and development since the first experimental campaign in 2014. The GEANT4 simulations of IDS are the subject in the third chapter, which cover mainly the HPGe detectors, the core detection system of IDS, and a possible improvement related to reducing the large background present in the high energy region of the ...

  3. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P drains and surface waters, pathways being associated primarily with unevenly distributed SEMP producing strong smoke plumes.

  4. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  5. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  6. Decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the March 28, 1979 accident, Three-Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Pennsylvania-Docket No. 50-320 (final supplement 2 to the final environmental impact statement of March 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Implementation of actions necessary for decontamination of the facility, defueling of the reactor, and disposition of the radioactive wastes that resulted from the accident on March 28, 1979 at Unit 2 of the Three-Mile Island Nuclear Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania are discussed. This second final supplement to the final environmental impact statement, filed in March 1981 on facility decontamination, reevaluates the environmental impacts of accident-generated water disposal alternatives, using more complete and current information. This supplement also includes a specific evaluation of the recently submitted proposal for water disposition. The project would alleviate a radiological hazard that threatens the well-being of the surrounding population and downstream communities. Risks to the general public have been estimated to be very small fractions of the estimated normal incidence of cancer fatalities and genetic disorders. The most significant potential impact is the risk of physical injury associated with transportation accidents. Social impacts during the operation could result in reduced property values, competition between the work force and tourists for temporary housing, and congestion of local traffic arteries. Some psychological stress would experienced by area residents. Economic effects could include increased electricity rates, reduced tourism, and possible resistance to consumption of area goods that consumers might mistakenly think are contaminated

  7. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Rhode Island with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 3 More Rhode Island Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/embed

  9. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-01-01

    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems tha...

  10. The European Politics of Brain Drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    This qualitative multi-method studymaps the politics of brain drain at the level of the European Union and follows the evolution of the issue over the last four parliamentary periods. By utilizing a novel combination of interviews with a content and network analysis of parliamentary questions...

  11. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  12. Structure of a tropical island forest area directly affected by the hydroelectric power station of Pilar, Guaraciaba County, Minas Gerais; Estrutura de uma floresta estacional semidecidual insular em area diretamente afetada pela Usina Hidreletrica de Pilar, Guaraciaba, Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira-Neto, Joao Augusto Alves; Silva, Alexandre Francisco da [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Souza, Agostinho Lopes de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Paula, Alessandro de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Botanica

    1998-12-31

    Electrical energy consumption in Brazil is increasing and new hydroelectric power stations are required. This work was carried out at a semi deciduous tropical island forest in Guaraciaba, MG to look for composition peculiarities and to provide a structural model which could be applied to reduce environmental damages caused by Pilar HPS. The point-centered quarter method was applied totalizing 50 sample units. Fifty five species were sampled and a Shannon diversity index (H) of 3.429 nats/individual found. The most important species were longiracemosus, Tapirira guianensis, Pera glabrata, Copaifera langsdorffii, Callophyllum brasiliensis and Guapira opposita. The Guaraciaba island forest presented the peculiarity of Podocarpus sellowii occurrence sellowii occurrence, a rare gymnosperm species that does not occur at nearby forests. The Guaraciaba island forest is probably representative of an original alluvial forest at Piranga valley. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  14. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  15. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Uygur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  16. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Uygur; Seval Erdinç; Hülya Dede; Ümit Taşdemir; Oktay Kaymak; Nuri Danışman

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  17. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  18. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  19. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  20. Processing method of radioactive cleaning drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Shigemitsu; Murakami, Tadashi; Kitao, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Upon processing of radioactive cleaning drains, contained Co-60 is removed by a selectively adsorbing adsorbent. In addition, after removing suspended materials by a filtering device, Co-60 as predominant nuclides in the drain is selectively adsorbed. The concentration of objective Co-60 is in the order of 0.1 Bq/cc, and non-radioactive metal ions such as Na + ions are present in the order of ppm in addition to Co-60. A granular adsorbent for selectively adsorbing Co-60 is oxine-added activated carbon, and has a grain size of from 20 to 48 mesh. The granular adsorbent is used while being filled in an adsorbing tower. Since a relatively simple device comprising the filtering device and the adsorbing tower in combination is provided, the reduction of the construction cost can be expected. In addition, since no filtering aid is used in the filtering device, the amount of secondary wastes is small. (N.H.)

  1. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained Jackson-Pratt Drain Fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namyslowski, Jan; Halin, Neil J.; Greenfield, Alan J.

    1996-01-01

    A retained intraabdominal Jackson-Pratt drain fragment was percutaneously retrieved using an inflated angioplasty balloon that had been maneuvered inside of the drain lumen over a hydrophilic-coated steerable guidewire

  2. Device for discharging drain in a control rod driving apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tadasu; Ikuta, Takuzo; Yoshida, Tomiji; Tsukahara, Katsumi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely collect and discharge drain by a simple construction in which a drain cover and a drain tank in a control rod driving apparatus are integrally formed, and an overhauling wrench of said apparatus and a drain hose are mounted on the drain tank. Structure: When a mounting bolt is untightened by a torque wrench so as to be removed from a flange surface of the control rod driving apparatus in a nuclear reactor, axial movement of said apparatus is absorbed by a spring so that drain containing a radioactive material is discharged into a drain tank through the flange surface of said apparatus and is then guided into a collecting tank through a drain hose. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Water Table Recession in Subsurface Drained Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Yomota, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical drainage equations are intensively tested in many parts of humid and arid regions and are commonly used in drainage design. However, this is still a great concern in Japan as the drainage design is exclusively based on local experiences and empirical basis. There is a need therefore to evaluate the theoretical drainage equations under Japanese field conditions to recommend equations for design of subsurface drainage systems. This was the main motivation for this study. While drain...

  4. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  5. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Gencler, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped...

  6. Brain drain: Propulsive factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan ILIC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When speaking about the total number of highly educated individuals’ migration, it is easy to spot that it is rapidly increasing. The brain drain issues should be taken very seriously especially in under developed and in the developing countries, knowing that the human capital is globally mobile and that highly educated individuals can without any issues market their knowledge around the globe. Dealing with it requires a carefully tailored strategy for these countries, which are suffering from severe human capital losses on annual basis. Since the labor markets of today are highly competitive, it is necessary for these countries to secure good advancement and doing business opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide an insight into the key propulsive factors and potential consequences caused by the brain drain. The method used in order to conduct the research was a carefully designed questionnaire taken by the date subject enrolled at the third and fourth years of state governed and privately owned universities. This research shows that one of the key reasons for brain drain in underdeveloped and in the developing countries is shortage of further educational advancement opportunities.

  7. Fallopian Tube Herniation: An Unusual Complication of Surgical Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Lipi; Singh, Alpana; Bhaskaran, Sruthi; Radhika, A. G.; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Background. Surgical drains have been used since time immemorial, but their use is not without complications. By presenting this case we aim to describe an uncommon complication of herniation of fallopian tube following the simple procedure of surgical drain removal. Case Presentation. This case describes a 23-year G2P1L1 who underwent an emergency cesarean section for obstructed labor with intraperitoneal drain insertion. The patient had an uneventful postoperative period, drain was removed ...

  8. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  9. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from spaces...

  10. MEDICAL BRAIN DRAIN - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncea Irina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel from developing countries to developed countries and between industrialized nations in search for better opportunities. This phenomenon became a global growing concern due to its impact on both the donor and the destination countries. This article aims to present the main theoretical contributions starting from 1950 until today and the historical evolution, in the attempt of correlating the particular case of medical brain drain with the theory and evolution of the brain drain in general. This article raises questions and offers answers, identifies the main issues and looks for possible solutions in order to reduce the emigration of medical doctors. Factors of influence include push (low level of income, poor working conditions, the absence of job openings and social recognition, oppressive political climate and pull (better remuneration and working conditions, prospects for career development, job satisfaction, security factors. Developing countries are confronting with the loss of their most valuable intellectuals and the investment in their education, at the benefit of developed nations. An ethical debate arises as the disparities between countries increases, industrialized nations filling in the gaps in health systems with professionals from countries already facing shortages. However, recent literature emphasizes the possibility of a “beneficial brain drain” through education incentives offered by the emigration prospects. Other sources of “brain gain” for donor country are the remittances, the scientific networks and return migration. Measures to stem the medical brain drain involve the common effort and collaboration between developing and developed countries and international organizations. Measures adopted by donor countries include higher salaries, better working conditions, security, career opportunities, incentives to stimulate return migration. Destination

  11. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  12. A prospective randomized study of use of drain versus no drain after burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Suryanarayanan, Bhaskar; Choudhary, Ajay; Prasad, Akhila; Singh, Sachin; Gupta, Laxmi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Inserting subdural drain might reduce the recurrence rate, but is not commonly practiced. There are few prospective studies to evaluate the effect of subdural drains. A prospective randomized study to investigate the effect of subdural drains in the on recurrence rates and clinical outcome following burr-hole drainage (BHD) of CSDH was undertaken. During the study period, 246 patients with CSDH were assessed for eligibility. Among 200 patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 100 each were assigned to "drain group" (drain inserted into the subdural space following BHD) and "without drain group" (subdural drain was not inserted following BHD) using random allocation software. The primary end point was recurrence needing re-drainage up to a period of 6 months from surgery. Recurrence occurred in 9 of 100 patients with a drain, and 26 of 100 patients in without drain group (P = 0.002). The mortality was 5% in patients with drain and 4% in patients without drain group (P = 0.744). The medical and surgical complications were comparable between the two study groups. Use of a subdural drain after burr-hole evacuation of a CSDH reduces the recurrence rate and is not associated with increased complications.

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance of Climate Stations at Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0159160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  14. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  15. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  16. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-08-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%.

  17. Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890) in the Canary Islands (Copepoda: Calanoida: Paradiaptominae). Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme northwest part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza.

  18. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) losses from nested artificially drained lowland catchments with contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Kahle, Petra; Lennartz, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Artificial drainage is a common practice to improve moisture and aeration conditions of agricultural land. It shortens the residence time of water in the soil and may therefore contribute to the degradation of peatlands as well as to the still elevated level of diffuse pollution of surface water bodies, particularly if flow anomalies like preferential flow cause a further acceleration of water and solute fluxes. Especially in the case of nitrate, artificially drained sub-catchments are found to control the catchment-scale nitrate losses. However, it is frequently found that nitrate losses and nitrogen field balances do not match. At the same time, organic fertilizers are commonly applied and, especially in lowland catchments, organic soils have been drained for agricultural use. Thus, the question arises whether dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms an important component of the nitrogen losses from artificially drained catchments. However, in contrast to nitrate and even to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), this component is frequently overlooked, especially in nested catchment studies with different soil types and variable land use. Here, we will present data from a hierarchical water quantity and quality measurement programme in the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). The monitoring programme in the pleistocene lowland catchment comprises automatic sampling stations at a collector drain outlet (4.2 ha catchment), at a ditch draining arable land on mineral soils (179 ha), at a ditch mainly draining grassland on organic soils (85 ha) and at a brook with a small rural catchment (15.5 km²) of mixed land use and soil types. At all sampling stations, daily to weekly composite samples were taken, while the discharge and the meteorological data were recorded continuously. Water samples were analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen and total nitrogen. We will compare two years: 2006/07 was a very wet year (P = 934 mm) with a high summer

  19. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Katrina Cut Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  20. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  1. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  2. To determine the slow shearing rate for consolidation drained shear box tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalludin, Damanhuri; Ahmad, Azura; Nordin, Mohd Mustaqim Mohd; Hashim, Mohamad Zain; Ibrahim, Anas; Ahmad, Fauziah

    2017-08-01

    Slope failures always occur in Malaysia especially during the rainy seasons. They cause damage to properties and fatalities. In this study, a total of 24 one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out on soil samples taken from 16 slope failures in Penang Island and in Baling, Kedah. The slope failures in Penang Island are within the granitic residual soil while in Baling, Kedah they are situated within the sedimentary residual soil. Most of the disturbed soil samples were taken at 100mm depth from the existing soil surface while some soil samples were also taken at 400, 700 and 1000mm depths from the existing soil surface. They were immediately placed in 2 layers of plastic bag to prevent moisture loss. Field bulk density tests were also carried out at all the locations where soil samples were taken. The field bulk density results were later used to re-compact the soil samples for the consolidation tests. The objective of the research is to determine the slow shearing rate to be used in consolidated drained shear box for residual soils taken from slope failures so that the effective shear strength parameters can be determined. One dimensional consolidation tests were used to determine the slow shearing rate. The slow shearing rate found in this study to be used in the consolidated drained shear box tests especially for Northern Malaysian residual soils was 0.286mm/minute.

  3. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  4. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  5. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their count...

  6. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  7. ALARA review for the deactivation of 105-N Lift Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations, while removing water, sludge, stabilizing surfaces, and all other associated work involved in the deactivation of the 105-N Lift Station. The lift station was used as a sump and received contaminated water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin weirs and contaminated drains in the 105-N Building. During operation water from the lift station was pumped to the 1310-N and 1325-N cribs. Deactivation of the lift station is a critical step in completing the deactivation of N-Area

  8. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  9. Horner's syndrome caused by an intercostal chest drain.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, P; Neil, T; Wake, P N

    1989-01-01

    Horner's syndrome occurred in a young woman as a complication of the treatment of a traumatic pneumothorax with an intercostal drain. The nerve damage probably occurred when the lung had fully re-expanded, pressing the tip of the intercostal drain, lying at the apex of the pleural cavity, on to the sympathetic chain.

  10. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national…

  11. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  12. The health workforce crisis: the brain drain scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Samuel O

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of the health workforce crisis engendered by brain drain particularly in Africa, and nay more especially Nigeria, has been assuming increasingly alarming proportions in the past three decades. The challenge it poses in meeting the manpower needs in the healthcare sector as well as in the larger economy of the sending countries is enormous. This paper thus sets out to highlight the scope of this brain drain, its effects and the reasons sustaining it, as well as makes concrete suggestions to help stern the tide. A review of the literature on brain drain with particular emphasis on the health workforce sector was done, with focus on Africa, and specifically Nigeria. Literature search was done using mainly the Medline, as well as local journals. The historical perspectives, with the scope of external and internal brain drain are explored. The glaring effects of brain drain both in the global workforce terrain and specifically in the health sectors are portrayed. The countries affected most and the reasons for brain drain are outlined. Strategic steps to redress the brain drain crisis are proffered in this paper. The health workforce crisis resulting from brain drain must be brought to the front-burner of strategic policy decisions leading to paradigm shift in political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the scourge.

  13. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Assessment, 2000-10 (NODC Accession 0002301)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian islands were sampled during October 2000 at 63 stations on 9 atolls or islands under the lead of NOAA. This work is affiliated with the...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-19 (NCEI Accession 0159145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0159152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  16. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  17. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  18. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of

  19. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  20. Shearon Harris steam generator channel head drain line leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    All three Shearon Harris steam generators were equipped with Inconel 600 drain penetrations inserted into clearance holes on the bottom center line of the plenums, roll expanded into the plenum shell, and seal welded to the stainless steel cladding. Eddy current inspections showed axial cracks in the drain lines of B and C generators, but not on the leaking A generator. The drain lines of the three generators were repaired by cutting off the pipe under the plenum, applying Inconel 600 cladding to the underside of the plenum by a temper bead process, spot facing the overlay cladding and welding a new Inconel 600 pipe coupling to the clad surface. 3 figs

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The appendices included in this report include the following: Comments on the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (A-1); Commission's Statement of Policy and Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (B-1); 'Final Environmental Assessment for Decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building Atmosphere, Final NRC Staff Report,' US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-0662, May 1980 (C-1); 'Environmental Assessment for Use of EPICOR-Il at Three Mile Island Unit 2,' US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-0591, October 3, 1979 (D-1); Fish and Fisheries of York Haven Pond and Conowingo Pond of the Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay (E1); Reuse of Accident Water (F-1); Engineering Considerations for Treatment of TMI-2 Accident-Generated Liquid Waste G-1); Engineering Considerations Related to Immobilization of Radioactive Wastes (H-1); Justification for Radiation Fields Used in Section 6 I-1); Economic Cost Basis (K-1); Average Individual Quarterly Dose Limits Used in Determinations of Work Force Estimates (L-1); 'Long-Term Environmental Radiation Surveillance Plan for Three Mile Island,' US Environmental Protection Agency, 1981 (M-1); Occupational Radiation Exposure during Onsite Waste Handling (N-1); Decontamination Status of Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings (0-1); Chemical Systems for Decontamination of Primary System Components (P-1); Onsite Storage Facility (Q-1); Proposed Additions to Technical Specifications for TMI-2 Cleanup Program (R-1); Calculations of Discharge of Processed Accident Water to the Atmosphere (S-1); The Behavior of Sorbable Radionuclides in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay (T-1); Decommissioning of TMI-2 (U-1); Assessment of Groundwater Liquid Pathway from Leakage of Containment Water at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (V-1); Calculation Models and Parameters Used in Estimating Doses, and Interpretation of Model Results (W-1); Contributors to the PEIS X-1); Scheduled

  2. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The approaches employed include decision trees, discriminant analysis, regression models, neural networks and support vector machines amongst others. Several models are trained with each method, using variously the original soil covariates and principal components of the covariates. With a large ensemble...... out since the mid-19th century, and it has been estimated that half of the cultivated area is artificially drained (Olesen, 2009). A number of machine learning approaches can be used to predict artificially drained areas in geographic space. However, instead of choosing the most accurate model....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...

  3. Development of Charge Drain Coatings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-17

    The primary goal of this CRADA project was to develop and optimize tunable resistive coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as charge-drain coatings on the KLA-Tencor digital pattern generators (DPGs).

  4. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Shiro

    1979-01-01

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  5. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  6. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    in the collector loop to have a safe reliable operation. The components should also be designed and marked so that only one correct mounting option is possible, like forward and return pipes to/from the collector of slightly different sizes or color. Adapted installer education and training is a very important...... step to have success with drain back systems. Practices used in glycol systems may give serious failures. Key-words: Drain Back, Low Flow, Solar Combi System, ETC collectors....

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drain system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) effluent drain system (EFS). The primary function of the EFS is to collect and transport fire suppression water discharged into a CVDF process bay to a retention basin located outside the facility. The EFS also provides confinement of spills that occur inside a process bay and allows non-contaminated water that drains to the process bay sumps to be collected until sampling and analysis are complete

  8. Steam generator fitted with a dynamic draining device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaix, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This generator has, at its upper part, at least one drying structure for holding the water carried with the steam and communicating at its lower part with at least one discharge pipe for draining off the water, each pipe communicating with a dynamic draining device capable of creating a depression in order to suck up the water contained in the drying structure. Application is for pressurized water nuclear reactors [fr

  9. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    OpenAIRE

    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino

    2007-01-01

    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  10. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2012-08-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.

  11. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Juan C; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000. (paper)

  12. Programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320): Draft supplement dealing with post-defueling monitored storage and subsequent cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Commission's implementing regulations, and its April 27, 1981,Statement of Policy, the Programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, NUREG-0683 (PEIS) is being supplemented. This draft supplement updates the enviromental evaluation of cleanup alternatives published in the PEIS, utilizing more complete and current information. Also, the draft supplement includes a specific environmental evaluation of the licensee's recently submitted proposal for post-defueling monitored storage. The NRC staff has concluded that the licensee's proposal to place the facility in a monitored storage configuration will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Further, any impacts from the long-term storage of the facility are outweighed by its benefits. 63 refs., 23 figs., 65 tabs

  13. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and thereby enhancing the economic development of their countries. PMID:16260795

  14. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  15. Study of the patency of different peritoneal drains used prophylactically in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado Júnior, Wilson; Macedo Neto, Marcelo Martins; dos Santos, José Sebastião; Sakarankutty, Ajith Kumar; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; de Castro e Silva, Orlando

    2009-05-21

    To compare the performance of different types of abdominal drains used in bariatric surgery. A vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was performed in 33 morbidly obese patients. Drainage of the peritoneal cavity was performed in each case using three different types of drain selected in a randomized manner: a latex tubular drain, a Watterman tubulolaminar drain, and a silicone channeled drain. Drain permeability, contamination of the drained fluid, ease of handling, and patient discomfort were evaluated postoperatively over a period of 7 d. The patients with the silicone channeled drain had larger volumes of drainage compared to patients with tubular and tubulolaminar drains between the third and seventh postoperative days. In addition, a lower incidence of discomfort and of contamination with bacteria of a more pathogenic profile was observed in the patients with the silicone channeled drain. The silicone channeled drain was more comfortable and had less chance of occlusion, which is important in the detection of delayed dehiscence.

  16. Calcium phosphate saturation in seawater around the Andaman Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Ionic product (IP) of calcium phosphate is calculated at some stations around Andaman Island. The depthwise variations of the ionic product of calcium phosphate seem to follow a normal trend with maximum saturation value between 100 to 200 m. Using...

  17. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  18. Study of the active layer at the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla”, Deception Island, Antarctica; Análisis del estado de la capa activa en el emplazamiento de la base antártica española Gabriel de Castilla, Isla Decepción, Antártida.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo, M.A. de; Molina, A.; Recio, C.; Ramos, M.; Goyanes, G.; Ropero, M.A.

    2017-09-01

    The degradation of permanent frozen ground (permafrost) and the increase in the thickness of the active layer may be caused both by natural processes (such as global climate change) and by anthropic activity, which changes the natural environmental conditions that allow its existence, as has been widely reported to occur in the northern polar and subpolar regions. In the case of Antarctica, some scientific research stations are located in areas with permafrost, such as the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla” on Deception Island. In the place where the station is located, an important increase in erosion has been observed in recent years, including the excavation of new gullies and the erosion of the coastal cliffs. In order to develop an initial analysis of the possible effects of the station on the permafrost degradation, ground temperature has been monitored since 2012 and the thickness and of the active layer and the temperature, both inside and beneath the station, have also been sporadically measured. Here we show the results and discuss how the station reduces the freezing of the ground during the winter when the station is closed and facilitates the warming of the ground during the living periods of the station in the Antarctic summer. Those initial results and conclusions make necessary to continue the study of the permafrost and the active layer in the station site by systematic monitoring of the ground temperature and the thickness of the active layer. [Spanish] La degradación de los suelos congelados (permafrost) y el aumento de espesor de la capa activa pueden deberse tanto a factores naturales, como antrópicos (edificaciones, carreteras, cimentaciones, etc.) que modifican las condiciones naturales y, por tanto, sus características termo-mecánicas, tal y como ha sido profusamente estudiado en el hemisferio Norte. En el caso de la Antártida, algunas bases se encuentran en zonas de permafrost, como es el caso de la base espa

  19. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss.

  20. Current practice patterns of drain usage amongst UK and Irish surgeons performing bilateral breast reductions: Evidence down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Conor M; McInerney, Niall; Joyce, Cormac W; Jones, Deidre; Hussey, Alan J; Kelly, Jack L; Kerin, Michael J; Regan, Padraic J

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral breast reduction (BBR) is one of the most frequently performed female breast operations. Despite no evidence supporting efficacy of drain usage in BBRs, postoperative insertion is common. Recent high quality evidence demonstrating potential harm from drain use has subsequently challenged this traditional practice. The aim of this study is to assess the current practice patterns of drains usage by Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons in UK and Ireland performing BBRs. An 18 question survey was created evaluating various aspects of BBR practice. UK and Irish Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons were invited to participate by an email containing a link to a web-based survey. Statistical analysis was performed with student t-test and chi-square test. Two hundred and eleven responding surgeons were analysed, including 80.1% (171/211) Plastic Surgeons and 18.9% (40/211) Breast Surgeons. Of the responding surgeons, 71.6% (151/211) routinely inserted postoperative drains, for a mean of 1.32 days. Drains were used significantly less by surgeons performing ≥20 BBRs (p = 0.02). With the majority of BBRs performed as an inpatient procedure, there was a trend towards less drain usage in surgeons performing this procedure as an outpatient; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Even with the high level of evidence demonstrating the safety of BBR without drains, they are still routinely utilised. In an era of evidence- based medicine, surgeons performing breast reductions must adopt the results from scientific research into their clinical practice.

  1. A study of the complications of small bore 'Seldinger' intercostal chest drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen E; Merchant, Shairoz; McGown, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Use of small bore chest drains (drainage over a 12-month period. One hundred consecutive small bore Seldinger (12F) chest drain insertions were evaluated. Few serious complications occurred. However, 21% of the chest drains were displaced ('fell out') and 9% of the drains became blocked. This contributed to high morbidity rates, with 13% of patients requiring repeat pleural procedures. The frequency of drain blockage in pleural effusion was reduced by administration of regular normal saline drain flushes (odds ratio for blockage in flushed drains compared with non-flushed drains 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.37, P < 0.001). Regular chest drain flushes are advocated in order to reduce rates of drain blockage, and further studies are needed to determine optimal fixation strategies that may reduce associated patient morbidity.

  2. Frequency dependence and passive drains in fish-eye lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Teruel, O.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Hao, Y.

    2012-11-01

    The Maxwell fish eye lens has previously been reported as being capable of the much sought after phenomenon of subwavelength imaging. The inclusion of a drain in this system is considered crucial to the imaging ability, although its role is the topic of much debate. This paper provides a numerical investigation into a practical implementation of a drain in such systems, and analyzes the strong frequency dependence of both the Maxwell fish eye lens and an alternative, the Miñano lens. The imaging capability of these types of lens is questioned, and it is supported by simulations involving various configurations of drain arrays. Finally, a discussion of the near-field and evanescent wave contribution is given.

  3. The effect of drains on the alkalinity of agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Butt, T.; Anwar-ul-Haque; Haroon, M.; Haq, I.U.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe the effect of industrial and domestic drains on the nearby agricultural areas which are either irrigated or not by the waste water but are close to drains. For this purpose 48 soil samples were collected from the selected areas of Faisalabad and were analyzed for alkali metals like Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Li/sup +/ and some alkaline earth metals like Ba/sup 2+/> Mg/sup 3+/> Na/sup +/> K/sup +/> Li/sup +/ the levels of Ba/sup +2/ and K/sup +/ were found higher than permissible levels in almost all the soil samples. It was also concluded that the agricultural areas near the industrial drain which are either irrigated or not by the industrial waste water are found highly contaminated with mobile alkali metals (K, Na etc.) and higher values of percentage salinity. (author)

  4. Fibredrain method. Environmentally friendly vertical drain; Fiberdrain koho. Kankyo ni yasashii vertical drain koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y.; Inoue, T. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Miura, N. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Yoshida, Y.; Hamada, K. [Hiroshima Prefectural Government Office, Hiroshima (Japan); Aboshi, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Ground improvement using fibredrain (FD) material has not been used in Japan. For its practical use in Japan, laboratory experiment was made on such technological characteristics of FD material as tensile strength and permeability, and field test was also made to verify its improvement effect. A plane FD specimen of nearly 90mm wide and 9mm thick is composed of a folded double jute fabrics band and 4 twisted coir ropes arranged between the jute fabrics at even intervals, and the band is sewn up along center lines between the ropes. A mean permeability coefficient is estimated to be {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -1}cm/s and {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -2}cm/s at {sigma}{sup 3} = 0.5kgf/cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sup 3} = 2.0kgf/cm{sup 2} in lateral pressure, respectively, showing sufficient permeabilities for vertical drain material. The tensile strength of fresh FD material is estimated to be a little stronger than 900kg/material width which is far stronger than that of conventional FD materials. The field test result showed that the FD material achieved the target for ground improvement, and has sufficient functions as a substitute for SD material. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Investigation on the Effect of Drained Strength when Designing Sheet Pile Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    that the height, anchor force, and the maximum bending moment in the wall can be lowered significantly when the effective cohesion is increased above zero. However, as the cohesion increases, the drop in the moment levels off, which implies that the benefit obtained from investigations increasing the cohesion......Long sheet pile walls are constructed in the cities as an integrated part of deep excavations for e.g. parking lots, pumping stations, reservoirs, and cut and cover tunnels. To minimise costs, the strength of the soil needs to be determined in the best possible way. The drained strength of clay...... expressed by c and ϕ is often estimated as c 10% = 10%・cu, and found by estimations based on the soil describtion, respectively. However, due to possible slicken slides and tension cracks, c = 0 is used on the back side of the sheet pile wall. This reduces the strength significantly. A parametric study...

  6. The search for forest facts: a history of the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1926–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    In 1926, the California Forest Experiment Station, which later became the Pacific Southwest (PSW) Research Station, was established at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, the PSW Research Station represents the research and development branch of the USDA Forest Service in California and Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. The PSW Research Station...

  7. Replacement of the drain system of secondary circuit at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kenji; Onuki, Koji; Tomobe, Katsuma; Taniyama, Sadami

    2003-01-01

    Monju is as a Japan's prototype fast breeder reactor cooled by liquid sodium. In the course of power buildup tests, the sodium leakage accident broke out on 8th December 1995. Though Monju has been already equipped with countermeasure systems against the sodium leakage accident, some additional improvements will be taken in order to reduce the damage by the leaked sodium when another leakage accident should recur. The most characteristic work is the drain system modification that leads to shorten the drain time and to reduce the quantity of leaked sodium in the event of sodium leakage. (author)

  8. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  9. An Equal-Strain Analytical Solution for the Radial Consolidation of Unsaturated Soils by Vertical Drains considering Drain Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing an analytical solution for the consolidation of unsaturated soils remains a challenging task due to the complexity of coupled governing equations for air and water phases. This paper presents an equal-strain model for the radial consolidation of unsaturated soils by vertical drains, and the effect of drain resistance is also considered. Simplified governing equations are established, and an analytical solution to calculate the excess pore-air and pore-water pressures is derived by using the methods of matrix analysis and eigenfunction expansion. The average degrees of consolidation for air and water phases and the ground surface settlement are also given. The solutions of the equal-strain model are verified by comparing the proposed free-strain model with the equal-strain model, and reasonably good agreement is obtained. Moreover, parametric studies regarding the drain resistance effect are graphically presented.

  10. A dependence modelling study of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Reis, Délia; Guerreiro Lopes, Luiz; Mendonça, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    The dependence between variables plays a central role in multivariate extremes. In this paper, spatial dependence of Madeira Island's rainfall data is addressed within an extreme value copula approach through an analysis of maximum annual data. The impact of altitude, slope orientation, distance between rain gauge stations and distance from the stations to the sea are investigated for two different periods of time. The results obtained highlight the influence of the island's complex topography on the spatial distribution of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island.

  11. Does the suction drain diameter matter? Bleeding analysis after total knee replacement comparing different suction drain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate bleeding and the estimated blood loss in patients who underwent total knee replacement (TKR with different closed suction drains (3.2-mm and 4.8-mm gauge. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial with 22 patients who underwent TKR and were divided into two groups: Group I, with 11 patients in whom the 3.2-mm suction drain was used, and Group II, with 11 patients in whom the 4.8-mm suction drain was used. The hematocrit was measured after 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery in order to calculate the estimated blood loss. The drained volume was measured 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after TKR, and thereafter both groups were compared. RESULTS: Regarding the hematocrit, there were no differences between groups in measured periods (24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. The total bleeding measured at the suction drains within 48 h was higher in Group II, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.005; in the first 24 h, there was major bleeding in Group II (mean 893 mL, with a significant difference (p = 0.004. Between 24 and 48 h, there was no statistically significant difference in both groups (p = 0.710. The total estimated bleeding was higher in Group I, with mean of 463 mL, versus 409 mL in Group II, with no statistical significance (p = 0.394. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding was higher in the group that used the 4.8 mm gauge suction drain, with no differences in hematocrit and estimated blood loss.

  12. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  13. The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery and the comparison of two different practice protocols for drain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbekar, A V; Davies, F; Upile, N; Ho, M W; Roland, N J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery is varied. We aimed to improve early drain removal and therefore patient discharge in a safe and effective manner. Methods The postoperative management of head and neck surgical patients with vacuum neck drains was reviewed retrospectively. A new policy was then implemented to measure drainage three times daily (midnight, 6am, midday). The decision for drain removal was based on the most recent drainage period (at Measuring drainage volumes three times daily allows for more accurate assessment of wound drainage, and this can lead to earlier removal of neck drains and safe discharge.

  14. Brain drain or brain gain : The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Brain drain refers to the emigration of highly skilled individuals mostly from a less developed (home) to a developed country (destination) thereby reducing the capacity of the home country to generate welfare for its population. In the literature there is much written

  15. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field

  16. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, Asim

    2017-07-01

    To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Quasi experimental study. Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p hematoma was 15 ±6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another.

  17. On the use of drains in orthopedic and trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... Even major procedures like total knee and arthroplasties are being performed without drains. We set to find ... discourage wound healing while encouraging bacterial ... a period of two days or if drainage over the first twenty‑four hours was found ... Three of the twenty Kuntscher nailings for femoral fracture.

  18. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  19. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  20. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  1. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leakage from 'open to air' system or breakage of glass bottle (with associated risk to ... and an air-leak detection system. It is connected to a ... need to add water. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard therapy – a randomised controlled trial. CHARL COOPER, M.B. CH.B. TIMOTHY HARDCASTLE ...

  2. An Improvised Active Drain | Ogirima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvised active drain is designed from intravenous infusion set and recycled RedivacR or Haemovac® bottle. Outcome of the use of this system on 100 patients is presented. This suction drainage system had been used in major orthopaedic and common minor surgical procedures and no significant complication was ...

  3. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  4. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Xpand chest drain is an external medical device made of plastic that incorporates a fluid reservoir, a one-way valve and an air-leak detection system ... conect ed to a 2 000 ml drainage bag) prevents exposure of body fluids to nursing staff.

  5. English and the Brain Drain : An Uncertain Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    In his book Linguistic Justice for Europe and the World, Van Parijs analyses in one of his chapters the brain drain from non-Anglophone to Anglophone countries, which hurts the economic development of the nonAnglophone states. Van Parijs deems it clear that English is a very important factor to

  6. Organic loss in drained wetland: managing the carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durham, B.; van de Noort, R.; Martens, V.V.; Vorenhout, M.

    2012-01-01

    The recent installation of land drains at Star Carr, Yorkshire, UK, has been linked with loss of preservation quality in this important Mesolithic buried landscape, challenging the PARIS principle. Historically captured organic carbon, including organic artefacts, is being converted to soluble

  7. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  8. Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen

    2000-01-01

    The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a collar grows or shrinks in volume as it drains depends on the modified Bond number B=rho g a(2)/(sigmaepsilon), where rho is the fluid density, sigma is its surface tension, and epsilona is the thickness of the thin film immediately ahead of the collar. Asymptotic methods are used here to determine the following nonlinear stability criteria for an individual collar, valid in the limit of small epsilon. For 0draining collars grow in volume and, in sufficiently long tubes, ultimately "snap off" to form stable lenses. For 0.5960drain, so that any lens ultimately ruptures, unless stabilizing intermolecular forces allow the formation of a lamella supported by a macroscopic Plateau border. If surfactant immobilizes the liquid's free surface, these critical values of B are reduced by a factor of 2 but the distance a collar must travel before it snaps off is unchanged. Gravitationally driven snap off is therefore most likely to occur in long tubes with radii substantially less than the capillary lengthscale sigma/rhog)(1/2). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  10. Drains after Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disorders; Are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prophylactic drainage after thyroidectomy has been a regular practice at Kenyatta National Hospital( KNH). This has been ... stay and post-operative pain. Introduction. Prophylactic drains are still regularly used in ..... Total versus subtotal thyroidectomy for the management of benign multinodular goiter in an endemic region.

  11. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load In Soil And Uptake By Vegetables. ... This polluted water not only contains organic matter and crop nutrients but also ... Plant samples were collected at maturity from all the monitoring points. ... (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ...

  12. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among…

  13. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  14. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  15. Origin of the water drained by the tunnel Graton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata B, A.

    1992-12-01

    The research of the origin of the water drained by the Graton tunnel was attempted using isotope techniques. During the period of studies (April 1989-October 1992), four field work was executed to sample waters for chemistry, stable isotope and Tritium analysis, an to inject tracers and verify the possible infiltration from the Rimac and Blanco rivers to the tunnel. The results of the stable isotope analysis show that the water drained by the Graton tunnel comes from a basin around 300 meters above the average altitude of the basin where the Graton is located. The Tritium analysis show that the water is relatively modern. Using the model of total mixing, the residence times of the water drained at the km 0.5 and 2.5 are in the order to 45 years. The conductivities of the water of the tunnel is higher than the Rimac river ones because the influence of mine water. The chemical analysis of the water sampled at the downstream end of the tunnel, show that the conservative ions of the water kept almost constant during more than two years. The results of the work with artificial tracer show that there is no significant leakage from the Rimac and Blanco rivers to the Graton tunnel. So far, it can be concluded as a preliminary approach that the Graton tunnel drains relatively modern water originated in another basin. The hydrodynamics of the area of study seems to include a large storage on underground water in the system. The topography, geology and isotopic composition of the water samples, points to the upper Mantaro river basin as the possible source of part of the water drained by the Graton tunnel. (authors). 20 p. 2 figs., 7 ills., 4 tabs

  16. Perioperative lumbar drain utilization in transsphenoidal pituitary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Shatha; Harsh, Griffith; Ajlan, Abdulrazag

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate lumbar drain (LD) efficacy in transnasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, technique safety, and effect on length of hospital stay. We conducted a retrospective data review of pituitary tumor patients in our institution who underwent surgery between December 2006 and January 2013. All patients were operated on for complete surgical resection of pituitary macroadenoma tumors. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 received a preoperative drain, while LD was not preoperatively inserted in group 2. In cases of tumors with suprasellar extension with anticipation of high-flow leak, LD was inserted after the patient was intubated and in a lateral position. Lumbar drain was used for 48 hours, and the drain was removed if no leak was observed postoperatively. In documented postoperative CSF leak patients with no preoperative drain, the leak was treated by LD trial prior to surgical reconstruction. Cases in which leak occurred 6 months postoperatively were excluded. Our study population consisted of 186 patients, 99 women (53%) and 87 men (47%), with a mean age of 50.3+/-16.1 years. Complications occurred in 7 patients (13.7%) in group 1 versus 21 (15.5%) in group 2 (p=0.72). Postoperative CSF leak was observed in 1 patient (1.9%) in group 1 and 7 (5%) in group 2 (Fisher exact test=0.3). Length of hospital stay was a mean of 4.7+/-1.9 days in group 1 and a mean of 2.7+/-2.4 days in group 2 (pLD insertion is generally considered safe with a low risk of complications, it increases the length of hospitalization. Minor complications include headaches and patient discomfort.

  17. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  18. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  19. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  20. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  1. An experimental study about efficacy of the drain catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Bum Gyu; Nho, Joon Young; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Although percutaneous abscess drainage has become and accepted alternative from of therapy for selected patients with abscess, it is well known that there are several factors in the failure of adequate drainage such as pre- and post-procedural management, technique itself, various features of abscess, and selection and application of catheters. Among these factors, we made an experiment about drainage efficacy of commonly used various catheters with different viscosities of water-glycerin solution under the two different pressure gradients. The experimental values of flow rate were very lower than the calculated values. An efficacy of experimental value was 4-14%. Because the inner diameter of fittings and stopcocks was usually smaller than the inner diameter of catheters, these factors also affected the drain efficacy. Finally, we thought that it will be very helpful to the treatment of patient as well as to study about the catheter drainage, if the drain efficacy of individual catheters has been notified.

  2. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2018-01-01

    influences the amount of fluid. METHODS: We randomly assigned (1:1) 106 patients who underwent lobectomy to either low (-5 cm H2O) or high (-20 cm H2O) external suction using an electronic chest drainage system. Only one chest drain was allowed, and we used strict algorithms for chest drain removal, which...... was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  3. 'Brain drain' from Serbia: One face of globalization of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we point out the role of the practice and ideology of globalization in brain drain process from Serbia. The listed data are based on the large-scale departure of highly educated persons from Serbia to the counties of West Europe and the USA. The dynamics, proportions and tendencies are analysed the role of the educational system in the process of departure of highly educated people and the reasons and consequences of the departure of scientist and engineering experts. In this article, education policy as state financial support are critical analysed. For Serbia, as the relatively undeveloped country in the middle of the modernization processes, this process has far-reaching effects on the social development. So, here we implied the possible solutions for the problem of brain drain.

  4. Reduction in wick drain effectiveness with spacing for Utah silts and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Although decreasing the spacing of vertical drains usually decreases the time for consolidation, previous field tests have shown that there is a critical drain spacing for which tighter spacing does not decrease the time for consolidation. This...

  5. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeji, Bibilola D.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries t...

  6. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishfaq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p <0.05 was utilized using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17). Results: Median age of the 62 patients was 72 +-12.5 years. Headache was the most common symptom reported in both groups, (n=47,75.8%) patients. Median thickness of hematoma was 15 +-6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Conclusion: Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another. (author)

  7. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Guo; Kang-He Xie; Yue-Bao Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradie...

  8. Globalization and migration: A "unified brain drain" model

    OpenAIRE

    Brezis, Elise S.; Soueri, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to a vast flow of migration of workers but also of students. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration of individuals encompassing decisions already at the level of education. We develop a unified brain drain model that incorporates the decisions of an individual vis - à - vis both education and migration. In the empirical part, this paper addresses international flows of migration within the EU and presents strong evidence of concentration of students in cou...

  9. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  10. Powerful Software to Simulate Soil Consolidation Problems with Prefabricated Vertical Drains

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo García-Ros; Iván Alhama; Manuel Cánovas

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the program Simulation of Consolidation with Vertical Drains (SICOMED_2018), a tool for the solution of consolidation processes in heterogeneous soils, with totally or partially penetrating prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) and considering both the effects of the smear zone, generated when introducing the drain into the ground, and the limitation in the discharge capacity of the drain. In order to provide a completely free program, the code Next-Generation Simulat...

  11. Drain site evisceration of fallopian tube, another reason to discourage abdominal drain: report of a case and brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pradeep; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Gupta, Arun; Kaur, Navneet

    2012-04-01

    Placement of a drain following abdominal surgery is common despite a lack of convincing evidence in the current literature to support this practice. The use of intra-abdominal drain is associated with many potential and serious complications. We report a drain site evisceration of the right fallopian tube after the removal of an intra-abdominal drain. The drain was placed in the right iliac fossa in a patient who underwent a lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) for meconium liquor with fetal distress. The Pfannenstiel incision made for LSCS was reopened and the protruding inflamed fimbrial end of the right fallopian tube was excised. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Routine intra-abdominal prophylactic drain following an abdominal surgery including LSCS should be discouraged.

  12. The Simple Urine Bag as Wound Drain Post-Craniotomy in a Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A 4-year prospective cohort study of the effectiveness, outcome with use and complications of the Uribag as post craniotomy wound drain in a consecutive cohort of neurosurgical patients. Data analyzed include the patients' brief demographics; the types of cranial surgery in which drain was used; the drain ...

  13. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... the VGB Act defines an ``unblockable drain'' as ``a drain of any size and shape that a human body... intentions. They claim that for this reason, backup systems are necessary, and a swimming pool or spa with a... of an ``unblockable drain,'' at 16 CFR 1450.2(b) and believe it was in error. Regardless of the size...

  14. Draining after breast reduction: a randomised controlled inter-patient study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corion, Leonard U. M.; Smeulders, Mark J. C.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and seven bilateral breast reductions were prospectively randomised during surgery to receive or not receive wound drains. Fifty-five patients were randomised to have a drain and 52 to not have a drain. There was no statistical difference in the number of complications between the

  15. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiddin Abdu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production" of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a

  16. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  17. Safety aspects of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binner, W.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of the fear of nuclear power are discussed, cancer deaths due to a nuclear accident are predicted and the need for nuclear accident prevention is stressed. A simplified analysis of the safety precautions in a generalised nuclear power station is offered, with reference to loss-of-coolant incidents, and developments in reactor design for fail-safe modes are explained. The importance of learning from the Three Mile Island incident is noted and failure statistics are presented. Tasks to be undertaken at the Austrian Zwentendorf nuclear power station are listed, including improved quality control and acoustic detectors. Precautions against earthquakes are also discussed and it is stated that safe operation of the Zwentendorf station will be achieved. (G.M.E.)

  18. AFSC/ABL: Little Port Walter Marine Research Station Supply Run Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November, 2006, Oceanographic observations were initiated during the resupply cruises to the Little Port Walter Research Station on lower Baranof Island,...

  19. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  20. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  1. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  2. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  3. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  4. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  5. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  6. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  7. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  8. Iatrogenic Perforation of the Left Ventricle during Insertion of a Chest Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongmin; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Seo, Pil Won

    2013-01-01

    Chest draining is a common procedure for treating pleural effusion. Perforation of the heart is a rare often fatal complication of chest drain insertion. We report a case of a 76-year-old female patient suffering from congestive heart failure. At presentation, unilateral opacity of the left chest observed on a chest X-ray was interpreted as massive pleural effusion, so an attempt was made to drain the left pleural space. Malposition of the chest drain was suspected because blood was draining ...

  9. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  10. A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, P C; Halfacree, Z J; Baines, S J

    2015-05-01

    To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases. Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®. Two hundred and fifty-three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species. Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Comparison of a large and small-calibre tube drain for managing spontaneous pneumothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Ian J; Benfield, Grant F A

    2009-10-01

    To compare treatment success of large- and small-bore chest drains in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothoraces the case-notes were reviewed of those admitted to our hospital with a total of 73 pneumothoraces and who were treated by trainee doctors of varying experience. Both a large- and a small-bore intercostal tube drain system were in use during the two-year period reviewed. Similar pneumothorax profile and numbers treated with both drains were recorded, resulting in a similar drain time and numbers of successful and failed re-expansion of pneumothoraces. Successful pneumothorax resolution was the same for both drain types and the negligible tube drain complications observed with the small-bore drain reflected previously reported experiences. However the large-bore drain was associated with a high complication rate (32%) with more infectious complications (24%). The small-bore drain was prone to displacement (21%). There was generally no evidence of an increased failure and morbidity, reflecting poorer expertise, in the non-specialist trainees managing the pneumothoraces. A practical finding however was that in those large pneumothoraces where re-expansion failed, the tip of the drain had not been sited at the apex of the pleural cavity irrespective of the drain type inserted.

  12. Evisceration of Appendix through the Drain Site: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Rajamani, A

    2013-06-01

    Placing a drain after surgery is a usual procedure in any emergency abdominal operation. The drain is removed as soon as its purpose of draining the intraabdominal collection in served. Evisceration of intraabdominal organs through the drain site is a rare occurance. This case report is about an 12 year old girl who was admitted with blunt trauma abdomen. After completion of emergency laparotomy a drain was placed in the right lower quadrant. When the drain was removed on the 6th post operative day, the appendix eviscerated out of the drain site. The wound was extended a little and an appendectomy was done. This case is presented for its rarity as only two similar instances have been reported in literature so far.

  13. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  14. CDIP Station Data Collection - All Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego — The Coastal Data Information Program's station data collection consists of all publicly-released coastal environment measurements taken over the program's history, a...

  15. Processing method for drained water containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ogawa, Naoki; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Kamiyoshi, Hideki; Fukunaga, Kazuo; Iwamoto, Ken; Miki, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Drained water containing ethanol amine is processed with microorganisms such as hydrazine resistant denitrification bacteria in a biodegrading vessel (A) in the coexistence of nitrous ions and/or nitric ions under an anaerobic condition, and then it is processed with microorganisms such as nitrification bacteria in another biotic oxidation vessel (B) under an aerobic condition to generate the coexistent nitrate ion and/or nitric ion, and returned to the biodegrading vessel (A). Further, they are exposed to air or incorporated with an oxidant and optionally a copper compound such as copper sulfate as a catalyst is added in a step of removing hydrazine. (T.M.)

  16. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  17. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  18. Laparoscopic primary repair and isoperistaltic endoluminal drain for Boerhaave's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Francesco; Pezzolla, Angela; Nitti, Paolo; Prete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave syndrome (BS), is a rare and potentially lethal pathological condition. BS recognition is difficult, while rapidity of diagnosis, along with extension of the lesion, affects type and outcome of treatment. BS was classically treated by thoracotomy, but laparoscopic (LS), thoracoscopic (TS) surgery, and nonsurgical procedures as endoscopic stent positioning or use of glues have been described. Still, there is no model treatment, and selection of the most appropriate therapeutic procedure is complex in the absence of standardised criteria. We successfully managed a patient affected with BS by LS approach and present our experience along with a review of treatment options so far described. Our treatment integrated positioning of an oesophageal isoperistaltic endoluminal drain (IED), that we routinely use in oesophageal sutures at risk of leakage, and of which there is no previous report in the setting of BS. A 68 year old man presented to our attention with true BS, suspected on chest-abdominal CT scan and confirmed by upper GI contrast swallow test, showing leakage of hydro-soluble contrast from the lower third of the oesophagus. Of note, pleural cavities appeared intact. We performed an urgent laparoscopy 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Laparoscopic toilet of the inferior mediastinum and dual layer oesophageal repair with pedicled omental flap were complemented by positioning of IED, feeding jejunostomy and two tubular drains. The patient had a slow but consistent recovery where IED played as a means of oesophageal suture protection, until he could be discharged home. We think that, when integrity of the pleura is documented, LS should be priority choice to avoid contamination of the pleural cavities. We have to consider every type of oesophageal repair in BS at risk of failure, and every means of protection of the suture is opportune. In our patient the oesophageal suture, covered with a flap of omentum

  19. Consequences assessment for fuel channel failure with consequential moderator drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, N.N.; Bayoumi, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the consequences of spontaneous pressure tube/consequential calandria tube rupture followed by the ejection of end fittings (as a result of guillotine failure of pressure tube) leading to the drain of the moderator. The event is postulated to occur in conjunction with an independent failure of Emergency Coolant Injection System (ECIS). The results of the detailed consequence assessments are used to propose a course of action to mitigate the consequences of such an event. A methodology based on a lumped-parameter model was developed to assess the consequences of the postulated event. (author)

  20. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  1. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  2. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  3. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  4. Local seismic activity monitored at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Lee,Duk Kee; Kim,Yea Dong; Nam,Sang Heon; Jin,Young Keun

    1998-01-01

    Source location estimation from single station earthquake data collected at King Sejong Station (62°13'3l"N, 58°47'07"W) from 1995 to 1996 provides seismic activity around King Sejong Station. Analysis of local events, less than 1.5°in angular epicentral distance, finds epicenters located near the Shackleton Fracture Zone, the South Shetland Platform, Deception Island, and North Bransfield Basin. Estimated magnitudes range from 2.2 to 4.5 on the Richter scale, averaging 4.0 in North Bransfiel...

  5. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  6. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  8. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  9. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1

  10. Global estimates of high-level brain drain and deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2004-06-01

    Brain drain, the international migration of scientists in search of better opportunities, has been a long-standing concern, but quantitative measurements are uncommon and limited to specific countries or disciplines. We need to understand brain drain at a global level and estimate the extent to which scientists born in countries with low opportunities never realize their potential. Data on 1523 of the most highly cited scientists for 1981-1999 are analyzed. Overall, 31.9% of these scientists did not reside in the country where they were born (range 18.1-54.6% across 21 different scientific fields). There was great variability across developed countries in the proportions of foreign-born resident scientists and emigrating scientists. Countries without a critical mass of native scientists lost most scientists to migration. This loss occurred in both developed and developing countries. Adjusting for population and using the U.S. as reference, the number of highly cited native-born scientists was at least 75% of the expected number in only 8 countries other than the U.S. It is estimated that approximately 94% of the expected top scientists worldwide have not been able to materialize themselves due to various adverse conditions. Scientific deficit is only likely to help perpetuate these adverse conditions.

  11. Influence of performance improvement of AP1000 nuclear island main equipment forging on manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    In order to comply with the 60-year design life of an AP1000 nuclear power station, higher strength and ductility requirements have been made on AP1000 nuclear island SG forgings than on CPR1000 nuclear island main equipment. In addition, bigger size of AP1000 nuclear island SG forgings increases the difficulty of manufacturing them. Insufficient recognition of these changes may cause unstable quality of forgings and possible quality problems in follow-up welding procedure. On the basis of comparison and analysis of AP1000 nuclear island SG forgings and CPR1000 nuclear island forgings, this thesis suggests clear directions for the actions we need to take. (author)

  12. Nuclear power station achievement 1968-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.R.

    This report reviews and gives an analysis of the achievement of operating nuclear power stations in the Western world on three relevant bases: (1) both annual and cumulative achievement of all nuclear power stations at a particular time; (2) cumulative achievement of all nuclear power stations at the end of the first and subsequent years of their lives to show trends with age; (3) achievement based on refuelling period considerations. Nowhere in the report are any operating details ignored, omitted or eliminated in the method of analysis. Summarising the results of the reviews shows: an improvement with time from initial electricity generation on all bases; that initially, larger sizes of reactor/turbine operate less well than smaller sizes (except for PHWR's); that after an initial number of years, the largest size units operate as well as the intermediate and smaller sizes, or better in the PHWR case; that a 75 per cent cumulative load factor achievement in the middle years of a reactor/turbines life can be expected on the refuelling period considerations base; that at June 1980, 35 nuclear power stations achieved an annual load factor over 75 per cent; that the above achievement was possible despite the repercussions following the Three Mile Island 'accident' and the shutdowns in the USA for piping system seismic adequacy checks required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for five nuclear power stations; and that even when reactors/turbines are reaching towards the end of their design life, there is no rapid deterioration in their achievements. (author)

  13. Drain Insertion in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: An International Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Guzman, Raphael; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether, after the publication of grade I evidence that it reduces recurrence rates, the practice of drain insertion after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma has changed. Further, we aimed to document various practice modalities concerning the insertion of a drain adopted by neurosurgeons internationally. We administered a survey to neurosurgeons worldwide with questions relating to the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma, with an emphasis on their practices concerning the use of a drain. The preferred surgical technique was burr-hole drainage (89%). Most surgeons prefer to place a drain (80%), whereas in 56% of the cases the reason for not placing a drain was brain expansion after evacuation. Subdural drains are placed by 50% and subperiosteal drains by 27% of the responders, whereas 23% place primarily a subdural drain if possible and otherwise a subperiosteal drain. Three quarters of the responders leave the drain for 48 hours and give prophylactic antibiotic treatment, mostly a single-shot dose intraoperatively (70%). Routine postoperative computed tomography is done by 59% mostly within 24-48 hours after surgery (94%). Adjunct treatment to surgery rarely is used (4%). The publication of grade I evidence in favor of drain use influenced positively this practice worldwide. Some surgeons are still reluctant to insert a drain, especially when the subdural space is narrow after drainage of the hematoma. The insertion of a subperiosteal drain could be a good alternative solution. However, its outcome and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating drain flow from measured water table depth in layered soils under free and controlled drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Samaneh; Bowling, Laura; Frankenberger, Jane; Kladivko, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Long records of continuous drain flow are important for quantifying annual and seasonal changes in the subsurface drainage flow from drained agricultural land. Missing data due to equipment malfunction and other challenges have limited conclusions that can be made about annual flow and thus nutrient loads from field studies, including assessments of the effect of controlled drainage. Water table depth data may be available during gaps in flow data, providing a basis for filling missing drain flow data; therefore, the overall goal of this study was to examine the potential to estimate drain flow using water table observations. The objectives were to evaluate how the shape of the relationship between drain flow and water table height above drain varies depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity profile, to quantify how well the Hooghoudt equation represented the water table-drain flow relationship in five years of measured data at the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center (DPAC), and to determine the impact of controlled drainage on drain flow using the filled dataset. The shape of the drain flow-water table height relationship was found to depend on the selected hydraulic conductivity profile. Estimated drain flow using the Hooghoudt equation with measured water table height for both free draining and controlled periods compared well to observed flow with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values above 0.7 and 0.8 for calibration and validation periods, respectively. Using this method, together with linear regression for the remaining gaps, a long-term drain flow record for a controlled drainage experiment at the DPAC was used to evaluate the impacts of controlled drainage on drain flow. In the controlled drainage sites, annual flow was 14-49% lower than free drainage.

  15. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Assessment, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, October 2000, (NODC Accession 0002301)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian lslands were sampled during October 2000 at 63 stations on 9 atolls or islands under the lead of NOAA. This work is affiliated with the...

  16. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Rota Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota Island in the...

  17. 76 FR 59159 - Record of Decision; Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... also can be picked-up in person at the park's headquarters at 415 Washington Avenue, Bayfield... current levels. If feasible, part of the Long Island light station will be rehabilitated for park staff...

  18. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  19. From city’s station to station city. An integrative spatial approach to the (redevelopment of station areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Martins da Conceição

    2014-12-01

    well as redesigned. A variety of positive and negative approaches and solutions to the problem were identified. The research is rounded up with a set of ‘design recommendations’ meant to improve the performance of station area spaces, based on the results of the (graphical analyses and the redesign exercises. In general, to attain such performance the (physical and functional integration of the public spaces of the station and of its surroundings, along with the specific (spatial characteristics of the city they are located in, are crucial. The desirable concentration of transport and non-transport functions must be clearly organized in space, dismantling barriers to their accessibility. To operationalize such integration in all categories of cases, architecture must go beyond its traditional scope regarding intervention scale and methodology. This requires a structural change to the station area’s design task, which should be organized around spatial goals commonly subscribed by all stakeholders, and in which architecture should have a central role. Such renovated awareness on the approach to the redevelopment of station areas is necessary for the improvement of their spatial performance. In this way the ‘city’s station’ can become a ‘station city’ which enhances the city’s liveability, instead of draining it out.

  20. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  1. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Kenneth; Mussa, Antonio; Chilundo, Baltazar; Gimbel, Sarah; Pfeiffer, James; Hagopian, Amy; Gloyd, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the private sector. An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties. Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693) were working full-time, including 71.1% (493) as clinicians, 20.5% (142) as health system managers, and 6.9% (48) as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181) of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113) continued working in-country and 37.6% (68) emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75) worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24) for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14) in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113) of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector. Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they seek

  2. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang

    2018-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH 4 was more obvious than the others. CO 2 and N 2 O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH 4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO 3 - +NO 2 - -N) and ammonia (NH 4 + -N) were positively correlated with CO 2 concentration and CH 4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH 4 concentration and N 2 O concentration. The effect of

  3. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Sherr

    Full Text Available Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and the private sector.An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties.Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693 were working full-time, including 71.1% (493 as clinicians, 20.5% (142 as health system managers, and 6.9% (48 as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181 of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113 continued working in-country and 37.6% (68 emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75 worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24 for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14 in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113 of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector.Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they

  4. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  5. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  6. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  7. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...... to macropore sediment transport. Simulated tile drain discharge, sediment and pesticide loads are calibrated against data from intensively monitored tile-drained fields and streams in Denmark....

  8. Brain drain in globalization A general equilibrium analysis from the sending countries’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luca MARCHIORI; I-Ling SHEN; Frederic DOCQUIER

    2009-01-01

    The paper assesses the global effects of brain drain on developing economies and quantifies the relative sizes of various static and dynamic impacts. By constructing a unified generic framework characterized by overlapping generations dynamics and calibrated to real data, this study incorporates many direct impacts of brain drain whose interactions, along with other indirect effects, are endogenously and dynamically generated. Our findings suggest that the short-run impact of brain drain on r...

  9. Stress corrosion on austenitic stainless steels components after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, L.; Baque, P.; Chairat, C.

    1980-04-01

    The damage study performed on 316 pipes of a loop after two leakages allows to conclude that a stress corrosion process in sodium hydroxide environment has induced trans-crystaline cracks. The research of conditions inducing such a phenomenon is developed, including parametric tests under uniaxial load and some tests on pipe with welded joints. In aqueous sodium hydroxide, two corrosion processes have been revealed: a general oxidization increasing with environment aeration and a transcrystalline cracking appearing for stresses of the order of yield strength. Other conditions such a temperature (upper than 100 0 C) and time exposures (some tens of hours) are necessary. Cautions in order to limit introduction of wet air into drained loop and a choice of appropriate preheating conditions when restarting the installation must permit to avoid such a type of incident

  10. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye

    2016-08-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.

  11. Reducing resin use in floor drain processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, W.; Hobart, S.A.; Miller, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant utilizes two mixed bed demineralizers for processing floor drain wastes. These demineralizers were originally designed for stream generator blowdown treatment, but were not needed for that purpose. Effluent from the resin beds is monitored for radioactivity and released for discharge. Plant radwaste inleakage volumes and resin disposal volumes were low in comparison with industry averages, but decontamination factors through the treatment system were less than desirable. Release criteria for discharges always had been met, but plant personnel wished to decrease their already low discharges of radioactive species, reduce their resin disposal costs, and provide a margin of safety in the unlikely event that fuel damage would be experienced during an operating cycle. This paper describes the study initiated to address those issues, the findings of the study, and results of implementing some of the study recommendations

  12. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  13. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...... tests were used to investigate the pile - soil interaction to gain a better in-sight into the complex problem. A monotonic test series was carried out initially and then pile - soil interaction curves were deduced from these tests and compared with methodologies used today. The results indicate...... that the current methodologies can be improved and a modification to the methodology has been proposed. Secondly, a cyclic test series was carried out. The accumulation of displacement and the change in secant stiffness of the total response of these tests were evaluated. A simple mathematical model was proposed...

  14. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  15. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  16. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  17. CSER 94-011: Use of glovebags for demister draining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A criticality safety review is presented for the use of plastic-sheet glovebags for the operations of draining demisters on the 26-inch vacuum system headers. A criticality drain is required because of the possibility for spilling liquid of sufficient volume and fissile content for criticality. It is recommended that the glovebag design include a rigid, 2ft x 2ft floor with a central drain feeding a geometrically favorable spill-catch vessel, plus a screen grid above the bottom for drain protection

  18. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  19. Estimation of local and regional components of drain - flow from an irrigated field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eching, S.O.; Hopmans, J.W.; Wallender, W.W.; Macyntyre, J.L.; Peters, D.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of regional ground water and deep percolation from a furrow irrigated field to total drain flow was estimated using salt load analysis. It was found that 64% of the drain flow comes from regional ground water flow. The electrical conductivity of the drain water was highly correlated with the drain flow rate. From the field water balance with deep percolation as estimated from the salt load analysis, using yield function derived evapotranspiration, and measured changes in root zone water storage, it was shown that 14% of the crop evapotranspiration comes from ground water during the study period. 8 figs; 5 tabs; 15 refs ( Author )

  20. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  1. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  2. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  3. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  4. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  5. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  6. Ondergronds Station Blijdorp, Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374

    2014-01-01

    Het is in de herfst van 2005. Een lief meisje, Marieke, rijdt op haar vouwfiets door Rotterdam. Bij het Centraal Station is het al tijden een grote bouwplaats. Onder de nieuwe hal komt een veel groter metrostation en ook onder de Statenweg in Blijdorp is een grote bouwput voor een nieuw station.

  7. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  8. Notes on the radiometric and geochemical survey of Leyte Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements using the Scintrex GIS-4 portable scintillometer were conducted along the periphery of the island. These radiometric readings as well as sediments were obtained along the streams draining into the sea. A total of 174 stream sediments samples were collected. Minus 80 mesh sediment fraction was analyzed for mobile or extractable uranium. Results indicated that the background values of radioactivity and uranium in stream sediments were 25 counts per second (cps) and 0.3 ppm, respectively. The San Isidro and Vilaba areas which are located in the northern part of Leyte have greater than 3 times above background radioactivity and uranium in the stream sediments. (author)

  9. Bringing High Rate, Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Gallaher, W.; Smith, S.; Bohnenstiehl, K.; Borsa, A.; Enders, M.; Coyle, B.; Paskievitch, J.; Read, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, completed the installation of a fourteen GPS stations, eight tiltmeters, one webcam, and one digital broadband seismometer on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. PBO collaborated with the USGS, who provided engineering support for this project. Combined with the USGS operated seismic network, the Unimak Island network is a state of the art scientific network. The primary data communications goal of the project was to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and to test the streaming of 1- Hz GPS data at a select set of GPS stations on Unimak Island. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO co-located the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The high-speed radio link deployed allowed the USGS to test the feasibility of broadband seismometer installations on Unimak Island. This collaboration with the USGS was another successful joint operation between PBO and the USGS. The technical and logistical challenges involved in the project as well as some preliminary results of the data communications system will be presented. These challenges include complicated logistics, bad weather, complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  12. Draining Water from Aircraft Fuel Using Nitrogen Enriched Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a computational study of the process of removing water from an aircraft’s fuel tank by pumping nitrogen enriched air (NEA from the bottom of the tank. This is an important procedure for the smooth, efficient, and safe operation of the aircraft’s engine. Due to the low partial pressure of water in the pumped NEA, it absorbs water from the fuel. The water-laden bubbles enter the ullage, the empty space above the fuel, and escape into the environment. The effects of the number of NEA inlets and the NEA mass flow rate on the timescale of the NEA pumping were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results reveal that the absorption of water by the NEA bubbles is low and is not affected by the number of the inlets used. Yet, the water content in the fuel decreases fast during the procedure, which is the desired outcome. We show that this is due to the relatively dry NEA entering the ullage and displacing the moist air, thus reducing the partial pressure of water at the fuel/ullage interface. This shift from equilibrium conditions forces water to evaporate from the fuel’s entire surface. Furthermore, the amount of water migrating from the fuel directly into the ullage is significantly greater than that absorbed by the rising bubbles. In turn, the rate of decrease of the water content in the ullage is determined by the total NEA mass flow rate and this is the dominant contributor to the draining time, with the number of NEA nozzles playing a minor role. We confirmed this by pumping NEA directly into the ullage, where we observe a significant decrease of water even when the NEA is not pumped through the fuel. We also show that doubling the mass flow rate halves the draining time. When considering the capability of most modern aircraft to pump NEA through the fuel as part of their inerting system, the proposed method for removing water is particularly attractive, requiring very little (if at all design modification.

  13. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  14. Management of Chest Drains: A National Survey on Surgeons‑in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triangle of safety [Figure 1]. Just above a quarter of respondents (27.2%) always utilized different sizes of tubes for different pathologies and the same proportion of respondents always positioned the tip of the tube apically to drain pneumothorax and basally to drain pleural effusion. In contrast, 9.9% and 6.2% of respondents.

  15. Controlling the ambipolarity and improvement of RF performance using Gaussian Drain Doped TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Gupta, Sarthak; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2018-05-01

    Ambipolar conduction in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) has been occurred as an inherent issue due to drain-channel tunneling. It makes TFET less efficient and restricts its application in complementary digital circuits. Therefore, this manuscript reports the application of Gaussian doping profile on nanometer regime silicon channel TFETs to completely eliminate the ambipolarity. For this, Gaussian doping is used in the drain region of conventional gate-drain overlap TFET to control the tunneling of electrons from the valence band of channel to the conduction band of drain. As a result, barrier width at the drain/channel junction increases significantly leading to the suppression of an ambipolar current even when higher doping concentration (1 ? 10 ? cm ?) is considered in the drain region. However, significant improvement in terms of RF figure-of-merits such as cut-off frequency (f ?), gain bandwidth product (GBW), and gate-to-drain capacitance (C ?) is achieved with Gaussian doped gate on drain overlap TFET as compared to its counterpart TFET.

  16. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... interpretation and installed unblockable drain covers and now would have to go back and ``re-do'' their work... compliance and whether the pool operator is seeking a plan review and not just limited advice about how to... secondary anti-entrapment system to come into compliance, unless the pool uses a gravity drain system or the...

  17. Laparoscopic elective cholecystectomy with and without drain: A controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda El-labban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Routine drainage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Therefore, a controlled randomised trial was designed to assess the value of drains in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: During a two-year period (From April 2008 to January 2010, 80 patients were simply randomised to have a drain placed (group A, an 8-mm pentose tube drain was retained below the liver bed, whereas 80 patients were randomised not to have a drain (group B placed in the subhepatic space. End points of this trial were to detect any differences in morbidity, postoperative pain, wound infection and hospital stay between the two groups. Results : There was no mortality in either group and no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, wound infection or abdominal collection between the two groups. However, hospital stay was longer in the drain group than in group without drain and it is appearing that the use of drain delays hospital discharge. Conclusion : The routine use of a drain in non-complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy has nothing to offer; in contrast, it is associated with longer hospital stay.

  18. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple's Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang Ho; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sae Hwan; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo; Kim, Chang Ho

    2011-05-01

    A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  19. Nurses’ knowledge of care of chest drain: A survey in a Nigerian semiurban university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesieme, Emeka Blessius; Essu, Ifeanyichukwu Stanley; Arekhandia, Bruno Jeneru; Welcker, Katrin; Prisadov, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Inefficient nursing care of chest drains may associated with unacceptable and sometimes life-threatening complications. This report aims to ascertain the level of knowledge of care of chest drains among nurses working in wards in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study among nurses at teaching hospital using pretested self-administered questionnaires. Results: The majority were respondents aged between 31 and 40 years (45.4%) and those who have nursing experience between 6 and 10 years. Only 37 respondents (26.2%) had a good knowledge of nursing care of chest drains. Knowledge was relatively higher among nurses who cared for chest drains daily, nurses who have a work experience of 0.05). Performance was poor on the questions on position of drainage system were not statistically significant with relationship to waist level while mobilizing the patient, application of suction to chest drains, daily changing of dressing over chest drain insertion site, milking of tubes and drainage system with dependent loop. Conclusion: The knowledge of care of chest drains among nurses is poor, especially in the key post procedural care. There is an urgent need to train them so as to improve the nursing care of patients managed with chest drains. PMID:26857934

  20. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple’s Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Bae

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  1. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  4. Acidification of a white spruce ecosystem in eastern Cape Breton Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouman, O.T.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2003 at an ecosystem monitoring plot near Sydney, Nova Scotia, in a mature white spruce stand on a Shulie soil. The objective was to examine how spruce forests filter atmospheric sulfur dioxide and become destabilized by the resulting soil acidification. The acid rain problem at the level of input, top soil, sub soil and run off was assessed following results from 4 monitoring stations equipped for bulk sampling of throughfall water and two lysimeters for soil water extraction at a depth of 15 cm and 45 cm, respectively. Rainwater was collected in 2 open areas outside the forest along with samples from a stream draining the forest and surrounding wetland. Water samples were collected 8 times between April 2003 and November 2004. Results show that the problem of acid rain is present in eastern Cape Breton Island. Canopy passage was found to lower the average rainwater pH from 4.7 to 4.2 with a related increase of sulfate from 2.2 ppm to 8.3 ppm. Top soil solution pH was 3.9 increasing to 4.5 in the sub soil. Aluminum was found to increase significantly in the soil solution when pH dropped below 4.2. This demonstrated that soil acidification due to acid rain frees the aluminum in the top soil. However, the concentration of metal was reduced at lower soil depth due to base cation exchange. High sodium concentrations in rainwater and throughfall were closely associated with sulfate values, indicating high inputs of saline oceanic spray with the potential to cause a salt effect in the top soil chemistry. Most water samples had very low nitrate concentrations. The water chemistry in the stream fluctuated with the pH, often dropping below 5 when sulfate contents increased during high run off events

  5. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  6. A Fossil Wood of Dipterocarpaceae From Pliocene Deposit in the West Region of Java Island, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    I, Yance; Mandang, Mandang; Kagemori, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly discovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone...

  7. A Fossil Wood of Dipterocarpaceae from Pliocene Deposit in the West Region of Java Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    YANCE I. MANDANG; NORIKO KAGEMORI

    2004-01-01

    Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly recovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone ...

  8. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  9. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  10. Dynamic Looping of a Free-Draining Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Felix X. -F.; Stinis, Panos; Qian, Hong

    2018-01-11

    Here, we revisit the celebrated Wilemski--Fixman (WF) treatment for the looping time of a free-draining polymer. The WF theory introduces a sink term into the Fokker--Planck equation for the $3(N+1)$-dimensional Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process of polymer dynamics, which accounts for the appropriate boundary condition due to the formation of a loop. The assumption for WF theory is considerably relaxed. A perturbation method approach is developed that justifies and generalizes the previous results using either a delta sink or a Heaviside sink. For both types of sinks, we show that under the condition of a small dimensionless $\\epsilon$, the ratio of capture radius to the Kuhn length, we are able to systematically produce all known analytical and asymptotic results obtained by other methods. This includes most notably the transition regime between the $N^2$ scaling of Doi, and $N\\sqrt{N}/\\epsilon$ scaling of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten. The mathematical issue at play is the nonuniform convergence of $\\epsilon\\to 0$ and $N\\to\\infty$, the latter being an inherent part of the theory of a Gaussian polymer. Our analysis yields a novel term in the analytical expression for the looping time with small $\\epsilon$, which was previously unknown. Monte Carlo numerical simulations corroborate the analytical findings. The systematic method developed here can be applied to other systems modeled by multidimensional Smoluchowski equations.

  11. Safety of thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection without drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Bassam; Sleilaty, Ghassan; Rizk, Habib; Abadjian, Gerard; Ghorra, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported that drainage after thyroidectomy does not decrease the rate of local postoperative complications. We sought to review the safety of thyroidectomy combined with cervical neck dissection (CND) without drainage. Methods The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy without drainage were retrospectively reviewed. Two groups were defined depending on whether CND was or was not performed. The main outcome was identification of patients with cervical bleeding, hematoma or seroma. Results We included 1127 patients (139 who had CND and 988 who did not). Of these, 207 patients (18%) had transient postoperative hypocalcemia, 9 (0.8%) had permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism, 56 (5%) had transient postoperative hoarseness and 7 (0.6%) had permanent vocal cord paralysis. A total of 44 patients (4%) experienced postoperative hematoma and/or seroma: 8 patients (6%) who had CND and 36 (4%) who did not. There was no major bleeding in the 2 groups; all patients had minor bleeding or seroma not requiring surgical intervention. The postoperative stay in hospital for both groups was 1 day in 92% of patients. Wound infection occurred in 0.8% of all patients: 1 (0.7%) who had CND and 8 (0.8%) who did not. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall perioperative complications or in time of hospital discharge. Conclusion Thyroidectomy without drains is safe and effective, even in combination with CND. PMID:22449723

  12. Draining down of a nuclear steam generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawor, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The method is described of draining down contained reactor-coolant water from the inverted vertical U-tubes of a vertical-type steam generator in which the upper, inverted U-shaped ends of the tubes are closed and the lower ends thereof are open. The steam generator is part of a nuclear powered steam generating system wherein the reactor coolant water is normally circulated from and back into the reactor via a loop comprising the steam generator and inlet and outlet conduits connected to the lower end of the steam generator. The method comprises continuously introducing a gas which is inert to the system and which is under pressure above atmospheric pressure into at least one of the downwardly facing open ends of each of the U-tubes from below the tube sheet in which the open ends of the U-tubes are mounted adjacent the lower end of the steam generator, while permitting the water to flow out from the open ends of the U-tubes

  13. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD.

  14. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics show that in the last decade the number of migrants with tertiary education increased by about 70%. Brain drain is also a well-known phenomenon. Highly educated individuals and scientists have travelled the world in all centuries in search of better study and research, and working conditions, and of new opportunities. Nowadays, in the era of globalisation and, implicitly, of swifter development of international markets, the emigration rate of high-skilled experts exceeds the total emigration rate, which shows the selectiveness of migration at educational level. The paper presents a brief analysis of the interdependencies between migration and globalisation and of the effects of globalisation on the migration of high-skilled individuals. The trends, structure, and volume of high-skilled labour force from Romania are analysed along with the effects generated by them.

  15. BRAIN DRAIN – BRAIN GAIN: SLOVAK STUDENTS AT CZECH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Republic is experiencing a growing brain drain of elite secondary school students. Slovak human capital flows chiefly to Czech Higher Education Institutes (HEIs. The aim of this paper is to analyse who these Slovak students are to create a complete profile of Slovak students at Czech HEIs. We used a unique dataset based on the surveys EUROSTUDENT V and DOKTORANDI 2014 to explore differences between Czech and Slovak students, their financial situation and the functionality of the intergenerational transmission mechanism. We have found that Slovak students at Czech HEIs come from highly educated families and from the middle and higher class families significantly more often than Czech students at Czech HEIs or Slovak students at Slovak HEIs. Approximately 80% of them came from grammar schools. Slovak students also often have better language skills. We have discovered that Slovak students at Czech HEIs enjoy certain social benefits, slightly more often they have higher monthly income compared to Czech students, and they work slightly less often during their studies. Finally, according to our findings, Slovak doctoral students are often reluctant to return back to the Slovak Republic or to stay in the Czech Republic.

  16. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF 6 and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF 4 in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry

  17. Heterotrophic soil respiration in forestry-drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkkinen, K.; Shurpali, N. J.; Alm, J.; Penttilae, T.

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrophic soil respiration (CO 2 efflux from the decomposition of peat and root litter) in three forestry-drained peatlands with different site types and with a large climatic gradient from the hemi-boreal (central Estonia) to south (southern Finland) and north boreal (northern Finland) conditions was studied. Instantaneous fluxes varied between 0 and 1.3 g CO 2 -C m -2 h -1 , and annual fluxes between 248 and 515 g CO 2 -C m -2 a -1 . Variation in the annual fluxes among site types was studied only in the south-boreal site where we found a clear increase from nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich site types. More than half of the within-site variation was temporal and explained by soil surface (-5 cm) temperature (T5). The response of soil respiration to T5 varied between the sites; the most northerly site had the highest response to T5 and the most southerly the lowest. This trend further resulted in increased annual fluxes towards north. This unexpected result is hypothesised to be related to differences in site factors like substrate quality, nutrient status and hydrology but also to temperature acclimation, i.e., adaptation of decomposer populations to different climates. (orig.)

  18. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  19. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  20. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  1. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  2. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  3. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  4. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  5. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  6. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  7. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  8. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  9. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  10. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  11. Tobruk power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergardts, B

    1978-01-01

    In February of 1975, the Electricity Corporation Benghazi (ECB) awarded a contract for the construction of a turnkey power station and seawater desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya to a consortium under the leadership of BBC Mannheim. This power station has an output of 129 MW and supplies about 24,000 m/sup 3/ of drinking water daily. It went into operation in 1977, two and a half years after the contract was awarded.

  12. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  13. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  14. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  15. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  16. Suitability Analysis For Scuba Diving To Develop Marine Tourism At Saebus Island, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Putranto; Putra, Tri; Hidayat, Fatra; Levraeni, Chandra; Rizmaadi, Mada; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian government currently has policies to improve the performance of the tourism sector, including marine tourism. One of the attractions of marine tourism is the coral ecosystem especially through scuba diving activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the coral ecosystem on Saebus Island, East Java, to find appropriate locations for scuba diving activities. Purposive samplings were done around the island to determine four stations which will be assessed through suitability analysis. Tourism Suitability Index was used to assess all stations for scuba diving activities. The result showed that all four stations were categorized as very suitable with the score: 85%, 85%, 85% and 83%, respectively. Several aspects that need to be improved and anticipated for diving at all stations are coral coverage and water current. These results suggest that there are several spots around Saebus Island that are suitable for diving site, and can be promoted as marine tourism destination.

  17. Planning and preparedness for radiological emergencies at nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program was created after the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assists state and local governments in reviewing and evaluating state and local REP plans and preparedness for accidents at nuclear power plants, in partnership with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which evaluates safety and emergency preparedness at the power stations themselves. Argonne National Laboratory provides support and technical assistance to FEMA in evaluating nuclear power plant emergency response exercises, radiological emergency plans, and preparedness

  18. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  19. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO 2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO 2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO 2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO 2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO 2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO 2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  1. Traditional Foley drainage systems--do they drain the bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maurice M; Gulati, Shelly; Liepmann, Dorian; Stackhouse, G Bennett; Greene, Kirsten; Stoller, Marshall L

    2007-01-01

    Foley catheters are assumed to drain the bladder to completion. Drainage characteristics of Foley catheter systems are poorly understood. To investigate unrecognized retained urine with Foley catheter drainage systems, bladder volumes of hospitalized patients were measured with bladder scan ultrasound volumetrics. Additionally, an in vitro bench top mock bladder and urinary catheter system was developed to understand the etiology of such residual volumes. A novel drainage tube design that optimizes indwelling catheter drainage was also designed. Bedside bladder ultrasound volumetric studies were performed on patients hospitalized in ward and intensive care unit. If residual urine was identified the drainage tubing was manipulated to facilitate drainage. An ex vivo bladder-urinary catheter model was designed to measure flow rates and pressures within the drainage tubing of a traditional and a novel drainage tube system. A total of 75 patients in the intensive care unit underwent bladder ultrasound volumetrics. Mean residual volume was 96 ml (range 4 to 290). In 75 patients on the hospital ward mean residual volume was 136 ml (range 22 to 647). In the experimental model we found that for every 1 cm in curl height, obstruction pressure increased by 1 cm H2O within the artificial bladder. In contrast, the novel spiral-shaped drainage tube demonstrated rapid (0.5 cc per second), continuous and complete (100%) reservoir drainage in all trials. Traditional Foley catheter drainage systems evacuate the bladder suboptimally. Outflow obstruction is caused by air-locks that develop within curled redundant drainage tubing segments. The novel drainage tubing design eliminates gravity dependent curls and associated air-locks, optimizes flow, and minimizes residual bladder urine.

  2. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, James G; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry and drained constants, which are assumed known, and the saturated or undrained constants, which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the effects of the fluids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore fluid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  5. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  6. Homogenization of one-dimensional draining through heterogeneous porous media including higher-order approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel M.; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Miller, Cass T.

    2018-02-01

    We examine a mathematical model of one-dimensional draining of a fluid through a periodically-layered porous medium. A porous medium, initially saturated with a fluid of a high density is assumed to drain out the bottom of the porous medium with a second lighter fluid replacing the draining fluid. We assume that the draining layer is sufficiently dense that the dynamics of the lighter fluid can be neglected with respect to the dynamics of the heavier draining fluid and that the height of the draining fluid, represented as a free boundary in the model, evolves in time. In this context, we neglect interfacial tension effects at the boundary between the two fluids. We show that this problem admits an exact solution. Our primary objective is to develop a homogenization theory in which we find not only leading-order, or effective, trends but also capture higher-order corrections to these effective draining rates. The approximate solution obtained by this homogenization theory is compared to the exact solution for two cases: (1) the permeability of the porous medium varies smoothly but rapidly and (2) the permeability varies as a piecewise constant function representing discrete layers of alternating high/low permeability. In both cases we are able to show that the corrections in the homogenization theory accurately predict the position of the free boundary moving through the porous medium.

  7. Placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent using a silicone drain with channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mineta, Sho; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Yoichi; Sasaki, Junpei; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Aimoto, Takayuki; Tajiri, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a method for percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting with a BLAKE Silicone Drain, and discusses the usefulness of placement of the drain connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir for the treatment of stenotic hepaticojejunostomy. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed under ultrasonographic guidance in a patient with stenotic hepaticojejunostomy after hepatectomy for hepatic hilum malignancy. The technique used was as follows. After dilatation of the drainage root, an 11-Fr tube with several side holes was passed through the stenosis of the hepaticojejunostomy. A 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain is flexible, which precludes one-step insertion. One week after insertion of the 11-Fr tube, a 0.035-inch guidewire was inserted into the tube. After removal of the 11-Fr tube, the guidewire was put into the channel of a 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain. The drain was inserted into the jejunal limb through the intrahepatic bile duct and was connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir. Low-pressure continued suction was applied. Patients can be discharged after insertion of the 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain connected to the J-VAC Suction Reservoir. Placement of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent using a 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir is useful for the treatment of stenotic hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:19725159

  8. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  9. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Long-Wei; Lo Chiao; Lai Peng-Sheng; Lee Po-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagoj...

  10. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Madaltuneen turvetuotantokentaen kuivatustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    This study aims to develop pipe draining techniques in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area was monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water. These are the results of second year. (orig.)

  11. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  12. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Mataloituneen turvekentaen kuivatus putkisalaojilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V.; Saenkiaho, K. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rautiainen, O. [Ojamarkkinointi Oy, Heinola (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to develop pipe draining technics in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area is monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water

  13. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  14. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling......This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  15. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Holden, N M

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ) were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA) of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95-97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO 2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of drains on a blanket bog in the west of Ireland. The

  16. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Connolly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1 to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. Results The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95–97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. Conclusions The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of

  17. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  18. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  19. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  20. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  1. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  2. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  3. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbary Akpa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA; (ii to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA; and (iii to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years and the age of retirement (62 years in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious

  4. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of wound drains after thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R S R

    2014-04-01

    Drainage after routine thyroid and parathyroid surgery remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence from a number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) suggesting no benefit from the use of drains.

  6. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restricts wind motion across the open area between the pipe and the drain) that encloses the space between...., there is no pump) or is operated with no more than slight fluctuations in the liquid level, the owner or...

  7. Modelling Technique for the Assessment of the Sub-Soil Drain for Groundwater Seepage Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Baharuddin Mohamad Faizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater simulation technique was carried out for examining the performance of sub-soil drain at problematic site area. Subsoil drain was proposed as one of solution for groundwater seepage occurred at the slope face by reducing groundwater table at Taman Botani Park Kuala Lumpur. The simulation technique used Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW software. In transient conditions, the results of simulation showed that heads increases surpass 1 to 2 m from the elevation level of the slope area that caused groundwater seepage on slope face. This study attempt to decrease the heads increase surpass by using different sub-soil drain size in simulation technique. The sub-soil drain capable to decline the heads ranges of 1 to 2 m.

  8. Accounting for the risks of phosphorus losses through tile drains in a phosphorus index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D Keith; Ball, Bonnie; Zhang, T Q

    2012-01-01

    Tile drainage systems have been identified as a significant conduit for phosphorus (P) losses to surface water, but P indices do not currently account for this transport pathway in a meaningful way. Several P indices mention tile drains, but most account for either the reduction in surface runoff or the enhanced transport through tiles rather than both simultaneously. A summary of the current state of how tile drains are accounted for within P indices is provided, and the challenges in predicting the risk of P losses through tile drains that are relative to actual losses are discussed. A framework for a component P Index is described, along with a proposal to incorporate predictions of losses through tile drains as a component within this framework. Options for calibrating and testing this component are discussed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Influence of pleural drain insertion in lung function of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelami Vieira, Irinea Beatriz Carvalho; Vieira, Fabiano F; Abrão, João; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal, prospective, randomized, blinded Trial to assess the influence of pleural drain (non-toxic PVC) site of insertion on lung function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the first three days post-surgery and immediately after chest tube removal. Thirty six patients scheduled for elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly allocated into two groups: SX group (subxiphoid) and IC group (intercostal drain). Spirometry, arterial blood gases, and pain tests were recorded. Thirty one patients were selected, 16 in SX group and 15 in IC group. Postoperative (PO) spirometric values were higher in SX than in IC group (ppleural drain location on breathing. PaO(2) on the second PO increased significantly in SX group compared with IC group (pDrain with insertion in the subxiphoid region causes less change in lung function and discomfort, allowing better recovery of respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Strip-drains for in situ clean up of contaminated fine-grained soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowders, J.J.; Gabr, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for in situ remediation of contaminated soils, such as bioremediation, vacuum/air stripping and soil flushing have been found to be less effective under fine-grained soil conditions. To enhance the performance of these techniques, it was proposed that strip-drains or wick drains also known as prefabricated vertical (PV) drains be used. The research objective was to determine the feasibility of using PV drains to enhance the soil flushing process. Bench top and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted. An overview of the work, results and future considerations were presented. Results indicated that the technology is feasible. A preliminary model for the technology to be used in any field situation was developed. The model is currently being tested with data from physical experiments on both intermediate and field tests. 5 figs

  11. Preliminary design studies of the draining tanks for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Heuer, D.; Brovchenko, M.; Laureau, A.; Ghetta, V.; Rubiolo, P.

    2014-01-01

    reactor called the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The reference MSFR design is a 3000 MWth reactor with a total fuel salt volume of 18 m3, operated at a mean fuel temperature of 750 deg. C. The first confinement barrier of the reactor includes a salt draining system. In case of a planned reactor shut down or in case of accidents leading to an excessive increase of the temperature in the fuel circuit, the fuel configuration may be changed passively by gravitational draining of the fuel salt in dedicated draining tank located under the reactor and designed to provide adequate reactivity margins while insuring a passive cooling of the fuel salt to extract the residual heat from the short to the long term. The present preliminary assessment of this sub-critical draining system has been performed to identify the physical constraints and to give some orders of magnitude of characteristic time periods (authors)

  12. Numerical Simulation of Liquids Draining From a Tank Using OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakri, Fadhilah Mohd; Sukri Mat Ali, Mohamed; Zaki Shaikh Salim, Sheikh Ahmad; Muhamad, Sallehuddin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate simulation of liquids draining is a challenging task. It involves two phases flow, i.e. liquid and air. In this study draining a liquid from a cylindrical tank is numerically simulated using OpenFOAM. OpenFOAM is an open source CFD package and it becomes increasingly popular among the academician and also industries. Comparisons with theoretical and results from previous published data confirmed that OpenFOAM is able to simulate the liquids draining very well. This is done using the gas-liquid interface solver available in the standard library of OpenFOAM. Additionally, this study was also able to explain the physics flow of the draining tank.

  13. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL......), i.e., 0, 10, 20 cm below the soil surface, representing rewetted peat soils, and 30 and 40 cm below the soil surface, representing drained peat soils. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and CH4 emissions were measured during the growing period of RCG (May to September) using transparent and opaque...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  14. Use of a Nasal Speculum for Chest-Drain Insertion: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Pankaj; Konstantinov, Igor E.; Newman, Mark A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Tube thoracostomy is a very commonly performed procedure in cardiothoracic surgery. Insertion of a chest drain requires expertise to minimize complications. We describe a simple technique of using a nasal speculum to perform this procedure.

  15. Postoperative intraabdominal fluid collections : a modified percutaneous drainage method using a surgical drain track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Gab Choul; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2000-01-01

    In the management of postoperative fluid collection, the conventional percutaneous drainage method can be employed. Because of abdominal incisions and various types of surgical drains and/or T-tubes, the application of this method is not always easy, however. We inserted a drainage catheter through a pre-existing percutaneous track formed by a surgical drain located adjacent to the site of abnormal fluid collection. There was no need to remove the drain nor make an additional puncture in the abdominal wall. A dilator was inserted along the drain, and a guide wire was used to negotiate its intraperitoneal track and reach the accumulated fluid. The procedure was simple and safe. We briefly describe our experience of this modified percutaneous drainage technique, as used in three cases involving postoperative fluid collection. (author)

  16. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gass

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside.

  17. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caralis, G.; Zervos, A.; Rados, K.

    2010-01-01

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  18. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  19. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  20. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  2. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  3. Avoiding Service Station Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.

    1982-01-01

    High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)

  4. The Service Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to encourage the primary student to expand his or her awareness of jobs within the community. The role of the service station worker is examined, with emphasis on the goods and services provided. Subject areas for which the materials in this guide have potential are social studies, art, and language. Each set…

  5. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  6. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  7. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  8. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Mehta; Anshu Gupta; Sameer Singhal; Sachin Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.

  9. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.

  10. Management of extensive surgical emphysema with subcutaneous drain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc Tran

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a frequent and often self-limiting complication of tube thoracostomy or other cardiothoracic procedures. On rare occasions, severe and extensive surgical emphysema marked by palpable cutaneous tension, dysphagia, dysphonia, palpebral closure or associated with pneumoperitoneum, airway compromise, “tension phenomenon” and respiratory failure require treatment. Presentation of case: A 67 year old lady presented with a large spontaneous pneumothorax on the background of end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, developed extensive surgical emphysema following insertion of a chest drain. Immediate improvement was observed after insertion of a large-bore, 26 French (Fr. intercostal catheter, subcutaneous drain which was maintained under low suction (−5 cm H2O for a further 24 h. Discussion: Several methods have been described in the literature for the treatment of extensive subcutaneous emphysema, including: emergency tracheostomy, multisite subcutaneous drainage, infraclavicular “blow holes” incisions and subcutaneous drains or simply increasing suction on an in situ chest drain. Here a large-bore, fenestrated, subcutaneous drain maintained on low negative pressure also provided the necessary decompression. Conclusion: In the absence of a comparative study to identify the most effective method to manage extensive subcutaneous emphysema, this case highlights an effective, simple and safe management option. Keywords: Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous emphysema, Drain, Low suction, Intercostal catheter, Case report

  11. To drain or not to drain? Predictors of tube thoracostomy insertion and outcomes associated with drainage of traumatic hemothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Bryan J; Roberts, Derek J; Grondin, Sean; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Dunham, Michael B; Ball, Chad G

    2015-09-01

    Historical data suggests that many traumatic hemothoraces (HTX) can be managed expectantly without tube thoracostomy (TT) drainage. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of TT, including whether the quantity of pleural blood predicted tube placement, and to evaluate outcomes associated with TT versus expected management (EM) of traumatic HTXs. A retrospective cohort study of all trauma patients with HTXs and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥12 managed at a level I trauma centre between April 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 was completed. Mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept were used to identify independent risk factors for TT. Logistic and log-linear regression were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) for mortality and empyema and percent increases in length of hospital and intensive care unit stay between patients managed with TT versus EM, respectively. A total of 635 patients with 749 HTXs were included in the study. Overall, 491 (66%) HTXs were drained while 258 (34%) were managed expectantly. Independent predictors of TT placement included concomitant ipsilateral flail chest [OR 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-8.80; p=0.04] or pneumothorax (OR 6.19; 95% CI 1.79-21.5; p<0.01) and the size of the HTX (OR per 10cc increase 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21; p<0.01). Although the adjusted odds of mortality were not significantly different between groups (OR 3.99; 95% CI 0.87-18.30; p=0.08), TT was associated with a 47.14% (95% CI, 25.57-69.71%; p<0.01) adjusted increase in hospital length of stay. Empyemas (n=29) only occurred among TT patients. Expectant management of traumatic HTX was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay, no empyemas, and no increase in mortality. Although EM of smaller HTXs may be safe, these findings must be confirmed by a large multi-centre cohort study and randomized controlled trials before they are used to guide practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety of peritoneal and pleural drain placement in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients with severe veno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenci, Arin L; Stetson, Alyssa; Weldon, Christopher B; Lehmann, Leslie E

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic VOD (veno-occlusive disease) is a serious complication of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and has historically been associated with high mortality. This obstruction to hepatic flow often results in fluid collections in the peritoneal and pleural cavities. Catheter placement to drain ascites or pleural fluid may reduce intra-abdominal hypertension and/or improve respiratory parameters. The safety of these interventions among critically ill, immunocompromised children is unknown. Among 32 HSCT recipients (2000-2012) with severe VOD, we assessed the primary outcome of procedural complication from peritoneal drain placement. Twenty-four (75%) patients underwent peritoneal drain placement. No patient sustained visceral perforation or hemorrhage with drain placement. Overall mortality was 47% (n = 15). The procedure was not associated with increased overall mortality (p > 0.99). Eight (25%) peritoneal drains required replacement for malfunction. Of 24 patients with peritoneal drains, one (4%) patient had a positive culture from ascitic fluid. Eight (25%) patients underwent pleural drain placement. No pleural drain-related procedural complication or infection occurred. Four (50%) of the eight patients with pleural drains had de-escalation in oxygen requirement at drain removal, compared to time of placement. In this study, peritoneal and pleural drains were safe interventions for children with severe VOD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Charge plasma based source/drain engineered Schottky Barrier MOSFET: Ambipolar suppression and improvement of the RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a novel device structure for charge plasma based Schottky Barrier (SB) MOSFET on ultrathin SOI to suppress the ambipolar leakage current and improvement of the radio frequency (RF) performance. In the proposed device, we employ dual material for the source and drain formation. Therefore, source/drain is divided into two parts as main source/drain and source/drain extension. Erbium silicide (ErSi1.7) is used as main source/drain material and Hafnium metal is used as source/drain extension material. The source extension induces the electron plasma in the ultrathin SOI body resulting reduction of SB width at the source side. Similarly, drain extension also induces the electron plasma at the drain side. This significantly increases the SB width due to increased depletion at the drain end. As a result, the ambipolar leakage current can be suppressed. In addition, drain extension also reduces the parasitic capacitances of the proposed device to improve the RF performance. The optimization of length and work function of metal used in the drain extension is performed to achieve improvement in device performance. Moreover, the proposed device makes fabrication simpler, requires low thermal budget and free from random dopant fluctuations.

  14. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  15. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  16. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zheng Xue-Feng; Wang Chong; Hao Yue; Yang Cui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. (paper)

  17. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range ( and gt; 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies (( and gt;=)10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact

  18. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Long-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  19. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peng-Sheng; Lo, Chiao; Lin, Long-Wei; Lee, Po-Chu

    2010-05-21

    Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  20. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  1. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  2. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  4. Autologous transfusion of drain contents in elective primary knee arthroplasty: its value and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Javed, Sadaf; Kumar, Kuldeep; Tomar, Juhi

    2011-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant post-operative blood loss often necessitating blood transfusions. Blood transfusions may be associated with transfusion reactions and may transmit human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus, with devastating consequences. After total knee arthroplasty, transfusion of the contents of an autologous drain is becoming common practice. The aim of our study was to look at the effectiveness of these drains in elective primary total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study was conducted including 70 non-randomised patients. A normal suction drain was used in 35 patients (group A), whereas in the other 35 patients, a CellTrans™ drain was used (group B). All the operations were performed by four surgeons using a tourniquet with a medial parapatellar approach. Pre- and post-operative haemoglobin concentrations were recorded in both groups. A Student's t-test was applied to determine the statistical significance of the data collected. The average fall in post-operative haemoglobin was 3.66 g/dL (SD 1.46; range, 0.6-7.0) among patients in whom the simple drain was used (group A) and 2.29 g/dL (SD 0.92; range, 0.6-5.9) among those in whom the CellTrans™ drain was used (group B) (p<0.0001). Twenty-five units of allogeneic blood were required in group A compared to four units in group B. The rate of transfusion was 5.7% (2 patients) in the group in which CellTrans™ drain was used and 25.7% (9 patients) in the group in which a simple suction drain was used. Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant post-operative blood loss despite best operative technique. Autologous reinfusion of the contents of a CellTrans™ drain significantly reduces the rate of post-operative blood transfusion. This study indicates that the use of an autologous drain could be recommended as routine practice in primary total knee arthroplasty.

  5. The Flooding of Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Lewis, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Between the Last Glacial Maximum (22-19 ka) and the Holocene (10 ka) regions marginal to the Laurentide Ice Sheets saw complex environmental changes from moraines to lake basins to dry land to estuaries and marginal ocean basins, as a result of the interplay between the topography of moraines formed at the maximum extent and during stages of the retreat of the ice sheet, regional glacial rebound, and global eustatic sea level rise. In New England, the history of deglaciation and relative sea level rise has been studied extensively, and the sequence of events has been documented in detail. The Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent (Long Island) at 21.3-20.4 ka according to radiocarbon dating (calibrated ages), 19.0-18.4 ka according to radionuclide dating. Periglacial Lake Connecticut formed behind the moraines in what is now the Long Island Sound Basin. The lake drained through the moraine at its eastern end. Seismic records show that a fluvial system was cut into the exposed lake beds, and a wave-cut unconformity was produced during the marine flooding, which has been inferred to have occurred at about 15.5 ka (Melt Water Pulse 1A) through correlation with dated events on land. Vibracores from eastern Long Island Sound penetrate the unconformity and contain red, varved lake beds overlain by marine grey sands and silts with a dense concentration of oysters in life position above the erosional contact. The marine sediments consist of intertidal to shallow subtidal deposits with oysters, shallow-water foraminifera and litoral diatoms, overlain by somewhat laminated sandy silts, in turn overlain by coarser-grained, sandy to silty sediments with reworked foraminifera and bivalve fragments. The latter may have been deposited in a sand-wave environment as present today at the core locations. We provide direct age control of the transgression with 30 radiocarbon dates on oysters, and compared the ages with those obtained on macrophytes and bulk organic carbon in

  6. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  7. Zooplankton around Marion and Prince Edward Islands; 24 March 1976 to 25 November 1976 (NODC Accession 0000940)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of zooplankton taken at 12 stations around Marion and Prince Edward Islands (47oS - 35oE) in March 1976 from the 'Marion-Dufresne' and at 2 stations in the...

  8. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  9. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  10. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  11. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saraceno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the strongest regional seismic events and site acceleration; long-term tilt variations analyzed in combination with other ground deformation data seem to represent the evidence of a contraction of the La Fossa cone. We also analyzed how the tilt device has the capability to detect possible magma migrations; we considered previous studies that have imaged spatially well-defined levels of magma accumulation beneath La Fossa, and Vulcanello; we concluded that the Vulcano tilt network should be capable of detecting the upward migration of small magma volumes. Finally, we show that no evidence of changes are visible on tilt signals during anomalous degassing episodes (linked to a building up input of magmatic fluids at the La Fossa thereby evidencing that no magma migration occurred during such events.

  12. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  13. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G.; Taylor, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  14. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, UNC Health Care, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, J.B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environment, Health and Safety, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  15. Gauze Impregnated With Quaternary Ammonium Salt Reduces Bacterial Colonization of Surgical Drains After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L; Wolfe, Emily T; Shank, Nina; Chaffin, Abigail E; Jansen, David A

    2018-06-01

    Surgical site infection after breast reconstruction is associated with increased length of hospital stay, readmission rates, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Identifying methods to reduce surgical site infection without the use of antibiotics may be beneficial at reducing antimicrobial resistance, reserving the use of antibiotics for more severe cases. Quaternary ammonium salts have previously been shown to be a safe and effective antimicrobial agent in the setting of in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial properties of a quaternary ammonium salt, 3-trimethoxysilyl propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (QAS-3PAC; Bio-spear), at reducing surgical drain site colonization and infection after breast reconstruction (deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstruction or tissue expander placement). Twenty patients were enrolled, with 14 surgical drains covered with nonimpregnated gauze and 17 surgical drains covered with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze, for the purposes of investigating bacterial colonization. Antibiotic sensitivity analysis was also conducted when bacterial cultures were positive. The overall incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (17.6% vs 64.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze reduced the incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains during the first (0.0% vs 33.3%) and second (33.3% vs 87.5%; P = 0.04) postoperative week. Furthermore, no enhanced antibiotic resistance was noted on drains treated with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze. The results of this study suggest that QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze applied over surgical drains may be an effective method for reducing the incidence of bacterial colonization.

  16. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  17. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  18. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  19. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Phlebotomidae) of Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Ecological survey and evaluation of the risk of Leishmania transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas-Márquez, Francisco; Díaz-Sáez, Victoriano; Morillas-Mancilla, María Jesús; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Merino-Espinosa, Gemma; Gijón-Robles, Patricia; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2017-04-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies are natural vectors of Leishmania spp. and their expansion throughout has been evidenced in the last few years due to the global warming and changes in human behavior, worsening leishmaniasis problem. However, phlebotomine sandflies have been captured in small numbers on the Canary Islands, particularly on the island of Lanzarote, where only one limited survey was carried out almost thirty years ago. The proximity of this island to Morocco, in addition to the high number of tourists, sometimes accompanied by their dogs, from leishmaniasis endemic regions, highlights the importance of studying the sandfly fauna on this island in order to determine the transmission risk of leishmaniasis Thirty-eight sampling sites spread across the island were studied, and ecological features were gathered to identify the ecological traits associated to the presence of sandflies. Only 85 sandfly specimens were captured (1.18/m 2 ) with the following species distribution: Sergentomyia minuta (0.15 specimens/m 2 ), which was reported for the first time on this island, and S. fallax (1.03/m 2 ). Sandfly captured were achieved in only 7 out of 38 stations. No specimen of the Phlebotomus genus was captured and given that none of the species captured has been demonstrated vectors of human pathogenic Leishmania and considering that they were captured in low frequency and density, it can be concluded that the current leishmaniasis transmission risk is null. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  1. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  2. Comparative effect of tube drain on post operative inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar surgery College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obimakinde, O S; Fasola, A O; Arotiba, J T; Okoje, V N; Obiechina, A E

    2010-09-01

    Swelling, pain and trismus are acute reversible inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar (M3) surgery. They contribute to the deterioration of quality of life and loss of several useful working hours. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of a surgical drain following M3 surgery can minimise these inflammatory complications. Eighty consecutive patients who gave consent were enrolled into the study. Patients were assigned into two groups (drain and no drain) by systematic sampling method which was modified to ensure matching of patients by age, sex and spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar. The patients in the drain group (n=40) had a Foley's catheter drain inserted into the wound after the surgical procedure while the patients in the no drain group (n=40) had their wound closed without the use of drain. All patients had primary wound closure with 3.0 black silk sutures after the procedure. Demographic data, cheek dimension and maximal mouth opening were recorded before the procedure. Pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated in the two groups at 24 hours, 48 hours and 7th day after surgery. Post operative swelling and visual analogue scale score for pain were comparatively lesser in the drain group patients. The maximal interincisal distance was also more in the drain group patients. The findings from this study indicated that there is a significant benefit of using a surgical drain in minimising postoperative oedema, pain and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

  3. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  4. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  5. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  6. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  7. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  8. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  9. The catastrophic dieback of Typha domingensis in a drained and restored East Mediterranean wetland: re-examining proposed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Simhayov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally tested two geochemical models which have been proposed as potential mechanisms leading to the catastrophic dieback of Typha domingensis in constructed Lake Agmon within the drained Hula peatland, northern Israel. An elaborate lysimeter station simulating the conditions imposed by sulphide toxicity and P deficiency models was used to test them experimentally. Rhizosphere pH and redox potential were monitored in situ in real time throughout the summers of 2007 and 2008. A comparative study of redox-reduction simulation was coupled with periodic sampling and analysis of sulphide and other reducing species. N and P were determined in the plant tissues to compute the N:P nutrient limitation index and evaluate nutrient deficiencies. The sulphide toxicity model was not accepted as a viable mechanism because Typha domingensis stands did not show any signs of stress, even when growing in rhizosphere with a sulphide concentration three times that during the actual dieback in 1996. The P limitation model was not supported by the N:P index, which indicated N (16 limitation. Since Typha has now returned and is thriving in Lake Agmon and adjacent drainage canals, we suggest a self-thinning mechanism followed by normal succession of macrophytes in this relatively young constructed wetland as the most logical mechanism to explain the observed dieback.

  10. A perspective on the Three Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, G.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the accident on March 28, 1979, in the No. 2 unit of the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The sequence is described, beginning with the loss of secondary coolant to the PWR's steam generators. Equipment failure and the consequences of human actions are analyzed, and lessons to be learned are discussed. Some conclusions are reached with particular reference to the accident and to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  11. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    demonstrates the energy security and cost benefits of implementing a Zn/Br Flow Battery-based ESS at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) located at...user will be realized through the system’s peak shaving mode. This benefit was also used to calculate the operational cost reductions when using the...EW-201242) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power August 2017 This document has been cleared for public release

  12. Characterizing subsurface water flow to artificial drain lines using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, D.; Brooks, E. S.; Heinse, R.; Keller, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years growers have experienced increasingly wet spring conditions in the Palouse Region located in North Idaho, Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon. As a result more artificial drain lines are being installed so growers can access their fields earlier in the growing season. Additionally there has been increasing adoption of no-tillage practices among growers in order minimize erosion and runoff in the region. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests long-term no-tillage may lead to the establishment of large macropore networks through increased earthworm activity and the preservation of root channels. These macropore networks, in conjunctions with the presence of artificial drains lines, may create connected preferential flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving streams. This connectivity of flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving water bodies may increase the loading of nutrients and agricultural chemicals as some flow paths may largely bypass soil matrix interaction where materials can be sequestered. Our primary objective for this study was to characterize subsurface flow to two artificial drain lines, one under conventional tillage and the other under no-tillage, using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the study (November 2016-April 2017) the near surface soil-water temperature was consistently colder than that of deeper depths. Temperature was thus used as a tracer as snow melt and soil-water moved from the near surface to the drain lines during snowmelt and precipitation events. The spatial and temporal variability of the temperature along the artificial drain line under no-tillage practices was found to be greater than that of the conventional tilled field. It is hypothesized that preferential flow paths are responsible for the increased variability of temperature seen in the drain line under long term no-till management. The temperature along the conventional till drain line showed a

  13. Differences in microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling in natural and drained tropical peatland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Mander, Ülo; Kasak, Kuno; Nõlvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Maddison, Martin; Truu, Jaak

    2018-03-16

    Tropical peatlands, which play a crucial role in the maintenance of different ecosystem services, are increasingly drained for agriculture, forestry, peat extraction and human settlement purposes. The present study investigated the differences between natural and drained sites of a tropical peatland in the community structure of soil bacteria and archaea and their potential to perform nitrogen transformation processes. The results indicate significant dissimilarities in the structure of soil bacterial and archaeal communities as well as nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA gene-possessing microbial communities. The reduced denitrification and N 2 -fixing potential was detected in the drained tropical peatland soil. In undisturbed peatland soil, the N 2 O emission was primarily related to nirS-type denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, while the conversion of N 2 O to N 2 was controlled by microbes possessing nosZ clade I genes. The denitrifying microbial community of the drained site differed significantly from the natural site community. The main reducers of N 2 O were microbes harbouring nosZ clade II genes in the drained site. Additionally, the importance of DNRA process as one of the controlling mechanisms of N 2 O fluxes in the natural peatlands of the tropics revealed from the results of the study.

  14. Use of laterally placed vacuum drains for management of aural hematomas in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavletic, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    5 dogs (a Newfoundland, Golden Retriever, Shiba Inu, Staffordshire Terrier, and Vizsla) were referred for evaluation and treatment of unilateral aural hematomas within a week after their formation. Aural hematomas involved the left (3) or right (2) ears. With patients under anesthesia, the aural hematomas were approached surgically from the convex, or lateral, pinnal surface. Two small incisions were used to position a vacuum drain into the incised hematoma cavity. The drain exited at the base of the pinna and adjacent cervical skin. The free end of the drain was attached to a vacuum reservoir for 18 to 21 days. Drains and skin sutures were removed at this time along with the protective Elizabethan collar. All hematomas resolved and surgical sites healed during the minimum 6-month follow-up period. Cosmetic results were considered excellent in 4 of 5 patients. Slight wrinkling of the pinna in 1 patient resulted from asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma, where vacuum application resulted in a slight folding of the redundant lateral cartilage wall. The described treatment was efficient, economical, and minimally invasive and required no bandaging or wound care. Placement of the drain tubing on the convex (lateral) aspect sheltered the system from displacement by patients with an Elizabethan collar in place. Overall cosmetic results were excellent; asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma with slight folding of the pinna was seen in 1 patient.

  15. Is a drain tube necessary for minimally invasive lumbar spine fusion surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-I; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chou, Po-Hsin; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Tien; Liu, Chien-Lin

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if closed suction wound drainage is necessary in minimally invasive surgery of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). This is a prospective randomized clinical study. Fifty-six patients who underwent MIS TLIF were randomly divided into groups A (with a closed suction wound drainage) and B (without tube drainage). Surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss, timing of ambulation, length of hospital stay and complications were recorded. Patients were followed up for an average of 25.3 months. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale (VAS). Fusion rate was classified with the Bridwell grading system, based on plain radiograph. Both groups had similar patient demographics. The use of drains had no significant influence on perioperative parameters including operative time, estimated blood loss, length of stay and complications. Patients in group B started ambulation 1 day earlier than patients in group A (p drain tube can lead to pain, anxiety and discomfort during the postoperative period. We conclude that drain tubes are not necessary for MIS TLIF. Patients without drains had the benefit of earlier ambulation than those with drains.

  16. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  17. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  18. Postoperative use of drain in thyroid lobectomy – a randomized clinical trial conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Zahid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure, after which drains are placed routinely. This study aims to assess the benefits of placing postoperative drains, its complications and affects on postoperative stay, in thyroid lobectomy. Methodology Randomized Clinical Trial of 60 goitre patients undergoing lobectomy was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi, during July’11-December’11. Patients were randomly assigned into drain and non drain groups. Patient demographics, labs and complications were noted. Ultrasound of neck was performed on both groups. For drain group, the amount of fluid present in the surgical bed and redivac drain was added to calculate fluid collection while in non drain group it was calculated by ultrasound of neck on first and second post-op days. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS v16 using Independent T tests. Result The mean total drain output for 2 days in non-drain group was significantly lower 10.67 (±9.072 ml while in drain group was 30.97 (±42.812 ml (p = 0.014. The mean postoperative stay of drain group (79.2 ±15.63 hours was significantly higher, as compared to mean postoperative stay of non drain group (50.4 ±7.32 hours. Mean Visual Analogue Score (VAS for pain day 1 (6.2 ±0.997 and day 2 (4.17 ±0.95 in drain group were significantly higher compared to day 1 (2.6 ±1.163 and day 2 (1.3 ±0.877 of non drain group. From drain group, 2 patients complained of stridor, dyspnea on Day 1 which subsided by Day 2 and 1 case of voice change, with no such complains in non drain group. No patients from both groups developed seroma, wound infection or hematoma. Conclusion In uncomplicated surgeries especially for lobectomy, use of drain can be omitted.

  19. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  20. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  1. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  2. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  3. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  4. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  5. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  6. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  7. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  8. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  9. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  10. Tether applications for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  11. Mechanism of improving forward and reverse blocking voltages in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by using Schottky drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Lei; Mi Min-Han; Luo Jun; Wang Yi; Dai Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue; Hou Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a Schottky drain can improve the forward and reverse blocking voltages (BVs) simultaneously in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The mechanism of improving the two BVs is investigated by analysing the leakage current components and by software simulation. The forward BV increases from 72 V to 149 V due to the good Schottky contact morphology. During the reverse bias, the buffer leakage in the Ohmicdrain HEMT increases significantly with the increase of the negative drain bias. For the Schottky-drain HEMT, the buffer leakage is suppressed effectively by the formation of the depletion region at the drain terminal. As a result, the reverse BV is enhanced from −5 V to −49 V by using a Schottky drain. Experiments and the simulation indicate that a Schottky drain is desirable for power electronic applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  13. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2. (paper)

  14. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  15. An analytical drain current model for symmetric double-gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An analytical surface-potential-based drain current model of symmetric double-gate (sDG MOSFETs is described as a SPICE compatible model in this paper. The continuous surface and central potentials from the accumulation to the strong inversion regions are solved from the 1-D Poisson’s equation in sDG MOSFETs. Furthermore, the drain current is derived from the charge sheet model as a function of the surface potential. Over a wide range of terminal voltages, doping concentrations, and device geometries, the surface potential calculation scheme and drain current model are verified by solving the 1-D Poisson’s equation based on the least square method and using the Silvaco Atlas simulation results and experimental data, respectively. Such a model can be adopted as a useful platform to develop the circuit simulator and provide the clear understanding of sDG MOSFET device physics.

  16. An analytical drain current model for symmetric double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Huang, Gongyi; Lin, Wei; Xu, Chuanzhong

    2018-04-01

    An analytical surface-potential-based drain current model of symmetric double-gate (sDG) MOSFETs is described as a SPICE compatible model in this paper. The continuous surface and central potentials from the accumulation to the strong inversion regions are solved from the 1-D Poisson's equation in sDG MOSFETs. Furthermore, the drain current is derived from the charge sheet model as a function of the surface potential. Over a wide range of terminal voltages, doping concentrations, and device geometries, the surface potential calculation scheme and drain current model are verified by solving the 1-D Poisson's equation based on the least square method and using the Silvaco Atlas simulation results and experimental data, respectively. Such a model can be adopted as a useful platform to develop the circuit simulator and provide the clear understanding of sDG MOSFET device physics.

  17. PWSCC Potential on the Drain Tubes of WEC Model 51F Steam Generators in Domestic Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B. I.; Song, M. S.; Yoon, K. S.; Kim, I. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The drain couplings of Westinghouse Model 51F steam generators that had been operated in the domestic Nuclear Power Plants were modified and repaired in accordance with the corrective action of replacing the existing Alloy 600 weld build-up with Alloy 690(Alloy 52/152) weld build-up in order to increase its resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The drain tube made of alloy 600, however, was not replaced and left susceptible to the PWSCC. Among the environmental, metallurgical and mechanical factors controlling a susceptibility to the PWSCC, it is believed that tensile stresses play an important role. The objective of this study is to conservatively estimate stress state of the drain tube during fabrication and when exposed to normal plant operations, and to investigate its potential for the PWSCC

  18. Leak or Fistula After Sleeve Gastrectomy: Treatment with Pigtail Drain by the Rendezvous Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufron, Jacques

    2015-10-01

    After a sleeve gastrectomy, a leak or fistula is a serious complication. Laparoscopic drainage, drainage under US or CT scan control, or endoscopic insertion of a stent can be used, but a major re-operation is sometimes unavoidable. Endoscopic drainage with a pigtail catheter could give more success and fewer complications, but the insertion of the drain is not always possible nor does it always provide a perfect drainage. If a laparoscopic second look appears necessary, it is possible to insert a pigtail drain laparoscopically, but under endoscopic control, ensuring a correct positioning of the drain both in the peritoneal cavity and in the gastric tube. This simultaneous "rendezvous" technique could combine in this situation the advantages of purely surgical techniques and of purely endoscopic or image-guided techniques.

  19. Meteorological and hydrographic data from a nearshore platform in Dauphin Island, AL from 22 Feb 1998 to 4 Jan 1999 (NODC Accession 0118645)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and hydrographic data were collected from a monitoring station on Dauphin Island from Feb 1998 to Jan 1999. Variables measured include air...

  20. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occur outside the studio back to studio or production center. The transmitted material shall be intended... system. (b) Remote pickup mobile or base stations may be used for communications related to production..., Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may be used for any purpose related to the programming or...