WorldWideScience

Sample records for island drains responsible

  1. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...... tests were used to investigate the pile - soil interaction to gain a better in-sight into the complex problem. A monotonic test series was carried out initially and then pile - soil interaction curves were deduced from these tests and compared with methodologies used today. The results indicate...... that the current methodologies can be improved and a modification to the methodology has been proposed. Secondly, a cyclic test series was carried out. The accumulation of displacement and the change in secant stiffness of the total response of these tests were evaluated. A simple mathematical model was proposed...

  2. Molybdenum, vanadium, and uranium weathering in small mountainous rivers and rivers draining high-standing islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.; Lyons, W. Berry; Goldsmith, Steven T.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Trierweiler, Annette M.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers draining high standing islands (HSIs) and small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are known to have extremely high sediment fluxes, and can also have high chemical weathering yields, which makes them potentially important contributors to the global riverine elemental flux to the ocean. This work reports on the riverine concentrations, ocean flux, and weathering yields of Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V), and Uranium (U) in a large number of small but geochemically important rivers using 338 river samples from ten lithologically-diverse regions. These redox-sensitive elements are used extensively to infer paleo-redox conditions in the ocean, and Mo and V are also important rock-derived micronutrients used by microorganisms in nitrogen fixation. Unlike in large river systems, in which dissolved Mo has been attributed predominately to pyrite dissolution, Mo concentrations in these rivers did not correlate with sulfate concentrations. V was found to correlate strongly with Si in terrains dominated by silicate rocks, but this trend was not observed in primarily sedimentary regions. Many rivers exhibited much higher V/Si ratios than larger rivers, and rivers draining young Quaternary volcanic rocks in Nicaragua had much higher dissolved V concentrations (mean = 1306 nM) than previously-studied rivers. U concentrations were generally well below the global average with the exception of rivers draining primarily sedimentary lithologies containing carbonates and shales. Fluxes of U and Mo from igneous terrains of intermediate composition are lower than the global average, while fluxes of V from these regions are higher, and up to two orders of magnitude higher in the Nicaragua rivers. Weathering yields of Mo and V in most regions are above the global mean, despite lower than average concentrations measured in some of those systems, indicating that the chemical weathering of these elements are higher in these SMR watersheds than larger drainages. In regions of active boundaries

  3. Managing health worker migration: a qualitative study of the Philippine response to nurse brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaya Roland M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emigration of skilled nurses from the Philippines is an ongoing phenomenon that has impacted the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce, while strengthening the domestic economy through remittances. This study examines how the development of brain drain-responsive policies is driven by the effects of nurse migration and how such efforts aim to achieve mind-shifts among nurses, governing and regulatory bodies, and public and private institutions in the Philippines and worldwide. Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to elicit exploratory perspectives on the policy response to nurse brain drain. Interviews with key informants from the nursing, labour and immigration sectors explored key themes behind the development of policies and programmes that respond to nurse migration. Focus group discussions were held with practising nurses to understand policy recipients’ perspectives on nurse migration and policy. Results Using the qualitative data, a thematic framework was created to conceptualize participants’ perceptions of how nurse migration has driven the policy development process. The framework demonstrates that policymakers have recognised the complexity of the brain drain phenomenon and are crafting dynamic policies and programmes that work to shift domestic and global mindsets on nurse training, employment and recruitment. Conclusions Development of responsive policy to Filipino nurse brain drain offers a glimpse into a domestic response to an increasingly prominent global issue. As a major source of professionals migrating abroad for employment, the Philippines has formalised efforts to manage nurse migration. Accordingly, the Philippine paradigm, summarised by the thematic framework presented in this paper, may act as an example for other countries that are experiencing similar shifts in healthcare worker employment due to migration.

  4. Nitrogen Release in Pristine and Drained Peat Profiles in Response to Water Table Fluctuations: A Mesocosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merjo P. P. Laine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the northern hemisphere, variability in hydrological conditions was suggested to increase as a consequence of climate warming, which may result in longer droughts than the area has experienced before. Due to their predominately anoxic conditions, peatlands are expected to respond to changes in hydrological conditions, such as successive drying and rewetting periods. As peatlands are rich in organic matter, any major changes in water table may influence the decomposition of it. The hydrological conditions may also influence release of nutrients from peat profiles as well as affect their transport to downstream ecosystems. In our mesocosm experiment, artificial water table fluctuations in pristine peat profiles caused an increase in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON and ammonium (NH4+-N concentrations, while no response was found in drained peat profiles, although originating from the same peatland complex.

  5. Sequential activation of CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes in response to pulmonary virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heesik; Legge, Kevin L; Sung, Sun-sang J; Braciale, Thomas J

    2007-07-01

    We have used a TCR-transgenic CD8+ T cell adoptive transfer model to examine the tempo of T cell activation and proliferation in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) in response to respiratory virus infection. The T cell response in the DLN differed for mice infected with different type A influenza strains with the onset of T cell activation/proliferation to the A/JAPAN virus infection preceding the A/PR8 response by 12-24 h. This difference in T cell activation/proliferation correlated with the tempo of accelerated respiratory DC (RDC) migration from the infected lungs to the DLN in response to influenza virus infection, with the migrant RDC responding to the A/JAPAN infection exhibiting a more rapid accumulation in the lymph nodes (i.e., peak migration for A/JAPAN at 18 h, A/PR8 at 24-36 h). Furthermore, in vivo administration of blocking anti-CD62L Ab at various time points before/after infection revealed that the virus-specific CD8+ T cells entered the DLN and activated in a sequential "conveyor belt"-like fashion. These results indicate that the tempo of CD8+ T cell activation/proliferation after viral infection is dependent on the tempo of RDC migration to the DLN and that T cell activation occurs in an ordered sequential fashion.

  6. Characterization of an island aquifer from tidal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Sarwade, Deepak; Singh, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    Growing demand for potable water for various needs has lead to indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater resources, particularly, in the terrain where surface water resources are negligible. One such area is an island where groundwater is the only source of fresh water. Groundwater is the prime source of fresh water on most of the atolls in the world. Groundwater on these islands is in the form of thin fragile floating lens and is often vulnerable to overexploitation, draught, tidal waves, tsunami and cyclone resulting in seawater ingress. Sustainable development of this meager source of fresh groundwater for a longer time becomes a more difficult task on small atolls with a large population depending on this vital resource. To develop a sustainable management scheme and identify the vulnerable part of aquifer, characterization of the aquifer system on islands is imperative. Groundwater on an atoll is extremely vulnerable to seawater mixing through natural as well as human activities. One such natural process is the tides of the ocean. The response of sea tide to the water table on the island offers valuable data as well as cost-effective means to characterize an aquifer system. Such characterization is vital for the management of groundwater resources on an atoll. The obtained results have compared well with the parameters obtained through a conventional pumping test. Therefore, the use of tidal response to the water table, which can easily be recorded, provides a rapid and cost-effective means to characterization of the aquifer system on the island.

  7. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  8. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  9. Modeling the Response of Human Altered Natural Barrier Island Dynamics Along Assateague Island National Seashore to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; McNamara, D.; Schupp, C.

    2009-12-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore comprises a long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Geological evidence suggests that over recent centuries Assateague Island has steadily transgressed up the continental shelf in response to rising sea level. More recently, the natural barrier island dynamics governing Assateague’s evolution have been altered by human activity in three ways: the construction of a jetty and the subsequent interruption of alongshore sediment transport on the north end of Assateague and both the ongoing and abandoned maintenance of a continuous dune system along portions of Assateague with the concomitant modification to overwash dynamics. It is unclear how these varied human alterations to the natural barrier island dynamics will influence the response of Assateague to climate change induced shifts in forcing such as increased rates of sea level rise and changing storm patterns. We use LIDAR detected morphological data of Assateague Island as initial conditions in an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of the various human altered segments of Assateague Island to forcing changes. Traditional models exploring barrier island evolution contain only cross-shore dynamics therefore lacking important alongshore-spatial dynamics in aeolian and surf zone sediment transport. Results show that including alongshore dynamics alter the steady state of Assateague relative to simulations that only include cross-shore dynamics. Results will also be presented exploring the potential for regime shifts in steady state behavior under various scenarios for the rate of sea level rise and storm climate and varying management strategies.

  10. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M A; Baum, A

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern.

  11. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, M.A.; Baum, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern

  12. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  13. Migrations et fuite des cerveaux dans les économies insulaires caribéennes : éléments de réflexion Reflections on Migration and Brain Drain in the Caribbean Island Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny-Aude Bellemare

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Loin d’être un phénomène nouveau, les mobilités internationales se sont fortement accrues depuis les années 1960. Aujourd’hui, le contexte de mondialisation tend à accélérer les dynamiques migratoires alors que dans le même temps s’observe une élévation des niveaux d’éducation. Ainsi, la soutenabilité de l’augmentation de la fuite des cerveaux dans le monde soulève interrogations et réflexions.Le poids des flux de migrants qualifiés allié à la fragilité relative des données, pose la nécessité d’aborder en profondeur le problème de la fuite des cerveaux. Une analyse au cas par cas s’impose. A partir de données se rapportant à la diaspora caribéenne sur la base statistique de Docquier et Marfouk, cet article propose une réflexion sur les facteurs explicatifs de la fuite des cerveaux dans les territoires insulaires caribéens.Far from being a new phenomenon, the international motilities have increased since the 60’s. Today, the context of globalization tends to accelerate the migratory dynamics while at the same time observed a rise of the educational levels. The increase of the brain drain has respite to many questions.Nevertheless, image, nature of flows of skilled migrants combined with relative data’s fragility and the necessity to approach the problem and presenting appropriate policies, impose an analysis case by case. Using data relating to the Caribbean diaspora on the statistical basis of Docquier and Marfouk, this article purpose a reflection on the factors that explain the brain drain in the Caribbean islands.

  14. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  15. Emergency preparedness and response in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - the Three Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergency response mechanism and legal basis in effect in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the time of the Three Mile Island incident. It reviews the sequence of events as they directly affected the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency and examines the method used by the Agency to discharge its responsibilities. Finally, the paper lists some of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island experience. (author)

  16. Modelling the drained response of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines under general monotonic and cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Gottardi, Guido; Govoni, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The response of bucket foundations on sand subjected to planar monotonic and cyclic loading is investigated in the paper. Thirteen monotonic and cyclic laboratory tests on a skirted footing model having a 0.3 m diameter and embedment ratio equal to 1 are presented. The loading regime reproduces t...

  17. Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission products and fuel from the damaged reactor core. The bulk of this contamination is loosely adherent to the drain pipe walls; however, significant amounts of contamination have become incorporated into pipe wall oxide and corrosion layers and embedded in microscopic pits and fissures in the pipe wall material. The need to remove this contamination was recognized early in the TMI-2 cleanup effort. A program consisting of development and laboratory testing of floor drain decontamination techniques was undertaken early in the cleanup with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Based on this initial research, two techniques were judged to show promise for use at TMI-2: a rotating brush hone system and a high-pressure water mole nozzle system. Actual use of these devices to clean floor drains at TMI-2 has yielded mixed decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness that has been obtained is highly dependent on the nature of the contamination in the drain pipe and the combination of decontamination techniques used

  18. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  19. Groundwater movement on a Low-lying Carbonate Atoll Island and its Response to Climatic and Sea-level Fluctuations: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, F. J.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands. These islands are unique and on the frontline of negative societal impacts due to their geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources on atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island settlements, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. Here we present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data from a 16 month study to determine the role of an atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange including submarine groundwater discharge on the island of Roi-Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on similar islands that are expected to experience climate change-driven perturbations.

  20. Island tameness: an altered cardiovascular stress response in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael; Tarlow, Elisa; Cyr, Nicole E; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-03-30

    Island tameness is a widely documented phenomenon in which island species, particularly those that have evolved with no or few natural predators, show a greatly reduced behavioral response when faced with unfamiliar predators. This insufficient anti-predator response has led to widespread population declines among many island species exposed to novel predators, and has become a serious conservation problem. Despite its prevalence, the underlying physiology of island tameness is not known. Here we report that although Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) initiated flight from an evolutionarily recent and unfamiliar potential predator (humans), they failed to show the cardiovascular stress response that facilitates successful escape, even after a prior capture experience. In contrast, when approached by a native predator (the Galápagos hawk; Buteo galapagoensis), marine iguanas show markedly increased heart rate independent of initiating escape movement. The secretion of catecholamines appears to be central to the initiation of escape behavior: naïve animals remotely injected with epinephrine immediately increased flight initiation distance, whereas those injected with corticosterone did not. Our results provide the first evidence that muted escape behavior in predator-naïve species is indicative of both a cognitive deficit in recognizing potential predators and a catecholamine deficit in response. Understanding how the response to predators differs in predator-naïve species could enable the design of maximally effective techniques for inducing an anti-predator response in these vulnerable species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural and Human-Induced Variability in Barrier-Island Response to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Storm-driven sediment fluxes onto and behind barrier islands help coastal barrier systems keep pace with sea level rise (SLR). Understanding what controls cross-shore sediment flux magnitudes is critical for making accurate forecasts of barrier response to increased SLR rates. Here, using an existing morphodynamic model for barrier island evolution, observations are used to constrain model parameters and explore potential variability in future barrier behavior. Using modeled drowning outcomes as a proxy for vulnerability to SLR, 0%, 28%, and 100% of the barrier is vulnerable to SLR rates of 4, 7, and 10 mm/yr, respectively. When only overwash fluxes are increased in the model, drowning vulnerability increases for the same rates of SLR, suggesting that future increases in storminess may increase island vulnerability particularly where sediment resources are limited. Developed sites are more vulnerable to SLR, indicating that anthropogenic changes to overwash fluxes and estuary depths could profoundly affect future barrier response to SLR.

  2. Thailand and brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.

  3. Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and revi...

  4. Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.

    2007-02-01

    High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest

  5. Thailand and brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a sou...

  6. Implementation of State Obligations and Responsibility Ensuring the Availability of Clean Water in Karimunjawa Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

    2018-02-01

    This article aims to analyze the implementation of state obligations and responsibility ensuring the availability of clean water as part of human rights in Karimunjawa islands. The analysis based on principle of the State obligations and responsibility to fulfill their citizen right. Water sources in Karimunjawa Islands is very limited. It depend on forest conservation. Around 9.600 peoples live in Karimunjawa Islands, but Karimunjawa is non groundwater basin region. It means, Karimunjawa doesn't have groundwater potential. The quantity of water depends on the season. The solution to maintain the sustainability of clean water is piping from water reservoir to residential areas. The problem is there are so many hotels in Karimunjawa islands, it disrupted the fulfillment of clean water. Besides utilizing water from reservoir, many hotels drilled the ground to get water. It had impact to the availibity of water in dry season and affected to fulfillment of water supply for Karimunjawa people. There is no specific regulation and policy to solve this problem. Clean water management is doing by Karimunjawa's people. Meanwhile, based on Mahkamah Konstitusi Decree number 85/PUU-XI/2013, state is a rights holder to dominate the water in accordance with the Articles 33 paragraph (2) and (3) UUD NRI 1945, so the government has an obligation to make a policy, regulations, management, and supervision.

  7. A response for substance and harm reduction in Pacific Island countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert; Schmich, Lucina; Nosa, Vili

    2015-10-16

    The Pacific is characterised as a region for the purposes of many international interventions and assistance programmes. Representatives of Pacific States participate in regional fora to build a strategic and unified approach to development. Regionally, bilateral trade agreements impact upon strategies to regulate alcohol imports. Policing and customs initiatives are increasingly supporting prevention of illicit drug production and trafficking, and model laws have been proposed to achieve consistency in enforcement. The aim of this commentary is to provide a response for policies using the case of alcohol and other drug research in the Pacific Islands Countries Territories. This commentary undertook a review of the current literature for regional developments for alcohol and other drug use in the Pacific Island Countries Territories region. A total of 14 articles were used in this article. The publication date for the articles used in this review ranged from 1997 to 2011. The findings of the review found that there should be a co-ordinated approach for adopting alcohol and other drug approaches. Furthermore, there should be a co-ordinated regional response with the inclusion of targeted domestic programming that will meet the needs for the Pacific Island countries and territories. Countries in the Pacific Island territories are characterised by varying degrees of political stability. Without stable government and democratic process, it is likely to remain difficult to develop consistent and effective legislation and policy for implementation of successful alcohol and other drug programmes. We found that there is a lack of robust and current data for alcohol and other drugs in Pacific Island countries and territories. Further research funding is needed to build the limited knowledge of alcohol and other drug substance use.

  8. Drains and Drainage Capabilities: Quantitative Analysis of Drain Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andaç Aykan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the efficiency of the same type of but different-sized silicone drains at different surgical procedures. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, who had different diagnoses and were operated between 2011 and 2013, were included. In all patients, 7- and 10-mm silicone-ended, Jackson–Pratt drains were used. Drains that were under 30 cc/day removed. The connection tube and perforated silicone end were examined due to the clot content. All drain efficiencies were calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Seven of the 24 patients (29.2% were males and 17 (70.8% were females; the mean age was 39.0±11.4 years. Totally, 49 drains were used, of which 25 (51% were 7 mm and 24 (49% were 10 mm in size. Median removal time was the 5th day (2–12 for the 7-mm drains and the 6th day (3–14 for the 10-mm drains. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for drain removal time (p=0.268. Further, there was no difference at the connection tube and silicone end for clot content between the 7- and 10-mm drains (p=0.58. For the drainage volume and efficiency, no difference was observed between the groups (p=0.146. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that there is no difference in the drainage volume and efficiency between different-sized Jackson–Pratt drains.

  9. Dynamic Response of AP1000 Nuclear Island Due to Safe Shutdown Earthquake Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Buntara S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AP1000 is a standard nuclear power plant developed by Westinghouse and its partners by using an advanced passive safety feature. Among the five principle building structures, namely the nuclear island, turbine building, annex building, diesel generator building and radwaste building, the safety of the nuclear island building is the most concerned. This paper investigates the dynamic response of the nuclear island building of the AP1000 plant subjected to safe shutdown earthquake loadings. A finite element model for the building, which is assumed to be built in a hard-rock base, is developed and its dynamic response is computed with the aid of the commercial finite element package ANSYS. The dynamic characteristics, including the natural frequencies, the vibration modes, and the time histories for displacements, velocities, and accelerations of the building are obtained for two typical safe shutdown earthquakes, El Centro and Kobe earthquakes. The dynamic behavior of the building due to the earthquakes and its safety is examined and highlighted.

  10. Progress report for project modeling Arctic barrier island-lagoon system response to projected Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Storlazzi, Curt; B.M. Jones,

    2012-01-01

    Changes in Arctic coastal ecosystems in response to global warming may be some of the most severe on the planet. A better understanding and analysis of the rates at which these changes are expected to occur over the coming decades is crucial in order to delineate high-priority areas that are likely to be affected by climate changes. In this study we investigate the likelihood of changes to habitat-supporting barrier island – lagoon systems in response to projected changes in atmospheric and oceanographic forcing associated with Arctic warming. To better understand the relative importance of processes responsible for the current and future coastal landscape, key parameters related to increasing arctic temperatures are investigated and used to establish boundary conditions for models that simulate barrier island migration and inundation of deltaic deposits and low-lying tundra. The modeling effort investigates the dominance and relative importance of physical processes shaping the modern Arctic coastline as well as decadal responses due to projected conditions out to the year 2100.

  11. Plumbing the brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  12. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta from the Kerguelen Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jaffal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta. These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels. Trout were caught in the Château River, the Studer Lakes and the Ferme Pond, close to the scientific station of the Kerguelen Islands, corresponding to three morphotypes (river, lake and station. Kerguelen trouts’ hepatic concentrations of Cd and Cur were similar to those reported in previous studies in salmonids populations from areas under anthropological impacts. Clear hepatic disturbances (fibrosis, nuclear alteration, increased immune response, melanomacrophage centres [MMCs] were observed in all tested trout. A similar histo-pathological trend was observed among the trout from the three morphotypes but anti-oxidative responses were higher in the trout from the “station” morphotype. Hepatic alterations and the presence of MMCs in the livers of Kerguelen brown trout may be related to the high levels of Cd and Cu measured in this fish at all sampling sites.

  13. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Simon; Aswani, Shankar; Fisher, Paul L; Albert, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  14. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Albert

    Full Text Available Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort, and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  15. Characterizing storm response and recovery using the beach change envelope: Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Lentz, Erika E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Wilson, Kat E.; Nelson, Timothy R.

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy at Fire Island, New York presented unique challenges in the quantification of storm impacts using traditional metrics of coastal change, wherein measured changes (shoreline, dune crest, and volume change) did not fully reflect the substantial changes in sediment redistribution following the storm. We used a time series of beach profile data at Fire Island, New York to define a new contour-based morphologic change metric, the Beach Change Envelope (BCE). The BCE quantifies changes to the upper portion of the beach likely to sustain measurable impacts from storm waves and capture a variety of storm and post-storm beach states. We evaluated the ability of the BCE to characterize cycles of beach change by relating it to a conceptual beach recovery regime, and demonstrated that BCE width and BCE height from the profile time series correlate well with established stages of recovery. We also investigated additional applications of this metric to capture impacts from storms and human modification by applying it to several post-storm historical datasets in which impacts varied considerably; Nor'Ida (2009), Hurricane Irene (2011), Hurricane Sandy (2012), and a 2009 community replenishment. In each case, the BCE captured distinctive upper beach morphologic change characteristic of these different beach building and erosional events. Analysis of the beach state at multiple profile locations showed spatial trends in recovery consistent with recent morphologic island evolution, which other studies have linked with sediment availability and the geologic framework. Ultimately we demonstrate a new way of more effectively characterizing beach response and recovery cycles to evaluate change along sandy coasts.

  16. Governance, corporate social responsibility and cooperation in sustainable tourist destinations: the case of the island of Fuerteventura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga González-Morales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on governance, corporate social responsibility (CSR and public-private cooperation in sustainable tourist destinations. The empirical analysis focuses on the island of Fuerteventura (the Canary Islands, where a process of coordinated decision making has begun, as well as putting in place plans to modernize the destination. Those responsible for tourism hotel and non-hotel accommodation were surveyed to assess the importance given to CSR in their companies. In particular, CSR’s environmental dimension and its relation with the public sector and other socio-economic factors, bearing in mind that Fuerteventura is a tourist destination in a Biosphere Reserve.

  17. Shifting baselines in Antarctic ecosystems; ecophysiological response to warming in Lissarca miliaris at Signy Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam J; Thatje, Sven; Linse, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a rapid increase in atmospheric temperature over the last 50 years. Whether or not marine organisms thriving in this cold stenothermal environment are able to cope with warming is of concern. Here, we present changes to the growth and shell characteristics of the ecologically important, small and short lived brooding bivalve Lissarca miliaris from Signy Island, Antarctica. Using material collected from the 1970's to the present day, we show an increase in growth rate and adult shell deterioration accompanied by a decrease in offspring size, associated with an increase in annual average temperatures. Critical changes to the bivalve's ecology seen today evidence the problem of a shift in baseline since the onset of warming recorded in Antarctica. These small bivalves are demonstrating ecophysiological responses to subtle warming that, provided warming continues, could soon surpass a physiological tipping point, adding to warming associated threats such as increased predatory pressure and ocean acidification.

  18. Shifting baselines in Antarctic ecosystems; ecophysiological response to warming in Lissarca miliaris at Signy Island, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Reed

    Full Text Available The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a rapid increase in atmospheric temperature over the last 50 years. Whether or not marine organisms thriving in this cold stenothermal environment are able to cope with warming is of concern. Here, we present changes to the growth and shell characteristics of the ecologically important, small and short lived brooding bivalve Lissarca miliaris from Signy Island, Antarctica. Using material collected from the 1970's to the present day, we show an increase in growth rate and adult shell deterioration accompanied by a decrease in offspring size, associated with an increase in annual average temperatures. Critical changes to the bivalve's ecology seen today evidence the problem of a shift in baseline since the onset of warming recorded in Antarctica. These small bivalves are demonstrating ecophysiological responses to subtle warming that, provided warming continues, could soon surpass a physiological tipping point, adding to warming associated threats such as increased predatory pressure and ocean acidification.

  19. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  20. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A Kathryn; Thomson, Diane M; Chess, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  1. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gloves. Put a new bandage around the drain tube site. Use surgical tape to hold it down ... small amount of redness is normal). There is drainage from the skin around the tube site. There is more tenderness and swelling at ...

  2. Optimal Scheduling of Distributed Energy Resources and Responsive Loads in Islanded Microgrids Considering Voltage and Frequency Security Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    in islanded MGs with regard to voltage and frequency security constraints. Based on the proposed model, scheduling of the controllable units in both supply and demand sides is done in a way not only to maximize the expected profit of MG operator (MGO), but also to minimize the energy payments of customers...... on the system’s performance in terms of voltage and frequency stability. Moreover, optimal coordination of DERs and responsive loads can increase the expected profit of MGO significantly. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on an islanded MG test system over a 24-h period....

  3. Probabilistic Forecasting of Coastal Morphodynamic Storm Response at Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Adams, P. N.; Hapke, C. J.; Lentz, E. E.; Brenner, O.

    2013-12-01

    Site-specific probabilistic models of shoreline change are useful because they are derived from direct observations so that local factors, which greatly influence coastal response, are inherently considered by the model. Fire Island, a 50-km barrier island off Long Island, New York, is periodically subject to large storms, whose waves and storm surge dramatically alter beach morphology. Nor'Ida, which impacted the Fire Island coast in 2009, was one of the larger storms to occur in the early 2000s. In this study, we improve upon a Bayesian Network (BN) model informed with historical data to predict shoreline change from Nor'Ida. We present two BN models, referred to as 'original' model (BNo) and 'revised' model (BNr), designed to predict the most probable magnitude of net shoreline movement (NSM), as measured at 934 cross-shore transects, spanning 46 km. Both are informed with observational data (wave impact hours, shoreline and dune toe change rates, pre-storm beach width, and measured NSM) organized within five nodes, but the revised model contains a sixth node to represent the distribution of material added during an April 2009 nourishment project. We evaluate model success by examining the percentage of transects on which the model chooses the correct (observed) bin value of NSM. Comparisons of observed to model-predicted NSM show BNr has slightly higher predictive success over the total study area and significantly higher success at nourished locations. The BNo, which neglects anthropogenic modification history, correctly predicted the most probable NSM in 66.6% of transects, with ambiguous prediction at 12.7% of the locations. BNr, which incorporates anthropogenic modification history, resulted in 69.4% predictive accuracy and 13.9% ambiguity. However, across nourished transects, BNr reported 72.9% predictive success, while BNo reported 61.5% success. Further, at nourished transects, BNr reported higher ambiguity of 23.5% compared to 9.9% in BNo. These results

  4. Method of processing laundry drain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Oda, A; Yusa, H; Kitamura, M; Horiuchi, S

    1979-09-28

    Purpose: To subject the laundry drain to flocculation precipitation treatment in the prior stage of an inverse osmotic treatment, and subject only the supernatant to the inverse osmotic treatment and the precipitate directly to the condensation treatment, thereby decreasing the frequency of exchange of the inverse osmotic membranes, and reducing the quantity of purifying water. Method: The laundry drain is supplied to a flocculation precipitation tank, and added and mixed with a flocculant and a neutralizing agent, thus being subjected to a flocculation precipitation treatment. The supernatant is transported to a circulation tank through a transportation pipe, and is subjected to an inverse osmotic treatment in inverse osmotic module through the circulation tank, a filter and a high tension pump, and then returned to the circulation tank. The supernatant is thus concentrated to a predetermined concentration by repeating such operations. On the other hand, the precipitate at the bottom part of the flocculation precipitation tank is supplied through the transportation pipe to an evaporator supply tank together with the concentrate from the drain circulation tank, and evaporated and concentrated in the evaporator.

  5. Response of Ocean Circulation to Different Wind Forcing in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Miguel; Garcia, Edgardo; Leonardi, Stafano; Canals, Miguel; Capella, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The response of the ocean circulation to various wind forcing products has been studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. The computational domain includes the main islands of Puerto Rico, Saint John and Saint Thomas, located on the continental shelf dividing the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Data for wind forcing is provided by an anemometer located in a moored buoy, the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model and the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Hindcast simulations have been validated using hydrographic data at different locations in the area of study. Three cases are compared to quantify the impact of high resolution wind forcing on the ocean circulation and the vertical structure of salinity, temperature and velocity. In the first case a constant wind velocity field is used to force the model as measured by an anemometer on top of a buoy. In the second case, a forcing field provided by the Navy's COAMPS model is used and in the third case, winds are taken from NDFD in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Validated results of ocean currents against data from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at different locations show better agreement using high resolution wind data as expected. Thanks to CariCOOS and NOAA.

  6. Biological responses of Crested and Least auklets to volcanic destruction of nesting habitat in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella) and Least Auklets (A. pusilla) are crevice-nesting birds that breed in large mixed colonies at relatively few sites in the Aleutian Island archipelago, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Sea of Okhotsk. Many of these colonies are located on active volcanic islands. The eruption of Kasatochi volcano, in the central Aleutians, on August 7, 2008, completely buried all crevice-nesting seabird habitat on the island. This provided an opportunity to examine the response of a large, mixed auklet colony to a major geological disturbance. Time-lapse imagery of nesting habitat indicated that both species returned to the largest pre-eruption colony site for several years, but subsequently abandoned it within 5 yr after the eruption. In 2010, a rockfall site in a cove north of the old colony site began to accumulate talus, and groups of auklets were observed using the site in 2011. Use of the new colony appeared to coincide with the abandonment of the old colony site by both species, though surface counts suggested that Least Auklets shifted to the new colony sooner than Crested Auklets. At-sea surveys of seabirds before and after the eruption indicated that both Crested and Least auklets shifted their at-sea distributions from the waters around Kasatochi Island to nearby Koniuji Island. In combination, at-sea counts and colony time-lapse imagery indicated that Crested and Least auklets using Kasatochi responded to the volcanic disturbance and complete loss of nesting habitat at the main colony on Kasatochi with dispersal either to newly created habitat on Kasatochi or to an alternate colony on a nearby island.

  7. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea

  8. Atmospheric Release Advisory capability (ARAC) response to the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1979-10-01

    This paper discusses the three general classes of support provided by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) and describes the role played by ARAC in support of DOE during the Three Mile Island accident in March and April of 1979

  9. Wave Climate and Wave Response, Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward F; Demirbilek, Zeki; Briggs, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Present and projected commercial activities in Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, HI, indicate that a deeper basin and entrance channel and better protected berthing areas will be needed. The U.S...

  10. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  11. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  12. Benthic reef primary production in response to large amplitude internal waves at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand)

    KAUST Repository

    Jantzen, Carin

    2013-11-29

    Coral reefs are facing rapidly changing environments, but implications for reef ecosystem functioning and important services, such as productivity, are difficult to predict. Comparative investigations on coral reefs that are naturally exposed to differing environmental settings can provide essential information in this context. One prevalent phenomenon regularly introducing alterations in water chemistry into coral reefs are internal waves. This study therefore investigates the effect of large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) on primary productivity in coral reefs at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand). The LAIW-exposed west sides of the islands are subjected to sudden drops in water temperature accompanied by enhanced inorganic nutrient concentrations compared to the sheltered east. At the central island, Ko Miang, east and west reefs are only few hundred meters apart, but feature pronounced differences. On the west lower live coral cover (-38%) coincides with higher turf algae cover (+64%) and growth (+54%) compared to the east side. Turf algae and the reef sand-associated microphytobenthos displayed similar chlorophyll a contents on both island sides, but under LAIW exposure, turf algae exhibited higher net photosynthesis (+23%), whereas the microphytobenthos displayed reduced net and gross photosynthesis (-19% and -26%, respectively) accompanied by lower respiration (-42%). In contrast, the predominant coral Porites lutea showed higher chlorophyll a tissues contents (+42%) on the LAIW-exposed west in response to lower light availability and higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, but net photosynthesis was comparable for both sides. Turf algae were the major primary producers on the west side, whereas microphytobenthos dominated on the east. The overall primary production rate (comprising all main benthic primary producers) was similar on both island sides, which indicates high primary production variability under different environmental conditions.

  13. Numerical simulation of a low-lying barrier island's morphological response to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemer, C.A.; Plant, N.G.; Puleo, J.A.; Thompson, D.M.; Wamsley, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Gulf of Mexico generate storm surge and large waves that impact low-lying coastlines along the Gulf Coast. The Chandeleur Islands, located 161. km east of New Orleans, Louisiana, have endured numerous hurricanes that have passed nearby. Hurricane Katrina (landfall near Waveland MS, 29 Aug 2005) caused dramatic changes to the island elevation and shape. In this paper the predictability of hurricane-induced barrier island erosion and accretion is evaluated using a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model known as XBeach. Pre- and post-storm island topography was surveyed with an airborne lidar system. Numerical simulations utilized realistic surge and wave conditions determined from larger-scale hydrodynamic models. Simulations included model sensitivity tests with varying grid size and temporal resolutions. Model-predicted bathymetry/topography and post-storm survey data both showed similar patterns of island erosion, such as increased dissection by channels. However, the model under predicted the magnitude of erosion. Potential causes for under prediction include (1) errors in the initial conditions (the initial bathymetry/topography was measured three years prior to Katrina), (2) errors in the forcing conditions (a result of our omission of storms prior to Katrina and/or errors in Katrina storm conditions), and/or (3) physical processes that were omitted from the model (e.g., inclusion of sediment variations and bio-physical processes). ?? 2010.

  14. Evolution of Pine Island Glacier subglacial conditions in response to 18 years of ice flow acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Bougamont, M. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Cornford, S. L.; Nias, I.; Vaughan, D.; Smith, A.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's main contribution to sea-level rise originates from the Amundsen Coast, when warm ocean water intrudes onto the continental shelf. As a result, strong melting beneath the ice shelves induces thinning near the grounding line of glaciers, which is ensued by large ice flow speed up diffusing rapidly inland. In particular, ice loss from Pine Island Glacier (PIG) accounts for 20% of the total ice loss in West Antarctica, amounting to 0.12 mm yr-1 of global sea-level rise. Forecasting the future flow of Amundsen Coast glaciers is however hindered by large uncertainties regarding how the thinning initiated at the grounding line is transmitted upstream, and how the grounded flow will ultimately respond. This work aims at elucidating the role of subglacial processes beneath PIG tributaries in modulating the ice flow response to frontal perturbations. We used the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM 2.0) to perform numerical inversions of PIG surface velocity as observed in 1996 and 2014. Over that time period, ice flow acceleration has been widespread over PIG's basin, and the inversions provide insights into the related evolution of the basal thermal and stress conditions. We assume the latter to be directly related to changes in the properties of a soft sediment (till) layer known to exist beneath PIG. We find that the overall bed strength has weakened by 18% in the region of enhanced flow, and that the annual melt production for PIG catchment increased by 25% between 1996 and 2014. Specifically, regions of high melt production are located in the southern tributaries, where the overall stronger bed allows for more frictional melting. However, we find no significant and widespread change in the basal strength of that region, and we infer that the water produced is transported away in a concentrated hydrological system, without much interaction with the till layer. In contrast, we find that relatively less basal melting occurs elsewhere in the catchment, where the

  15. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) response to the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the three general classes of support provided by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) and describes the role played by ARAC in support of DOE during the Three Mile Island accident in March and April of 1979. 6 refs

  16. Fast transient current response to switching events in short chains of molecular islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav; Velický, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 773-777 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium * molecular islands * initial correlations * transient currents Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  17. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  18. Complexities in barrier island response to sea level rise: Insights from numerical model experiments, North Carolina Outer Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura J.; List, Jeffrey H.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Stolper, David

    2010-09-01

    Using a morphological-behavior model to conduct sensitivity experiments, we investigate the sea level rise response of a complex coastal environment to changes in a variety of factors. Experiments reveal that substrate composition, followed in rank order by substrate slope, sea level rise rate, and sediment supply rate, are the most important factors in determining barrier island response to sea level rise. We find that geomorphic threshold crossing, defined as a change in state (e.g., from landward migrating to drowning) that is irreversible over decadal to millennial time scales, is most likely to occur in muddy coastal systems where the combination of substrate composition, depth-dependent limitations on shoreface response rates, and substrate erodibility may prevent sand from being liberated rapidly enough, or in sufficient quantity, to maintain a subaerial barrier. Analyses indicate that factors affecting sediment availability such as low substrate sand proportions and high sediment loss rates cause a barrier to migrate landward along a trajectory having a lower slope than average barrier island slope, thereby defining an "effective" barrier island slope. Other factors being equal, such barriers will tend to be smaller and associated with a more deeply incised shoreface, thereby requiring less migration per sea level rise increment to liberate sufficient sand to maintain subaerial exposure than larger, less incised barriers. As a result, the evolution of larger/less incised barriers is more likely to be limited by shoreface erosion rates or substrate erodibility making them more prone to disintegration related to increasing sea level rise rates than smaller/more incised barriers. Thus, the small/deeply incised North Carolina barriers are likely to persist in the near term (although their long-term fate is less certain because of the low substrate slopes that will soon be encountered). In aggregate, results point to the importance of system history (e

  19. Evaluation of the response to xenon-133 radiations by thermoluminescent dosimeters used during the accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R J; Zanzonico, P B; Masterson, M E; St Germain, J M; Laughlin, J S

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is presented of the accuracy and sensitivity of three types of TLD's used during the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This evaluation indicated that, due to the method of calibration, all the dosimeters over-responded to 133Xe radiations. The response ranged from slightly above unity to almost two. Exposures of the TLD's were of two types, namely, the characteristic X-rays either were or were not filtered from the beam. The angular sensitivity of the dosimeters is also reported.

  20. Complexities in barrier island response to sea level rise: Insights from numerical model experiments, North Carolina Outer Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura J.; List, Jeffrey H.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Stolper, David

    2010-01-01

    Using a morphological-behavior model to conduct sensitivity experiments, we investigate the sea level rise response of a complex coastal environment to changes in a variety of factors. Experiments reveal that substrate composition, followed in rank order by substrate slope, sea level rise rate, and sediment supply rate, are the most important factors in determining barrier island response to sea level rise. We find that geomorphic threshold crossing, defined as a change in state (e.g., from landward migrating to drowning) that is irreversible over decadal to millennial time scales, is most likely to occur in muddy coastal systems where the combination of substrate composition, depth-dependent limitations on shoreface response rates, and substrate erodibility may prevent sand from being liberated rapidly enough, or in sufficient quantity, to maintain a subaerial barrier. Analyses indicate that factors affecting sediment availability such as low substrate sand proportions and high sediment loss rates cause a barrier to migrate landward along a trajectory having a lower slope than average barrier island slope, thereby defining an “effective” barrier island slope. Other factors being equal, such barriers will tend to be smaller and associated with a more deeply incised shoreface, thereby requiring less migration per sea level rise increment to liberate sufficient sand to maintain subaerial exposure than larger, less incised barriers. As a result, the evolution of larger/less incised barriers is more likely to be limited by shoreface erosion rates or substrate erodibility making them more prone to disintegration related to increasing sea level rise rates than smaller/more incised barriers. Thus, the small/deeply incised North Carolina barriers are likely to persist in the near term (although their long-term fate is less certain because of the low substrate slopes that will soon be encountered). In aggregate, results point to the importance of system history (e

  1. Reappraising the Legacy of Colonialism: The Value of an Island Sample - A Response to Bertram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Feyrer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this brief article, we respond to Geoff Bertram’s overview of the current state of research into the legacy of colonial institutions. We make the general case for islands as a useful unit of observation in thinking about cross country income differences. The nature of island exploration and settlement provides a unique natural experiment that is not available in a mainland sample of countries. However, we feel that the results provide useful insights to the general literature about the relationship between colonialism and income. We also respond to Bertram’s criticisms of our data and sample selection. In many cases, problems he identifies have been addressed in the most recent version of our work.

  2. Near-Field Population Response During the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Baumwoll, J.

    2007-12-01

    When the magnitude 8.1 earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the Solomon Islands on 2 April 2007 it killed 52 people. On Ghizo Island, home of the capital of the Western Province, Gizo, waves approaching 4 m in height inundated the south coast villages. Eyewitness accounts supported by geologic data from the offshore coral reef and sediment deposited on land suggest a wave that came in as the shaking stopped as a rapidly-rising tide rather than a turbulent bore- vehicles and houses were floated inland with very little damage. Those that survived in villages affected by the tsunami had indigenous knowledge of prior events, whereas immigrant populations died in higher proportions. While buoy-based early warning systems are necessary to mitigate the effects of teletsunamis, they would have done little good in this near-field environment. In Pailongge, a village of 76 indigenous Solomon Islanders on Ghizo's south coast, there were no deaths. Village elders directed the people inland following the shaking and the almost immediate withdrawal of water from the lagoon, and heads of household made sure that children were accounted for and evacuated. Of the 366 Gilbertese living in Titiana, however, 13 people died, 8 of which were children who were exploring the emptied lagoon. A large proportion of the dead were children (24) as they were likely too weak to swim against the non-bore flow. The Gilbertese migrated from Kiribati in the 1950"s, and had not experienced a major earthquake and tsunami, hence had no cultural memory. In the case of the Solomon Islands tsunami, as was the case in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, indigenous knowledge served the people in the near-field well. In the case of the Indian Ocean where there was 10-20 minutes separation between the time the shaking began and the waves arrived, the combination of an in-place plan and a suitable physical geography allowed the population of Simeulue Island and the Moken people of Thailand to escape before the

  3. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  4. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  5. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  6. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped countries experience the negative consequences of the brain drain and suffer from the decreases in their human capital. The paper explains the phenomenon of skilled international migration, or brain drain, and summarizes the main global trends in this area.

  7. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  8. Hurricane Maria, 2017 Hydrographic Response for Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands by the NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, D.; Klemm, A.; van Westendorp, C.; Wood, D. A.; Doroba, J.

    2017-12-01

    After many coastal natural disasters, ports and harbors must be surveyed for navigation dangers, cleared, and opened as quickly as possible to facilitate recovery and reconstruction. The appropriate survey asset to use varies by location and condition. Routinely, hydrographic response to a natural disaster is conducted by survey teams with trailer-hitched vessels deployed quickly by land. This was the case for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Nate which struck mainland U.S. In the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands post-Hurricane Maria, however, the devastation to the regional infrastructure resulted in a dearth of adequate accommodations, fuel, security and passable roads required to support a land-based response. On September 24th, 2017, NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson (TJ), a 208-foot-long hydrographic survey vessel with a 38-person complement and two 28-foot-long survey launches, began an uninterrupted 20-day cruise to survey major ports around the islands. The ship's crew acquired high-resolution multibeam echo sounder (MBES) and concurrent object-detection side scan sonar (SSS) in and around 18 individual port facilities in 13 areas. The TJ is the appropriate platform for sustained remote response due to a self-contained infrastructure that supports deployment and recovery of survey launches, as well as 24/7 data processing facilities. The TJ crew produced digital terrain models and SSS mosaics, in addition to developing new reports on specific hazards overnight. These products quickly informed responders, stakeholders and responsible authorities about the efficacy of waterways.

  9. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report [TMI79c] to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists

  10. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling of the system in the DTU lab is done to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple with less components...... and that the performance can be enhanced. A combination of the drain back- and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. Small initial problems with installation and proposals for design improvements to avoid these in practice are described in the paper. Installer education and training is an important step to have...

  11. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  12. Penrose Drain Migration After Laparoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki AbdolReza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy has made a revolution in surgical procedures and treatment of various diseases but its complications are still under investigation. Intra-abdominal visceral and vessel injuries, trocar site hernia, and leaving foreign bodies into the peritoneal cavity are among some laparoscopic surgery complications. This is a rare report of Penrose drain migration following incomplete laparoscopic Fundoplication surgery. The patient was a 47- year- old woman, who was a candidate for Touplet Fundoplication via laparoscopic approach due to refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. While wrapping a Penrose drain around the esophagus, the patient had a cardiorespiratory arrest. Attempts to remove the Penrose drain were unsuccessful and the surgical procedure was terminated due to patient's condition. Four months later, after a long period of dysphagia and abdominal pain, the Penrose drain was defecated via rectum.

  13. Brain drain of China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Under the background of globalization, brain drain is a common phenomenon in many countries. Talents flow from developing countries to developed countries, and this phenomenon unavoidably exerts various and profound influences to both the source countries and the receiving countries. This thesis deals with the phenomenon of brain drain with the aim to investigate the phenomenon further and carry out two case studies of China and India. The research method is main...

  14. Necessity of suction drains in gynecomastia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent; Karacaoglan, Naci

    2014-05-01

    The aim of gynecomastia surgery is to restore a normal chest contour with minimal signs of breast surgery. The authors examine the rate of complications in gynecomastia surgery when no closed-suction drains are placed. One hundred thirty-eight consecutive male patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery without drains were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the absence of drains adversely affected patient outcomes. Patients were managed by ultrasonic-assisted liposuction both with and without the pull-through technique. The mean age of the patients was 29 years, and the mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 350 mL per beast. Pull-through was needed in 23 cases. There was only 1 postoperative hematoma. These results are comparable with previously published data for gynecomastia surgery in which drains were placed, suggesting that the absence of drains does not adversely affect postoperative recovery. Routine closed-suction drainage after gynecomastia surgery is unnecessary, and it may be appropriate to omit drains after gynecomastia surgery.

  15. How to remove a chest drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-07

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  16. Response of ecosystem services to land use change in Xiamen Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.

    2009-12-01

    : Land use change was a major factor affecting ecosystem services. Taken Xiamen Island as an example, by integrating remote sensing data to examine land use patterns from 1950 to 2007, the regional ecosystem services of Xiamen Island were evaluated based on two revised methods aiming to identify the stress effects and mechanisms of land use change on ecosystem services. The results showed that during 1950~2007, in general, Xiamen Island’s land use intensity had been annually rising. The trends of Xiamen Island’s ecosystem services value acquired by two methods were both consistent with decreasing along with the growth of land use intensity. Before 1987, the ecosystem service value of Xiamen Island had increased by 1.07 million yuan, due to the expanding of 12.87 km2 water and wetland. After the establishment of Xiamen special economic zone in 1984, the rapid urbanization has resulted a sharp decline in ecosystem service value, the average annual loss reached by 619,773 yuan after 1987. As the utilization of land reaching saturation and the launching of ecological projects, such as the Xiamen Eastern Sea Comprehensive Improvement Project, it could be predicted that the decreasing trend of ecosystem services value was going to be slowed down in the near future. The first revised method referencing four eco-system services solved the problem of overestimated value caused by the second revised method based on provisioning service alone. By applying the ESV total correction method, the problem of over counting service value by correction made from a single aspect could be solved.Equivalent value per unit area of ecosystem services in China 2007 and revised value by second method Note: The modified coefficient of crop, orchard & forest, wetland and inland water provisioning ESV revised by the second method is 2.858, 2.405, 1.523, 1.843 respectively; for regulating, ultural and supporting ESV, the coefficient is 2.339, 15.339, 2.339 respectively.

  17. Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Mendoza, Guillermo; Levin, Lisa A; Zirino, Alberto; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Porrachia, Magali; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2011-04-01

    We examined Cu contamination effects on macrobenthic communities and Cu concentration in invertebrates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for "self defense" mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated Cu levels in sediment, macrobenthic communities were not only less diverse but also their total biomass and body size (individual biomass) were reduced compared to sites with lower Cu. Cu concentration in tissue varied between species and within the same species, reflecting differing abilities to "regulate" their body load. The spatial complexity of Cu effects in a small marina such as SIYB emphasizes that sediment-quality criteria based solely on laboratory experiments should be used with caution, as they do not necessarily reflect the condition at the community and ecosystem levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling the response of the geothermal system at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea to mine dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, A.J. [GeothermEx, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States); Forth, J.L. [Lihir Management Company, Brisbane (Australia)

    1995-03-01

    Lihir Gold, Ltd., with RTZ Corporation, Niugini Mining Ltd. and the Government of Papua New Guinea as major shareholders, plans to mine two contiguous gold orebodies located in the Luise Caldera, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Niugini Mining Ltd. first discovered the deposit, which is believed to be the largest undeveloped gold deposit in the world, in 1982 and detailed exploration was later conducted by Kennecott Corporation (an RTZ subsidiary) who also prepared the plan for mining the deposit. The gold was deposited in the caldera breccias by rising hot fluids from a still active geothermal system to form the orebody which is to be mined in a 2 km x 1.5 km open pit that will ultimately reach a depth of about 220 m below sea level.

  19. Photosynthetic response and zonation of three species of Gelidiales from Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domíguez-Álvarez, S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense and Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta were selected due to their abundance in the marine lower intertidal of the north coast of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, to assess, using PAM fluorescence, the importance of irradiance and exposure to air on vertical distribution. We compared tolerance to emersion by air-drying fronds under simulated emersion, and results suggest that recovery of photosynthesis after emersion plays a major role in the vertical distribution of these three species. Morphological traits such as clumped fronds explain the higher tolerances, and reduced water loss of the species upper on the shore. Local differences between sites may be related to slight differences in the light regime related to topography.

    Se han seleccionado tres especies de Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense y Pterocladiella capillacea que son abundantes en los niveles inferiores del intermareal de la costa N de Tenerife para establecer, utilizando fluorescencia tipo PAM, la importancia de la cantidad de luz y la exposición al aire en su zonación vertical. Se ha comparado la tolerancia a la emersión en frondes expuestas al aire, y los resultados sugieren que la capacidad de recuperación de la fotosíntesis tras la emersión tiene un papel fundamental en la explicación de la posición vertical de estas tres especies. Además, características morfológicas como el apelotonamiento de las frondes pueden coadyuvar a la mayor tolerancia, al reducir la pérdida de agua en emersión en las especies de niveles más altos. Las variaciones entre sitios se pueden deber a desigualdades locales en la cantidad de luz provocadas por diferencias topográficas.

  20. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    Construction was initiated following the 2000 tern breeding season for Phase 1 of a planned two-phase ?Shoreline Protection and Erosion Control Project? at the Falkner Island Unit of the USFWS Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge located in Long Island Sound off the coast of Guilford, CT. When the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and federally endangered Roseate Tern (S. dougallii) arrived in spring 2001, they encountered several major habitat changes from what had existed in previous years. These changes included: a rock revetment covering most of the former nesting habitat on the beach from the northwestern section around the northern tip and covering about 60% of the eastern side; an elevated 60- ? 4-m shelf covering the beach and lower bank of the southwestern section; and about 2,000 sq m of devegetated areas on top of the island on the northeast side above the revetment, and about one-third of the southern half of the island. The southwest shelf was created by bulldozing and compacting extra construction fill and in situ materials. This shelf differed in internal structure from the main revetment on the north and eastern sections of the island because it lacked the deep internal crevices of the revetment. The deep internal crevices were created from the large stones and boulders (up to 2 tons) used in the construction of the main revetment. Small rock and gravel was used to fill the crevices to within 3 feet (0.9 m) of the surface of the revetment. Because half-buried tires and nest boxes for the six Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) sub-colony areas were deployed in similar patterns on the remaining beach, and nest boxes were placed on the newly elevated shelf areas several meters above previous locations on the now-covered beach areas, the distribution of Roseate Tern nests did not change much from 2000 to 2001. However, the movements of Roseate Tern chicks ? in many cases led by their parents towards traditional hiding places ? into the labyrinth of

  1. Mapping the Distribution of Sand Live Oak (Quercus geminata) and Determining Growth Responses to Hurricane Katrina (2005) on Cat Island, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, W.; Carter, G. A.; Harley, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    William R. Funderburk, Gregory A. Carter, Grant Harley Gulf Coast Geospatial Center, University of Southern Mississippi Department of Geography and Geology Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 U.S.A. william.funderburk@usm.edu The Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands serve to buffer mainland coastal areas from the impacts of hurricanes and other extreme weather events. On August 29, 2005, they were impacted heavily by the wind, waves, and storm surges of Hurricane Katrina. The purpose of this study is to determine the growth responses of Quercus geminata, a dominant tree species on Cat Island, MS, in relation to the impact of Hurricane Katrina. Remotely sensed data was utilized in conjunction with ground data to assess growth response post Hurricane Katrina. The main objectives of this study were: 1) determine growth response of Q. geminata through tree ring analysis; 2) understand how Q. geminata adapted to intense weather and climatic phenomena on Cat Island. The hypotheses tested were: 1) growth rates of Q. geminata on Cat Island were decreased by the impact of Hurricane Katrina 2) trees at higher elevations survived or recovered while trees at lower elevations did not recover or died. Decadal scale stability is required for forest stand development on siliciclastic barrier islands. Thus, monitoring the distribution of forest climax community species is key to understanding siliciclastic, subsiding, barrier island geomorphic processes and their relationships to successional patterns and growth rates. Preliminary results indicate that Q. geminata produces a faint growth ring, survive for at least two to three hundred years and is well-adapted to frequent salt water flooding. Cat Island: False color Image

  2. Transporting TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] core debris to INEL: Public safety and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.; Young, W.R.; Hamric, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure that public safety is maintained during transport of core debris from the Unit-2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID. It provides up-to-date information about public response to the transport action and discusses DOE's position on several institutional issues. The authors advise that planners of future transport operations be prepared for a multitude of comments from all levels of federal, state, and local governments, special interest groups, and private citizens. They also advise planners to keep meticulous records concerning all informational transactions

  3. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  4. Lessons learned from Three Mile Island (TMI), USNRC long-term trends, industry response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies resulting from Three Mile Island (TMI) showed that corrections were needed in information processing, operator training and procedures, and certain aspects of the safety review process. These have been undertaken by industry and NRC and the results are positive. New safety instructions have been set up. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) is providing a focus for analysis of issues which have generic elements affecting a number of plants of similar or related design. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) is setting industry standards for training and certification of operators and supervisory personnel, and for training of the managerial chain which oversees safety practices. Changes in procedures and in some design features called for in the recommendations of the NRC Lessons Learned Task Force (NUREG-0578) have been simplemented by utilities. Other requirements included in the NRC Action Plan (NUREG-0660) and its companion document clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements (NUREG-0737), are also being addressed. Improved operator training and emergency procedures provide a continuing opportunity to make safety gains. Problems remain to be faced in the regulatory and political arenas. The long-term licensing trend will be affected by the manner in which degraded core issues and the development of a safety goal proceed. The Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking (IDCOR) program has been undertaken to develop the nuclear industry's position in anticipation of an impending rulemaking. Both industry and NRC are working on the development of a safety goal and standard risk assessment methodology. (AF)

  5. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M; Reagan, Dugan; Crivello, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS), we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi). The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas), hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.), seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi), and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus).

  6. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hudson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS, we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp. and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi. The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas, hermit crabs (Pagurus spp., seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi, and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus.

  7. Monitoring stream sediment loads in response to agriculture in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Ashley; St-Hilaire, Andre; Courtenay, Simon C; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Increased agricultural land use leads to accelerated erosion and deposition of fine sediment in surface water. Monitoring of suspended sediment yields has proven challenging due to the spatial and temporal variability of sediment loading. Reliable sediment yield calculations depend on accurate monitoring of these highly episodic sediment loading events. This study aims to quantify precipitation-induced loading of suspended sediments on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Turbidity is considered to be a reasonably accurate proxy for suspended sediment data. In this study, turbidity was used to monitor suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and was measured for 2 years (December 2012-2014) in three subwatersheds with varying degrees of agricultural land use ranging from 10 to 69 %. Comparison of three turbidity meter calibration methods, two using suspended streambed sediment and one using automated sampling during rainfall events, revealed that the use of SSC samples constructed from streambed sediment was not an accurate replacement for water column sampling during rainfall events for calibration. Different particle size distributions in the three rivers produced significant impacts on the calibration methods demonstrating the need for river-specific calibration. Rainfall-induced sediment loading was significantly greater in the most agriculturally impacted site only when the load per rainfall event was corrected for runoff volume (total flow minus baseflow), flow increase intensity (the slope between the start of a runoff event and the peak of the hydrograph), and season. Monitoring turbidity, in combination with sediment modeling, may offer the best option for management purposes.

  8. Nursing brain drain from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolenko Mary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In response to recent findings regarding migration of health workers out of Africa, we provide data from a survey of Indian nurses suggesting that up to one fifth of the nursing labour force may be lost to wealthier countries through circular migration.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in ventilator...

  10. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, James G; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry and drained constants, which are assumed known, and the saturated or undrained constants, which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the effects of the fluids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore fluid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  11. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  12. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P drains and surface waters, pathways being associated primarily with unevenly distributed SEMP producing strong smoke plumes.

  13. Present and future responses of growing degree days for Crete Island in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Climate affects practically all the physiological processes that determine plant life (IPCC, 2014). A major challenge and objective of the agricultural science is to predict the occurrences of specific physical or biological events. For this reason, flower phenology has been widely used to study the flowering in plant species of economic interest, and in this concept, temperature and heat units have been widely accepted as the most important factors affecting processes leading to flowering. The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). Determination of GDD is useful for achieving a better understanding of the flowering season development in several plant species, and for forecasting when flowering will occur (Paparrizos and Matzarakis, 2017). Temperature and GDD represent two important spatially-dynamic climatic variables, as they both play vital roles in influencing forest development by directly affecting plant functions such as evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and plant transpiration. Understanding the spatial distribution of GDD is crucial to the practice of sustainable agricultural and forest management, as GDD relates to the integration of growth and provides precise point estimates (Hasan et al., 2007; Matzarakis et al., 2007). The aim of the current study was to estimate and map through downscaling spatial interpolation and multi-linear regression techniques, the future variation of GDD for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, under the A1B and B1 IPCC emission scenarios in relation with the reference periods for Crete Island in Greece. Future temperature data were obtained, validated and analysed from the ENSEMBLES European project. A combination of dynamical and statistical approach was conducted in order to downscale and perform the spatial interpolation of GDD through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that in the future, GDD will be increased and the existing

  14. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Diez, E. [Transportes Salas Simo S.L., Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  15. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Kantin, R.; Diez, E.

    2002-01-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  16. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of

  17. Hurricane Harvey rapid response: observations of infragravity wave dynamics and morphological change during inundation of a barrier island cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarde, K.; Figlus, J.; Dellapenna, T. M.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Prior to landfall of Hurricane Harvey on August 25, 2017, instrumentation was deployed on the seaward and landward sides of a barrier island on the central Texas Gulf Coast to collect in-situ hydrodynamic measurements during storm impact. High-resolution devices capable of withstanding extreme conditions included inexpensive pressure transducers and tilt current meters mounted within and atop (respectively) shallow monitoring wells. In order to link measurements of storm hydrodynamics with the morphological evolution of the barrier, pre- and post-storm digital elevation models were generated using a combination of unmanned aerial imagery, LiDAR, and real-time kinematic GPS. Push-cores were collected and analyzed for grain size and sedimentary structure to relate hydrodynamic observations with the local character of storm-generated deposits. Observations show that at Hog Island, located approximately 160 miles northeast of Harvey's landfall location, storm surge inundated an inactive storm channel. Infragravity waves (0.003 - 0.05 Hz) dominated the water motion onshore of the berm crest over a 24-hour period proximate to storm landfall. Over this time, approximately 50 cm of sediment accreted vertically atop the instrument located in the backshore. Storm deposits at this location contained sub-parallel alternating laminae of quartz and heavy mineral-enriched sand. While onshore progression of infragravity waves into the back-barrier was observed over several hours prior to storm landfall, storm deposits in the back-barrier lack the characteristic laminae preserved in the backshore. These field measurements will ultimately be used to constrain and validate numerical modeling schemes that explore morphodynamic conditions of barriers in response to extreme storms (e.g., XBeach, CSHORE). This study provides a unique data set linking extreme storm hydrodynamics with geomorphic changes during a relatively low surge, but highly dissipative wave event.

  18. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  19. Long-term understory vegetation dynamics and responses to ungulate exclusion in the dry forest of Mona Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Rojas-Sandoval; E.J. Melendez-Ackerman; J. Fumero-Caban; M. Garcia-Bermudez; J. Sustache; S. Aragon; M. Morales-Vargas; G. Olivieri; D.S. Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    Mona Island protects one of the most important remnants of Caribbean dry forests and hosts a high diversity of rare and endangered plant and animal species. Feral ungulates (goats and pigs) were introduced to the island ~500 y ago, and their populations may be threatening the conservation of Mona Island’s native biodiversity. In this study, we used permanent fenced and...

  20. Coping responses in the midst of terror: the July 22 terror attack at Utøya Island in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tine K; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the peri-trauma coping responses of 325 survivors, mostly youth, after the July 22, 2011 terror attack on Utøya Island in Norway. The aim was to understand peri-trauma coping responses and their relation to subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face 4-5 months after the shooting, and most were interviewed at their homes. Peri-trauma coping was assessed using ten selected items from the "How I Cope Under Pressure Scale" (HICUPS), covering the dimensions of problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, support seeking, seeking understanding, and religious coping. PTS reactions were assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. The participants reported using a wide variety of coping strategies. Problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking understanding strategies were reported most often. Men reported using more problem-solving strategies, whereas women reported more emotion-focused strategies. There were no significant associations between age and the use of coping strategies. Problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring were significantly associated with fewer PTS reactions. The results are discussed in light of previous research and may help to inform early intervention efforts for survivors of traumatic events. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phytoplankton biomass and pigment responses to Fe amendments in the Pine Island and Amundsen polynyas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.M.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Thuróczy, C.E.; van Dijken, G.L.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Arrigo, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments were performed during the austral summer in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean) to investigate the availability of organically bound iron (Fe) to the phytoplankton communities, as well as assess their response to Fe amendment. Changes in autotrophic biomass, pigment

  2. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-01-01

    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems tha...

  3. The European Politics of Brain Drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    This qualitative multi-method studymaps the politics of brain drain at the level of the European Union and follows the evolution of the issue over the last four parliamentary periods. By utilizing a novel combination of interviews with a content and network analysis of parliamentary questions...

  4. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  5. Hydraulic Tomography for Estimating the Diffusivity of Heterogeneous Aquifers Based on Groundwater Response to Tidal Fluctuation in an Artificial Island in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jet-Chau Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hydraulic properties of the heterogeneous aquifers of an artificial island (Yunlin Offshore Industrial Park in Taiwan. The research was based on the groundwater level response affected by tidal fluctuation using the hydraulic tomography (HT to analyze the hydraulic diffusivity (α. Specifically, the power spectrum ratio of groundwater and tidal fluctuations derived from the Gelhar solution was used to estimate α in homogeneous aquifers; this, however, could not be applied in the artificial island. Next, the spatial distribution of the groundwater level response affected by tidal fluctuation was analyzed and found to be irregular, proving the existence of hydrogeological heterogeneity in the artificial island. Furthermore, the results of the estimated α using the HT showed low error and high correlation, 0.41 m2/hr and 0.83, respectively, between the optimal estimated heterogeneous and reference α fields in the synthetic aquifer. Last, the HT was used in the real tested scenario. By comparing the predicted groundwater levels of the optimal estimated heterogeneous α field and the observed groundwater levels of the real aquifer, it was found that the correlation was higher than 0.99. Therefore, the HT can be used to obtain the optimal estimated heterogeneous α field in the artificial island.

  6. Hurricane Sandy beach response and recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline and beach profile data, October 2012 to October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre Henderson, Rachel E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2015-04-30

    In response to the forecasted impact of Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a substantial data-collection effort to assess the morphological impacts to the beach and dune system at Fire Island, New York. Global positioning system (GPS) field surveys of the beach and dunes were conducted just prior to and after landfall and these data were used to quantify change in several focus areas. In order to quantify morphologic change along the entire length of the island, pre-storm (May 2012) and post-storm (November 2012) lidar and aerial photography were used to assess changes to the shoreline and beach.As part of the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study, the beach is monitored periodically to enable better understanding of post-Sandy recovery. The alongshore state of the beach is recorded using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) to collect data around the mean high water (MHW; 0.46 meter North American Vertical Datum of 1988) to derive a shoreline, and the cross-shore response and recovery are measured along a series of 10 profiles.Overall, Hurricane Sandy substantially altered the morphology of Fire Island. However, the coastal system rapidly began to recover after the 2012­–13 winter storm season and continues to recover in the form of volume gains and shoreline adjustment.

  7. Functional Characterization and Drug Response of Freshly Established Patient-Derived Tumor Models with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maletzki

    Full Text Available Patient-individual tumor models constitute a powerful platform for basic and translational analyses both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the labor-intensive and highly time-consuming process, only few well-characterized patient-derived cell lines and/or corresponding xenografts exist. In this study, we describe successful generation and functional analysis of novel tumor models from patients with sporadic primary colorectal carcinomas (CRC showing CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Initial DNA fingerprint analysis confirmed identity with the patient in all four cases. These freshly established cells showed characteristic features associated with the CIMP-phenotype (HROC40: APCwt, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 3/8 marker methylated; HROC43: APC mut, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 4/8 marker methylated; HROC60: APCwt, TP53 mut, KRASwt; 4/8 marker methylated; HROC183: APC mut, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 6/8 marker methylated. Cell lines were of epithelial origin (EpCAM+ with distinct morphology and growth kinetics. Response to chemotherapeutics was quite individual between cells, with stage I-derived cell line HROC60 being most susceptible towards standard clinically approved chemotherapeutics (e.g. 5-FU, Irinotecan. Of note, most cell lines were sensitive towards "non-classical" CRC standard drugs (sensitivity: Gemcitabin > Rapamycin > Nilotinib. This comprehensive analysis of tumor biology, genetic alterations and assessment of chemosensitivity towards a broad range of (chemo- therapeutics helps bringing forward the concept of personalized tumor therapy.

  8. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Yazawa

    Full Text Available Season of birth (SOB has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL, a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP concentration (i.e., inflammatory status among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  9. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  10. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Uygur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  11. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Uygur; Seval Erdinç; Hülya Dede; Ümit Taşdemir; Oktay Kaymak; Nuri Danışman

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  12. Social response to technological disaster: the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Until recently the sociological study of man environment relations under extreme circumstances has been restricted to natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, tornadoes). Technological disasters are becoming more commonplace (e.g., Times Beach, MO, Love Canal, TMI-2) and are growing as potential sources of impact upon human populations. However, theory regarding the social impact of such disasters has not been developed. While research on natural disasters is in part applicable to technological disasters, theory adapted from environmental sociology and psychology are also utilized to develop a theory of social response to extreme environmental events produced by technology. Hypotheses are developed in the form of an empirically testable model based on the literature reviewed

  13. Neutronic analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 ex-core detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, D.J.; Chang, Y.I.

    1981-10-01

    A neutronic analysis has been made with respect to the ex-core neutron detector response during the TMI-2 incident. A series of transport theory calculations quantified the impact upon the detector count rate of various core and downcomer conditions. In particular, various combinations of coolant void content and spatial distributions were investigated to yield the resulting transmission of the photoneutron source to the detector. The impact of a hypothetical distributed source within the downcomer region was also examined in order to simulate the potential effect of the release of neutron producing fission products into the coolant. These results are then offered as potential explanations for the anomalous behavior of the detector during the period of approx. 20 minutes through approx. 3 hours following the reactor scram

  14. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  15. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  16. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  17. Processing method of radioactive cleaning drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Shigemitsu; Murakami, Tadashi; Kitao, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Upon processing of radioactive cleaning drains, contained Co-60 is removed by a selectively adsorbing adsorbent. In addition, after removing suspended materials by a filtering device, Co-60 as predominant nuclides in the drain is selectively adsorbed. The concentration of objective Co-60 is in the order of 0.1 Bq/cc, and non-radioactive metal ions such as Na + ions are present in the order of ppm in addition to Co-60. A granular adsorbent for selectively adsorbing Co-60 is oxine-added activated carbon, and has a grain size of from 20 to 48 mesh. The granular adsorbent is used while being filled in an adsorbing tower. Since a relatively simple device comprising the filtering device and the adsorbing tower in combination is provided, the reduction of the construction cost can be expected. In addition, since no filtering aid is used in the filtering device, the amount of secondary wastes is small. (N.H.)

  18. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained Jackson-Pratt Drain Fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namyslowski, Jan; Halin, Neil J.; Greenfield, Alan J.

    1996-01-01

    A retained intraabdominal Jackson-Pratt drain fragment was percutaneously retrieved using an inflated angioplasty balloon that had been maneuvered inside of the drain lumen over a hydrophilic-coated steerable guidewire

  19. Device for discharging drain in a control rod driving apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tadasu; Ikuta, Takuzo; Yoshida, Tomiji; Tsukahara, Katsumi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely collect and discharge drain by a simple construction in which a drain cover and a drain tank in a control rod driving apparatus are integrally formed, and an overhauling wrench of said apparatus and a drain hose are mounted on the drain tank. Structure: When a mounting bolt is untightened by a torque wrench so as to be removed from a flange surface of the control rod driving apparatus in a nuclear reactor, axial movement of said apparatus is absorbed by a spring so that drain containing a radioactive material is discharged into a drain tank through the flange surface of said apparatus and is then guided into a collecting tank through a drain hose. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Extramural vascular invasion and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: Influence of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeremy Stuart; Jones, Huw Geraint; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Anthony Paul; Jenkins, Gareth; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean Anthony

    2017-05-15

    To identify whether CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and outcomes in rectal cancer. Patients undergoing NACRT and surgical resection for rectal cancer in a tertiary referral centre between 2002-2011 were identified. Pre-treatment tumour biopsies were analysed for CIMP status (high, intermediate or low) using methylation specific PCR. KRAS and BRAF status were also determined using pyrosequencing analysis. Clinical information was extracted from case records and cancer services databases. Response to radiotherapy was measured by tumour regression scores determined upon histological examination of the resected specimen. The relationship between these molecular features, response to NACRT and oncological outcomes were analysed. There were 160 patients analysed with a median follow-up time of 46.4 mo. Twenty-one (13%) patients demonstrated high levels of CIMP methylation (CIMP-H) and this was significantly associated with increased risk of extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) compared with CIMP-L [8/21 (38%) vs 15/99 (15%), P = 0.028]. CIMP status was not related to tumour regression after radiotherapy or survival, however EMVI was significantly associated with adverse survival ( P CIMP status was significantly associated with KRAS mutation ( P = 0.01). There were 14 (9%) patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) compared to 116 (73%) patients having no or minimal regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Those patients with pCR had median survival of 106 mo compared to 65.8 mo with minimal regression, although this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.26). Binary logistic regression analysis of the relationship between EMVI and other prognostic features revealed, EMVI positivity was associated with poor overall survival, advanced "T" stage and CIMP-H but not nodal status, age, sex, KRAS mutation status and presence of local or systemic recurrence. We report a novel

  1. Water Table Recession in Subsurface Drained Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Yomota, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical drainage equations are intensively tested in many parts of humid and arid regions and are commonly used in drainage design. However, this is still a great concern in Japan as the drainage design is exclusively based on local experiences and empirical basis. There is a need therefore to evaluate the theoretical drainage equations under Japanese field conditions to recommend equations for design of subsurface drainage systems. This was the main motivation for this study. While drain...

  2. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  3. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Gencler, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped...

  4. Brain drain: Propulsive factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan ILIC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When speaking about the total number of highly educated individuals’ migration, it is easy to spot that it is rapidly increasing. The brain drain issues should be taken very seriously especially in under developed and in the developing countries, knowing that the human capital is globally mobile and that highly educated individuals can without any issues market their knowledge around the globe. Dealing with it requires a carefully tailored strategy for these countries, which are suffering from severe human capital losses on annual basis. Since the labor markets of today are highly competitive, it is necessary for these countries to secure good advancement and doing business opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide an insight into the key propulsive factors and potential consequences caused by the brain drain. The method used in order to conduct the research was a carefully designed questionnaire taken by the date subject enrolled at the third and fourth years of state governed and privately owned universities. This research shows that one of the key reasons for brain drain in underdeveloped and in the developing countries is shortage of further educational advancement opportunities.

  5. Fallopian Tube Herniation: An Unusual Complication of Surgical Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Lipi; Singh, Alpana; Bhaskaran, Sruthi; Radhika, A. G.; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Background. Surgical drains have been used since time immemorial, but their use is not without complications. By presenting this case we aim to describe an uncommon complication of herniation of fallopian tube following the simple procedure of surgical drain removal. Case Presentation. This case describes a 23-year G2P1L1 who underwent an emergency cesarean section for obstructed labor with intraperitoneal drain insertion. The patient had an uneventful postoperative period, drain was removed ...

  6. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  7. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from spaces...

  8. MEDICAL BRAIN DRAIN - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncea Irina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel from developing countries to developed countries and between industrialized nations in search for better opportunities. This phenomenon became a global growing concern due to its impact on both the donor and the destination countries. This article aims to present the main theoretical contributions starting from 1950 until today and the historical evolution, in the attempt of correlating the particular case of medical brain drain with the theory and evolution of the brain drain in general. This article raises questions and offers answers, identifies the main issues and looks for possible solutions in order to reduce the emigration of medical doctors. Factors of influence include push (low level of income, poor working conditions, the absence of job openings and social recognition, oppressive political climate and pull (better remuneration and working conditions, prospects for career development, job satisfaction, security factors. Developing countries are confronting with the loss of their most valuable intellectuals and the investment in their education, at the benefit of developed nations. An ethical debate arises as the disparities between countries increases, industrialized nations filling in the gaps in health systems with professionals from countries already facing shortages. However, recent literature emphasizes the possibility of a “beneficial brain drain” through education incentives offered by the emigration prospects. Other sources of “brain gain” for donor country are the remittances, the scientific networks and return migration. Measures to stem the medical brain drain involve the common effort and collaboration between developing and developed countries and international organizations. Measures adopted by donor countries include higher salaries, better working conditions, security, career opportunities, incentives to stimulate return migration. Destination

  9. The surface urban heat island response to urban expansion: A panel analysis for the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Imhoff, Marc; Li, Xuecao

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Urban heat island (UHI), a major concern worldwide, affects human health and energy use. With current and anticipated rapid urbanization, improved understanding of the response of UHI to urbanization is important for impact analysis and developing effective adaptation measures and mitigation strategies. Current studies mainly focus on a single or a few big cities and knowledge on the response of UHI to urbanization for large areas is very limited. Modelling UHI caused by urbanization for large areas that encompass multiple metropolitans remains a major scientific challenge/opportunity. As a major indicator of urbanization, urban area size lends itself well for representation in prognostic models to investigate the impacts of urbanization on UHI and the related socioeconomic and environmental effects. However, we have little knowledge on how UHI responds to the increase of urban area size, namely urban expansion, and its spatial and temporal variation over large areas. In this study, we investigated the relationship between surface UHI (SUHI) and urban area size in the climate and ecological context, and its spatial and temporal variations, based on a panel analysis of about 5000 urban areas of 10 km2 or larger, in the conterminous U.S. We found statistically significant positive relationship between SUHI and urban area size, and doubling the urban area size led to a SUHI increase of higher than 0.7 °C. The response of SUHI to the increase of urban area size shows spatial and temporal variations, with stronger SUHI increase in the Northern region of U.S., and during daytime and summer. Urban area size alone can explain as much as 87% of the variance of SUHI among cities studied, but with large spatial and temporal variations. Urban area size shows higher association with SUHI in regions where the thermal characteristics of land cover surrounding the urban are more homogeneous, such as in Eastern U.S., and in the summer months. This study provides a

  10. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  11. History and distribution of steepland gullies in response to land use change, East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Michael; Arnold, Gregory; Seymour, Anne; Hambling, Randolph

    2012-06-01

    Following the clearance of indigenous forest (~ 1880s to 1920s) for pastoral use, actively eroding gullies had by the late 1950s become a pervasive form of erosion occupying 0.7% of the 7468 km2 of pastoral hill country within the East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand. Commencing in the early 1960s the primary strategy used to stabilise gully and other associated forms of erosion on degraded pastoral hill country was to establish exotic forest. We compare the status of gully erosion before reforestation commenced with that at the end of a ~ 40 year reforestation period (1957-1997) during which ~ 1350 km2 of exotic forest was planted. Trends in gully area and distribution by land cover (vegetation), but particularly in response to exotic reforestation, are examined for two contrasting geologic terrains. Over this ~ 40 year period, the incidence and extent of gully erosion in areas of hill country that have remained in pastoral use has declined. This was primarily due to the retirement and conversion of extensive areas of gully-prone farmland to exotic forest. Where implemented, the reforestation of this degraded pastoral hill country has proven to be efficient and successful in stabilising existing gullies. However, with the initiation of new gullies and growth of gullies that have remained untreated, the extent of land affected by gully erosion has increased by ~ 27% to ~ 0.9% of the regions' hill country area. To reverse this trend, further areas of severely eroding pastoral land will need to be retired with the aim of escalating the rate at which remaining gullies are treated and to prevent new ones developing, primarily through reforestation with exotic tree species or indigenous reversion.

  12. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  13. A prospective randomized study of use of drain versus no drain after burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Suryanarayanan, Bhaskar; Choudhary, Ajay; Prasad, Akhila; Singh, Sachin; Gupta, Laxmi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Inserting subdural drain might reduce the recurrence rate, but is not commonly practiced. There are few prospective studies to evaluate the effect of subdural drains. A prospective randomized study to investigate the effect of subdural drains in the on recurrence rates and clinical outcome following burr-hole drainage (BHD) of CSDH was undertaken. During the study period, 246 patients with CSDH were assessed for eligibility. Among 200 patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 100 each were assigned to "drain group" (drain inserted into the subdural space following BHD) and "without drain group" (subdural drain was not inserted following BHD) using random allocation software. The primary end point was recurrence needing re-drainage up to a period of 6 months from surgery. Recurrence occurred in 9 of 100 patients with a drain, and 26 of 100 patients in without drain group (P = 0.002). The mortality was 5% in patients with drain and 4% in patients without drain group (P = 0.744). The medical and surgical complications were comparable between the two study groups. Use of a subdural drain after burr-hole evacuation of a CSDH reduces the recurrence rate and is not associated with increased complications.

  14. Design and construction of a French drain for groundwater diversion in solid waste storage area six at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    Engineering modifiations or engineered barriers have been suggested as a possible means of improving the performance of low-level waste disposal sites located in the humid eastern United States. Design and construction of a passive French drain, located in Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The drain was designed to hydrologically isolate a 0.44-ha area that contains a group of 49 low-level waste trenches by separating it from upgradient groundwater recharge areas. The 252-m drain (maximum depth = 9 m) that surrounds the group of trenches on the north and east sides was excavated, lined with filter fabric, backfilled with crushed stone, and covered with a 0.6 m layer of excavated material at an estimated cost of $153,000. Of the 17 days it took to complete the work, about 5 days were spent excavating sidewall slide material that fell into the drain during excavation. Photography of the drain wall revealed the contorted structure of the weathered shale, which was responsible for many of the slides. Monitoring wells placed at intervals on the drain centerline indicate that groundwater is draining from the surrounding Maryville Formation (Conasauga Group); flows at catch basin No. 2 ranged from a base flow of 4 to 7 L/min to a maximum of 35 L/min, recorded on October 13. In response to groundwater flow in the drain, water levels in several monitoring wells adjacent to the drain have dropped by as much as 2.24 m to an elevation only slightly higher than the bottom of the French drain. In addition to the general lowering of the water table in the vicinity of the drain, water levels in three trenches began to subside, indicating that the drain is beginning to have an effect on the water in the trenches as well. Further monitoring of both drain discharge and water levels in monitoring wells across the site is continuing

  15. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

  16. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E Foster

    Full Text Available Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m. We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh. Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities

  17. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tammy E; Stolen, Eric D; Hall, Carlton R; Schaub, Ronald; Duncan, Brean W; Hunt, Danny K; Drese, John H

    2017-01-01

    Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC) on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m). We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub) and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh). Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important

  18. Characterizing subsurface water flow to artificial drain lines using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, D.; Brooks, E. S.; Heinse, R.; Keller, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years growers have experienced increasingly wet spring conditions in the Palouse Region located in North Idaho, Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon. As a result more artificial drain lines are being installed so growers can access their fields earlier in the growing season. Additionally there has been increasing adoption of no-tillage practices among growers in order minimize erosion and runoff in the region. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests long-term no-tillage may lead to the establishment of large macropore networks through increased earthworm activity and the preservation of root channels. These macropore networks, in conjunctions with the presence of artificial drains lines, may create connected preferential flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving streams. This connectivity of flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving water bodies may increase the loading of nutrients and agricultural chemicals as some flow paths may largely bypass soil matrix interaction where materials can be sequestered. Our primary objective for this study was to characterize subsurface flow to two artificial drain lines, one under conventional tillage and the other under no-tillage, using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the study (November 2016-April 2017) the near surface soil-water temperature was consistently colder than that of deeper depths. Temperature was thus used as a tracer as snow melt and soil-water moved from the near surface to the drain lines during snowmelt and precipitation events. The spatial and temporal variability of the temperature along the artificial drain line under no-tillage practices was found to be greater than that of the conventional tilled field. It is hypothesized that preferential flow paths are responsible for the increased variability of temperature seen in the drain line under long term no-till management. The temperature along the conventional till drain line showed a

  19. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  20. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-08-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%.

  1. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  2. Transgressive Shoreface Response in the Mississippi River DeltaShoreface Sediment Budget Influence on Barrier Island Evolution, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, B.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    In Louisiana barrier islands are undergoing rapid morphological change due to shoreface retreat and increasing bay tidal prism driven by high rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) (1 cm/yr) and interior wetland loss, respectively. Previous works utilized historical region-scale bathymetry change and shoreline change analyses to assess large-scale coastal evolution. However, more localized assessments considering the role of sediment transport processes in regional evolution are lacking. This is essential to predicting coastal change trajectories and allocating limited sand resources for nourishment. Using historic bathymetric and shoreline data dating to the 1890s for the Louisiana coast, 100-m spaced shore-normal transects were created to track meter-scale elevation change for 1890, 1930, 1980, 2006, and 2015. An automated framework was used to quantify and track barrier island evolution parameters such as shoreline change, area, width, bathymetric contour migration, and shoreface slope. During the 125 yr analysis period, shoreline erosion mean rates slowed from 12 to 6 m/yr while lower shoreface migration mean rates increased from 5 to 25 m/yr. Locally, retreat rates for the Caminada Headland upper shoreface slowed from 18 to 8 m/yr while lower shoreface retreat rates increased from 8 to 14m/yr. The Timbalier Islands experienced increased migration rates along the entire shoreface, while the lower shoreface of the Isles Dernieres transitioned from progradational to erosional (-5 m/yr in 1890 to 20 m/yr in 2006). Our analysis suggests that although shoreline erosion rates decreased, overall landward migration of the barrier system increased as the shoreface steepened. Our results illustrate that monitoring subaerial island erosion rates are insufficient for evaluating regional dynamics of transgressive coastal systems. The longevity of barriers appears diminished due to a reduction in the shoreface sediment available and further corroborates the role of the

  3. Coral community composition and reef development at the Similan Islands, Andaman Sea, in response to strong environmental variations

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, GM; Phongsuwan, N; Jantzen, C; Roder, Cornelia; Khokiattiwong, S; Richter, C

    2012-01-01

    The Similan Islands, a Thai archipelago in the Andaman Sea located near the shelf break, are subjected to frequent (up to several events per hour) and abrupt changes in physico-chemical conditions, particularly during the dry season (NE monsoon, January through April) and to an intense monsoon season with strong surface wave action (May to October). The exposed west slopes of the islands feature more coral species, but lack a carbonate reef framework. By contrast, the sheltered east sides show a complex reef framework dominated by massive Porites. Our results suggest that the sudden changes in temperature, pH and nutrients (drops of up to 10°C and 0.6 U and increases of up to 9.4 µmol NOx l−1, respectively) due to pulsed upwelling events may rival the importance of surface waves and storms in shaping coral distribution and reef development.

  4. Coral community composition and reef development at the Similan Islands, Andaman Sea, in response to strong environmental variations

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, GM

    2012-06-07

    The Similan Islands, a Thai archipelago in the Andaman Sea located near the shelf break, are subjected to frequent (up to several events per hour) and abrupt changes in physico-chemical conditions, particularly during the dry season (NE monsoon, January through April) and to an intense monsoon season with strong surface wave action (May to October). The exposed west slopes of the islands feature more coral species, but lack a carbonate reef framework. By contrast, the sheltered east sides show a complex reef framework dominated by massive Porites. Our results suggest that the sudden changes in temperature, pH and nutrients (drops of up to 10°C and 0.6 U and increases of up to 9.4 µmol NOx l−1, respectively) due to pulsed upwelling events may rival the importance of surface waves and storms in shaping coral distribution and reef development.

  5. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  6. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  7. Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollid Stephen JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On July 22, 2011, a single perpetrator killed 77 people in a car bomb attack and a shooting spree incident in Norway. This article describes the emergency medical service (EMS response elicited by the two incidents. Methods A retrospective and observational study was conducted based on data from the EMS systems involved and the public domain. The study was approved by the Data Protection Official and was defined as a quality improvement project. Results We describe the timeline and logistics of the EMS response, focusing on alarm, dispatch, initial response, triage and evacuation. The scenes in the Oslo government district and at Utøya island are described separately. Conclusions Many EMS units were activated and effectively used despite the occurrence of two geographically separate incidents within a short time frame. Important lessons were learned regarding triage and evacuation, patient flow and communication, the use of and need for emergency equipment and the coordination of helicopter EMS.

  8. Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background On July 22, 2011, a single perpetrator killed 77 people in a car bomb attack and a shooting spree incident in Norway. This article describes the emergency medical service (EMS) response elicited by the two incidents. Methods A retrospective and observational study was conducted based on data from the EMS systems involved and the public domain. The study was approved by the Data Protection Official and was defined as a quality improvement project. Results We describe the timeline and logistics of the EMS response, focusing on alarm, dispatch, initial response, triage and evacuation. The scenes in the Oslo government district and at Utøya island are described separately. Conclusions Many EMS units were activated and effectively used despite the occurrence of two geographically separate incidents within a short time frame. Important lessons were learned regarding triage and evacuation, patient flow and communication, the use of and need for emergency equipment and the coordination of helicopter EMS. PMID:22280935

  9. Remote sensing for assessing the zone of benefit where deep drains improve productivity of land affected by shallow saline groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, H T; Lantzke, R; Bell, R; Admiraal, R

    2015-03-01

    The installation of deep drains is an engineering approach to remediate land salinised by the influence of shallow groundwater. It is a costly treatment and its economic viability is, in part, dependent on the lateral extent to which the drain increases biological productivity by lowering water tables and soil salinity (referred to as the drains' zone of benefit). Such zones may be determined by assessing the biological productivity response of adjacent vegetation over time. We tested a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing method to analyse temporal and spatial changes in vegetation condition surrounding deep drainage sites at five locations in the Western Australian wheatbelt affected by dryland salinity-Morawa, Pithara, Beacon, Narembeen and Dumbleyung. Vegetation condition as a surrogate for biological productivity was assessed by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during the peak growing season. Analysis was at the site scale within a 1000 m buffer zone from the drains. There was clear evidence of NDVI increasing with elevation, slope and distance from the drain. After accounting for elevation, slope and distance from the drain, there was a significant increase in NDVI across the five locations after installation of deep drains. Changes in NDVI after drainage were broadly consistent with measured changes at each site in groundwater levels after installation of the deep drains. However, this study assessed the lateral extent of benefit for biological productivity and gave a measure of the area of benefit along the entire length of the drain. The method demonstrated the utility of spring NDVI images for rapid and relatively simple assessment of the change in site condition after implementation of drainage, but approaches for further improvement of the procedure were identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. To determine the slow shearing rate for consolidation drained shear box tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalludin, Damanhuri; Ahmad, Azura; Nordin, Mohd Mustaqim Mohd; Hashim, Mohamad Zain; Ibrahim, Anas; Ahmad, Fauziah

    2017-08-01

    Slope failures always occur in Malaysia especially during the rainy seasons. They cause damage to properties and fatalities. In this study, a total of 24 one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out on soil samples taken from 16 slope failures in Penang Island and in Baling, Kedah. The slope failures in Penang Island are within the granitic residual soil while in Baling, Kedah they are situated within the sedimentary residual soil. Most of the disturbed soil samples were taken at 100mm depth from the existing soil surface while some soil samples were also taken at 400, 700 and 1000mm depths from the existing soil surface. They were immediately placed in 2 layers of plastic bag to prevent moisture loss. Field bulk density tests were also carried out at all the locations where soil samples were taken. The field bulk density results were later used to re-compact the soil samples for the consolidation tests. The objective of the research is to determine the slow shearing rate to be used in consolidated drained shear box for residual soils taken from slope failures so that the effective shear strength parameters can be determined. One dimensional consolidation tests were used to determine the slow shearing rate. The slow shearing rate found in this study to be used in the consolidated drained shear box tests especially for Northern Malaysian residual soils was 0.286mm/minute.

  11. Optimized Management of Groundwater Resources in Kish Island: A Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Strategies in Response to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mahmoodzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater in coastal areas is an essential source of freshwater that warrants protection from seawater intrusion as a priority based on an optimal management plan. Proper optimal management strategies can be developed using a variety of decision-making models. The present study aims to investigate the impacts of environmental changes on groundwater resources. For this purpose, a combined simulation-optimization model is employed that incorporates the SUTRA numerical model and the evolutionaty method of ant colony optimization. The fresh groundwater lens in Kish Island is used as a case study and different scenarios are considered for the likely enviromental changes. Results indicate that while variations in recharge rate form an important factor in the fresh groundwater lens, land-surface inundation due to rises in seawater level, especially in low-lying lands, is the major factor affecting the lens. Furthermore, impacts of environmental changes when effected into the Kish Island aquifer optimization management plan have led to a reduction of more than 20% in the allowable water extraction, indicating the high sensitivity of groundwater resources management plans in small islands to such variations.

  12. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  13. A computational study of the piezoelectric response due to the material effect in periodic, single island thin films and the geometric effect in periodic, bi-island thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electromechanical response of a square-periodic array of circular piezoelectric (PE) thin films alternating with non-piezoelectric (NPE) films is studied in this paper. The material effects are studied for four film/substrate combinations in absence of NPE films for which it is found that if d zxx zzz (z-axis being normal to the interfacial plane between the film and the substrate), it results in reduced substrate bending leading to reduced degradation in the electromechanical response of the thin film. The bi-island structure is studied for zinc oxide on strontium titanate, and, in general, it is seen that the NPE films not only reduce degradation of the electromechanical response of the PE films but also increase their internal stresses; the effect on the former is less than the latter. These effects are most prominent when the circular NPE thin films fill the space between the PE thin films and are elastically very stiff compared to the substrate.

  14. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  15. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their count...

  16. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  17. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  18. Scale-dependent behavior of the foredune: Implications for barrier island response to storms and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Wernette, Phil; Weymer, Bradley A.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of storm surge on a barrier island tends to be considered from a single cross-shore dimension, dependent on the relative elevations of the storm surge and dune crest. However, the foredune is rarely uniform and can exhibit considerable variation in height and width at a range of length scales. In this study, LiDAR data from barrier islands in Texas and Florida are used to explore how shoreline position and dune morphology vary alongshore, and to determine how this variability is altered or reinforced by storms and post-storm recovery. Wavelet analysis reveals that a power law can approximate historical shoreline change across all scales, but that storm-scale shoreline change ( 10 years) and dune height exhibit similar scale-dependent variations at swash and surf zone scales (< 1000 m). The in-phase nature of the relationship between dune height and storm-scale shoreline change indicates that areas of greater storm-scale shoreline retreat are associated with areas of smaller dunes. It is argued that the decoupling of storm-scale and historical shoreline change at swash and surf zone scales is also associated with the alongshore redistribution of sediment and the tendency of shorelines to evolve to a more diffusive (or straight) pattern with time. The wavelet analysis of the data for post-storm dune recovery is also characterized by red noise at the smallest scales characteristic of diffusive systems, suggesting that it is possible that small-scale variations in dune height can be repaired through alongshore recovery and expansion if there is sufficient time between storms. However, the time required for dune recovery exceeds the time between storms capable of eroding and overwashing the dune. Correlation between historical shoreline retreat and the variance of the dune at swash and surf zone scales suggests that the persistence of the dune is an important control on transgression through island migration or shoreline retreat with relative sea-level rise.

  19. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  20. Horner's syndrome caused by an intercostal chest drain.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, P; Neil, T; Wake, P N

    1989-01-01

    Horner's syndrome occurred in a young woman as a complication of the treatment of a traumatic pneumothorax with an intercostal drain. The nerve damage probably occurred when the lung had fully re-expanded, pressing the tip of the intercostal drain, lying at the apex of the pleural cavity, on to the sympathetic chain.

  1. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national…

  2. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  3. The health workforce crisis: the brain drain scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Samuel O

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of the health workforce crisis engendered by brain drain particularly in Africa, and nay more especially Nigeria, has been assuming increasingly alarming proportions in the past three decades. The challenge it poses in meeting the manpower needs in the healthcare sector as well as in the larger economy of the sending countries is enormous. This paper thus sets out to highlight the scope of this brain drain, its effects and the reasons sustaining it, as well as makes concrete suggestions to help stern the tide. A review of the literature on brain drain with particular emphasis on the health workforce sector was done, with focus on Africa, and specifically Nigeria. Literature search was done using mainly the Medline, as well as local journals. The historical perspectives, with the scope of external and internal brain drain are explored. The glaring effects of brain drain both in the global workforce terrain and specifically in the health sectors are portrayed. The countries affected most and the reasons for brain drain are outlined. Strategic steps to redress the brain drain crisis are proffered in this paper. The health workforce crisis resulting from brain drain must be brought to the front-burner of strategic policy decisions leading to paradigm shift in political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the scourge.

  4. Sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for WESF drains and TK-100 sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this project is to determine whether the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) floor drain piping and the TK-100 sump are free from contamination. TK-100 is currently used as a catch tank to transfer low level liquid waste from WESF to Tank Farms via B Plant. This system is being modified as part of the WESF decoupling since B Plant is being deactivated. As a result of the 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) discovery in TK-100, the associated WESF floor drains and the pit sump need to be sampled. Breakdown constituents have been reviewed and found to be non-hazardous. There are 29 floor drains that tie into a common header leading into the tank. To prevent high exposure during sampling of the drains, TK-100 will be removed into the B Plant canyon and a new tank will be placed in the pit before any floor drain samples are taken. The sump will be sampled prior to TK-100 removal. A sample of the sludge and any liquid in the sump will be taken and analyzed for TCA and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). After the sump has been sampled, the vault floor will be flushed. The flush will be transferred from the sump into TK-100. TK-100 will be moved into B Plant. The vault will then be cleaned of debris and visually inspected. If there is no visual indication of TCA or PCB staining, the vault will be painted and a new tank installed. If there is an indication of TCA or PCB from laboratory analysis or staining, further negotiations will be required to determine a path forward. A total of 8 sets of three 40ml samples will be required for all of the floor drains and sump. The sump set will include one 125ml solid sample. The only analysis required will be for TCA in liquids. PCBs will be checked in sump solids only. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is written to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities of the 29 WESF floor drains and the TK-100 sump. The intent of this plan is to define the responsibilities of the various organizations

  5. Hydrologic modeling in a marsh-mangrove ecotone: Predicting wetland surface water and salinity response to restoration in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, B.D.; Meselhe, E.A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shrestha, Surendra; From, Andrew S.; Patino, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    At the fringe of Everglades National Park in southwest Florida, United States, the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) habitat has been heavily affected by the disruption of natural freshwater flow across the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). As the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposes to restore the natural sheet flow from the Picayune Strand Restoration Project area north of the highway, the impact of planned measures on the hydrology in the refuge needs to be taken into account. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, computationally efficient mass balance model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of water level and salinity within the area of interest. This model could be used to assess the effects of the proposed management decisions on the surface water hydrological characteristics of the refuge. Surface water variations are critical to the maintenance of wetland processes. The model domain is divided into 10 compartments on the basis of their shared topography, vegetation, and hydrologic characteristics. A diversion of +10% of the discharge recorded during the modeling period was simulated in the primary canal draining the Picayune Strand forest north of the Tamiami Trail (Faka Union Canal) and this discharge was distributed as overland flow through the refuge area. Water depths were affected only modestly. However, in the northern part of the refuge, the hydroperiod, i.e., the duration of seasonal flooding, was increased by 21 days (from 115 to 136 days) for the simulation during the 2008 wet season, with an average water level rise of 0.06 m. The average salinity over a two-year period in the model area just south of Tamiami Trail was reduced by approximately 8 practical salinity units (psu) (from 18 to 10 psu), whereas the peak dry season average was reduced from 35 to 29 psu (by 17%). These salinity reductions were even larger with greater flow diversions (+20%). Naturally, the reduction

  6. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  7. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  8. Vegetation response of a dry shrubland community to feral goat management on the island of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Stock, Jonathan

    2017-12-14

    The Hawaiian Islands are well known for their unique ecosystem assemblages that have a high proportion of endemic flora and fauna. However, since human colonization of this archipelago—starting with the arrival of Polynesian sailors approximately 1,200 years ago, and particularly following western contact in 1778—thousands of non-native species have been introduced to the Islands and many of these alien species have had severe impacts on the native ecosystems. Particularly damaging to these ecosystems are large mammals, including goats (Capra hircus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), deer (Axis axis and Odocoileus hemionus), and sheep (Ovis spp.), which are collectively referred to here as ungulates; they cause extensive damage to the native vegetation by their browsing, grazing, and trampling. Similar impacts have been documented elsewhere, including New Zealand and many other island ecosystems.Previous studies in Hawai‘i have utilized fenced exclosures to assess the impacts of feral or wild ungulates on vegetation and the recovery potential for the native plant communities by comparing plant community composition, structure, and cover inside the fenced area (without ungulates) over time to the vegetation condition outside of the protection of the fence. In some cases, the native vegetation recovered once the animals were removed. However, in other situations alien plants were more competitive and dominated the revegetation process after the impacts of ungulates had been reduced or eliminated.This report describes the response of a highly degraded lowland dry habitat plant community located on the south slope of east Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, to reduction of browsing and grazing impacts caused by feral goats. For this study, vegetation response inside a fenced exclosure was compared to vegetation change in the area outside of the fence that was still accessible to goats. This study is part of the larger U.S. Geological Survey Ridge-to-Reef (USGS-R2R

  9. Establishment and application of the estimation model for pollutant concentrfation in agriculture drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangkun; Hu, Yawei; Jia, Qian; Song, Changji

    2018-02-01

    It is the key point of quantitative research on agricultural non-point source pollution load, the estimation of pollutant concentration in agricultural drain. In the guidance of uncertainty theory, the synthesis of fertilization and irrigation is used as an impulse input to the farmland, meanwhile, the pollutant concentration in agricultural drain is looked as the response process corresponding to the impulse input. The migration and transformation of pollutant in soil is expressed by Inverse Gaussian Probability Density Function. The law of pollutants migration and transformation in soil at crop different growth periods is reflected by adjusting parameters of Inverse Gaussian Distribution. Based on above, the estimation model for pollutant concentration in agricultural drain at field scale was constructed. Taking the of Qing Tong Xia Irrigation District in Ningxia as an example, the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus in agricultural drain was simulated by this model. The results show that the simulated results accorded with measured data approximately and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.972 and 0.964, respectively.

  10. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-15

    Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ''brain drain'', represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  11. Implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) Model in Spain: an example of a collaboration between Canarian universities and the department of education of the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Crespo, Patricia; González, Desirée; Artiles, Ceferino; Alfonso, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of second tier intervention at-risk readers within the context of a Response to Intervention approach. The study was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain), directed by research team ¨Dificultades de Aprendizaje, Psicolingüística y Nuevas Tecnologías¨ (DEA&NT) from University of La Laguna, and supported by the Government of the Canary Islands. A sample of 1.123 Spanish children from fourteen schools districts were given the Spanish adaptation of The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist and children who scored at or above the 75th percentile on the test were classified as "at risk" for early reading difficulties. Half of the students were randomly assigned to a project-based intervention condition where they received small group supplementary intervention for 30 minutes daily using the Prevención de las Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje (PREDEA) curriculum from mid to late December and continued until mid June. The other half received whatever remedial services were available at their schools. Results indicated that children who received the PREDEA curriculum had higher scores on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (EGRA) on initial sound identification, listening comprehension, letter sound knowledge and oral reading fluency compared to the control group.

  12. Large-amplitude mesospheric response to an orographic wave generated over the Southern Ocean Auckland Islands (50.7°S) during the DEEPWAVE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautet, P.-D.; Taylor, M. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Bossert, K.; Williams, B. P.; Broutman, D.; Ma, J.; Eckermann, S. D.; Doyle, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) project was conducted over New Zealand and the surrounding regions during June and July 2014, to more fully understand the generation, propagation, and effects of atmospheric gravity waves. A large suite of instruments collected data from the ground to the upper atmosphere (~100 km), with several new remote-sensing instruments operating on board the NSF Gulfstream V (GV) research aircraft, which was the central measurement platform of the project. On 14 July, during one of the research flights (research flight 23), a spectacular event was observed as the GV flew in the lee of the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands (50.7°S). An apparent "ship wave" pattern was imaged in the OH layer (at ~83.5 km) by the Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper and evolved significantly over four successive passes spanning more than 4 h. The waves were associated with orographic forcing generated by relatively strong (15-20 m/s) near-surface wind flowing over the rugged island topography. The mountain wave had an amplitude T' ~ 10 K, a dominant horizontal wavelength ~40 km, achieved a momentum flux exceeding 300 m2 s-2, and eventually exhibited instability and breaking at the OH altitude. This case of deep mountain wave propagation demonstrates the potential for strong responses in the mesosphere arising from a small source under suitable propagation conditions and suggests that such cases may be more common than previously believed.

  13. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters

  14. Accident at Three Mile Island: the contribution of the social sciences to the evaluation of emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynes, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    At 4:00 A.M. on 28 March 1979, a serious accident occurred in the nuclear-power plant at Three Mile Island near Middletown, Pennsylvania. It was caused by mechanical malfunctions in the plant, and for the next four days the extent and severity of the accident were not clear. Because it raised serious concerns about the safety of nuclear power, on 11 April President Carter established a commission to study and investigate the accident. Several aspects of the formation and evolution of the commission are particularly relevant to the social sciences. One was the way the original problem was defined for the commission by the presidential executive order. A second was the commission's own definition of the problem that evolved as the investigation progressed. As that definition became more inclusive, the body of social science literature relating to emergencies became increasingly relevant

  15. Heterotrophic soil respiration in forestry-drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkkinen, K.; Shurpali, N. J.; Alm, J.; Penttilae, T.

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrophic soil respiration (CO 2 efflux from the decomposition of peat and root litter) in three forestry-drained peatlands with different site types and with a large climatic gradient from the hemi-boreal (central Estonia) to south (southern Finland) and north boreal (northern Finland) conditions was studied. Instantaneous fluxes varied between 0 and 1.3 g CO 2 -C m -2 h -1 , and annual fluxes between 248 and 515 g CO 2 -C m -2 a -1 . Variation in the annual fluxes among site types was studied only in the south-boreal site where we found a clear increase from nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich site types. More than half of the within-site variation was temporal and explained by soil surface (-5 cm) temperature (T5). The response of soil respiration to T5 varied between the sites; the most northerly site had the highest response to T5 and the most southerly the lowest. This trend further resulted in increased annual fluxes towards north. This unexpected result is hypothesised to be related to differences in site factors like substrate quality, nutrient status and hydrology but also to temperature acclimation, i.e., adaptation of decomposer populations to different climates. (orig.)

  16. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  17. Shearon Harris steam generator channel head drain line leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    All three Shearon Harris steam generators were equipped with Inconel 600 drain penetrations inserted into clearance holes on the bottom center line of the plenums, roll expanded into the plenum shell, and seal welded to the stainless steel cladding. Eddy current inspections showed axial cracks in the drain lines of B and C generators, but not on the leaking A generator. The drain lines of the three generators were repaired by cutting off the pipe under the plenum, applying Inconel 600 cladding to the underside of the plenum by a temper bead process, spot facing the overlay cladding and welding a new Inconel 600 pipe coupling to the clad surface. 3 figs

  18. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies. (letter)

  19. The CpG island encompassing the promoter and first exon of human DNMT3L gene is a PcG/TrX response element (PRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amitava; Dasari, Vasanthi; Mishra, Rakesh K; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC) acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE) and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis.

  20. The CpG island encompassing the promoter and first exon of human DNMT3L gene is a PcG/TrX response element (PRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Basu

    Full Text Available DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis.

  1. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The approaches employed include decision trees, discriminant analysis, regression models, neural networks and support vector machines amongst others. Several models are trained with each method, using variously the original soil covariates and principal components of the covariates. With a large ensemble...... out since the mid-19th century, and it has been estimated that half of the cultivated area is artificially drained (Olesen, 2009). A number of machine learning approaches can be used to predict artificially drained areas in geographic space. However, instead of choosing the most accurate model....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...

  2. Development of Charge Drain Coatings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-17

    The primary goal of this CRADA project was to develop and optimize tunable resistive coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as charge-drain coatings on the KLA-Tencor digital pattern generators (DPGs).

  3. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  4. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    in the collector loop to have a safe reliable operation. The components should also be designed and marked so that only one correct mounting option is possible, like forward and return pipes to/from the collector of slightly different sizes or color. Adapted installer education and training is a very important...... step to have success with drain back systems. Practices used in glycol systems may give serious failures. Key-words: Drain Back, Low Flow, Solar Combi System, ETC collectors....

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drain system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) effluent drain system (EFS). The primary function of the EFS is to collect and transport fire suppression water discharged into a CVDF process bay to a retention basin located outside the facility. The EFS also provides confinement of spills that occur inside a process bay and allows non-contaminated water that drains to the process bay sumps to be collected until sampling and analysis are complete

  6. Steam generator fitted with a dynamic draining device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaix, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This generator has, at its upper part, at least one drying structure for holding the water carried with the steam and communicating at its lower part with at least one discharge pipe for draining off the water, each pipe communicating with a dynamic draining device capable of creating a depression in order to suck up the water contained in the drying structure. Application is for pressurized water nuclear reactors [fr

  7. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2012-08-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.

  8. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Juan C; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000. (paper)

  9. Species-specific and seasonal differences in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic light response among three evergreen species in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, D. L.; Minor, R. L.; Braun, Z.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Unlike the snowmelt-dominated hydroclimate of more northern mountainous regions, the hydroclimate of the Madrean sky islands is characterized by snowmelt and convective storms associated with the North American Monsoon. These mid-summer storms trigger biological activity and are important drivers of primary productivity. For example, at the highest elevations where mixed conifer forests occur, ecosystem carbon balance is influenced by monsoon rains. Whereas these storms' significance is increasingly recognized at the ecosystem scale, species-specific physiological responses to the monsoon are poorly known. Prior to and following monsoon onset, we measured pre-dawn and light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence as well as photosynthetic light response in southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest near Tucson, Arizona. Photochemical quenching (qp), an indicator of the proportion of open PSII reaction centers, was greatest in P. strobiformis and least in P. menziesii and increased in response to monsoon rains (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,14 = 6.17, P = 0.012; time, F2,14= 8.17, P = 0.013). In contrast, non-photochemical quenching (qN), an indicator of heat dissipation ability, was greatest in P. ponderosa and least in P. menziesii, but was not influenced by monsoon onset (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,12 = 4.18, P = 0.042). Estimated from leaf area-adjusted photosynthetic light response curves, maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) was greatest in P. ponderosa and least in P. menziesii (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,8= 40.8, P = 0.001). Surprisingly, while the monsoon positively influenced Amax among P. ponderosa and P. strobiformis, Amax of P. menziesii declined with monsoon onset (repeated-measures ANOVA; species x time, F2,8 = 13.8, P = 0.002). Calculated as the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response curve, light

  10. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and thereby enhancing the economic development of their countries. PMID:16260795

  11. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  12. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  13. Study of the patency of different peritoneal drains used prophylactically in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado Júnior, Wilson; Macedo Neto, Marcelo Martins; dos Santos, José Sebastião; Sakarankutty, Ajith Kumar; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; de Castro e Silva, Orlando

    2009-05-21

    To compare the performance of different types of abdominal drains used in bariatric surgery. A vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was performed in 33 morbidly obese patients. Drainage of the peritoneal cavity was performed in each case using three different types of drain selected in a randomized manner: a latex tubular drain, a Watterman tubulolaminar drain, and a silicone channeled drain. Drain permeability, contamination of the drained fluid, ease of handling, and patient discomfort were evaluated postoperatively over a period of 7 d. The patients with the silicone channeled drain had larger volumes of drainage compared to patients with tubular and tubulolaminar drains between the third and seventh postoperative days. In addition, a lower incidence of discomfort and of contamination with bacteria of a more pathogenic profile was observed in the patients with the silicone channeled drain. The silicone channeled drain was more comfortable and had less chance of occlusion, which is important in the detection of delayed dehiscence.

  14. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  15. Canine scent detection and microbial source tracking of human waste contamination in storm drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Reynolds, Scott; Reynolds, Karen; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Human fecal contamination of surface waters and drains is difficult to diagnose. DNA-based and chemical analyses of water samples can be used to specifically quantify human waste contamination, but their expense precludes routine use. We evaluated canine scent tracking, using two dogs trained to respond to the scent of municipal wastewater, as a field approach for surveying human fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria, as well as DNA-based and chemical markers of human waste, were analyzed in waters sampled from canine scent-evaluated sites (urban storm drains and creeks). In the field, the dogs responded positively (70% and 100%) at sites for which sampled waters were then confirmed as contaminated with human waste. When both dogs indicated a negative response, human waste markers were absent. Overall, canine scent tracking appears useful for prioritizing sampling sites for which DNA-based and similarly expensive assays can confirm and quantify human waste contamination.

  16. Noise performance in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs under high drain bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Lei; Pu Yan; Lin Xinyu; Wang Liang; Liu Jian

    2009-01-01

    The advent of fully integrated GaN PA-LNA circuits makes it meaningful to investigate the noise performance under high drain bias. However, noise performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs under high bias has not received worldwide attention in theoretical studies due to its complicated mechanisms. The noise value is moderately higher and its rate of increase is fast with increasing high voltage. In this paper, several possible mechanisms are proposed to be responsible for it. Impact ionization under high electric field incurs great fluctuation of carrier density, which increases the drain diffusion noise. Besides, higher gate leakage current related shot noise and a more severe self-heating effect are also contributors to the noise increase at high bias. Analysis from macroscopic and microscopic perspectives can help us to design new device structures to improve noise performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs under high bias. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Discussion of "Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California" (Schumann et al., 2016. Geomorphology, 268: 322-340)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2018-01-01

    Schumann et al. (2016) presented a field assessment of late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial sediments preserved in the valleys of Santa Rosa Island, California. This is a rigorous study, based on stratigraphic descriptions of 54 sections and numerous radiocarbon ages. The paper makes important contributions that we would like to highlight, but other parts of the paper rely upon overly simplistic interpretations that lead to misleading conclusions. In one case, a conclusion of the Schumann et al. paper has important management implications for Santa Rosa Island and similar locations, compelling us to discuss and qualify this conclusion.

  18. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss.

  19. Current practice patterns of drain usage amongst UK and Irish surgeons performing bilateral breast reductions: Evidence down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Conor M; McInerney, Niall; Joyce, Cormac W; Jones, Deidre; Hussey, Alan J; Kelly, Jack L; Kerin, Michael J; Regan, Padraic J

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral breast reduction (BBR) is one of the most frequently performed female breast operations. Despite no evidence supporting efficacy of drain usage in BBRs, postoperative insertion is common. Recent high quality evidence demonstrating potential harm from drain use has subsequently challenged this traditional practice. The aim of this study is to assess the current practice patterns of drains usage by Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons in UK and Ireland performing BBRs. An 18 question survey was created evaluating various aspects of BBR practice. UK and Irish Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons were invited to participate by an email containing a link to a web-based survey. Statistical analysis was performed with student t-test and chi-square test. Two hundred and eleven responding surgeons were analysed, including 80.1% (171/211) Plastic Surgeons and 18.9% (40/211) Breast Surgeons. Of the responding surgeons, 71.6% (151/211) routinely inserted postoperative drains, for a mean of 1.32 days. Drains were used significantly less by surgeons performing ≥20 BBRs (p = 0.02). With the majority of BBRs performed as an inpatient procedure, there was a trend towards less drain usage in surgeons performing this procedure as an outpatient; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Even with the high level of evidence demonstrating the safety of BBR without drains, they are still routinely utilised. In an era of evidence- based medicine, surgeons performing breast reductions must adopt the results from scientific research into their clinical practice.

  20. A novel MERTK deletion is a common founder mutation in the Faroe Islands and is responsible for a high proportion of retinitis pigmentosa cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Duno, Morten; Batbayli, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the genetic background of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a Faroe Islands population, a genetic isolate in the North Atlantic Ocean.......The aim of the study was to elucidate the genetic background of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a Faroe Islands population, a genetic isolate in the North Atlantic Ocean....

  1. Decision-making and radiological protection at Three Mile Island. Response of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1982-01-01

    The author's comments are limited to only three acts dealing with radiological health and protection: the struggle for power and assertion of leadership in response to possible health consequences of the accident; the decisions to evacuate the area during the radiological emergency; and the use of potassium iodide as a means of protecting the public and the workers from the hazards of exposure to radioactive iodine released to the environment. (author)

  2. A study of the complications of small bore 'Seldinger' intercostal chest drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen E; Merchant, Shairoz; McGown, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Use of small bore chest drains (drainage over a 12-month period. One hundred consecutive small bore Seldinger (12F) chest drain insertions were evaluated. Few serious complications occurred. However, 21% of the chest drains were displaced ('fell out') and 9% of the drains became blocked. This contributed to high morbidity rates, with 13% of patients requiring repeat pleural procedures. The frequency of drain blockage in pleural effusion was reduced by administration of regular normal saline drain flushes (odds ratio for blockage in flushed drains compared with non-flushed drains 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.37, P < 0.001). Regular chest drain flushes are advocated in order to reduce rates of drain blockage, and further studies are needed to determine optimal fixation strategies that may reduce associated patient morbidity.

  3. Frequency dependence and passive drains in fish-eye lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Teruel, O.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Hao, Y.

    2012-11-01

    The Maxwell fish eye lens has previously been reported as being capable of the much sought after phenomenon of subwavelength imaging. The inclusion of a drain in this system is considered crucial to the imaging ability, although its role is the topic of much debate. This paper provides a numerical investigation into a practical implementation of a drain in such systems, and analyzes the strong frequency dependence of both the Maxwell fish eye lens and an alternative, the Miñano lens. The imaging capability of these types of lens is questioned, and it is supported by simulations involving various configurations of drain arrays. Finally, a discussion of the near-field and evanescent wave contribution is given.

  4. The effect of drains on the alkalinity of agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Butt, T.; Anwar-ul-Haque; Haroon, M.; Haq, I.U.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe the effect of industrial and domestic drains on the nearby agricultural areas which are either irrigated or not by the waste water but are close to drains. For this purpose 48 soil samples were collected from the selected areas of Faisalabad and were analyzed for alkali metals like Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Li/sup +/ and some alkaline earth metals like Ba/sup 2+/> Mg/sup 3+/> Na/sup +/> K/sup +/> Li/sup +/ the levels of Ba/sup +2/ and K/sup +/ were found higher than permissible levels in almost all the soil samples. It was also concluded that the agricultural areas near the industrial drain which are either irrigated or not by the industrial waste water are found highly contaminated with mobile alkali metals (K, Na etc.) and higher values of percentage salinity. (author)

  5. Fibredrain method. Environmentally friendly vertical drain; Fiberdrain koho. Kankyo ni yasashii vertical drain koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y.; Inoue, T. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Miura, N. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Yoshida, Y.; Hamada, K. [Hiroshima Prefectural Government Office, Hiroshima (Japan); Aboshi, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Ground improvement using fibredrain (FD) material has not been used in Japan. For its practical use in Japan, laboratory experiment was made on such technological characteristics of FD material as tensile strength and permeability, and field test was also made to verify its improvement effect. A plane FD specimen of nearly 90mm wide and 9mm thick is composed of a folded double jute fabrics band and 4 twisted coir ropes arranged between the jute fabrics at even intervals, and the band is sewn up along center lines between the ropes. A mean permeability coefficient is estimated to be {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -1}cm/s and {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -2}cm/s at {sigma}{sup 3} = 0.5kgf/cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sup 3} = 2.0kgf/cm{sup 2} in lateral pressure, respectively, showing sufficient permeabilities for vertical drain material. The tensile strength of fresh FD material is estimated to be a little stronger than 900kg/material width which is far stronger than that of conventional FD materials. The field test result showed that the FD material achieved the target for ground improvement, and has sufficient functions as a substitute for SD material. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Effect of Needle Aspiration of Pneumothorax on Subsequent Chest Drain Insertion in Newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Madeleine C; Heiring, Christian; Doglioni, Nicoletta

    2018-01-01

    Importance: Treatment options for a symptomatic pneumothorax in newborns include needle aspiration (NA) and chest drain (CD) insertion. There is little consensus as to the preferred treatment, reflecting a lack of evidence from clinical trials. Objective: To investigate whether treating pneumotho......Importance: Treatment options for a symptomatic pneumothorax in newborns include needle aspiration (NA) and chest drain (CD) insertion. There is little consensus as to the preferred treatment, reflecting a lack of evidence from clinical trials. Objective: To investigate whether treating...... was 5 tertiary European neonatal intensive care units. Infants receiving respiratory support (endotracheal ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, or supplemental oxygen >40%) who had a pneumothorax on CR that clinicians deemed needed treatment were eligible for inclusion. Interventions...... was inserted if clinicians deemed that the response was inadequate. For CD insertion, a drain was inserted between the ribs and was left in situ. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was whether a CD was inserted on the side of the pneumothorax within 6 hours of diagnosis. Results: A total of 76...

  7. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods: Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results: Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions: In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  8. Replacement of the drain system of secondary circuit at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kenji; Onuki, Koji; Tomobe, Katsuma; Taniyama, Sadami

    2003-01-01

    Monju is as a Japan's prototype fast breeder reactor cooled by liquid sodium. In the course of power buildup tests, the sodium leakage accident broke out on 8th December 1995. Though Monju has been already equipped with countermeasure systems against the sodium leakage accident, some additional improvements will be taken in order to reduce the damage by the leaked sodium when another leakage accident should recur. The most characteristic work is the drain system modification that leads to shorten the drain time and to reduce the quantity of leaked sodium in the event of sodium leakage. (author)

  9. Optimization design for drain to nuclear power condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jiapeng; Jiang Chengren

    2010-01-01

    Characters and varieties of drain to nuclear power condenser are discussed in this paper. Take the main steam system of a nuclear power as an example, normal and detailed optimization design are introduced, related expatiate are used as a reference for the drain of other systems. According to the characters of nuclear power instant operation, the influence and needed actions related with the optimization design are also analyzed. Based on the above research, the scheme has been carried out in a nuclear power station and safety for the condenser operation of the nuclear power has been improved largely. (authors)

  10. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  11. Shallow landslide stability computation using a distributed transient response model for susceptibility assessment and validation. A case study from Ribeira Quente valley (S. Miguel island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, P.; Marques, R.; Zêzere, J. L.; Marques, F.; Queiroz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the last 15 years, several heavy rainstorms have occurred in Povoação County (S. Miguel Island, Azores), namely in the Ribeira Quente Valley. These rainfall events have triggered hundreds of shallow landslides that killed tens of people and have been responsible for direct and indirect damages amounting to tens of millions of Euros. On the 6th March 2005 an intense rainfall episode, up to 160 mm of rain in less than 24 h, triggered several shallow landslides that caused 3 victims and damaged/blocked roads. The Ribeira Quente Valley has an area of about 9.5 km2 and is mainly constituted by pyroclastic materials (pumice ash and lapilli), that were produced by the Furnas Volcano explosive eruptions. To provide an assessment of slope-failure conditions for the 6th March 2005 rainfall event, it was applied a distributed transient response model for slope stability analysis. The adopted methodology is a modified version of Iversońs (2000) transient response model, which couple an infinite slope stability analysis with an analytic solution of the Richard's equation for vertical water infiltration in quasi-saturated soil. The validation was made on two different scales: (1) at a slope scale, using two distinct test sites where landslides were triggered; and (2) at the basin scale, using the entire landslide database and generalizing the modeling input parameters for the regional spatialization of results. At the slope scale, the obtained results were very accurate, and it was possible to predict the precise time of the slope failures. At the basin scale, the obtained results were very conservative, even though the model predicted all the observed landslide locations, in the 23.7% of the area classified as untable at the time of the slope failures. This methodology revealed to be a reasonable tool for landslide forecast for both temporal and spatial distributions, on both slope and regional scales. In the future, the model components will be integrated into a GIS

  12. An Equal-Strain Analytical Solution for the Radial Consolidation of Unsaturated Soils by Vertical Drains considering Drain Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing an analytical solution for the consolidation of unsaturated soils remains a challenging task due to the complexity of coupled governing equations for air and water phases. This paper presents an equal-strain model for the radial consolidation of unsaturated soils by vertical drains, and the effect of drain resistance is also considered. Simplified governing equations are established, and an analytical solution to calculate the excess pore-air and pore-water pressures is derived by using the methods of matrix analysis and eigenfunction expansion. The average degrees of consolidation for air and water phases and the ground surface settlement are also given. The solutions of the equal-strain model are verified by comparing the proposed free-strain model with the equal-strain model, and reasonably good agreement is obtained. Moreover, parametric studies regarding the drain resistance effect are graphically presented.

  13. CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP) in oral cancer: associated with a marked inflammatory response and less aggressive tumour biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard J; Hall, Gillian L; Lowe, Derek; Bowers, Naomi L; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Field, John K; Woolgar, Julia A; Risk, Janet M

    2007-10-01

    Studies in several tumour sites highlight the significance of the CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP), with distinct features of histology, biological aggression and outcome. We utilise pyrosequencing techniques of quantitative methylation analysis to investigate the presence of CIMP in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for the first time, and evaluate its correlation with allelic imbalance, pathology and clinical behaviour. Tumour tissue, control tissue and PBLs were obtained from 74 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse methylation patterns in 75-200 bp regions of the CpG rich gene promoters of 10 genes with a broad range of cellular functions. Allelic imbalance was investigated using a multiplexed panel of 11 microsatellite markers. Corresponding variables, histopathological staging and grading were correlated with these genetic and epigenetic aberrations. A cluster of tumours with a greater degree of promoter methylation than would be predicted by chance alone (P=0.001) were designated CIMP+ve. This group had less aggressive tumour biology in terms of tumour thickness (p=0.015) and nodal metastasis (P=0.012), this being apparently independent of tumour diameter. Further, it seems that these CIMP+ve tumours excited a greater host inflammatory response (P=0.019). The exact mechanisms underlying CIMP remain obscure but the association with a greater inflammatory host response supports existing theories relating these features in other tumour sites. As CIMP has significant associations with other well documented prognostic indicators, it may prove beneficial to include methylation analyses in molecular risk modelling of tumours.

  14. Does the suction drain diameter matter? Bleeding analysis after total knee replacement comparing different suction drain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate bleeding and the estimated blood loss in patients who underwent total knee replacement (TKR with different closed suction drains (3.2-mm and 4.8-mm gauge. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial with 22 patients who underwent TKR and were divided into two groups: Group I, with 11 patients in whom the 3.2-mm suction drain was used, and Group II, with 11 patients in whom the 4.8-mm suction drain was used. The hematocrit was measured after 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery in order to calculate the estimated blood loss. The drained volume was measured 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after TKR, and thereafter both groups were compared. RESULTS: Regarding the hematocrit, there were no differences between groups in measured periods (24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. The total bleeding measured at the suction drains within 48 h was higher in Group II, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.005; in the first 24 h, there was major bleeding in Group II (mean 893 mL, with a significant difference (p = 0.004. Between 24 and 48 h, there was no statistically significant difference in both groups (p = 0.710. The total estimated bleeding was higher in Group I, with mean of 463 mL, versus 409 mL in Group II, with no statistical significance (p = 0.394. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding was higher in the group that used the 4.8 mm gauge suction drain, with no differences in hematocrit and estimated blood loss.

  15. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  16. The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery and the comparison of two different practice protocols for drain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbekar, A V; Davies, F; Upile, N; Ho, M W; Roland, N J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery is varied. We aimed to improve early drain removal and therefore patient discharge in a safe and effective manner. Methods The postoperative management of head and neck surgical patients with vacuum neck drains was reviewed retrospectively. A new policy was then implemented to measure drainage three times daily (midnight, 6am, midday). The decision for drain removal was based on the most recent drainage period (at Measuring drainage volumes three times daily allows for more accurate assessment of wound drainage, and this can lead to earlier removal of neck drains and safe discharge.

  17. Brain drain or brain gain : The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Brain drain refers to the emigration of highly skilled individuals mostly from a less developed (home) to a developed country (destination) thereby reducing the capacity of the home country to generate welfare for its population. In the literature there is much written

  18. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field

  19. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, Asim

    2017-07-01

    To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Quasi experimental study. Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p hematoma was 15 ±6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another.

  20. On the use of drains in orthopedic and trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... Even major procedures like total knee and arthroplasties are being performed without drains. We set to find ... discourage wound healing while encouraging bacterial ... a period of two days or if drainage over the first twenty‑four hours was found ... Three of the twenty Kuntscher nailings for femoral fracture.

  1. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  2. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  3. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  4. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leakage from 'open to air' system or breakage of glass bottle (with associated risk to ... and an air-leak detection system. It is connected to a ... need to add water. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard therapy – a randomised controlled trial. CHARL COOPER, M.B. CH.B. TIMOTHY HARDCASTLE ...

  5. An Improvised Active Drain | Ogirima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvised active drain is designed from intravenous infusion set and recycled RedivacR or Haemovac® bottle. Outcome of the use of this system on 100 patients is presented. This suction drainage system had been used in major orthopaedic and common minor surgical procedures and no significant complication was ...

  6. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  7. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Xpand chest drain is an external medical device made of plastic that incorporates a fluid reservoir, a one-way valve and an air-leak detection system ... conect ed to a 2 000 ml drainage bag) prevents exposure of body fluids to nursing staff.

  8. English and the Brain Drain : An Uncertain Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    In his book Linguistic Justice for Europe and the World, Van Parijs analyses in one of his chapters the brain drain from non-Anglophone to Anglophone countries, which hurts the economic development of the nonAnglophone states. Van Parijs deems it clear that English is a very important factor to

  9. Organic loss in drained wetland: managing the carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durham, B.; van de Noort, R.; Martens, V.V.; Vorenhout, M.

    2012-01-01

    The recent installation of land drains at Star Carr, Yorkshire, UK, has been linked with loss of preservation quality in this important Mesolithic buried landscape, challenging the PARIS principle. Historically captured organic carbon, including organic artefacts, is being converted to soluble

  10. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  11. Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen

    2000-01-01

    The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a collar grows or shrinks in volume as it drains depends on the modified Bond number B=rho g a(2)/(sigmaepsilon), where rho is the fluid density, sigma is its surface tension, and epsilona is the thickness of the thin film immediately ahead of the collar. Asymptotic methods are used here to determine the following nonlinear stability criteria for an individual collar, valid in the limit of small epsilon. For 0draining collars grow in volume and, in sufficiently long tubes, ultimately "snap off" to form stable lenses. For 0.5960drain, so that any lens ultimately ruptures, unless stabilizing intermolecular forces allow the formation of a lamella supported by a macroscopic Plateau border. If surfactant immobilizes the liquid's free surface, these critical values of B are reduced by a factor of 2 but the distance a collar must travel before it snaps off is unchanged. Gravitationally driven snap off is therefore most likely to occur in long tubes with radii substantially less than the capillary lengthscale sigma/rhog)(1/2). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  13. Drains after Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disorders; Are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prophylactic drainage after thyroidectomy has been a regular practice at Kenyatta National Hospital( KNH). This has been ... stay and post-operative pain. Introduction. Prophylactic drains are still regularly used in ..... Total versus subtotal thyroidectomy for the management of benign multinodular goiter in an endemic region.

  14. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load In Soil And Uptake By Vegetables. ... This polluted water not only contains organic matter and crop nutrients but also ... Plant samples were collected at maturity from all the monitoring points. ... (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ...

  15. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among…

  16. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Surface Meteorological Data from Kiritimati Island, January-March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0161526)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains surface meteorological data from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, collected 25 January to 28 March 2016. These data have been corrected for known...

  17. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Radiosonde Data (Level 2) from Kiritimati Island, January-March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0161525)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains radiosonde data from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, collected 26 January to 27 March 2016. These "Level 2" data have been reprocessed using...

  18. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hoeke, Ron K.

    2017-10-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  19. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hoeke, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  20. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  1. Origin of the water drained by the tunnel Graton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata B, A.

    1992-12-01

    The research of the origin of the water drained by the Graton tunnel was attempted using isotope techniques. During the period of studies (April 1989-October 1992), four field work was executed to sample waters for chemistry, stable isotope and Tritium analysis, an to inject tracers and verify the possible infiltration from the Rimac and Blanco rivers to the tunnel. The results of the stable isotope analysis show that the water drained by the Graton tunnel comes from a basin around 300 meters above the average altitude of the basin where the Graton is located. The Tritium analysis show that the water is relatively modern. Using the model of total mixing, the residence times of the water drained at the km 0.5 and 2.5 are in the order to 45 years. The conductivities of the water of the tunnel is higher than the Rimac river ones because the influence of mine water. The chemical analysis of the water sampled at the downstream end of the tunnel, show that the conservative ions of the water kept almost constant during more than two years. The results of the work with artificial tracer show that there is no significant leakage from the Rimac and Blanco rivers to the Graton tunnel. So far, it can be concluded as a preliminary approach that the Graton tunnel drains relatively modern water originated in another basin. The hydrodynamics of the area of study seems to include a large storage on underground water in the system. The topography, geology and isotopic composition of the water samples, points to the upper Mantaro river basin as the possible source of part of the water drained by the Graton tunnel. (authors). 20 p. 2 figs., 7 ills., 4 tabs

  2. Perioperative lumbar drain utilization in transsphenoidal pituitary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Shatha; Harsh, Griffith; Ajlan, Abdulrazag

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate lumbar drain (LD) efficacy in transnasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, technique safety, and effect on length of hospital stay. We conducted a retrospective data review of pituitary tumor patients in our institution who underwent surgery between December 2006 and January 2013. All patients were operated on for complete surgical resection of pituitary macroadenoma tumors. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 received a preoperative drain, while LD was not preoperatively inserted in group 2. In cases of tumors with suprasellar extension with anticipation of high-flow leak, LD was inserted after the patient was intubated and in a lateral position. Lumbar drain was used for 48 hours, and the drain was removed if no leak was observed postoperatively. In documented postoperative CSF leak patients with no preoperative drain, the leak was treated by LD trial prior to surgical reconstruction. Cases in which leak occurred 6 months postoperatively were excluded. Our study population consisted of 186 patients, 99 women (53%) and 87 men (47%), with a mean age of 50.3+/-16.1 years. Complications occurred in 7 patients (13.7%) in group 1 versus 21 (15.5%) in group 2 (p=0.72). Postoperative CSF leak was observed in 1 patient (1.9%) in group 1 and 7 (5%) in group 2 (Fisher exact test=0.3). Length of hospital stay was a mean of 4.7+/-1.9 days in group 1 and a mean of 2.7+/-2.4 days in group 2 (pLD insertion is generally considered safe with a low risk of complications, it increases the length of hospitalization. Minor complications include headaches and patient discomfort.

  3. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  4. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes - but Not Natural Faces - Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer's-Related Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer's-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs - which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings - was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an "island of stability" in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies.

  5. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes – but Not Natural Faces – Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer’s-Related Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs – which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings – was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an “island of stability” in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies. PMID:23471005

  6. An island of stability: art images and natural scenes—but not natural faces—show consistent aesthetic response in Alzheimer’s-related dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eGraham

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of aesthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in aesthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved aesthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar aesthetic stability in early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs—which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings—was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with aesthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face processing in healthy and diseased ageing. Our work also gives insights into general theories of aesthetics, since people with Alzheimer’s disease are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color aesthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with Alzheimer’s disease, basic aesthetic judgment of artistic images represents an island of stability in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, aesthetic response could be a promising route to

  7. Vertical organic field effect phototransistor with two dissimilar source and drain contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woon, K.L.; Yeo, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    A solution processable vertical organic field effect phototransistor was fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 as the photo-active materials while poly(methyl methacrylate) is used as a dielectric layer. Interdigitated conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) is used as a source and lithium flouride/aluminum as a drain. The device exhibits current modulation when the gate is positively biased. A significant photoeffect is observed in the reverse bias mode. Unlike conventional organic phototransistors, this device can operate at a zero source–drain bias with a photosensitivity and responsivity proportional to the gate voltage. A photosensitivity of up to 10 5 and a responsivity of up to 2 AW −1 are achieved in this mode. This effect is due to the presence of the weak photovoltaic behavior of this device. - Highlights: • A solution processable vertical field effect phototransistor is demonstrated. • Photosensitivity as high as ∼ 10 5 with responsivity of 2 AW −1 is achieved. • The gate can be used to modulate photocurrent with low leakage current. • The device shows weak photovoltaic behavior

  8. A novel gate and drain engineered charge plasma tunnel field-effect transistor for low sub-threshold swing and ambipolar nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Raad, Bhagwan Ram; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on the improvement of figures of merit for charge plasma based tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) in terms of ON-state current, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing, ambipolar nature, and gate to drain capacitance which provides better channel controlling of the device with improved high frequency response at ultra-low supply voltages. Regarding this, we simultaneously employ work function engineering on the drain and gate electrode of the charge plasma TFET. The use of gate work function engineering modulates the barrier on the source/channel interface leads to improvement in the ON-state current, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Apart from this, for the first time use of work function engineering on the drain electrode increases the tunneling barrier for the flow of holes on the drain/channel interface, it results into suppression of ambipolar behavior. The lowering of gate to drain capacitance therefore enhanced high frequency parameters. Whereas, the presence of dual work functionality at the gate electrode and over the drain region improves the overall performance of the charge plasma based TFET.

  9. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype is Associated With Response to Adjuvant Irinotecan-Based Therapy for Stage 3 Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz, Stacey; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Renfro, Lindsay A.; Nam, Eunmi; Foster, Nathan R.; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Monnat, Raymond J.; Emond, Mary J.; Maizels, Nancy; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Goldberg, Richard M.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Venook, Alan; Warren, Robert S.; Grady, William M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined by a high frequency of aberrantly methylated genes, is a characteristic of a subclass of colon tumors with distinct clinical and molecular features. Cohort studies have produced conflicting results on responses of CIMP-positive tumors to chemotherapy. We assessed the association between tumor CIMP status and survival of patients receiving adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin alone or with irinotecan (IFL) METHODS We analyzed data from patients with stage 3 colon adenocarcinoma randomly assigned to groups given fluorouracil and leucovorin or IFL following surgery, from April 1999 through April 2001. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was disease-free survival. DNA isolated from available tumor samples (n=615) was used to determine CIMP status based on methylation patterns at the CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1 loci. The effects of CIMP on survival were modeled using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards; interactions with treatment and BRAF, KRAS, and mismatch repair (MMR) status were also investigated. RESULTS Of the tumor samples characterized for CIMP status, 145 were CIMP positive (23%). Patients with CIMP-positive tumors had shorter overall survival times than patients with CIMP-negative tumors (hazard ratio [HR]=1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.84). Treatment with IFL showed a trend toward increased overall survival for patients with CIMP-positive tumors, compared to treatment with fluorouracil and leucovorin (HR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.37–1.05; P=.07), but not for patients with CIMP-negative tumors (HR=1.38; 95% CI, 1.00–1.89; P=.049). In a 3-way interaction analysis, patients with CIMP-positive, MMR-intact tumors benefited most from the addition of irinotecan to fluorouracil and leucovorin therapy (for the interaction, P=.01). CIMP was more strongly associated with response to IFL than MMR status. Results for disease

  10. CpG island methylator phenotype is associated with response to adjuvant irinotecan-based therapy for stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz, Stacey; Bertagnolli, Monica M; Renfro, Lindsay A; Nam, Eunmi; Foster, Nathan R; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Monnat, Raymond J; Emond, Mary J; Maizels, Nancy; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Goldberg, Richard M; Saltz, Leonard B; Venook, Alan; Warren, Robert S; Grady, William M

    2014-09-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined by a high frequency of aberrantly methylated genes, is a characteristic of a subclass of colon tumors with distinct clinical and molecular features. Cohort studies have produced conflicting results on responses of CIMP-positive tumors to chemotherapy. We assessed the association between tumor CIMP status and survival of patients receiving adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin alone or with irinotecan (IFL). We analyzed data from patients with stage III colon adenocarcinoma randomly assigned to groups given fluorouracil and leucovorin or IFL after surgery, from April 1999 through April 2001. The primary end point of the trial was overall survival and the secondary end point was disease-free survival. DNA isolated from available tumor samples (n = 615) was used to determine CIMP status based on methylation patterns at the CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1 loci. The effects of CIMP on survival were modeled using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards; interactions with treatment and BRAF, KRAS, and mismatch repair (MMR) status were also investigated. Of the tumor samples characterized for CIMP status, 145 were CIMP positive (23%). Patients with CIMP-positive tumors had shorter overall survival times than patients with CIMP-negative tumors (hazard ratio = 1.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.84). Treatment with IFL showed a trend toward increased overall survival for patients with CIMP-positive tumors, compared with treatment with fluorouracil and leucovorin (hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.37-1.05; P = .07), but not for patients with CIMP-negative tumors (hazard ratio = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.00-1.89; P = .049). In a 3-way interaction analysis, patients with CIMP-positive, MMR-intact tumors benefited most from the addition of irinotecan to fluorouracil and leucovorin therapy (for the interaction, P = .01). CIMP was more strongly associated with response to IFL than MMR status. Results for disease

  11. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  12. An experimental study about efficacy of the drain catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Bum Gyu; Nho, Joon Young; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Although percutaneous abscess drainage has become and accepted alternative from of therapy for selected patients with abscess, it is well known that there are several factors in the failure of adequate drainage such as pre- and post-procedural management, technique itself, various features of abscess, and selection and application of catheters. Among these factors, we made an experiment about drainage efficacy of commonly used various catheters with different viscosities of water-glycerin solution under the two different pressure gradients. The experimental values of flow rate were very lower than the calculated values. An efficacy of experimental value was 4-14%. Because the inner diameter of fittings and stopcocks was usually smaller than the inner diameter of catheters, these factors also affected the drain efficacy. Finally, we thought that it will be very helpful to the treatment of patient as well as to study about the catheter drainage, if the drain efficacy of individual catheters has been notified.

  13. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2018-01-01

    influences the amount of fluid. METHODS: We randomly assigned (1:1) 106 patients who underwent lobectomy to either low (-5 cm H2O) or high (-20 cm H2O) external suction using an electronic chest drainage system. Only one chest drain was allowed, and we used strict algorithms for chest drain removal, which...... was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  14. 'Brain drain' from Serbia: One face of globalization of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we point out the role of the practice and ideology of globalization in brain drain process from Serbia. The listed data are based on the large-scale departure of highly educated persons from Serbia to the counties of West Europe and the USA. The dynamics, proportions and tendencies are analysed the role of the educational system in the process of departure of highly educated people and the reasons and consequences of the departure of scientist and engineering experts. In this article, education policy as state financial support are critical analysed. For Serbia, as the relatively undeveloped country in the middle of the modernization processes, this process has far-reaching effects on the social development. So, here we implied the possible solutions for the problem of brain drain.

  15. Reduction in wick drain effectiveness with spacing for Utah silts and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Although decreasing the spacing of vertical drains usually decreases the time for consolidation, previous field tests have shown that there is a critical drain spacing for which tighter spacing does not decrease the time for consolidation. This...

  16. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeji, Bibilola D.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries t...

  17. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishfaq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p <0.05 was utilized using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17). Results: Median age of the 62 patients was 72 +-12.5 years. Headache was the most common symptom reported in both groups, (n=47,75.8%) patients. Median thickness of hematoma was 15 +-6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Conclusion: Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another. (author)

  18. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Guo; Kang-He Xie; Yue-Bao Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradie...

  19. Globalization and migration: A "unified brain drain" model

    OpenAIRE

    Brezis, Elise S.; Soueri, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to a vast flow of migration of workers but also of students. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration of individuals encompassing decisions already at the level of education. We develop a unified brain drain model that incorporates the decisions of an individual vis - à - vis both education and migration. In the empirical part, this paper addresses international flows of migration within the EU and presents strong evidence of concentration of students in cou...

  20. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  1. Powerful Software to Simulate Soil Consolidation Problems with Prefabricated Vertical Drains

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo García-Ros; Iván Alhama; Manuel Cánovas

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the program Simulation of Consolidation with Vertical Drains (SICOMED_2018), a tool for the solution of consolidation processes in heterogeneous soils, with totally or partially penetrating prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) and considering both the effects of the smear zone, generated when introducing the drain into the ground, and the limitation in the discharge capacity of the drain. In order to provide a completely free program, the code Next-Generation Simulat...

  2. Drain site evisceration of fallopian tube, another reason to discourage abdominal drain: report of a case and brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pradeep; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Gupta, Arun; Kaur, Navneet

    2012-04-01

    Placement of a drain following abdominal surgery is common despite a lack of convincing evidence in the current literature to support this practice. The use of intra-abdominal drain is associated with many potential and serious complications. We report a drain site evisceration of the right fallopian tube after the removal of an intra-abdominal drain. The drain was placed in the right iliac fossa in a patient who underwent a lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) for meconium liquor with fetal distress. The Pfannenstiel incision made for LSCS was reopened and the protruding inflamed fimbrial end of the right fallopian tube was excised. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Routine intra-abdominal prophylactic drain following an abdominal surgery including LSCS should be discouraged.

  3. The Simple Urine Bag as Wound Drain Post-Craniotomy in a Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A 4-year prospective cohort study of the effectiveness, outcome with use and complications of the Uribag as post craniotomy wound drain in a consecutive cohort of neurosurgical patients. Data analyzed include the patients' brief demographics; the types of cranial surgery in which drain was used; the drain ...

  4. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... the VGB Act defines an ``unblockable drain'' as ``a drain of any size and shape that a human body... intentions. They claim that for this reason, backup systems are necessary, and a swimming pool or spa with a... of an ``unblockable drain,'' at 16 CFR 1450.2(b) and believe it was in error. Regardless of the size...

  5. Draining after breast reduction: a randomised controlled inter-patient study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corion, Leonard U. M.; Smeulders, Mark J. C.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and seven bilateral breast reductions were prospectively randomised during surgery to receive or not receive wound drains. Fifty-five patients were randomised to have a drain and 52 to not have a drain. There was no statistical difference in the number of complications between the

  6. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiddin Abdu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production" of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a

  7. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  8. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationship for a drained agricultural field in Eastern North Carolina Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Youssef, M.; Birgand, F.; Chescheir, G. M.; Maxwell, B.; Tian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drainage is a practice used to artificially enhance drainage characteristics of naturally poorly drained soils via subsurface drain tubing or open-ditch systems. Approximately 25% of the U.S. agricultural land requires improved drainage for economic crop production. However, drainage increases the transport of dissolved agricultural chemicals, particularly nitrates to downstream surface waters. Nutrient export from artificially drained agricultural landscapes has been identified as the leading source of elevated nutrient levels in major surface water bodies in the U.S. Controlled drainage has long been practiced to reduce nitrogen export from agricultural fields to downstream receiving waters. It has been hypothesized that controlled drainage reduces nitrogen losses by promoting denitrification, reducing drainage outflow from the field, and increasing plant uptake. The documented performance of the practice was widely variable as it depends on several site-specific factors. The goal of this research was to utilize high frequency measurements to investigate the effect of agricultural drainage and related management practices on nitrate fate and transport for an artificially drained agricultural field in eastern North Carolina. We deployed a field spectrophotometer to measure nitrate concentration every 45 minutes and measured drainage flow rate using a V-notch weir every 15 minutes. Furthermore, we measured groundwater level, precipitation, irrigation amount, temperature to characterize antecedent conditions for each event. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationships generated from the high frequency measurements illustrated anti-clockwise hysteresis loops and nitrate flushing mechanism in response to most precipitation and irrigation events. Statistical evaluation will be carried out for the C-Q relationships. The results of our analysis, combined with numerical modeling, will provide a better understanding of hydrological and

  9. Idiosyncratic responses to climate-driven forest fragmentation and marine incursions in reed frogs from Central Africa and the Gulf of Guinea Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bell, R. C.; Parra, J. L.; Badjedjea, G.; Barej, M. F.; Blackburn, D. C.; Burger, M.; Channing, A.; Dehling, J. M.; Greenbaum, E.; Gvoždík, Václav; Kielgast, J.; Kusamba, C.; Lötters, S.; McLaughlin, P. J.; Nagy, Z. T.; Rödel, M.-O.; Portik, D. M.; Stuart, B. L.; VanDerWal, J.; Zassi-Boulou, A.-G.; Zamudio, K. R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 19 (2017), s. 5223-5244 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : climatic refugia * ecological niche modelling * Hyperolius * land-bridge island * lineage divergence * riverine barriers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  10. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Iatrogenic Perforation of the Left Ventricle during Insertion of a Chest Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongmin; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Seo, Pil Won

    2013-01-01

    Chest draining is a common procedure for treating pleural effusion. Perforation of the heart is a rare often fatal complication of chest drain insertion. We report a case of a 76-year-old female patient suffering from congestive heart failure. At presentation, unilateral opacity of the left chest observed on a chest X-ray was interpreted as massive pleural effusion, so an attempt was made to drain the left pleural space. Malposition of the chest drain was suspected because blood was draining ...

  12. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  13. A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, P C; Halfacree, Z J; Baines, S J

    2015-05-01

    To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases. Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®. Two hundred and fifty-three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species. Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Comparison of a large and small-calibre tube drain for managing spontaneous pneumothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Ian J; Benfield, Grant F A

    2009-10-01

    To compare treatment success of large- and small-bore chest drains in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothoraces the case-notes were reviewed of those admitted to our hospital with a total of 73 pneumothoraces and who were treated by trainee doctors of varying experience. Both a large- and a small-bore intercostal tube drain system were in use during the two-year period reviewed. Similar pneumothorax profile and numbers treated with both drains were recorded, resulting in a similar drain time and numbers of successful and failed re-expansion of pneumothoraces. Successful pneumothorax resolution was the same for both drain types and the negligible tube drain complications observed with the small-bore drain reflected previously reported experiences. However the large-bore drain was associated with a high complication rate (32%) with more infectious complications (24%). The small-bore drain was prone to displacement (21%). There was generally no evidence of an increased failure and morbidity, reflecting poorer expertise, in the non-specialist trainees managing the pneumothoraces. A practical finding however was that in those large pneumothoraces where re-expansion failed, the tip of the drain had not been sited at the apex of the pleural cavity irrespective of the drain type inserted.

  15. Evisceration of Appendix through the Drain Site: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Rajamani, A

    2013-06-01

    Placing a drain after surgery is a usual procedure in any emergency abdominal operation. The drain is removed as soon as its purpose of draining the intraabdominal collection in served. Evisceration of intraabdominal organs through the drain site is a rare occurance. This case report is about an 12 year old girl who was admitted with blunt trauma abdomen. After completion of emergency laparotomy a drain was placed in the right lower quadrant. When the drain was removed on the 6th post operative day, the appendix eviscerated out of the drain site. The wound was extended a little and an appendectomy was done. This case is presented for its rarity as only two similar instances have been reported in literature so far.

  16. Industry's response to the accident at Three Mile Island. Oversight hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, first session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This hearing is part of a review of the country's nuclear polices. It reviews testimony concerning the nuclear industry's response to Three Mile Island. Witnesses discuss the lessons industry has learned from the accident and what steps it will take to police itself. Views are offered on a regulatory policy to promote remote sitings of reactors. As the Presidential Kemeny Commission completes its work and reports its conclusions, this subcommittee then will be ready to begin to consider legislative changes in our existing nuclear policy

  17. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  18. Processing method for drained water containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ogawa, Naoki; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Kamiyoshi, Hideki; Fukunaga, Kazuo; Iwamoto, Ken; Miki, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Drained water containing ethanol amine is processed with microorganisms such as hydrazine resistant denitrification bacteria in a biodegrading vessel (A) in the coexistence of nitrous ions and/or nitric ions under an anaerobic condition, and then it is processed with microorganisms such as nitrification bacteria in another biotic oxidation vessel (B) under an aerobic condition to generate the coexistent nitrate ion and/or nitric ion, and returned to the biodegrading vessel (A). Further, they are exposed to air or incorporated with an oxidant and optionally a copper compound such as copper sulfate as a catalyst is added in a step of removing hydrazine. (T.M.)

  19. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  20. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  1. Laparoscopic primary repair and isoperistaltic endoluminal drain for Boerhaave's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Francesco; Pezzolla, Angela; Nitti, Paolo; Prete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave syndrome (BS), is a rare and potentially lethal pathological condition. BS recognition is difficult, while rapidity of diagnosis, along with extension of the lesion, affects type and outcome of treatment. BS was classically treated by thoracotomy, but laparoscopic (LS), thoracoscopic (TS) surgery, and nonsurgical procedures as endoscopic stent positioning or use of glues have been described. Still, there is no model treatment, and selection of the most appropriate therapeutic procedure is complex in the absence of standardised criteria. We successfully managed a patient affected with BS by LS approach and present our experience along with a review of treatment options so far described. Our treatment integrated positioning of an oesophageal isoperistaltic endoluminal drain (IED), that we routinely use in oesophageal sutures at risk of leakage, and of which there is no previous report in the setting of BS. A 68 year old man presented to our attention with true BS, suspected on chest-abdominal CT scan and confirmed by upper GI contrast swallow test, showing leakage of hydro-soluble contrast from the lower third of the oesophagus. Of note, pleural cavities appeared intact. We performed an urgent laparoscopy 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Laparoscopic toilet of the inferior mediastinum and dual layer oesophageal repair with pedicled omental flap were complemented by positioning of IED, feeding jejunostomy and two tubular drains. The patient had a slow but consistent recovery where IED played as a means of oesophageal suture protection, until he could be discharged home. We think that, when integrity of the pleura is documented, LS should be priority choice to avoid contamination of the pleural cavities. We have to consider every type of oesophageal repair in BS at risk of failure, and every means of protection of the suture is opportune. In our patient the oesophageal suture, covered with a flap of omentum

  2. Consequences assessment for fuel channel failure with consequential moderator drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, N.N.; Bayoumi, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the consequences of spontaneous pressure tube/consequential calandria tube rupture followed by the ejection of end fittings (as a result of guillotine failure of pressure tube) leading to the drain of the moderator. The event is postulated to occur in conjunction with an independent failure of Emergency Coolant Injection System (ECIS). The results of the detailed consequence assessments are used to propose a course of action to mitigate the consequences of such an event. A methodology based on a lumped-parameter model was developed to assess the consequences of the postulated event. (author)

  3. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  4. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  5. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  6. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." excerpt

  7. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  8. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  10. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  11. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1

  12. Global estimates of high-level brain drain and deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2004-06-01

    Brain drain, the international migration of scientists in search of better opportunities, has been a long-standing concern, but quantitative measurements are uncommon and limited to specific countries or disciplines. We need to understand brain drain at a global level and estimate the extent to which scientists born in countries with low opportunities never realize their potential. Data on 1523 of the most highly cited scientists for 1981-1999 are analyzed. Overall, 31.9% of these scientists did not reside in the country where they were born (range 18.1-54.6% across 21 different scientific fields). There was great variability across developed countries in the proportions of foreign-born resident scientists and emigrating scientists. Countries without a critical mass of native scientists lost most scientists to migration. This loss occurred in both developed and developing countries. Adjusting for population and using the U.S. as reference, the number of highly cited native-born scientists was at least 75% of the expected number in only 8 countries other than the U.S. It is estimated that approximately 94% of the expected top scientists worldwide have not been able to materialize themselves due to various adverse conditions. Scientific deficit is only likely to help perpetuate these adverse conditions.

  13. Human papilloma virus specific T cells infiltrating cervical cancer and draining lymph nodes show remarkably frequent use of HLA-DQ and -DP as a restriction element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Sytse J.; Welters, Marij J. P.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Kloth, Judith N.; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Trimbos, Baptist J.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Hellebrekers, Bart W.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Kenter, Gemma G.; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are frequently infiltrated by lymphocytes. To comprehend the contribution of HPV-specific T cells in this anti-tumor response we developed a method that allowed the analysis of the presence and specificity of cervix-infiltrating and draining lymph node

  14. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  15. Drain Insertion in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: An International Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Guzman, Raphael; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether, after the publication of grade I evidence that it reduces recurrence rates, the practice of drain insertion after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma has changed. Further, we aimed to document various practice modalities concerning the insertion of a drain adopted by neurosurgeons internationally. We administered a survey to neurosurgeons worldwide with questions relating to the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma, with an emphasis on their practices concerning the use of a drain. The preferred surgical technique was burr-hole drainage (89%). Most surgeons prefer to place a drain (80%), whereas in 56% of the cases the reason for not placing a drain was brain expansion after evacuation. Subdural drains are placed by 50% and subperiosteal drains by 27% of the responders, whereas 23% place primarily a subdural drain if possible and otherwise a subperiosteal drain. Three quarters of the responders leave the drain for 48 hours and give prophylactic antibiotic treatment, mostly a single-shot dose intraoperatively (70%). Routine postoperative computed tomography is done by 59% mostly within 24-48 hours after surgery (94%). Adjunct treatment to surgery rarely is used (4%). The publication of grade I evidence in favor of drain use influenced positively this practice worldwide. Some surgeons are still reluctant to insert a drain, especially when the subdural space is narrow after drainage of the hematoma. The insertion of a subperiosteal drain could be a good alternative solution. However, its outcome and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating drain flow from measured water table depth in layered soils under free and controlled drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Samaneh; Bowling, Laura; Frankenberger, Jane; Kladivko, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Long records of continuous drain flow are important for quantifying annual and seasonal changes in the subsurface drainage flow from drained agricultural land. Missing data due to equipment malfunction and other challenges have limited conclusions that can be made about annual flow and thus nutrient loads from field studies, including assessments of the effect of controlled drainage. Water table depth data may be available during gaps in flow data, providing a basis for filling missing drain flow data; therefore, the overall goal of this study was to examine the potential to estimate drain flow using water table observations. The objectives were to evaluate how the shape of the relationship between drain flow and water table height above drain varies depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity profile, to quantify how well the Hooghoudt equation represented the water table-drain flow relationship in five years of measured data at the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center (DPAC), and to determine the impact of controlled drainage on drain flow using the filled dataset. The shape of the drain flow-water table height relationship was found to depend on the selected hydraulic conductivity profile. Estimated drain flow using the Hooghoudt equation with measured water table height for both free draining and controlled periods compared well to observed flow with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values above 0.7 and 0.8 for calibration and validation periods, respectively. Using this method, together with linear regression for the remaining gaps, a long-term drain flow record for a controlled drainage experiment at the DPAC was used to evaluate the impacts of controlled drainage on drain flow. In the controlled drainage sites, annual flow was 14-49% lower than free drainage.

  17. The transformation of weak saturated soils using piles-drains for improving its mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Sidorov, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    In practice of increased responsibility structures design there are often weak saturated clayey soils with low characteristics of deformability and strength take place on the construction site. In these cases, foundations using piles-drains of sandy or coarse material are recommended by norms, which is able to bear the load and to accelerate the consolidation process. The presented solutions include an analytical solution of the interaction problem between piles and slab raft foundation with the surrounding soil of the base with the possibility of extension of pile shaft. The closed-form solutions to determine the stresses in pile shaft and in the soil under the foundation slab are obtained. The article presents the results of large scale tests in the pilot area construction of major energy facilities in Russia.

  18. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Kenneth; Mussa, Antonio; Chilundo, Baltazar; Gimbel, Sarah; Pfeiffer, James; Hagopian, Amy; Gloyd, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the private sector. An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties. Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693) were working full-time, including 71.1% (493) as clinicians, 20.5% (142) as health system managers, and 6.9% (48) as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181) of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113) continued working in-country and 37.6% (68) emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75) worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24) for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14) in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113) of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector. Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they seek

  19. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang

    2018-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH 4 was more obvious than the others. CO 2 and N 2 O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH 4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO 3 - +NO 2 - -N) and ammonia (NH 4 + -N) were positively correlated with CO 2 concentration and CH 4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH 4 concentration and N 2 O concentration. The effect of

  20. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Sherr

    Full Text Available Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and the private sector.An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties.Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693 were working full-time, including 71.1% (493 as clinicians, 20.5% (142 as health system managers, and 6.9% (48 as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181 of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113 continued working in-country and 37.6% (68 emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75 worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24 for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14 in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113 of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector.Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they

  1. Dendritic Cell Migration to Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes Is Controlled by Dermatan Sulfate and Determines Adaptive Immunity Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Nadafi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For full activation of naïve adaptive lymphocytes in skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs, presentation of peptide:MHC complexes by LN-resident and skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs that encountered antigens (Ags is an absolute prerequisite. To get to the nearest draining LN upon intradermal immunization, DCs need to migrate from the infection site to the afferent lymphatics, which can only be reached by traversing a collagen-dense network located in the dermis of the skin through the activity of proteolytic enzymes. Here, we show that mice with altered collagen fibrillogenesis resulting in thicker collagen fibers in the skin display a reduced DC migration to the draining LN upon immune challenge. Consequently, the initiation of the cellular and humoral immune response was diminished. Ag-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as Ag-specific germinal center B cells and serum immunoglobulin levels were significantly decreased. Hence, we postulate that alterations to the production of extracellular matrix, as seen in various connective tissue disorders, may in the end affect the qualitative outcome of adaptive immunity.

  2. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  3. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  4. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...... to macropore sediment transport. Simulated tile drain discharge, sediment and pesticide loads are calibrated against data from intensively monitored tile-drained fields and streams in Denmark....

  5. Brain drain in globalization A general equilibrium analysis from the sending countries’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luca MARCHIORI; I-Ling SHEN; Frederic DOCQUIER

    2009-01-01

    The paper assesses the global effects of brain drain on developing economies and quantifies the relative sizes of various static and dynamic impacts. By constructing a unified generic framework characterized by overlapping generations dynamics and calibrated to real data, this study incorporates many direct impacts of brain drain whose interactions, along with other indirect effects, are endogenously and dynamically generated. Our findings suggest that the short-run impact of brain drain on r...

  6. Stress corrosion on austenitic stainless steels components after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, L.; Baque, P.; Chairat, C.

    1980-04-01

    The damage study performed on 316 pipes of a loop after two leakages allows to conclude that a stress corrosion process in sodium hydroxide environment has induced trans-crystaline cracks. The research of conditions inducing such a phenomenon is developed, including parametric tests under uniaxial load and some tests on pipe with welded joints. In aqueous sodium hydroxide, two corrosion processes have been revealed: a general oxidization increasing with environment aeration and a transcrystalline cracking appearing for stresses of the order of yield strength. Other conditions such a temperature (upper than 100 0 C) and time exposures (some tens of hours) are necessary. Cautions in order to limit introduction of wet air into drained loop and a choice of appropriate preheating conditions when restarting the installation must permit to avoid such a type of incident

  7. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye

    2016-08-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Reducing resin use in floor drain processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, W.; Hobart, S.A.; Miller, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant utilizes two mixed bed demineralizers for processing floor drain wastes. These demineralizers were originally designed for stream generator blowdown treatment, but were not needed for that purpose. Effluent from the resin beds is monitored for radioactivity and released for discharge. Plant radwaste inleakage volumes and resin disposal volumes were low in comparison with industry averages, but decontamination factors through the treatment system were less than desirable. Release criteria for discharges always had been met, but plant personnel wished to decrease their already low discharges of radioactive species, reduce their resin disposal costs, and provide a margin of safety in the unlikely event that fuel damage would be experienced during an operating cycle. This paper describes the study initiated to address those issues, the findings of the study, and results of implementing some of the study recommendations

  9. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  10. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  11. CSER 94-011: Use of glovebags for demister draining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A criticality safety review is presented for the use of plastic-sheet glovebags for the operations of draining demisters on the 26-inch vacuum system headers. A criticality drain is required because of the possibility for spilling liquid of sufficient volume and fissile content for criticality. It is recommended that the glovebag design include a rigid, 2ft x 2ft floor with a central drain feeding a geometrically favorable spill-catch vessel, plus a screen grid above the bottom for drain protection

  12. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  13. Estimation of local and regional components of drain - flow from an irrigated field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eching, S.O.; Hopmans, J.W.; Wallender, W.W.; Macyntyre, J.L.; Peters, D.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of regional ground water and deep percolation from a furrow irrigated field to total drain flow was estimated using salt load analysis. It was found that 64% of the drain flow comes from regional ground water flow. The electrical conductivity of the drain water was highly correlated with the drain flow rate. From the field water balance with deep percolation as estimated from the salt load analysis, using yield function derived evapotranspiration, and measured changes in root zone water storage, it was shown that 14% of the crop evapotranspiration comes from ground water during the study period. 8 figs; 5 tabs; 15 refs ( Author )

  14. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  15. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  16. Notes on the radiometric and geochemical survey of Leyte Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements using the Scintrex GIS-4 portable scintillometer were conducted along the periphery of the island. These radiometric readings as well as sediments were obtained along the streams draining into the sea. A total of 174 stream sediments samples were collected. Minus 80 mesh sediment fraction was analyzed for mobile or extractable uranium. Results indicated that the background values of radioactivity and uranium in stream sediments were 25 counts per second (cps) and 0.3 ppm, respectively. The San Isidro and Vilaba areas which are located in the northern part of Leyte have greater than 3 times above background radioactivity and uranium in the stream sediments. (author)

  17. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  18. Anisotropic Behaviour of Opalinus Clay Through Consolidated and Drained Triaxial Testing in Saturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Valentina; Ferrari, Alessio; Laloui, Lyesse

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the anisotropic hydro-mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay shale, the host material currently being considered for the construction of a nuclear waste repository in Switzerland. Consolidated and drained triaxial tests on Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri URL have been conducted in order to derive information on its strength and stiffness properties. Opalinus Clay specimens were tested both parallel to bedding (P-specimens) and perpendicular to bedding (S-specimens). The considered effective confining stress range (from 2 to 12 MPa) has been selected in order to reproduce possible in situ stress conditions for the repository. In this work, particular attention has been paid to the experimental procedure in order to ensure consolidated conditions and avoid generation of unwanted excess pore water pressure during drained shearing. The Skempton B parameter has been determined for all the tested specimens in order to ensure saturation. Both single-stage and multistage triaxial testing procedures were adopted in the experimental campaign. The results of the triaxial tests highlight an anisotropic elastic response of Opalinus Clay: S-specimens present a more compliant behaviour than P-specimens. The values of the Young modulus are found to increase with the increase in mean effective stress. The analysis of the peak and ultimate shear strength results reveals that the material behaves in a similar manner regardless of the considered direction of loading (P and S directions) with respect to the bedding orientation. Peak and ultimate failure envelopes for Opalinus Clay were derived for the investigated stress range.

  19. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  20. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  1. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  2. Draining Water from Aircraft Fuel Using Nitrogen Enriched Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a computational study of the process of removing water from an aircraft’s fuel tank by pumping nitrogen enriched air (NEA from the bottom of the tank. This is an important procedure for the smooth, efficient, and safe operation of the aircraft’s engine. Due to the low partial pressure of water in the pumped NEA, it absorbs water from the fuel. The water-laden bubbles enter the ullage, the empty space above the fuel, and escape into the environment. The effects of the number of NEA inlets and the NEA mass flow rate on the timescale of the NEA pumping were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results reveal that the absorption of water by the NEA bubbles is low and is not affected by the number of the inlets used. Yet, the water content in the fuel decreases fast during the procedure, which is the desired outcome. We show that this is due to the relatively dry NEA entering the ullage and displacing the moist air, thus reducing the partial pressure of water at the fuel/ullage interface. This shift from equilibrium conditions forces water to evaporate from the fuel’s entire surface. Furthermore, the amount of water migrating from the fuel directly into the ullage is significantly greater than that absorbed by the rising bubbles. In turn, the rate of decrease of the water content in the ullage is determined by the total NEA mass flow rate and this is the dominant contributor to the draining time, with the number of NEA nozzles playing a minor role. We confirmed this by pumping NEA directly into the ullage, where we observe a significant decrease of water even when the NEA is not pumped through the fuel. We also show that doubling the mass flow rate halves the draining time. When considering the capability of most modern aircraft to pump NEA through the fuel as part of their inerting system, the proposed method for removing water is particularly attractive, requiring very little (if at all design modification.

  3. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  4. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers; Part I: perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasl, S V; Chisholm, R F; Eskenazi, B

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed the following: Part I: TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered. TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident. Coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent. Leaving the area was more common; however, over 40 per cent of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations. TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about their job future.

  5. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part I. Perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed that: (1) TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered; (2) TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident; (3) coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent; (4) leaving the area was more common; however, over 40% of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations; and (5) TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about thier job future. 139 references, 8 tables

  6. Management of Chest Drains: A National Survey on Surgeons‑in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triangle of safety [Figure 1]. Just above a quarter of respondents (27.2%) always utilized different sizes of tubes for different pathologies and the same proportion of respondents always positioned the tip of the tube apically to drain pneumothorax and basally to drain pleural effusion. In contrast, 9.9% and 6.2% of respondents.

  7. Controlling the ambipolarity and improvement of RF performance using Gaussian Drain Doped TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Gupta, Sarthak; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2018-05-01

    Ambipolar conduction in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) has been occurred as an inherent issue due to drain-channel tunneling. It makes TFET less efficient and restricts its application in complementary digital circuits. Therefore, this manuscript reports the application of Gaussian doping profile on nanometer regime silicon channel TFETs to completely eliminate the ambipolarity. For this, Gaussian doping is used in the drain region of conventional gate-drain overlap TFET to control the tunneling of electrons from the valence band of channel to the conduction band of drain. As a result, barrier width at the drain/channel junction increases significantly leading to the suppression of an ambipolar current even when higher doping concentration (1 ? 10 ? cm ?) is considered in the drain region. However, significant improvement in terms of RF figure-of-merits such as cut-off frequency (f ?), gain bandwidth product (GBW), and gate-to-drain capacitance (C ?) is achieved with Gaussian doped gate on drain overlap TFET as compared to its counterpart TFET.

  8. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... interpretation and installed unblockable drain covers and now would have to go back and ``re-do'' their work... compliance and whether the pool operator is seeking a plan review and not just limited advice about how to... secondary anti-entrapment system to come into compliance, unless the pool uses a gravity drain system or the...

  9. Laparoscopic elective cholecystectomy with and without drain: A controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda El-labban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Routine drainage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Therefore, a controlled randomised trial was designed to assess the value of drains in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: During a two-year period (From April 2008 to January 2010, 80 patients were simply randomised to have a drain placed (group A, an 8-mm pentose tube drain was retained below the liver bed, whereas 80 patients were randomised not to have a drain (group B placed in the subhepatic space. End points of this trial were to detect any differences in morbidity, postoperative pain, wound infection and hospital stay between the two groups. Results : There was no mortality in either group and no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, wound infection or abdominal collection between the two groups. However, hospital stay was longer in the drain group than in group without drain and it is appearing that the use of drain delays hospital discharge. Conclusion : The routine use of a drain in non-complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy has nothing to offer; in contrast, it is associated with longer hospital stay.

  10. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple's Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang Ho; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sae Hwan; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo; Kim, Chang Ho

    2011-05-01

    A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  11. Nurses’ knowledge of care of chest drain: A survey in a Nigerian semiurban university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesieme, Emeka Blessius; Essu, Ifeanyichukwu Stanley; Arekhandia, Bruno Jeneru; Welcker, Katrin; Prisadov, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Inefficient nursing care of chest drains may associated with unacceptable and sometimes life-threatening complications. This report aims to ascertain the level of knowledge of care of chest drains among nurses working in wards in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study among nurses at teaching hospital using pretested self-administered questionnaires. Results: The majority were respondents aged between 31 and 40 years (45.4%) and those who have nursing experience between 6 and 10 years. Only 37 respondents (26.2%) had a good knowledge of nursing care of chest drains. Knowledge was relatively higher among nurses who cared for chest drains daily, nurses who have a work experience of 0.05). Performance was poor on the questions on position of drainage system were not statistically significant with relationship to waist level while mobilizing the patient, application of suction to chest drains, daily changing of dressing over chest drain insertion site, milking of tubes and drainage system with dependent loop. Conclusion: The knowledge of care of chest drains among nurses is poor, especially in the key post procedural care. There is an urgent need to train them so as to improve the nursing care of patients managed with chest drains. PMID:26857934

  12. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple’s Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Bae

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  13. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  14. A Fossil Wood of Dipterocarpaceae From Pliocene Deposit in the West Region of Java Island, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    I, Yance; Mandang, Mandang; Kagemori, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly discovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone...

  15. A Fossil Wood of Dipterocarpaceae from Pliocene Deposit in the West Region of Java Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    YANCE I. MANDANG; NORIKO KAGEMORI

    2004-01-01

    Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly recovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone ...

  16. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  17. Crud separation from equipment drain of BWR atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Moriya, Yasuhiro; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Ota, Yoshiharu.

    1977-01-01

    In the primary cooling systems of BWR nuclear power stations, radioactive crud is generated and accumulates in reactors and circulating systems, which causes the radiation exposure of workers at the time of the inspection and maintenance of reactors. The chemical composition and grain size distribution of crud differ largely according to the construction of primary systems, the operational conditions of reactors, and the process of operation. The study on the application of nuclear pore membrane filter NPMF to the separation of crud in the waste water from equipment drain systems has been carried out. With the NPMF, clarified filtrate can be obtained without any filter aid, therefore the secondary waste of filter sludge is not generated. When the filter is clogged, the filtration capability can be regenerated by reverse flow washing, and continuous filtration is possible actually because the regeneration takes only short time. The NPMF is the polycarbonate membrane of about 10 μm thick, to which charged particles are irradiated vertically, and the flight tracks are etched with alkali solution, thus the required pore treatment is applied. The basic investigation of waste liquid, the endurance test of actual filters, the filtration test with the pilot apparatus, the demonstration test with an actual equipment, and the design of the actual equipment have been carried out for three years. (Kako, I.)

  18. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  19. Dynamic Looping of a Free-Draining Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Felix X. -F.; Stinis, Panos; Qian, Hong

    2018-01-11

    Here, we revisit the celebrated Wilemski--Fixman (WF) treatment for the looping time of a free-draining polymer. The WF theory introduces a sink term into the Fokker--Planck equation for the $3(N+1)$-dimensional Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process of polymer dynamics, which accounts for the appropriate boundary condition due to the formation of a loop. The assumption for WF theory is considerably relaxed. A perturbation method approach is developed that justifies and generalizes the previous results using either a delta sink or a Heaviside sink. For both types of sinks, we show that under the condition of a small dimensionless $\\epsilon$, the ratio of capture radius to the Kuhn length, we are able to systematically produce all known analytical and asymptotic results obtained by other methods. This includes most notably the transition regime between the $N^2$ scaling of Doi, and $N\\sqrt{N}/\\epsilon$ scaling of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten. The mathematical issue at play is the nonuniform convergence of $\\epsilon\\to 0$ and $N\\to\\infty$, the latter being an inherent part of the theory of a Gaussian polymer. Our analysis yields a novel term in the analytical expression for the looping time with small $\\epsilon$, which was previously unknown. Monte Carlo numerical simulations corroborate the analytical findings. The systematic method developed here can be applied to other systems modeled by multidimensional Smoluchowski equations.

  20. Safety of thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection without drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Bassam; Sleilaty, Ghassan; Rizk, Habib; Abadjian, Gerard; Ghorra, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported that drainage after thyroidectomy does not decrease the rate of local postoperative complications. We sought to review the safety of thyroidectomy combined with cervical neck dissection (CND) without drainage. Methods The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy without drainage were retrospectively reviewed. Two groups were defined depending on whether CND was or was not performed. The main outcome was identification of patients with cervical bleeding, hematoma or seroma. Results We included 1127 patients (139 who had CND and 988 who did not). Of these, 207 patients (18%) had transient postoperative hypocalcemia, 9 (0.8%) had permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism, 56 (5%) had transient postoperative hoarseness and 7 (0.6%) had permanent vocal cord paralysis. A total of 44 patients (4%) experienced postoperative hematoma and/or seroma: 8 patients (6%) who had CND and 36 (4%) who did not. There was no major bleeding in the 2 groups; all patients had minor bleeding or seroma not requiring surgical intervention. The postoperative stay in hospital for both groups was 1 day in 92% of patients. Wound infection occurred in 0.8% of all patients: 1 (0.7%) who had CND and 8 (0.8%) who did not. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall perioperative complications or in time of hospital discharge. Conclusion Thyroidectomy without drains is safe and effective, even in combination with CND. PMID:22449723

  1. Draining down of a nuclear steam generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawor, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The method is described of draining down contained reactor-coolant water from the inverted vertical U-tubes of a vertical-type steam generator in which the upper, inverted U-shaped ends of the tubes are closed and the lower ends thereof are open. The steam generator is part of a nuclear powered steam generating system wherein the reactor coolant water is normally circulated from and back into the reactor via a loop comprising the steam generator and inlet and outlet conduits connected to the lower end of the steam generator. The method comprises continuously introducing a gas which is inert to the system and which is under pressure above atmospheric pressure into at least one of the downwardly facing open ends of each of the U-tubes from below the tube sheet in which the open ends of the U-tubes are mounted adjacent the lower end of the steam generator, while permitting the water to flow out from the open ends of the U-tubes

  2. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD.

  3. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics show that in the last decade the number of migrants with tertiary education increased by about 70%. Brain drain is also a well-known phenomenon. Highly educated individuals and scientists have travelled the world in all centuries in search of better study and research, and working conditions, and of new opportunities. Nowadays, in the era of globalisation and, implicitly, of swifter development of international markets, the emigration rate of high-skilled experts exceeds the total emigration rate, which shows the selectiveness of migration at educational level. The paper presents a brief analysis of the interdependencies between migration and globalisation and of the effects of globalisation on the migration of high-skilled individuals. The trends, structure, and volume of high-skilled labour force from Romania are analysed along with the effects generated by them.

  4. BRAIN DRAIN – BRAIN GAIN: SLOVAK STUDENTS AT CZECH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Republic is experiencing a growing brain drain of elite secondary school students. Slovak human capital flows chiefly to Czech Higher Education Institutes (HEIs. The aim of this paper is to analyse who these Slovak students are to create a complete profile of Slovak students at Czech HEIs. We used a unique dataset based on the surveys EUROSTUDENT V and DOKTORANDI 2014 to explore differences between Czech and Slovak students, their financial situation and the functionality of the intergenerational transmission mechanism. We have found that Slovak students at Czech HEIs come from highly educated families and from the middle and higher class families significantly more often than Czech students at Czech HEIs or Slovak students at Slovak HEIs. Approximately 80% of them came from grammar schools. Slovak students also often have better language skills. We have discovered that Slovak students at Czech HEIs enjoy certain social benefits, slightly more often they have higher monthly income compared to Czech students, and they work slightly less often during their studies. Finally, according to our findings, Slovak doctoral students are often reluctant to return back to the Slovak Republic or to stay in the Czech Republic.

  5. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF 6 and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF 4 in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry

  6. Dynamic response of woody vegetation on fencing protection in semi-arid areas; Case study: Pilot exclosure on the Firmihin Plateau, Socotra Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Habrova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Woody vegetation dynamics and Dracaena cinnabari regeneration have been studied for five years in the conditions of Socotra Island. Woody plants were measured regularly inside and outside the exclosure area, and the growth and survival of D. cinnabari seedlings were observed. In the exclosure of about 1000 m2 a total of 49 species were identified, including 23 endemics, growing in the average density of 3.82 specimens per m2. The fenced area was overgrown relatively rapidly by dense grass cover – reaching approx. 2.7 t/ha. Species growth dynamics inside and outside the exclosure shows that grazing had a marked impact, leading to the elimination of trees and shrubs. All grazed species grew noticeably in the exclosure, in the average of 50 cm in 5 years. D. cinnabari as the dominant flagship species of Socotra has been studied with regards to regeneration dynamics. Observations indicate that probability of its seedlings survival increases with their age. No seedlings germinated from the seeds sown in the experiment, however, outplanted seedlings performed relatively well. Field observations show that D. cinnabari seed germination is triggered when the seed reaches a protected micro-habitat with a developed humus layer and high relative humidity in the soil lasts for at least two days.

  7. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...

  8. Localized Glacier Deformation Associated with Filling and Draining of a Glacier-Dammed Lake and Implications for Outburst Flood Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, M. L.; Walder, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.; Trabant, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    "viscous" response of the glacier to the flexural stresses imposed by the subglacial water wedge, or (ii) movement of water from the lake into temporary storage--a sort of hydraulic jacking. We favor the latter explanation and suggest that as the lake drained, water "backed up" from a main drainage channel into a basal cavity system and perhaps englacial voids as well; the stored water then drained back out as pressure eventually fell in the main channel. Assuming that all the vertical downdrop of the ice is due to the evacuation of water, the total volume of the putative subglacial "wedge" plus the water released from distributed storage is about 7 to 11 million cubic meters, or about 25 to 40% of the volume of the subaerial lake.

  9. Retention of Ag-specific memory CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node indicates lymphoid tissue resident memory populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Clare L; Dutton, Emma E; Tomura, Michio; Withers, David R

    2017-05-01

    Several different memory T-cell populations have now been described based upon surface receptor expression and migratory capabilities. Here we have assessed murine endogenous memory CD4 + T cells generated within a draining lymph node and their subsequent migration to other secondary lymphoid tissues. Having established a model response targeting a specific peripheral lymph node, we temporally labelled all the cells within draining lymph node using photoconversion. Tracking of photoconverted and non-photoconverted Ag-specific CD4 + T cells revealed the rapid establishment of a circulating memory population in all lymph nodes within days of immunisation. Strikingly, a resident memory CD4 + T cell population became established in the draining lymph node and persisted for several months in the absence of detectable migration to other lymphoid tissue. These cells most closely resembled effector memory T cells, usually associated with circulation through non-lymphoid tissue, but here, these cells were retained in the draining lymph node. These data indicate that lymphoid tissue resident memory CD4 + T-cell populations are generated in peripheral lymph nodes following immunisation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  11. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  12. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Steadman, David W; Witt, Christopher C

    2016-04-26

    Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The "island rule" predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its general applicability to birds is questionable. However, convergent evolution has clearly occurred in the island bird lineages that have undergone transitions to secondary flightlessness, a process involving drastic reduction of the flight muscles and enlargement of the hindlimbs. Here, we investigated whether volant island bird populations tend to change shape in a way that converges subtly on the flightless form. We found that island bird species have evolved smaller flight muscles than their continental relatives. Furthermore, in 366 populations of Caribbean and Pacific birds, smaller flight muscles and longer legs evolved in response to increasing insularity and, strikingly, the scarcity of avian and mammalian predators. On smaller islands with fewer predators, birds exhibited shifts in investment from forelimbs to hindlimbs that were qualitatively similar to anatomical rearrangements observed in flightless birds. These findings suggest that island bird populations tend to evolve on a trajectory toward flightlessness, even if most remain volant. This pattern was consistent across nine families and four orders that vary in lifestyle, foraging behavior, flight style, and body size. These predictable shifts in avian morphology may reduce the physical capacity for escape via flight and diminish the potential for small-island taxa to diversify via dispersal.

  13. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  14. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  15. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO 2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO 2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO 2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO 2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO 2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO 2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  17. Traditional Foley drainage systems--do they drain the bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maurice M; Gulati, Shelly; Liepmann, Dorian; Stackhouse, G Bennett; Greene, Kirsten; Stoller, Marshall L

    2007-01-01

    Foley catheters are assumed to drain the bladder to completion. Drainage characteristics of Foley catheter systems are poorly understood. To investigate unrecognized retained urine with Foley catheter drainage systems, bladder volumes of hospitalized patients were measured with bladder scan ultrasound volumetrics. Additionally, an in vitro bench top mock bladder and urinary catheter system was developed to understand the etiology of such residual volumes. A novel drainage tube design that optimizes indwelling catheter drainage was also designed. Bedside bladder ultrasound volumetric studies were performed on patients hospitalized in ward and intensive care unit. If residual urine was identified the drainage tubing was manipulated to facilitate drainage. An ex vivo bladder-urinary catheter model was designed to measure flow rates and pressures within the drainage tubing of a traditional and a novel drainage tube system. A total of 75 patients in the intensive care unit underwent bladder ultrasound volumetrics. Mean residual volume was 96 ml (range 4 to 290). In 75 patients on the hospital ward mean residual volume was 136 ml (range 22 to 647). In the experimental model we found that for every 1 cm in curl height, obstruction pressure increased by 1 cm H2O within the artificial bladder. In contrast, the novel spiral-shaped drainage tube demonstrated rapid (0.5 cc per second), continuous and complete (100%) reservoir drainage in all trials. Traditional Foley catheter drainage systems evacuate the bladder suboptimally. Outflow obstruction is caused by air-locks that develop within curled redundant drainage tubing segments. The novel drainage tubing design eliminates gravity dependent curls and associated air-locks, optimizes flow, and minimizes residual bladder urine.

  18. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Homogenization of one-dimensional draining through heterogeneous porous media including higher-order approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel M.; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Miller, Cass T.

    2018-02-01

    We examine a mathematical model of one-dimensional draining of a fluid through a periodically-layered porous medium. A porous medium, initially saturated with a fluid of a high density is assumed to drain out the bottom of the porous medium with a second lighter fluid replacing the draining fluid. We assume that the draining layer is sufficiently dense that the dynamics of the lighter fluid can be neglected with respect to the dynamics of the heavier draining fluid and that the height of the draining fluid, represented as a free boundary in the model, evolves in time. In this context, we neglect interfacial tension effects at the boundary between the two fluids. We show that this problem admits an exact solution. Our primary objective is to develop a homogenization theory in which we find not only leading-order, or effective, trends but also capture higher-order corrections to these effective draining rates. The approximate solution obtained by this homogenization theory is compared to the exact solution for two cases: (1) the permeability of the porous medium varies smoothly but rapidly and (2) the permeability varies as a piecewise constant function representing discrete layers of alternating high/low permeability. In both cases we are able to show that the corrections in the homogenization theory accurately predict the position of the free boundary moving through the porous medium.

  1. Placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent using a silicone drain with channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mineta, Sho; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Yoichi; Sasaki, Junpei; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Aimoto, Takayuki; Tajiri, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a method for percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting with a BLAKE Silicone Drain, and discusses the usefulness of placement of the drain connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir for the treatment of stenotic hepaticojejunostomy. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed under ultrasonographic guidance in a patient with stenotic hepaticojejunostomy after hepatectomy for hepatic hilum malignancy. The technique used was as follows. After dilatation of the drainage root, an 11-Fr tube with several side holes was passed through the stenosis of the hepaticojejunostomy. A 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain is flexible, which precludes one-step insertion. One week after insertion of the 11-Fr tube, a 0.035-inch guidewire was inserted into the tube. After removal of the 11-Fr tube, the guidewire was put into the channel of a 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain. The drain was inserted into the jejunal limb through the intrahepatic bile duct and was connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir. Low-pressure continued suction was applied. Patients can be discharged after insertion of the 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain connected to the J-VAC Suction Reservoir. Placement of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent using a 10-Fr BLAKE Silicone Drain connected to a J-VAC Suction Reservoir is useful for the treatment of stenotic hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:19725159

  2. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  3. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Long-Wei; Lo Chiao; Lai Peng-Sheng; Lee Po-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagoj...

  4. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  5. Frog size on continental islands of the coast of Rio de Janeiro and the generality of the Island Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Rebouças

    Full Text Available Island Rule postulated that individuals on islands tend to dwarfism when individuals from mainland populations are large and to gigantism when mainland populations present small individuals. There has been much discussion about this rule, but only few studies were carried out aiming to reveal this pattern for anurans. Our study focused on measuring the size of individuals on islands and to find a possible pattern of size modification for insular anurans. Individuals were collected on continental islands, measured and compared to mainland populations. We selected four species with different natural history aspects during these analyses. Island parameters were compared to size of individuals in order to find an explanation to size modification. Three of the four species presented size shifting on islands. Ololygon trapicheiroi and Adenomera marmorata showed dwarfism, Boana albomarginata showed gigantism and in Thoropa miliaris there was no evident size modification. Allometric analysis also revealed differential modification, which might be a result of different selective pressures on islands in respect of mainland populations. Regression model explained most of the size modification in B. albomarginata, but not for the other species. Our results indicate that previous assumptions, usually proposed for mammals from older islands, do not fit to the anurans studied here. We support the assumption that size modification on islands are population-specific. Hence, in B. albomarginata some factor associated to competition, living area and isolation time might likely be responsible for gigantism on islands.

  6. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Madaltuneen turvetuotantokentaen kuivatustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    This study aims to develop pipe draining techniques in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area was monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water. These are the results of second year. (orig.)

  7. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  8. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Mataloituneen turvekentaen kuivatus putkisalaojilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V.; Saenkiaho, K. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rautiainen, O. [Ojamarkkinointi Oy, Heinola (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to develop pipe draining technics in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area is monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water

  9. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering use of groundwater resources from the Big River Management Area in central Rhode Island because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. Previous water-resources investigations in this glacially derived, valley-fill aquifer system have focused primarily on the effects of potential groundwater-pumping scenarios on streamflow depletion; however, the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands have not been assessed, and such assessments are a requirement of the State’s permitting process to develop a water supply in this area. A need for an assessment of the potential effects of pumping on wetlands in the Big River Management Area led to a cooperative agreement in 2008 between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island. This partnership was formed with the goal of developing methods for characterizing wetland vegetation, soil type, and hydrologic conditions, and monitoring and modeling water levels for pre- and post-water-supply development to assess potential effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands. This report describes the hydrogeology of the area and the numerical simulations that were used to analyze the interaction between groundwater and surface water in response to simulated groundwater withdrawals. The results of this analysis suggest that, given the hydrogeologic conditions in the Big River Management Area, a standard 5-day aquifer test may not be sufficient to determine the effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wetlands. Model simulations showed water levels beneath Reynolds Swamp declined by about 0.1 foot after 5 days of continuous pumping, but continued to decline by an additional 4 to 6 feet as pumping times were increased from a 5-day simulation period to a simulation period representative of long-term average monthly conditions. This continued decline in water levels with

  10. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  11. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Holden, N M

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ) were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA) of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95-97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO 2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of drains on a blanket bog in the west of Ireland. The

  12. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Connolly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1 to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. Results The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95–97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. Conclusions The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of

  13. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  14. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  15. Estimation and Uncertainty of Recent Carbon Accumulation and Vertical Accretion in Drained and Undrained Forested Peatlands of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Orlando, James; Salas, Antonia; Wurster, Frederic C.; Duberstein, Jamie A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how drainage impacts carbon densities and recent rates (past 50 years) of vertical accretion and carbon accumulation in southeastern forested peatlands. We compared these parameters in drained maple-gum (MAPL), Atlantic white cedar (CDR), and pocosin (POC) communities in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDS) of Virginia/North Carolina and in an intact (undrained) CDR swamp in the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (AR) of North Carolina. Peat cores were analyzed for bulk density, percent organic carbon, and 137Cs and 210Pb. An uncertainty analysis of both 137Cs and 210Pb approaches was used to constrain error at least partially related to mobility of both radioisotopes. GDS peats had lower porosities (89.6% (SD = 1.71) versus 95.3% (0.18)) and higher carbon densities (0.082 (0.021) versus 0.037 (0.009) g C cm-3) than AR. Vertical accretion rates (0.10-0.56 cm yr-1) were used to estimate a time period of 84-362 years for reestablishment of peat lost during the 2011 Lateral West fire at the GDS. Carbon accumulation rates ranged from 51 to 389 g C m-2 yr-1 for all sites. In the drained (GDS) versus intact (AR) CDR sites, carbon accumulation rates were similar with 137Cs (87GDS versus 92AR g C m-2 yr-1) and somewhat less at the GDS than AR as determined with 210Pb (111GDS versus 159AR g C m-2 yr-1). Heightened productivity and high polyphenol content of peat may be responsible for similar rates of carbon accumulation in both drained and intact CDR peatlands.

  16. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response to a request from the Honolulu... E airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. This...

  17. Melt evolution beneath thick lithosphere: A magmatic inclusions study of La Palma, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikogosian, I.; Elliott, T.R.; Touret, J.L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Volcanism in the Canary Islands is notable for its highly alkalic character even in the shield building lavas of the currently most active island, La Palma. In order to understand better the processes responsible for this alkalic end of the compositional spectrum of ocean island basalts (OIB), we

  18. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  19. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  20. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbary Akpa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA; (ii to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA; and (iii to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years and the age of retirement (62 years in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious

  1. Cooling urban heat islands with sustainable landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson

    1994-01-01

    This paper is directed to the policy-makers who are responsible for urban design and its climatological consequences. It summarizes our current knowledge on the structure, energetics, and mitigation of the urban heat island. Special attention is given to physical features of the environment that can be easily manipulated, particularly vegetation. Prototypical designs...

  2. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  3. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  4. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Whitehead, R.L.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Olcott, Perry G.

    1997-01-01

    Alaska is the largest State in the Nation and has an area of about 586,400 square miles, or about one-fifth the area of the conterminous United States. The State is geologically and topographically diverse and is characterized by wild, scenic beauty. Alaska contains abundant natural resources, including ground water and surface water of chemical quality that is generally suitable for most uses.The central part of Alaska is drained by the Yukon River and its tributaries, the largest of which are the Porcupine, the Tanana, and the Koyukuk Rivers. The Yukon River originates in northwestern Canada and, like the Kuskokwim River, which drains a large part of southwestern Alaska , discharges into the Bering Sea. The Noatak River in northwestern Alaska discharges into the Chukchi Sea. Major rivers in southern Alaska include the Susitna and the Matanuska Rivers, which discharge into Cook Inlet, and the Copper River, which discharges into the Gulf of Alaska . North of the Brooks Range, the Colville and the Sagavanirktok Rivers and numerous smaller streams discharge into the Arctic Ocean.In 1990, Alaska had a population of about 552,000 and, thus , is one of the least populated States in the Nation. Most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau, all of which are located in lowland areas. The mountains, the frozen Arctic desert, the interior plateaus, and the areas covered with glaciers lack major population centers. Large parts of Alaska are uninhabited and much of the State is public land. Ground-water development has not occurred over most of these remote areas.The Hawaiian islands are the exposed parts of the Hawaiian Ridge, which is a large volcanic mountain range on the sea floor. Most of the Hawaiian Ridge is below sea level (fig. 31) . The State of Hawaii consists of a group of 132 islands, reefs, and shoals that extend for more than 1 ,500 miles from southeast to northwest across the central Pacific Ocean between about 155

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of wound drains after thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R S R

    2014-04-01

    Drainage after routine thyroid and parathyroid surgery remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence from a number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) suggesting no benefit from the use of drains.

  6. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restricts wind motion across the open area between the pipe and the drain) that encloses the space between...., there is no pump) or is operated with no more than slight fluctuations in the liquid level, the owner or...

  7. Modelling Technique for the Assessment of the Sub-Soil Drain for Groundwater Seepage Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Baharuddin Mohamad Faizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater simulation technique was carried out for examining the performance of sub-soil drain at problematic site area. Subsoil drain was proposed as one of solution for groundwater seepage occurred at the slope face by reducing groundwater table at Taman Botani Park Kuala Lumpur. The simulation technique used Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW software. In transient conditions, the results of simulation showed that heads increases surpass 1 to 2 m from the elevation level of the slope area that caused groundwater seepage on slope face. This study attempt to decrease the heads increase surpass by using different sub-soil drain size in simulation technique. The sub-soil drain capable to decline the heads ranges of 1 to 2 m.

  8. Accounting for the risks of phosphorus losses through tile drains in a phosphorus index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D Keith; Ball, Bonnie; Zhang, T Q

    2012-01-01

    Tile drainage systems have been identified as a significant conduit for phosphorus (P) losses to surface water, but P indices do not currently account for this transport pathway in a meaningful way. Several P indices mention tile drains, but most account for either the reduction in surface runoff or the enhanced transport through tiles rather than both simultaneously. A summary of the current state of how tile drains are accounted for within P indices is provided, and the challenges in predicting the risk of P losses through tile drains that are relative to actual losses are discussed. A framework for a component P Index is described, along with a proposal to incorporate predictions of losses through tile drains as a component within this framework. Options for calibrating and testing this component are discussed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Influence of pleural drain insertion in lung function of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelami Vieira, Irinea Beatriz Carvalho; Vieira, Fabiano F; Abrão, João; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal, prospective, randomized, blinded Trial to assess the influence of pleural drain (non-toxic PVC) site of insertion on lung function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the first three days post-surgery and immediately after chest tube removal. Thirty six patients scheduled for elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly allocated into two groups: SX group (subxiphoid) and IC group (intercostal drain). Spirometry, arterial blood gases, and pain tests were recorded. Thirty one patients were selected, 16 in SX group and 15 in IC group. Postoperative (PO) spirometric values were higher in SX than in IC group (ppleural drain location on breathing. PaO(2) on the second PO increased significantly in SX group compared with IC group (pDrain with insertion in the subxiphoid region causes less change in lung function and discomfort, allowing better recovery of respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Strip-drains for in situ clean up of contaminated fine-grained soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowders, J.J.; Gabr, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for in situ remediation of contaminated soils, such as bioremediation, vacuum/air stripping and soil flushing have been found to be less effective under fine-grained soil conditions. To enhance the performance of these techniques, it was proposed that strip-drains or wick drains also known as prefabricated vertical (PV) drains be used. The research objective was to determine the feasibility of using PV drains to enhance the soil flushing process. Bench top and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted. An overview of the work, results and future considerations were presented. Results indicated that the technology is feasible. A preliminary model for the technology to be used in any field situation was developed. The model is currently being tested with data from physical experiments on both intermediate and field tests. 5 figs

  11. Preliminary design studies of the draining tanks for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Heuer, D.; Brovchenko, M.; Laureau, A.; Ghetta, V.; Rubiolo, P.

    2014-01-01

    reactor called the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The reference MSFR design is a 3000 MWth reactor with a total fuel salt volume of 18 m3, operated at a mean fuel temperature of 750 deg. C. The first confinement barrier of the reactor includes a salt draining system. In case of a planned reactor shut down or in case of accidents leading to an excessive increase of the temperature in the fuel circuit, the fuel configuration may be changed passively by gravitational draining of the fuel salt in dedicated draining tank located under the reactor and designed to provide adequate reactivity margins while insuring a passive cooling of the fuel salt to extract the residual heat from the short to the long term. The present preliminary assessment of this sub-critical draining system has been performed to identify the physical constraints and to give some orders of magnitude of characteristic time periods (authors)

  12. Numerical Simulation of Liquids Draining From a Tank Using OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakri, Fadhilah Mohd; Sukri Mat Ali, Mohamed; Zaki Shaikh Salim, Sheikh Ahmad; Muhamad, Sallehuddin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate simulation of liquids draining is a challenging task. It involves two phases flow, i.e. liquid and air. In this study draining a liquid from a cylindrical tank is numerically simulated using OpenFOAM. OpenFOAM is an open source CFD package and it becomes increasingly popular among the academician and also industries. Comparisons with theoretical and results from previous published data confirmed that OpenFOAM is able to simulate the liquids draining very well. This is done using the gas-liquid interface solver available in the standard library of OpenFOAM. Additionally, this study was also able to explain the physics flow of the draining tank.

  13. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL......), i.e., 0, 10, 20 cm below the soil surface, representing rewetted peat soils, and 30 and 40 cm below the soil surface, representing drained peat soils. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and CH4 emissions were measured during the growing period of RCG (May to September) using transparent and opaque...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  14. Use of a Nasal Speculum for Chest-Drain Insertion: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Pankaj; Konstantinov, Igor E.; Newman, Mark A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Tube thoracostomy is a very commonly performed procedure in cardiothoracic surgery. Insertion of a chest drain requires expertise to minimize complications. We describe a simple technique of using a nasal speculum to perform this procedure.

  15. Postoperative intraabdominal fluid collections : a modified percutaneous drainage method using a surgical drain track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Gab Choul; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2000-01-01

    In the management of postoperative fluid collection, the conventional percutaneous drainage method can be employed. Because of abdominal incisions and various types of surgical drains and/or T-tubes, the application of this method is not always easy, however. We inserted a drainage catheter through a pre-existing percutaneous track formed by a surgical drain located adjacent to the site of abnormal fluid collection. There was no need to remove the drain nor make an additional puncture in the abdominal wall. A dilator was inserted along the drain, and a guide wire was used to negotiate its intraperitoneal track and reach the accumulated fluid. The procedure was simple and safe. We briefly describe our experience of this modified percutaneous drainage technique, as used in three cases involving postoperative fluid collection. (author)

  16. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gass

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside.

  17. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  18. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Mehta; Anshu Gupta; Sameer Singhal; Sachin Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.

  19. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.

  20. Brain drains: new insights into brain clearance pathways from lymphatic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Neil I; Hogan, Benjamin M

    2018-05-01

    The lymphatic vasculature act as the drainage system for most of our tissues and organs, clearing interstitial fluid and waste and returning them to the blood circulation. This is not the case for the central nervous system (CNS), which is devoid of parenchymal lymphatic vessels. Nevertheless, the brain is responsible for 25% of the body's metabolism and only compromises 2% of the body's mass. This high metabolic load requires an efficient system to remove waste products and maintain homeostasis. Well-described mechanisms of waste clearance include phagocytic immune cell functions as well as perivascular fluid flow; however, the need for active drainage of waste from the brain is becoming increasingly appreciated. Recent developments in lymphatic vascular biology challenge the proposition that the brain lacks lymphatic drainage or an equivalent. In this review, we describe the roles of the glymphatic system (a key drainage mechanism in the absence of lymphatics), the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels, and explore an enigmatic cell population found in zebrafish called mural lymphatic endothelial cells. These systems may play important individual and collective roles in draining and clearing wastes from the brain.

  1. Heterotrophic soil respiration in drained peatlands: Abiotic drivers, and changes after clearfelling and afforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekiranta, P.

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the large carbon (C) stocks of northern peatlands. These C reservoirs may further be affected by human-induced forestry activities and changes in land use. Possible responses of peatland C storages to these changes have significant uncertainties mainly because of the difficulties in predicting peat decomposition rates in changing conditions. This study aims at revealing the effects of abiotic drivers, especially soil temperature and water table level (WL), on peat decomposition rate indicated by heterotrophic peat soil respiration (R{sub PEAT}) in drained forested peatlands. Furthermore it aims to describe the changes in R{sub PEAT} following clearfelling in forestry-drained peatlands and afforestation of former agricultural organic soil croplands. For this, R{sub PEAT} was estimated using chambers to measure CO{sub 2} efflux from trenched litter-free plots, at nine afforested organic soil cropland sites and one forestrydrained site with clearfelling treatment. This study revealed that within the studied sites soil temperature was the main driver of R{sub PEAT}. It was also apparent that the old peat storage in these sites was rather resistant to the short-term changes in WL conditions; i.e. fluctuations of WL caused only minor changes in R{sub PEAT}. The study also demonstrated that in low water level conditions there were mechanisms that could hinder R{sub PEAT}. Excessive WL drawdown (>61cm ) was observed to reduce R{sub PEAT} and furthermore, in low water level conditions the temperature sensitivity of R{sub PEAT} was reduced. These findings suggest that climate change and the associated increase in temperature would have the potential to substantially increase soil C release from drained peatlands. This C release may, however, be constrained, if warming is accompanied by changes in evapotranspiration, precipitation regimes, or the frequency of extreme events (e.g. droughts) that would severely affect WL and surface soil

  2. Heterotrophic respiration in drained tropical peat temperatures influenced by shading gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri

    2015-04-01

    between peat temperature and CO2 flux suggested an approximately 8% (unfertilised) and 25% (fertilised) emissions change for each 1 °C temperature change at 5 cm depth on the agricultural land. CO2 flux responses to the treatments remained low or were inconsistent over the peat temperature range.. Fertilised conditions negatively correlated with N2O efflux with increases in temperature, suggesting a 12-36% lower efflux for each 1 °C increase in peat temperature (at 5 cm depth) at the sites. Despite the apparently similar landscapes of fallow agricultural land and degraded peatland sites, the differences in greenhouse gas dynamics are expected to be an outcome of the long-term management differences. Based on the results it is possible to seek management practices that prolong timespan for using drained tropical peat for cultivation, simultaneously reduce negative climate impacts created from peat substrate carbon loss, and also improve greenhouse gas monitoring techniques at field.

  3. Management of extensive surgical emphysema with subcutaneous drain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc Tran

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a frequent and often self-limiting complication of tube thoracostomy or other cardiothoracic procedures. On rare occasions, severe and extensive surgical emphysema marked by palpable cutaneous tension, dysphagia, dysphonia, palpebral closure or associated with pneumoperitoneum, airway compromise, “tension phenomenon” and respiratory failure require treatment. Presentation of case: A 67 year old lady presented with a large spontaneous pneumothorax on the background of end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, developed extensive surgical emphysema following insertion of a chest drain. Immediate improvement was observed after insertion of a large-bore, 26 French (Fr. intercostal catheter, subcutaneous drain which was maintained under low suction (−5 cm H2O for a further 24 h. Discussion: Several methods have been described in the literature for the treatment of extensive subcutaneous emphysema, including: emergency tracheostomy, multisite subcutaneous drainage, infraclavicular “blow holes” incisions and subcutaneous drains or simply increasing suction on an in situ chest drain. Here a large-bore, fenestrated, subcutaneous drain maintained on low negative pressure also provided the necessary decompression. Conclusion: In the absence of a comparative study to identify the most effective method to manage extensive subcutaneous emphysema, this case highlights an effective, simple and safe management option. Keywords: Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous emphysema, Drain, Low suction, Intercostal catheter, Case report

  4. Nuclear safety after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on nuclear safety after Three Mile island and Chernobyl. Topics covered include: Design for safety; Man-machine interaction; Source terms and consequence; and accident response

  5. Responses of three-dimensional flow to variations in the angle of incident wind and profile form of dunes: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Namikas, Steven L.; Ollerhead, Jeff

    2009-04-01

    This study reports the responses of three-dimensional near-surface airflow over a vegetated foredune to variations in the conditions of incident flow during an 8-h experiment. Two parallel measurement transects were established on morphologically different dune profiles: i) a taller, concave-convex West foredune transect with 0.5-m high, densely vegetated (45%), seaward incipient foredune, and ii) a shorter, concave-straight East foredune transect with lower, sparsely vegetated (14%) seaward incipient foredune. Five stations on each transect from the incipient dune to the crest were equipped with ultrasonic anemometers at 0.6 and 1.65 m height and logged at 1 Hz. Incident conditions were recorded from a 4-m tower over a flat beach. Winds increased from 6 m s - 1 to > 20 m s - 1 and were generally obliquely onshore (ENE, 73°). Three sub-events and the population of 10-minute averages of key properties of flow ( U, W, S, CV U) from all sample locations on the East transect ( n = 235) are examined to identify location- and profile-specific responses over 52° of the incident direction of flow (from 11 to 63° onshore). Topographic steering and forcing cause major deviations in the properties and vectors of near-surface flow from the regional wind. Topographic forcing on the concave-straight dune profile increases wind speed and steadiness toward the crest, with speed-up values to 65% in the backshore. Wind speed and steadiness of flow are least responsive to changes in incident angle in the backshore because of stagnation of flow and are most responsive at the lower stoss under pronounced streamline compression. On the steeper concave-convex profile, speed and steadiness decrease toward the crest because of stagnation of flow at the toe and flow expansion at the slope inflection point on the lower stoss. Net downward vertical velocity occurs over both profiles, increases toward the crest, and reflects enhanced turbulent momentum conveyance toward the surface. All of

  6. To drain or not to drain? Predictors of tube thoracostomy insertion and outcomes associated with drainage of traumatic hemothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Bryan J; Roberts, Derek J; Grondin, Sean; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Dunham, Michael B; Ball, Chad G

    2015-09-01

    Historical data suggests that many traumatic hemothoraces (HTX) can be managed expectantly without tube thoracostomy (TT) drainage. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of TT, including whether the quantity of pleural blood predicted tube placement, and to evaluate outcomes associated with TT versus expected management (EM) of traumatic HTXs. A retrospective cohort study of all trauma patients with HTXs and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥12 managed at a level I trauma centre between April 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 was completed. Mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept were used to identify independent risk factors for TT. Logistic and log-linear regression were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) for mortality and empyema and percent increases in length of hospital and intensive care unit stay between patients managed with TT versus EM, respectively. A total of 635 patients with 749 HTXs were included in the study. Overall, 491 (66%) HTXs were drained while 258 (34%) were managed expectantly. Independent predictors of TT placement included concomitant ipsilateral flail chest [OR 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-8.80; p=0.04] or pneumothorax (OR 6.19; 95% CI 1.79-21.5; p<0.01) and the size of the HTX (OR per 10cc increase 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21; p<0.01). Although the adjusted odds of mortality were not significantly different between groups (OR 3.99; 95% CI 0.87-18.30; p=0.08), TT was associated with a 47.14% (95% CI, 25.57-69.71%; p<0.01) adjusted increase in hospital length of stay. Empyemas (n=29) only occurred among TT patients. Expectant management of traumatic HTX was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay, no empyemas, and no increase in mortality. Although EM of smaller HTXs may be safe, these findings must be confirmed by a large multi-centre cohort study and randomized controlled trials before they are used to guide practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety of peritoneal and pleural drain placement in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients with severe veno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenci, Arin L; Stetson, Alyssa; Weldon, Christopher B; Lehmann, Leslie E

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic VOD (veno-occlusive disease) is a serious complication of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and has historically been associated with high mortality. This obstruction to hepatic flow often results in fluid collections in the peritoneal and pleural cavities. Catheter placement to drain ascites or pleural fluid may reduce intra-abdominal hypertension and/or improve respiratory parameters. The safety of these interventions among critically ill, immunocompromised children is unknown. Among 32 HSCT recipients (2000-2012) with severe VOD, we assessed the primary outcome of procedural complication from peritoneal drain placement. Twenty-four (75%) patients underwent peritoneal drain placement. No patient sustained visceral perforation or hemorrhage with drain placement. Overall mortality was 47% (n = 15). The procedure was not associated with increased overall mortality (p > 0.99). Eight (25%) peritoneal drains required replacement for malfunction. Of 24 patients with peritoneal drains, one (4%) patient had a positive culture from ascitic fluid. Eight (25%) patients underwent pleural drain placement. No pleural drain-related procedural complication or infection occurred. Four (50%) of the eight patients with pleural drains had de-escalation in oxygen requirement at drain removal, compared to time of placement. In this study, peritoneal and pleural drains were safe interventions for children with severe VOD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Charge plasma based source/drain engineered Schottky Barrier MOSFET: Ambipolar suppression and improvement of the RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a novel device structure for charge plasma based Schottky Barrier (SB) MOSFET on ultrathin SOI to suppress the ambipolar leakage current and improvement of the radio frequency (RF) performance. In the proposed device, we employ dual material for the source and drain formation. Therefore, source/drain is divided into two parts as main source/drain and source/drain extension. Erbium silicide (ErSi1.7) is used as main source/drain material and Hafnium metal is used as source/drain extension material. The source extension induces the electron plasma in the ultrathin SOI body resulting reduction of SB width at the source side. Similarly, drain extension also induces the electron plasma at the drain side. This significantly increases the SB width due to increased depletion at the drain end. As a result, the ambipolar leakage current can be suppressed. In addition, drain extension also reduces the parasitic capacitances of the proposed device to improve the RF performance. The optimization of length and work function of metal used in the drain extension is performed to achieve improvement in device performance. Moreover, the proposed device makes fabrication simpler, requires low thermal budget and free from random dopant fluctuations.

  9. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  10. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  11. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zheng Xue-Feng; Wang Chong; Hao Yue; Yang Cui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. (paper)

  12. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  13. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Long-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  14. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peng-Sheng; Lo, Chiao; Lin, Long-Wei; Lee, Po-Chu

    2010-05-21

    Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  15. Modeling Reef Island Morphodynamics in Profile and Plan View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A. D.; Ortiz, A. C.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2016-12-01

    Reef islands are carbonate detrital landforms perched atop shallow reef flats of atolls and barrier reef systems. Often comprising the only subaerial, inhabitable land of many island chains and island nations, these low-lying, geomorphically active landforms face considerable hazards from climate change. While there hazards include wave overtopping and groundwater salinization, sea-level rise and wave climate change will affect sediment transport and shoreline dynamics, including the possibility for wholesale reorganization of the islands themselves. Here we present a simplified morphodynamic model that can spatially quantify the potential impacts of climate change on reef islands. Using parameterizations of sediment transport pathways and feedbacks from previously presented XBeach modeling results, we investigate how sea-level rise, change in storminess, and different carbonate production rates can affect the profile evolution of reef islands, including feedbacks with the shallow reef flat that bounds the islands offshore (and lagoonward). Model results demonstrate that during rising sea levels, the reef flat can serve as a sediment trap, starving reef islands of detrital sediment that could otherwise fortify the shore against sea-level-rise-driven erosion. On the other hand, if reef flats are currently shallow (likely due to geologic inheritance or biologic cementation processes) such that sea-level rise does not result in sediment accumulation on the flat, reef island shorelines may be more resilient to rising seas. We extend the model in plan view to examine how long-term (decadal) changes in wave approach direction could affect reef island shoreline orientation. We compare model results to historical and geologic change for different case studies on the Marshall Islands. This simplified modeling approach, focusing on boundary dynamics and mass fluxes, provides a quantitative tool to predict the response of reef island environments to climate change.

  16. International Tourists’ Perceived Sustainability of Jeju Island, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seong Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationships between international tourists’ perceived sustainability of Jeju Island, South Korea and environmentally responsible behavior, revisit intention, and positive word-of-mouth communication. Perceived sustainability was employed as a multidimensional construct comprised of economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Data were collected from international tourists that visited Jeju Island. The results indicated that environmentally responsible behavior was influenced positively by cultural sustainability, and negatively by environmental sustainability. Revisit intention and positive word-of-mouth communication were significantly affected by the three dimensions of sustainability. Based on the findings, associated implications were suggested for sustainable destination management of Jeju Island.

  17. Evacuation behavior and Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, S; Barnes, K

    1982-06-01

    The responses of the residents to the nuclear power plant arcident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania illustrate the factors influencing pre-impact coping responses of populations exposed to technological hazards. Confusion itnd ambiguous information influenced both the decision to evaluate and to remain in place. Proximity to the facility, stage in life cycle and the actions of friends and neighbors influenced the decision to evacuate.

  18. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  19. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Autologous transfusion of drain contents in elective primary knee arthroplasty: its value and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Javed, Sadaf; Kumar, Kuldeep; Tomar, Juhi

    2011-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant post-operative blood loss often necessitating blood transfusions. Blood transfusions may be associated with transfusion reactions and may transmit human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus, with devastating consequences. After total knee arthroplasty, transfusion of the contents of an autologous drain is becoming common practice. The aim of our study was to look at the effectiveness of these drains in elective primary total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study was conducted including 70 non-randomised patients. A normal suction drain was used in 35 patients (group A), whereas in the other 35 patients, a CellTrans™ drain was used (group B). All the operations were performed by four surgeons using a tourniquet with a medial parapatellar approach. Pre- and post-operative haemoglobin concentrations were recorded in both groups. A Student's t-test was applied to determine the statistical significance of the data collected. The average fall in post-operative haemoglobin was 3.66 g/dL (SD 1.46; range, 0.6-7.0) among patients in whom the simple drain was used (group A) and 2.29 g/dL (SD 0.92; range, 0.6-5.9) among those in whom the CellTrans™ drain was used (group B) (p<0.0001). Twenty-five units of allogeneic blood were required in group A compared to four units in group B. The rate of transfusion was 5.7% (2 patients) in the group in which CellTrans™ drain was used and 25.7% (9 patients) in the group in which a simple suction drain was used. Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant post-operative blood loss despite best operative technique. Autologous reinfusion of the contents of a CellTrans™ drain significantly reduces the rate of post-operative blood transfusion. This study indicates that the use of an autologous drain could be recommended as routine practice in primary total knee arthroplasty.

  1. Molecules in the mud: Combining ancient DNA and lipid biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation response to climate variability during the Last Interglacial and the Holocene on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, S. E.; Sepúlveda, J.; Bunce, M.; Miller, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Modern ecological studies are revealing that the "greening" of the Arctic, resulting from a poleward shift in woody vegetation ranges, is already underway. The increasing abundance of shrubs in tundra ecosystems plays an important role in the global climate system through multiple positive feedbacks, yet uncertainty in future predictions of terrestrial vegetation means that climate models are likely not capturing these feedbacks accurately. Recently developed molecular techniques for reconstructing past vegetation and climate allow for a closer look at the paleo-record in order to improve our understanding of tundra community responses to climate variability; our current research focus is to apply these tools to both Last Interglacial and Holocene warm times. Here we present initial results from a small lake on southern Baffin Island spanning the last 7.2 ka. We reconstruct climate with both bulk geochemical and biomarker proxies, primarily using biogenic silica and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) as temperature indicators. We assess shifts in plant community using multivariate analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding data. This combination of approaches reveals that the vegetation community has responded sensitively to early Holocene warmth, Neoglacial cooling, and possibly modern anthropogenic warming. To our knowledge, this represents the first combination of a quantitative, biomarker-based climate reconstruction with a sedaDNA-based paleoecological reconstruction, and offers a glimpse at the potential of these molecular techniques used in tandem.

  2. The Flooding of Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Lewis, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Between the Last Glacial Maximum (22-19 ka) and the Holocene (10 ka) regions marginal to the Laurentide Ice Sheets saw complex environmental changes from moraines to lake basins to dry land to estuaries and marginal ocean basins, as a result of the interplay between the topography of moraines formed at the maximum extent and during stages of the retreat of the ice sheet, regional glacial rebound, and global eustatic sea level rise. In New England, the history of deglaciation and relative sea level rise has been studied extensively, and the sequence of events has been documented in detail. The Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent (Long Island) at 21.3-20.4 ka according to radiocarbon dating (calibrated ages), 19.0-18.4 ka according to radionuclide dating. Periglacial Lake Connecticut formed behind the moraines in what is now the Long Island Sound Basin. The lake drained through the moraine at its eastern end. Seismic records show that a fluvial system was cut into the exposed lake beds, and a wave-cut unconformity was produced during the marine flooding, which has been inferred to have occurred at about 15.5 ka (Melt Water Pulse 1A) through correlation with dated events on land. Vibracores from eastern Long Island Sound penetrate the unconformity and contain red, varved lake beds overlain by marine grey sands and silts with a dense concentration of oysters in life position above the erosional contact. The marine sediments consist of intertidal to shallow subtidal deposits with oysters, shallow-water foraminifera and litoral diatoms, overlain by somewhat laminated sandy silts, in turn overlain by coarser-grained, sandy to silty sediments with reworked foraminifera and bivalve fragments. The latter may have been deposited in a sand-wave environment as present today at the core locations. We provide direct age control of the transgression with 30 radiocarbon dates on oysters, and compared the ages with those obtained on macrophytes and bulk organic carbon in

  3. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  4. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G.; Taylor, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  5. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, UNC Health Care, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, J.B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environment, Health and Safety, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  6. Gauze Impregnated With Quaternary Ammonium Salt Reduces Bacterial Colonization of Surgical Drains After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L; Wolfe, Emily T; Shank, Nina; Chaffin, Abigail E; Jansen, David A

    2018-06-01

    Surgical site infection after breast reconstruction is associated with increased length of hospital stay, readmission rates, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Identifying methods to reduce surgical site infection without the use of antibiotics may be beneficial at reducing antimicrobial resistance, reserving the use of antibiotics for more severe cases. Quaternary ammonium salts have previously been shown to be a safe and effective antimicrobial agent in the setting of in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial properties of a quaternary ammonium salt, 3-trimethoxysilyl propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (QAS-3PAC; Bio-spear), at reducing surgical drain site colonization and infection after breast reconstruction (deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstruction or tissue expander placement). Twenty patients were enrolled, with 14 surgical drains covered with nonimpregnated gauze and 17 surgical drains covered with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze, for the purposes of investigating bacterial colonization. Antibiotic sensitivity analysis was also conducted when bacterial cultures were positive. The overall incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (17.6% vs 64.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze reduced the incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains during the first (0.0% vs 33.3%) and second (33.3% vs 87.5%; P = 0.04) postoperative week. Furthermore, no enhanced antibiotic resistance was noted on drains treated with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze. The results of this study suggest that QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze applied over surgical drains may be an effective method for reducing the incidence of bacterial colonization.

  7. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  8. Comparative effect of tube drain on post operative inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar surgery College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obimakinde, O S; Fasola, A O; Arotiba, J T; Okoje, V N; Obiechina, A E

    2010-09-01

    Swelling, pain and trismus are acute reversible inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar (M3) surgery. They contribute to the deterioration of quality of life and loss of several useful working hours. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of a surgical drain following M3 surgery can minimise these inflammatory complications. Eighty consecutive patients who gave consent were enrolled into the study. Patients were assigned into two groups (drain and no drain) by systematic sampling method which was modified to ensure matching of patients by age, sex and spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar. The patients in the drain group (n=40) had a Foley's catheter drain inserted into the wound after the surgical procedure while the patients in the no drain group (n=40) had their wound closed without the use of drain. All patients had primary wound closure with 3.0 black silk sutures after the procedure. Demographic data, cheek dimension and maximal mouth opening were recorded before the procedure. Pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated in the two groups at 24 hours, 48 hours and 7th day after surgery. Post operative swelling and visual analogue scale score for pain were comparatively lesser in the drain group patients. The maximal interincisal distance was also more in the drain group patients. The findings from this study indicated that there is a significant benefit of using a surgical drain in minimising postoperative oedema, pain and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

  9. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  10. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  11. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  12. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  13. Differences in microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling in natural and drained tropical peatland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Mander, Ülo; Kasak, Kuno; Nõlvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Maddison, Martin; Truu, Jaak

    2018-03-16

    Tropical peatlands, which play a crucial role in the maintenance of different ecosystem services, are increasingly drained for agriculture, forestry, peat extraction and human settlement purposes. The present study investigated the differences between natural and drained sites of a tropical peatland in the community structure of soil bacteria and archaea and their potential to perform nitrogen transformation processes. The results indicate significant dissimilarities in the structure of soil bacterial and archaeal communities as well as nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA gene-possessing microbial communities. The reduced denitrification and N 2 -fixing potential was detected in the drained tropical peatland soil. In undisturbed peatland soil, the N 2 O emission was primarily related to nirS-type denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, while the conversion of N 2 O to N 2 was controlled by microbes possessing nosZ clade I genes. The denitrifying microbial community of the drained site differed significantly from the natural site community. The main reducers of N 2 O were microbes harbouring nosZ clade II genes in the drained site. Additionally, the importance of DNRA process as one of the controlling mechanisms of N 2 O fluxes in the natural peatlands of the tropics revealed from the results of the study.

  14. Use of laterally placed vacuum drains for management of aural hematomas in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavletic, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    5 dogs (a Newfoundland, Golden Retriever, Shiba Inu, Staffordshire Terrier, and Vizsla) were referred for evaluation and treatment of unilateral aural hematomas within a week after their formation. Aural hematomas involved the left (3) or right (2) ears. With patients under anesthesia, the aural hematomas were approached surgically from the convex, or lateral, pinnal surface. Two small incisions were used to position a vacuum drain into the incised hematoma cavity. The drain exited at the base of the pinna and adjacent cervical skin. The free end of the drain was attached to a vacuum reservoir for 18 to 21 days. Drains and skin sutures were removed at this time along with the protective Elizabethan collar. All hematomas resolved and surgical sites healed during the minimum 6-month follow-up period. Cosmetic results were considered excellent in 4 of 5 patients. Slight wrinkling of the pinna in 1 patient resulted from asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma, where vacuum application resulted in a slight folding of the redundant lateral cartilage wall. The described treatment was efficient, economical, and minimally invasive and required no bandaging or wound care. Placement of the drain tubing on the convex (lateral) aspect sheltered the system from displacement by patients with an Elizabethan collar in place. Overall cosmetic results were excellent; asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma with slight folding of the pinna was seen in 1 patient.

  15. Is a drain tube necessary for minimally invasive lumbar spine fusion surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-I; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chou, Po-Hsin; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Tien; Liu, Chien-Lin

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if closed suction wound drainage is necessary in minimally invasive surgery of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). This is a prospective randomized clinical study. Fifty-six patients who underwent MIS TLIF were randomly divided into groups A (with a closed suction wound drainage) and B (without tube drainage). Surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss, timing of ambulation, length of hospital stay and complications were recorded. Patients were followed up for an average of 25.3 months. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale (VAS). Fusion rate was classified with the Bridwell grading system, based on plain radiograph. Both groups had similar patient demographics. The use of drains had no significant influence on perioperative parameters including operative time, estimated blood loss, length of stay and complications. Patients in group B started ambulation 1 day earlier than patients in group A (p drain tube can lead to pain, anxiety and discomfort during the postoperative period. We conclude that drain tubes are not necessary for MIS TLIF. Patients without drains had the benefit of earlier ambulation than those with drains.

  16. Thousand Islands River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels : summary report; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques : rapport sommaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, J F; Fontin, M [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to find solutions to very low water flow in the Thousand Islands River, near the Island of Montreal, Quebec. It was launched in response to the critically low water levels that were experienced in 2001 and 2002. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Thousand Island River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached approximately 13 cubic metres per second. Since 1970, the minimal values of flow observed for this time of year had seldom passed under 20 cubic metres per second. Under such conditions of flow, the dilution of any water discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. In addition, the population served by this river has increased significantly in the past 2 decades. During this episode of critically low water levels, Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ)intervened in an emergency measure to drain flows from a water reservoir in the catchment area to ensure a minimal flow of approximately 25 cubic metres per second. Thereafter, the affected municipalities had to ask the Quebec Environment Ministry to define permanent interventions to ensure a minimal flow the river in the event of similar episodes. The CEHQ carried out a preliminary study of possible solutions to address the critically low water levels and presented its report in the spring 2002. In the winter of 2002, CEHQ created an emergency management procedure in preparation of a repeat episode. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Thousand Islands River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels : summary report; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques : rapport sommaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, J.F.; Fontin, M. [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to find solutions to very low water flow in the Thousand Islands River, near the Island of Montreal, Quebec. It was launched in response to the critically low water levels that were experienced in 2001 and 2002. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Thousand Island River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached approximately 13 cubic metres per second. Since 1970, the minimal values of flow observed for this time of year had seldom passed under 20 cubic metres per second. Under such conditions of flow, the dilution of any water discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. In addition, the population served by this river has increased significantly in the past 2 decades. During this episode of critically low water levels, Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ)intervened in an emergency measure to drain flows from a water reservoir in the catchment area to ensure a minimal flow of approximately 25 cubic metres per second. Thereafter, the affected municipalities had to ask the Quebec Environment Ministry to define permanent interventions to ensure a minimal flow the river in the event of similar episodes. The CEHQ carried out a preliminary study of possible solutions to address the critically low water levels and presented its report in the spring 2002. In the winter of 2002, CEHQ created an emergency management procedure in preparation of a repeat episode. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Simulation of the Three Mile Island transient in Semiscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Loomis, G.G.; Shumway, R.W.

    1979-07-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review and analysis of the data obtained from eight simulations of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Generating Station transient (March 28, 1979) that have been conducted in the Semiscale Mod-3 System. The Semiscale simulations of the Three Mile Island (TMI) transient were basically conducted from the same sequence of events as those recorded in the plant. System initial conditions representative of those in the TMI system were established and the transient was initiated by terminating steam generator feedwater and steam valve flow. The steam generator secondaries were drained to control primary to secondary heat transfer. The pressurizer power operated relief valve, pressurizer code safety valve, and core power trip were operated on system pressure. High pressure safety injection was activated for about one minute during the Semiscale simulations. In addition, both primary loop coolant pumps were shut off in the Semiscale simulation at the same time that the Three Mile Island loop 2A pump was shut off

  19. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  20. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  1. Postoperative use of drain in thyroid lobectomy – a randomized clinical trial conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Zahid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure, after which drains are placed routinely. This study aims to assess the benefits of placing postoperative drains, its complications and affects on postoperative stay, in thyroid lobectomy. Methodology Randomized Clinical Trial of 60 goitre patients undergoing lobectomy was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi, during July’11-December’11. Patients were randomly assigned into drain and non drain groups. Patient demographics, labs and complications were noted. Ultrasound of neck was performed on both groups. For drain group, the amount of fluid present in the surgical bed and redivac drain was added to calculate fluid collection while in non drain group it was calculated by ultrasound of neck on first and second post-op days. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS v16 using Independent T tests. Result The mean total drain output for 2 days in non-drain group was significantly lower 10.67 (±9.072 ml while in drain group was 30.97 (±42.812 ml (p = 0.014. The mean postoperative stay of drain group (79.2 ±15.63 hours was significantly higher, as compared to mean postoperative stay of non drain group (50.4 ±7.32 hours. Mean Visual Analogue Score (VAS for pain day 1 (6.2 ±0.997 and day 2 (4.17 ±0.95 in drain group were significantly higher compared to day 1 (2.6 ±1.163 and day 2 (1.3 ±0.877 of non drain group. From drain group, 2 patients complained of stridor, dyspnea on Day 1 which subsided by Day 2 and 1 case of voice change, with no such complains in non drain group. No patients from both groups developed seroma, wound infection or hematoma. Conclusion In uncomplicated surgeries especially for lobectomy, use of drain can be omitted.

  2. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  3. Rapid breakthrough of pesticides via biopres into tile drains and shallow groundwater: a combined experimental and model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.; Palm, J.; Schroeder, B.

    2009-04-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported in surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport is an environ¬mental problem because the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To get a better insight in the process of pesticide transport in agricultural soils an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is aprox. 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and the shows runoff over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon and Flufenacet according to conventional agricultural practice. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) and had a total irrigation rate of 33.6 mm measured with ten precipitation samplers. During the first block a tracer solution of 1600 g Bromide and 2000 g Brilliant Blue was irrigated on the test site. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe to measure the water level. About 50 water samples were taken on the day of the experiment from the drainage outlet by hand, and in an eight hour interval for six days with an automatic sample procedure. Discharge at the drainage outlet showed two peaks in response irrigation. The breakthrough of the tracer into the brook is much faster then the reaction of the discharge on the precipitation impulse. To gain insight in the vertical transport behaviour three

  4. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  5. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  6. Kinetic theory of magnetic island stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.; Garbet, X.

    1993-10-01

    The non linear behavior of low and large wave number tearing modes is studied. The emphasis is layed on diamagnetic effects. A kinetic equation, including transport processes associated with a background of microturbulence, is used to describe the electron component. Such transport processes are shown to play a significant role in the adjustment of density and temperature profile and also in the calculation of the island rotation frequency. The fluctuating electric potential is calculated self-consistently, using the differential response of electrons and ions. Four regimes are considered, related to island width (smaller or larger than an ion Larmor radius) and transport regime (electron-ion collisions or electro-viscosity dominated). It is shown that diamagnetism does not influence the island stability for small island width in the viscous regime, as long as the constant A constraint is maintained. It turns out that the release of this constraint may strongly modify the previously calculated stability thresholds. Finally, it is found that diamagnetism is destabilizing (stabilizing) for island width smaller (larger) than an ion Larmor radius, in both resistive and viscous regimes. A typical island evolution scenario is studied which shows that even large scale tearing modes with positive Δ ' could saturate to island width of order of a few ion Larmor radii. Illustrative Δ ' threshold and island saturation size are calculated. (authors). 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Tree island pattern formation in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joel; D'Odorico, P.; Engel, Victor C.; Redwine, Jed

    2016-01-01

    The Florida Everglades freshwater landscape exhibits a distribution of islands covered by woody vegetation and bordered by marshes and wet prairies. Known as “tree islands”, these ecogeomorphic features can be found in few other low gradient, nutrient limited freshwater wetlands. In the last few decades, however, a large percentage of tree islands have either shrank or disappeared in apparent response to altered water depths and other stressors associated with human impacts on the Everglades. Because the processes determining the formation and spatial organization of tree islands remain poorly understood, it is still unclear what controls the sensitivity of these landscapes to altered conditions. We hypothesize that positive feedbacks between woody plants and soil accretion are crucial to emergence and decline of tree islands. Likewise, positive feedbacks between phosphorus (P) accumulation and trees explain the P enrichment commonly observed in tree island soils. Here, we develop a spatially-explicit model of tree island formation and evolution, which accounts for these positive feedbacks (facilitation) as well as for long range competition and fire dynamics. It is found that tree island patterns form within a range of parameter values consistent with field data. Simulated impacts of reduced water levels, increased intensity of drought, and increased frequency of dry season/soil consuming fires on these feedback mechanisms result in the decline and disappearance of tree islands on the landscape.

  8. The growth of Scots pine and the availability of nutrients in old Finnish liming experiments on drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Paetilae, A.

    1994-01-01

    Liming (with applications of 1000 to 8000 kg/ha) had no long- term (1929-1985) effect on the growth of Scots pine on drained oligotrophic peatlands. Liming plus NPK fertilization had a variable effect on the growth of stands. The same treatment could result in a very different response in different experimental areas. Both liming alone and liming plus NPK fertilization increased the calcium, magnesium and nitrogen contents of peat and decreased the C/Nratio and acidity. Liming plus fertilization decreased needle boron and manganese and increased calcium and nitrogen concentrations. The results of peat and needle analysis indicated that the changes in nitrogen availability to trees caused by liming have not been sufficient enough to affect tree growth. It was also concluded that boron deficiency was the main reason for the lowered yield. (26 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.) (author)

  9. Effect of Post Treatment For Cu-Cr Source/Drain Electrodes on a-IGZO TFTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiben; Fang, Zhiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Tao, Ruiqiang; Liu, Xianzhe; Zeng, Yong; Yao, Rihui; Huang, Fuxiang; Li, Zhengcao; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao

    2016-07-27

    We report a high-performance amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with new copper-chromium (Cu-Cr) alloy source/drain electrodes. The TFT shows a high mobility of 39.4 cm 2 ·V - 1 ·s - 1 a turn-on voltage of -0.8 V and a low subthreshold swing of 0.47 V/decade. Cu diffusion is suppressed because pre-annealing can protect a-IGZO from damage during the electrode sputtering and reduce the copper diffusion paths by making film denser. Due to the interaction of Cr with a-IGZO, the carrier concentration of a-IGZO, which is responsible for high mobility, rises.

  10. Genetically depauperate in the continent but rich in oceanic islands: Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae in the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population genetic theory holds that oceanic island populations are expected to have lower levels of genetic variation than their mainland counterparts, due to founder effect after island colonization from the continent. Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae is distributed in both the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean region. Numerous phylogenetic results obtained in the last years allow performing further phylogeographic analyses in Cistus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sequences from multiple plastid DNA regions in 47 populations of Cistus monspeliensis from the Canary Islands (21 populations and the Mediterranean basin (26 populations. The time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogeographic analyses yielded the following results: (1 a single, ancestral haplotype is distributed across the Mediterranean, whereas 10 haplotypes in the Canary Islands; (2 four haplotype lineages are present in the Canarian Islands; (3 multiple colonization events across the archipelago are inferred; (4 the earliest split of intraspecific lineages occurred in the Early to Middle Pleistocene (<930,000 years BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The contrasting pattern of cpDNA variation is best explained by genetic bottlenecks in the Mediterranean during Quaternary glaciations, while the Canarian archipelago acted as a refugium of high levels of genetic diversity. Active colonization across the Canarian islands is supported not only by the distribution of C. monspeliensis in five of the seven islands, but also by our phylogeographic reconstruction in which unrelated haplotypes are present on the same island. Widespread distribution of thermophilous habitats on every island, as those found throughout the Mediterranean, has likely been responsible for the successful colonization of C. monspeliensis, despite the absence of a long-distance dispersal mechanism. This is the first example of a plant species with higher genetic variation among oceanic island

  11. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  12. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  13. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  14. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  15. Mechanism of improving forward and reverse blocking voltages in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by using Schottky drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Lei; Mi Min-Han; Luo Jun; Wang Yi; Dai Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue; Hou Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a Schottky drain can improve the forward and reverse blocking voltages (BVs) simultaneously in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The mechanism of improving the two BVs is investigated by analysing the leakage current components and by software simulation. The forward BV increases from 72 V to 149 V due to the good Schottky contact morphology. During the reverse bias, the buffer leakage in the Ohmicdrain HEMT increases significantly with the increase of the negative drain bias. For the Schottky-drain HEMT, the buffer leakage is suppressed effectively by the formation of the depletion region at the drain terminal. As a result, the reverse BV is enhanced from −5 V to −49 V by using a Schottky drain. Experiments and the simulation indicate that a Schottky drain is desirable for power electronic applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2. (paper)

  17. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  18. An analytical drain current model for symmetric double-gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An analytical surface-potential-based drain current model of symmetric double-gate (sDG MOSFETs is described as a SPICE compatible model in this paper. The continuous surface and central potentials from the accumulation to the strong inversion regions are solved from the 1-D Poisson’s equation in sDG MOSFETs. Furthermore, the drain current is derived from the charge sheet model as a function of the surface potential. Over a wide range of terminal voltages, doping concentrations, and device geometries, the surface potential calculation scheme and drain current model are verified by solving the 1-D Poisson’s equation based on the least square method and using the Silvaco Atlas simulation results and experimental data, respectively. Such a model can be adopted as a useful platform to develop the circuit simulator and provide the clear understanding of sDG MOSFET device physics.

  19. An analytical drain current model for symmetric double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Huang, Gongyi; Lin, Wei; Xu, Chuanzhong

    2018-04-01

    An analytical surface-potential-based drain current model of symmetric double-gate (sDG) MOSFETs is described as a SPICE compatible model in this paper. The continuous surface and central potentials from the accumulation to the strong inversion regions are solved from the 1-D Poisson's equation in sDG MOSFETs. Furthermore, the drain current is derived from the charge sheet model as a function of the surface potential. Over a wide range of terminal voltages, doping concentrations, and device geometries, the surface potential calculation scheme and drain current model are verified by solving the 1-D Poisson's equation based on the least square method and using the Silvaco Atlas simulation results and experimental data, respectively. Such a model can be adopted as a useful platform to develop the circuit simulator and provide the clear understanding of sDG MOSFET device physics.

  20. PWSCC Potential on the Drain Tubes of WEC Model 51F Steam Generators in Domestic Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B. I.; Song, M. S.; Yoon, K. S.; Kim, I. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The drain couplings of Westinghouse Model 51F steam generators that had been operated in the domestic Nuclear Power Plants were modified and repaired in accordance with the corrective action of replacing the existing Alloy 600 weld build-up with Alloy 690(Alloy 52/152) weld build-up in order to increase its resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The drain tube made of alloy 600, however, was not replaced and left susceptible to the PWSCC. Among the environmental, metallurgical and mechanical factors controlling a susceptibility to the PWSCC, it is believed that tensile stresses play an important role. The objective of this study is to conservatively estimate stress state of the drain tube during fabrication and when exposed to normal plant operations, and to investigate its potential for the PWSCC

  1. Leak or Fistula After Sleeve Gastrectomy: Treatment with Pigtail Drain by the Rendezvous Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufron, Jacques

    2015-10-01

    After a sleeve gastrectomy, a leak or fistula is a serious complication. Laparoscopic drainage, drainage under US or CT scan control, or endoscopic insertion of a stent can be used, but a major re-operation is sometimes unavoidable. Endoscopic drainage with a pigtail catheter could give more success and fewer complications, but the insertion of the drain is not always possible nor does it always provide a perfect drainage. If a laparoscopic second look appears necessary, it is possible to insert a pigtail drain laparoscopically, but under endoscopic control, ensuring a correct positioning of the drain both in the peritoneal cavity and in the gastric tube. This simultaneous "rendezvous" technique could combine in this situation the advantages of purely surgical techniques and of purely endoscopic or image-guided techniques.

  2. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  3. A Drain Current Model Based on the Temperature Effect of a-Si:H Thin-Film Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Lei; Yao Ruo-He

    2012-01-01

    Based on the differential Ohm's law and Poisson's equation, an analytical model of the drain current for a-Si:H thin-film transistors is developed. This model is proposed to elaborate the temperature effect on the drain current, which indicates that the drain current is linear with temperature in the range of 290-360 K, and the results fit well with the experimental data

  4. A vapor generator equipped with an advanced drain device for the secondary side of the tubes plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadon, C.

    1995-01-01

    A draining design is proposed for the tube plate secondary side in a PWR type reactor, that does not interfere with the water flush 'street' thus allowing for an easy inspection and maintenance in the lower part of the tube bundle. The draining system is composed of a main groove on the upper side of the tube plate, which is connected to draining means situated outside the vapor generator. 6 fig

  5. Pontine infarction caused by medial branch injury of the basilar artery as a rare complication of cisternal drain placement

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Kuroiwa, Masafumi; Rahmah, Nunung Nur; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare complication of cisternal drain placement during aneurysm surgery. A ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm was clipped through a right pterional approach. A cisternal drain was inserted from the retro-carotid to the prepontine cistern. Postoperatively, a left-sided paresis of the upper extremity had developed. A CT brain scan revealed that the drain was located between the pons and the basilar artery, resulting in a pontine infarction. Vascular neurosurgeons should...

  6. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study--A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…

  7. The Treatment Of The RSU In Controlled Drains: Their Sanitary Problem To The Production Of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    The limitless world production of residuals generates constant concerns with relationship to its administration. The classic elimination methods as the drains controlled in front of the controversial incineration plants and gasification as well as the expectations created around the recycle practices, are reason of intense debates among city councils, specialist, environmentalist technicians and the public in general. The certain thing is that the residuals in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today in day the residuals are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the line of the recycle because they come them an excellent business. All the methods of elimination of residuals produce in turn others. Those of solid nature in general go to the drain, the semi-liquids becomes dehydrated for the same end. Presently work, without seeking to say that the employment of the drains is the best option, thinks about how it has more than enough they are possible to optimize its use. Showing beside their eminently sanitary vocation an energy alternative that allows the use of the combustible gas that is generated in them. An added value that is interesting if this it becomes source of well-being for social excluded nuclei and economically like it happens for example in the peripheries of the drains of the big Latin American cities. They are considered which are the main aspects that intervene in the generation, production and quality of the gas methane of the drains. Their reception methods and their use alternatives. Lastly emphasis is made in the environmental situation to European and international level about the gases of the drain, how it thinks about the topic of the greenhouse effect and which are the actions for the horizon of the year 2000. They are related some experiences in Europe on the use of the biogas

  8. Numerical simulation of draining and drying procedure for the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanchuk, Victor; Grigoriev, Sergey; Lyublin, Boris; Maquet, Philippe; Senik, Konstantin; Pak, Sunil; Udintsev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The cooling system of the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug (GEPP) is of a complicated combination of horizontal and vertical channels. • The calculation model for the entire GEPP cooling circuit comprising 12 sub-circuits and built up of 2421 finite-volume elements has been developed. • Transient analysis of this model simulating the draining procedure by the KORSAR/B1 code has been performed. • Water in amount of 263 g of initial 531 kg in the GEPP remains in the dead-ends of the DSM and DFW channels in 150 s of draining procedure. • Almost 3 h are required to boil off 263 g of water trapped in the dead-ends. - Abstract: For effective vacuum leak testing all cooling circuits serving the ITER vessel and in-vessel components shall be drained and dried so that after this procedure taking less than 100 h the purge gas passing through a component has water content less than 100 ppm. This process is four-stage, with the first stage using a short blast of compressed nitrogen to blow most of water in the coolant channels out of the circuit. This process is hindered by volumes which trap water due to gravity. To remove the trapped water, it is necessary, first, to heat up the structure by hot and compressed nitrogen, and then water is evaporated by depressurized nitrogen. The cooling system of the ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs is of a complicated hydraulic configuration. The system branching might make difficult removal of water from the piping in the scheduled draining mode. The authors have proposed the KORSAR computation code to simulate draining of the GEPP cooling circuit. The numerical simulation performed has made it possible to describe the process dynamics during draining of the entire GEPP cooling circuit and to define the process time, amount and location of residual water and evolution of two-phase flow regime.

  9. Numerical simulation of draining and drying procedure for the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanchuk, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Tanchuk@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, Sergey; Lyublin, Boris [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Maquet, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Senik, Konstantin [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pak, Sunil [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Udintsev, Victor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The cooling system of the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug (GEPP) is of a complicated combination of horizontal and vertical channels. • The calculation model for the entire GEPP cooling circuit comprising 12 sub-circuits and built up of 2421 finite-volume elements has been developed. • Transient analysis of this model simulating the draining procedure by the KORSAR/B1 code has been performed. • Water in amount of 263 g of initial 531 kg in the GEPP remains in the dead-ends of the DSM and DFW channels in 150 s of draining procedure. • Almost 3 h are required to boil off 263 g of water trapped in the dead-ends. - Abstract: For effective vacuum leak testing all cooling circuits serving the ITER vessel and in-vessel components shall be drained and dried so that after this procedure taking less than 100 h the purge gas passing through a component has water content less than 100 ppm. This process is four-stage, with the first stage using a short blast of compressed nitrogen to blow most of water in the coolant channels out of the circuit. This process is hindered by volumes which trap water due to gravity. To remove the trapped water, it is necessary, first, to heat up the structure by hot and compressed nitrogen, and then water is evaporated by depressurized nitrogen. The cooling system of the ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs is of a complicated hydraulic configuration. The system branching might make difficult removal of water from the piping in the scheduled draining mode. The authors have proposed the KORSAR computation code to simulate draining of the GEPP cooling circuit. The numerical simulation performed has made it possible to describe the process dynamics during draining of the entire GEPP cooling circuit and to define the process time, amount and location of residual water and evolution of two-phase flow regime.

  10. Multiyear nutrient removal performance of three constructed wetlands intercepting tile drain flows from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Chris C; Sukias, James P S

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface tile drain flows can be a major s ource of nurient loss from agricultural landscapes. This study quantifies flows and nitrogen and phosphorus yields from tile drains at three intensively grazed dairy pasture sites over 3- to 5-yr periods and evaluates the capacity of constructed wetlands occupying 0.66 to 1.6% of the drained catchments too reduce nutrient loads. Continuous flow records are combined with automated flow-proportional sampling of nutrient concentrations to calculate tile drain nutrient yields and wetland mass removal rates. Annual drainage water yields rangedfrom 193 to 564 mm (16-51% of rainfall) at two rain-fed sites and from 827 to 853 mm (43-51% of rainfall + irrigation) at an irrigated site. Annually, the tile drains exported 14 to 109 kg ha(-1) of total N (TN), of which 58 to 90% was nitrate-N. Constructed wetlands intercepting these flows removed 30 to 369 gTN m(-2) (7-63%) of influent loadings annually. Seasonal percentage nitrate-N and TN removal were negatively associated with wetland N mass loadings. Wetland P removal was poor in all wetlands, with 12 to 115% more total P exported annually overall than received. Annually, the tile drains exported 0.12 to 1.38 kg ha of total P, of which 15 to 93% was dissolved reactive P. Additional measures are required to reduce these losses or provide supplementary P removal. Wetland N removal performance could be improved by modifying drainage systems to release flows more gradually and improving irrigation practices to reduce drainage losses.

  11. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  12. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  13. Should I stay or should I go? An institutional approach to brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2010-01-01

    This paper suggests that institutional factors which reward social net- works at the expenses of productivity can play an important role in ex- plaining brain drain. The e€ects of social networks on brain drain are analyzed in a decision theory framework with asymmetric information. We distinguish between the role of insidership and personal connections. The larger the cost of being an outsider, the smaller is the number and the average ability of researchers working in the domestic job mar...

  14. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 2.4 μm source-drain spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongfang; Wei Ke; Yuan Tingting; Liu Xinyu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 2.4 μm source-drain spacing. So far these are the smallest source-drain spacing AlGaN/GaN HEMTs which have been implemented with a domestic wafer and domestic process. This paper also compares their performance with that of 4 μm source-drain spacing devices. The former exhibit higher drain current, higher gain, and higher efficiency. It is especially significant that the maximum frequency of oscillation noticeably increased. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Spatial and temporal controls of atoll island inundation: implications for urbanized atolls in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    inundation events, as well as results of a lengthy reef flat wave observation dataset from Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Future impacts of continued sea-level rise are considered on each mode of island inundation and the implications for local response discussed within the context of urbanised atoll islands.

  16. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  17. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  18. Island in Crisis: Response to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    On September 6, 2017, Hurricane Irma, a Category 5 storm packing winds of 185 miles per hour skirted the northern coast of Puerto Rico, leaving 1 million residents without electrical power. Schools were closed for 5 days, but a major calamity was narrowly avoided. Overall, residents were grateful for their good fortune, but the same could not be…

  19. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  20. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  1. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  2. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  3. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  4. Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje Mountain: A Case of Ruo River in the Southern Malawi. ... The research recommends an integrated water resources management approach where all users and relevant stakeholders should take an active role in the conservation of Ruo River catchment in ...

  5. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristic...

  6. Umbilical vein draining into the inferior vena cava via the internal iliac vein, bypassing the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Stannard, M.W.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX; Kolni, H.

    1991-01-01

    This is the third report of an anomalous umbilical vein draining ectopically in a left pelvic vein, probably the left internal iliac, and through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium. The anomaly was encountered in a newborn infant with nonimmune hydrops fetalis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, multiorgan failure and possibly Noonan Syndrome. (orig.)

  7. Development and testing of watershed-scale models for poorly drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-scale hydrology and water quality models were used to evaluate the crrmulative impacts of land use and management practices on dowrzstream hydrology and nitrogen loading of poorly drained watersheds. Field-scale hydrology and nutrient dyyrutmics are predicted by DRAINMOD in both models. In the first model (DRAINMOD-DUFLOW), field-scale predictions are coupled...

  8. Configuration of particle drain for the high energy charged particles in the magnetic dipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhanov, I.V.; Zhidkov, E.P.; Ignatov, V.V.; Il'ina, A.N.; Il'in, V.D.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Yushkov, B.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The boundary of particle leakage from the magnetic dipole trap depending on the value of adiabatic parameter is investigated. By trajectory computation a generalized analytical expression is determined for the shape of particle drain by x ≤ 1. It is shown that generally accepted adiabatic loss cone is a particular case of x → 0

  9. Oral tolerance is determined at the level of draining lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, van E.G.; BrevÃ, J.; Savelkoul, H.; Claessen, A.; Scheper, R.J.; Kraal, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the skin and in the epithelium of the oral mucosa a comparable network of Langerhans cells can be found. Antigen application on either epithelium leads to rapid emigration of Langerhans cells to the draining lymph nodes. Application on the oral mucosa leads to tolerance induction while

  10. Evaluation of the necessity for chest drain placement following thoracoscopic wedge resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Jian-Xun; Chen, Pin-Ru; Lin, Yu-Sen; Chen, Chien-Kuang; Kao, Pei-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ming; Fang, Hsin-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection without chest drain placement. The subjects of this retrospective study were 89 patients, who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection at our hospital between January, 2013 and July, 2015. A total of 45 patients whose underlying condition did not meet the following criteria were assigned to the "chest drain placement group" (group A): peripheral lesions, healthy lung parenchyma, no intraoperative air leaks, hemorrhage or effusion accumulation, and no pleural adhesion. The other 44 patients whose underlying condition met the criteria were assigned to the "no chest drain placement group" (group B). Patient characteristics, specimen data, and postoperative conditions were analyzed and compared between the groups. Group A patients had poorer forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) values, less normal spirometric results, significantly higher resected lung volume, a greater maximum tumor-pleura distance, and a larger maximum tumor size. They also had a longer postoperative hospital stay. There was no difference between the two groups in postoperative complications. Avoiding chest drain placement after a thoracoscopic wedge resection appears to be safe and beneficial for patients who have small peripheral lesions and healthy lung parenchyma.

  11. Method of bilateral pleural drainage by single Blake drain after esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Oya, Hisaharu; Iwata, Naoki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kanda, Mitsuro; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians often encounter left pleural effusion after esophagectomy, which sometimes necessitates thoracentesis. We have introduced a new drainage method, bilateral pleural drainage by single Blake drain (BDSD), which we have been using since April 2013. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the BDSD. The BDSD method employs a 15-F Blake drain inserted from the right thoracic cavity to the left thoracic cavity across the posterior mediastinum. The conventional drain (CD) group consisted of 50 patients with a 19-F Blake drain placed in the right thoracic cavity during the period from April 2012 to March 2013. The BDSD group consisted of 54 patients treated from April 2013 to June 2014. The amount of total drainage in the BDSD group was significantly higher than that in the CD group (P pleural effusion and left lower lobe atelectasis in the BDSD group were significantly lower than those in the CD group (P pleural effusion necessitating thoracentesis drainage in the BDSD group. Compared with the conventional method, BDSD was able to evacuate bilateral pleural effusion more effectively, and the incidences of left pleural effusion and left atelectasis were lower. This method is therefore clinically useful after esophagectomy.

  12. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  13. The routine use of post-operative drains in thyroid surgery: an outdated concept.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S

    2010-01-01

    The use of surgical drains in patients undergoing thyroid surgery is standard surgical teaching. Life-threatening complications, arising from post-operative haematomas, mandates their utilization. There is increasing evidence to suggest that this is an outdated practice. This paper determines whether thyroid surgery can be safely performed without the routine use of drains. A retrospective review of patients undergoing thyroid surgery, over a three year period was performed and post-operative complications documented. One hundred and four thyroidectomies were performed. 63 (60.6%) patients had a partial thyroidectomy, 27 (25.9%) had a total thyroidectomy and 14 (13.5%) had a sub-total thyroidectomy. Suction drains were not inserted in any patient. A cervical haematoma did not develop in any patient in this series and no patient required re-operation. There is no evidence to suggest the routine use of surgical drains following uncomplicated thyroid surgery reduces the rate of haematoma formation or re-operation rates and indeed is now unwarranted.

  14. Diminishing peat oxidation of agricultural peat soils by infiltration via submerged drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Hendriks, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of peat soils used in dairy farming in the western peat area of The Netherlands causes subsidence rates up to 13 mm.y and emissions of CO2 to about 27 t.ha.y. In 2003 experiments started with subsurface irrigation by submerged drains to raise groundwater levels to reduce oxidation and so

  15. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  16. The effect of random dopant fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in junctionless nanotransistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezapour, Arash; Rezapour, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dopant random fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in a two-gate nanoscale transistor. We used a quantum-corrected technology computer aided design simulation to run the simulation (10000 randomizations). With this simulation, we could study the effects of varying the dimensions (length and width), and thicknesses of oxide and dopant factors of a transistor on the threshold voltage and drain current in subthreshold region (off) and overthreshold (on). It was found that in the subthreshold region the variability of the drain current and threshold voltage is relatively fixed while in the overthreshold region the variability of the threshold voltage and drain current decreases remarkably, despite the slight reduction of gate voltage diffusion (compared with that of the subthreshold). These results have been interpreted by using previously reported models for threshold current variability, load displacement, and simple analytical calculations. Scaling analysis shows that the variability of the characteristics of this semiconductor increases as the effects of the short channel increases. Therefore, with a slight increase of length and a reduction of width, oxide thickness, and dopant factor, we could correct the effect of the short channel. (paper)

  17. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily/lightly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under asymmetric front and back ...

  18. Thermal-fluid analysis of the fill and drain operations of a cryrogenic fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hanna, Gregory J.; Gong, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank was designed to establish techniques for testing and analyzing the behavior of reusable fuel tank structures subjected to cryogenic fuels and aerodynamic heating. The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank tests will consist of filling a pressure vessel to a prescribed fill level, waiting for steady-state conditions, then draining the liquid while heating the external surface to simulate the thermal environment associated with hypersonic flight. Initial tests of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank will use liquid nitrogen with future tests requiring liquid hydrogen. Two-dimensional finite-difference thermal-fluid models were developed for analyzing the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during fill and drain operations. The development and results of the two-dimensional fill and drain models, using liquid nitrogen, are provided, along with results and discussion on extrapolating the model results to the operation of the full-size Generic Research Cryogenic Tank. These numerical models provided a means to predict the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during testing and to define the requirements for the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank support systems such as vent, drain, pressurization, and instrumentation systems. In addition, the fill model provided insight into the unexpected role of circumferential conduction in cooling the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank pressure vessel during fill operations.

  19. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform heating. The inner liner shall be minimum 16 gauge stainless steel or other equally corrosion... jacket. The outer jacket shall be constructed of stainless steel or other metal which can be kept clean... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58...

  20. Modeling the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application and tile drain configuration on nitrate leaching using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was revised to improve the partitioning of runoff and tile drainage in poorly drained soils by modifying the algorithm for computing the soil moisture retention parameter. In this study, the revised SWAT model was used to evaluate the sensitivity a...