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Sample records for island coast inlets

  1. The Atlantic Coast of Maryland, Sediment Budget Update: Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    111 – Rivers and Harbors Act), the navigational structures at the Ocean City Inlet, and a number of Federally authorized channels (Figure 1). Reed...Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet by Ernest R. Smith, Joseph C. Reed, and Ian L. Delwiche PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics...of the Atlantic Ocean shoreline within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District’s Area of Responsibility, which for coastal

  2. Geomorphic Analysis of Mattituck Inlet and Goldsmith Inlet, Long Island, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Michael J; Kraus, Nicholas C; McDonald, Jodi M

    2005-01-01

    This study of Mattituck Inlet and Goldsmith Inlet, Long Island, NY, covers the historic and geomorphic background, literature, field measurements, numerical modeling of tidal circulation, and analysis...

  3. 77 FR 38236 - Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA AGENCY: Coast... ensure the safety of the maritime public during the Underwater Music Festival and would do so by... Music Festival is an event which includes musical performances from a barge. Spectators approach the...

  4. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  5. Massive sediment bypassing on the lower shoreface offshore of a wide tidal inlet: Cat Island Pass, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B.E.; List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric and shoreline surveys along the Louisiana coast west of the Mississippi River mouth detected a large area of deposition in water depths of 2.0–8.5 m offshore of a 9-km-wide tidal inlet, the Cat Island Pass/Wine Island Pass system. A 59.9 · 106 m3 sandy deposit formed from the 1930s–1980s, spanning 27 km in the alongshore direction, delineating the transport pathway for sediment bypassing offshore of the inlet on the shoreface. Bypassing connected the shorefaces of two barrier island systems, the Isles Dernieres and the Bayou Lafourche.The processes responsible for formation of this deposit are not well understood, but sediment-transport modeling suggests that sediment is transported primarily by wind-driven coastal currents during large storms and hurricanes. Deposition appears to be related to changes in shoreline orientation, closing of transport pathways into a large bay to the east and the presence of tidal inlets. This newly documented type of bypassing, an offshore bypassing of the inlet system, naturally nourished the immediate downdrift area, the eastern Isles Dernieres, where shoreface and shoreline erosion rates are about half of pre-bypassing rates. Erosion rates remained the same farther downdrift, where bypassing has not yet reached. As this offshore bypassing continues, the destruction of the Isles Dernieres will be slowed.

  6. Can barrier islands survive sea level rise? Tidal inlets versus storm overwash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, J.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island response to sea level rise depends on their ability to transgress and move sediment to the back barrier, either through flood-tidal delta deposition or via storm overwash. Our understanding of these processes over decadal to centennial timescales, however, is limited and poorly constrained. We have developed a new barrier inlet environment (BRIE) model to better understand the interplay between tidal dynamics, overwash fluxes, and sea-level rise on barrier evolution. The BRIE model combines existing overwash and shoreface formulations [Lorenzo-Trueba and Ashton, 2014] with alongshore sediment transport, inlet stability [Escoffier, 1940], inlet migration and flood-tidal delta deposition [Nienhuis and Ashton, 2016]. Within BRIE, inlets can open, close, migrate, merge with other inlets, and build flood-tidal delta deposits. The model accounts for feedbacks between overwash and inlets through their mutual dependence on barrier geometry. Model results suggest that when flood-tidal delta deposition is sufficiently large, barriers require less storm overwash to transgress and aggrade during sea level rise. In particular in micro-tidal environments with asymmetric wave climates and high alongshore sediment transport, tidal inlets are effective in depositing flood-tidal deltas and constitute the majority of the transgressive sediment flux. Additionally, we show that artificial inlet stabilization (via jetty construction or maintenance dredging) can make barrier islands more vulnerable to sea level rise. Escoffier, F. F. (1940), The Stability of Tidal Inlets, Shore and Beach, 8(4), 114-115. Lorenzo-Trueba, J., and A. D. Ashton (2014), Rollover, drowning, and discontinuous retreat: Distinct modes of barrier response to sea-level rise arising from a simple morphodynamic model, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 119(4), 779-801, doi:10.1002/2013JF002941. Nienhuis, J. H., and A. D. Ashton (2016), Mechanics and rates of tidal inlet migration: Modeling and application to

  7. A life-cycle model for wave-dominated tidal inlets along passive margin coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminack, Christopher T.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2018-03-01

    A regional overview of 107 wave-dominated tidal inlets along the U.S. Atlantic coast, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast, and Canadian Gulf of St. Lawrence coast yielded a generalized wave-dominated tidal inlet life-cycle model that recognized the rotational nature of tidal inlets. Tidal inlets are influenced by concurrently acting processes transpiring over two timescales: short-term, event-driven processes and long-term, evolutionary processes. Wave-dominated tidal inlets are classified into three rotational categories based on net longshore sediment transport direction and rotation direction along the landward (back-barrier) portion of the inlet channel: downdrift channel rotation, updrift channel rotation, or little-to-no channel rotation. Lateral shifting of the flood-tidal delta depocenter in response to available estuarine accommodation space appears to control inlet channel rotation. Flood-tidal delta deposits fill accommodation space locally within the estuary (i.e., creating bathymetric highs), causing the tidal-inlet channel to rotate. External influences, such as fluvial discharge, pre-existing back-barrier channels, and impeding salt marsh will also influence inlet-channel rotation. Storm events may rejuvenate the tidal inlet by scouring sediment within the flood-tidal delta, increasing local accommodation space. Wave-dominated tidal inlets are generally unstable and tend to open, concurrently migrate laterally and rotate, infill, and close. Channel rotation is a primary reason for wave-dominated tidal inlet closure. During rotation, the inlet channel lengthens and hydraulic efficiency decreases, thus causing tidal prism to decrease. Tidal prism, estuarine accommodation space, and sediment supply to the flood-tidal delta are the primary variables responsible for tidal inlet rotation. Stability of wave-dominated tidal inlets is further explained by: stability (S) = tidal prism (Ω) + estuarine accommodation space (V) - volume of annual sediment supply (Mt

  8. Classification of tidal inlets along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vikas, M.; Reddy, N.A.; Rao, S.; JayaKumar, S.

    Regime. In: Barrier islands from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, S.P. Leatherman (Ed.), Academic Press, New York. Vu Thi Thu Thuy., 2013. Aspects of Inlet Geometry and Dynamics. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Civil Engineering, The University... stream_size 21106 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Eng_116_912.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Eng_116_912.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Procedia Engineering 116...

  9. Reconstruction of paleo-inlet dynamics using sedimentologic analyses, geomorphic features, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages: former ephemeral inlets of Cedar Island, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, R.; Wood, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Cedar Island, VA is a low-profile, washover-dominated barrier island that has breached at least three times in the past sixty years. Cedar Island Inlet, a former wave-dominated tidal inlet, was open for the following time periods: 1) 1956-1962, 2) 1992-1997, and 3) 1998-2007. Air photos, satellite imagery, and geomorphic features (i.e., relict flood tidal deltas, recurved-spit ridges) record the spatial and temporal extent of the three ephemeral inlets. Based on three sediment vibracores, benthic foraminiferal and sedimentologic analyses offer high resolution insights of inlet dynamics and lifecycle evolution. Four foraminiferal biofacies are completely dominated by Elphidium excavatum (54-100%) and contain unique assemblages of accessory species based on cluster analyses: tidal inlet floor (low abundance estuarine and shelf species; 23% Haynesina germanica); flood tidal delta/inlet fill (high abundance estuarine and shelf species; 2% Buccella frigida, 2% Ammonia parkinsoniana, and 2% Haynesina germanica); high-energy inlet fill (low abundance, low diversity shelf species; 9% Elphidium gunteri); and washover/beach/aeolian (low abundance, predominantly shelf species; 3% Buccella frigida and 3% Ammonia parkinsoniana). The estuarine biofacies is barren of all foraminifera. Grain size trends indicate a first order coarsening-upward succession with second order coarsening- and fining-upwards packages in inlet throat deposits, while a first order fining-upward succession is observed in flood tidal delta deposits with two second order coarsening-upward packages in the proximal flood tidal delta. Contrary to typical wave-dominated tidal inlets that open, migrate laterally in the direction of net longshore transport, and close, the 1998-2007 tidal inlet, and possibly the 1956-1962 inlet, migrated laterally and rotated, whereas the 1992-1997 inlet remained stationary and did not rotate. In the vicinity of the vibracores, preserved deposits are attributed to the 1956-1962 and

  10. Chronostratigraphic Analysis of Geomorphic Features within the Former Sinepuxent Inlet: A Wave-Dominated Tidal Inlet along Assateague Island, MD, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminack, C.; McBride, R.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The former Sinepuxent Inlet, located along the mixed-energy, wave-dominated Assateague Island, MD-VA, USA, contains some of the most robust recurved-spit ridges along the span of the barrier island. In addition, this former tidal inlet exhibits a poorly developed flood-tidal delta containing at least two sets of curvilinear ridges known as "washarounds". Historical maps and nautical charts indicate that the former Sinepuxent Inlet was open from 1755 to 1832. However, previous studies conducted at the former Sinepuxent Inlet hypothesized that the site was exposed to episodic breaching events because of the extensive width of the former inlet throat, constrained by the northern and southern recurved-spit ridges. A total of 16 sediment cores, 10 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) samples, and three 14C samples (mixed benthic foraminifera and eastern mud snail [Ilyanassa obsolete]) were collected from the former Sinepuxent Inlet to place morphostratigraphic units into a chronological context. Six OSL samples were collected from the northern and southern recurved-spit ridges at mean sea level (MSL) to constrain genesis ages. Southern recurved-spit ages varied more than their northern counterparts, ranging from 1640 to 1990 AD. The northern recurved-spit ridges varied in age from 1770 to 1900 AD. Two OSL samples collected from flood-tidal delta ridges yielded ages from 1680 to 2000 AD. In addition, two 14C samples collected at 128 and 101 cm below MSL within the inlet throat yielded ages between 1720 and post-1950 AD. Ultimately, these dates overlap with the inlet activity phase as indicated in historical documents. Conversely, two OSL samples (155 and 201 cm below MSL) and one 14C sample (134 cm below MSL) collected from the inlet throat returned ages between 760 and 1465 AD. The contrast in ages between the older inlet throat and subaerial ridge samples supports the hypothesis that the former Sinepuxent Inlet was reactivated numerous times. Thus, the three age

  11. Classification of tidal inlets along the Central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.A.; Vikas, M.; Rao, S.; JayaKumar S.

    ) as long as the alongshore sediment bypasses the tidal inlet. Classification of coastal systems in a broader view is necessary for the management of tidal inlets. There are several methods to classify tidal inlets based on different perspectives namely geo...

  12. Observation and modeling of the evolution of an ephemeral storm-induced inlet: Pea Island Breach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez Montoya, Liliana; Sciaudone, Elizabeth J.; Mitasova, Helena; Overton, Margery F.

    2018-03-01

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina is a wave-dominated barrier island system that has experienced the opening and closure of numerous inlets in the last four centuries. The most recent of those inlets formed after the breaching of Pea Island during Hurricane Irene in 2011. The Pea Island Breach experienced a rapid evolution including episodic curvature of the main channel, rotation of the ebb channel, shoaling, widening by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, and finally closing before the summer of 2013. Studying the life cycle of Pea Island Breach contributes to understanding the behavior of ephemeral inlets in breaching-prone regions. This topic has gained relevance due to rising sea levels, a phenomenon that increases the chances of ephemeral inlet formation during extreme events. This study explores the spatiotemporal effects of tides, waves, and storms on flow velocities and morphology of the breach by means of remotely sensed data, geospatial metrics, and a numerical model. The combined use of observations and results from modeling experiments allowed building a conceptual model to explain the life cycle of Pea Island Breach. Wave seasonality dominated the morphological evolution of the inlet by controlling the magnitude and direction of the longshore current that continuously built transient spits at both sides of the breach. Sensitivity analysis to external forcings indicates that ocean waves can modify water levels and velocities in the back barrier. Sound-side storm surge regulates overall growth rate, duration, and decay of peak water levels entering the inlet during extreme events.

  13. Evolution and Impacts of a New Inlet Formed in Fire Island National Park by Superstorm Sandy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, R. D.; Flagg, C. N.; Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Schwab, W. C.; Denny, J. F.; Christensen, B. A.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy impacted the New York / New Jersey area on October 29, 2012 and brought a storm surge of 1.5 to 2.5 m and waves with a significant wave height of 9.5 m to the south shore of Long Island, New York. The storm cut three inlets across Fire Island barrier islands. Two of the inlets were closed mechanically, but the third inlet, cut through a wilderness area of the Fire Island National Seashore, remains open and provides a rare opportunity to study the evolution and dynamics of an unmanaged inlet. This new inlet formed where Fire Island is narrow and is near the site of an earlier inlet that closed in 1825. Great South Bay (GSB) is located between Fire Island and the Long Island mainland. The salinity in GSB increased by 5 salinity units following the breach and has remained high. GSB has had chronic water quality issues associated with a high population density that may be moderated by flow related to the new inlet. Water flow through the new inlet is controlled by the difference between offshore tide and GSB tide, but GSB tide does not appear to have been altered by flow through the inlet. This is different from the traditional view of inlet dynamics where a balance is sought between channel cross-sectional area, tidal prism (which together give channel velocity) and longshore sediment transport. At SoMAS we have been monitoring the evolution of the new inlet since its formation. We have conducted overflights at 1 to 3 week intervals to track the changing inlet geometry and the location of flood-tidal and ebb-tidal deltas. We have also done small-boat bathymetric surveys of the channel itself every 3 to 5 weeks to track the shape and cross-sectional area of the channel. The channel was quite small shortly after the breach with a depth of about 2 m. The channel grew fast as it cut into underlying fine-grain sediments, reaching a depth of over 6 m following several late winter storms. The inlet channel initially migrated quickly to the west, but its

  14. Hurricane Irma's Effects on Dune and Beach Morphology at Matanzas Inlet, Atlantic Coast of North Florida: Impacts and Inhibited Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Conlin, M. P.; Johnson, H. A.; Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Woo, H. B.; Kelly, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    During energetic coastal storms, surge from low atmospheric pressure, high wave set-up, and increased wave activity contribute to significant morphologic change within the dune and upper beach environments of barrier island systems. Hurricane Irma made landfall on the southwestern portion of the Florida peninsula, as a category 4 storm on Sept 10th, 2017 and tracked northward along the axis of the Florida peninsula for two days before dissipating over the North American continent. Observations along the North Florida Atlantic coast recorded significant wave heights of nearly 7 m and water levels that exceeded predictions by 2 meters on the early morning of Sept. 11th. At Fort Matanzas National Monument, the dune and upper beach adjacent to Matanzas Inlet experienced landward retreat during the storm, diminishing the acreage of dune and scrub habitat for federally-listed endangered and threatened animal species, including the Anastasia beach mouse, gopher tortoises, and several protected shore birds. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveys, conducted prior to the passage of the storm (Sept. 8) and immediately after the storm (Sept. 13) document dune scarp retreat >10 m in places and an average retreat of 7.8 m (+/- 5.2 m) of the 2-m beach contour, attributable to the event, within the study region. Although it is typical to see sedimentary recovery at the base of dunes within weeks following an erosive event of this magnitude, our follow up RTK surveys, two weeks (Sept. 26) and five weeks (Oct. 19) after the storm, document continued dune retreat and upper beach lowering. Subsequent local buoy observations during the offshore passage of Hurricanes Jose, Maria (Sept. 17 and 23, respectively) and several early-season Nor'easters recorded wave heights well above normal (2-3 meters) from the northeast. The lack of recovery may reveal a threshold vulnerability of the system, in which the timing of multiple moderate-to-high wave events, in the aftermath of a land falling

  15. New K-Ar ages of the Martel Inlet Group, king George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliani Junior, E.; Kawashita, K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents twelve new K-Ar whole rocks ages of the Martel Inlet Group that crops out in the Keller Peninsula region, in the Admiralty Bay, King George Island. That lithostratigraphic unit has been considered the oldest one know in the area and it is the result of several volcanic and volcanoclastic episodes occurred probably during the Upper Jurassic. As the group is mainly represented by lithologies that show low-grade metamorphic changes and metasomatic evidences, as well as other alteration processes, it has been difficult to obtain that expected age, specially using the K-Ar method. A significant number of time values concentrated between 40 and 50 Ma, independently of the unit's position in the strategraphic context, could be suggesting an important tectono-thermal event that affected the area setting the isotopic results by re-heating and/or by chemical processes. (author) [pt

  16. NOAA Digital Orthophotography for the Coasts of Connecticut and Long Island, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Project: NOAA Digital Orthophotography for the Coasts of Main/New Hampshire, Massachusetts/Rhode Island/Connecticut, and Hudson River/Long Island /NY/NJ Contract No....

  17. Ichthyoplankton transport from the African coast to the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, Timothée; Mason, Evan; Moyano, Marta; Berraho, Amina; Colas, Francois; Sangrà, Pablo; Hernández-León, Santiago; Ettahiri, Omar; Lett, Christophe

    2011-08-01

    The Canary Upwelling System (CUS), a major eastern boundary upwelling system, sustains large cross-border fisheries of small pelagic fish, which poses the question of stock connectivity. Studies suggest that ichthyoplankton transport from the northwest African coast to the Canary Islands (CI) is facilitated by coastal-upwelling associated filaments. Here we analyze connections between larval supply to the CI and sardine and anchovy populations that spawn over the continental shelf. For both species, ichthyoplankton observations (1) at the shelf and (2) near the island of Gran Canaria (GC) are used. Predictions of ichthyoplankton transport to GC are obtained from the Ichthyop Lagrangian transport model, which is forced by a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (ROMS) that reproduces the regional circulation. Results show that upwelling filaments play an important role in the transport of larvae to GC. However, (1) filaments are not the only mechanism, and (2) filament presence does not necessarily imply larval transport. Anchovy and sardine larval presence at GC appears to be independent of the respective adult spawning seasonality. Combining of observed and modeled data does not succeed in reproducing the observed larval patterns at GC. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain this discrepancy in larval transport to GC.

  18. Tides at the east coast of Lanzarote Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavent, M.; Arnoso, J.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of this work is the study of the ocean tides at the east coast of Lanzarote (Canary Islands). We have analyzed time series of tide gauge and bottom pressure observations available in the region and we have made a further comparative validation with recent global and local ocean tide models. Lanzarote island shows singular features, with regard its volcanic structure and geomorphological properties and, also, concerning the characteristics of the ocean tides in the surrounding waters. For this reason, this region experiences a great interest in Geodesy and Geodynamics. Particularly, an accurate modelization of the ocean tides is of great importance to correct with high accuracy the effect of the ocean over the multiple geodetic measurements that are being carried out in the Geodynamic Laboratory of Lanzarote, LGL (Vieira et al., 1991; 2006). Furthermore, the analysis of tide gauge and bottom pressure records in this area is of great importance to investigate sea level variations, to evaluate and quantify the causes of these changes and the possible correlation with vertical movements of the Earth's crust. The time series of sea level and bottom pressure data considered in this work are obtained at two different locations of the island and, in each of them, using several sensors at different periods of time. First location is Jameos del Agua (JA) station, which belongs to the LGL. This station is placed in the open ocean, 200 meters distant from the northeastern coast of the island and at 8 meters depth. The observations have been carried out using 3 bottom pressure sensors (Aanderaa WLR7, SAIV TD301A and Aqualogger 210PT) at different periods of time (spanning a total of six years). Second location is Arrecife (AR) station, which is 23 km south of JA station. In this case, the sea level data come from a float tide gauge belonging to the Instituto Español de Oceanografía, installed at the beginning of the loading bay, and a radar tide gauge from the

  19. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  20. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  1. 76 FR 35978 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Long Island, New York Inland Waterway From East Rockaway Inlet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or e-mail Mr. Judy Leung-Yee, Project Officer, First Coast Guard District, [email protected] , or telephone (212) 668-7165. If you have...

  2. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling

  3. 77 FR 23119 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Dauphin Island Race; Mobile Bay; Mobile, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Dauphin Island Race; Mobile Bay; Mobile, AL AGENCY... Special Local Regulations for the Dauphin Island Race in the Mobile Bay, Mobile, AL from 9 a.m. until 5 p... Captain of the Port (COTP) Mobile or the designated Coast Guard Patrol Commander. DATES: The regulations...

  4. Virginia Coast Reserve 2007 Remote Sensing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    beaches, maritime forests , wetlands, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons ; - Natural lands and built up areas along Cape Charles, VA are...representative of barrier island coasts , worldwide; and - It is a major natural resource for the Mid Atlantic Region. Imagery-derived information for...support Joint Logistics Over the Shore. This experiment uses the VCR to study a barrier island coast with coastal lagoons , tidal inlets, and

  5. Seasonal dynamics of adjoining tidal coastal inlet on east coast of India ­measurements and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Reddy, N.A.; Ramanamurty, M.V.; ManiMurali, R.; ArunaKumar, A.; Rao, S.

    and estuary configurations is considered in this study. The two inlets considered in this study show different opening and closure conditions albeit similar offshore and hinterland conditions. A desktop study on the variations of general morphology changes...

  6. 77 FR 421 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Long Island, New York Inland Waterway From East Rockaway Inlet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ..., mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. This temporary final rule..., (76 FR 60733) and that work was unexpectedly delayed. This rule provides a time extension so that the rehabilitation can be completed in the shortest possible time frame. Without this rule the work would have to be...

  7. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. [40 FR 8504, Feb. 27, 1975] ...

  8. Coastal Inlets Research Program. Barrier Island Migration Over a Consolidating Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the toe of the dune to the high water line) for full development of eolian transport. However, the original Shore Protection Manual (1984...tested. Barrier islands overlying a compressible substrate are more likely to have reduced dune elevations due to consolidation, incur overall...migra- tion when the dune reaches a critical elevation with respect to the prev- alent storm conditions. Initial large-scale infusion of sand from an

  9. Characteristics of the birds community in the islands off the West Coast of Seogwipo City, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Byung Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to survey the status of birds in islands off the west coast of Seogwipo City – Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, Marado, and Gapado islands – in May and September 2013, as a part of the joint research of the Korean Biodiversity Consortium. As a result, 56 species were observed in those four islands: 167 individuals of 15 species on Beomseom, 79 individuals of 13 species on Hyeongjeseom, 193 individuals of 21 species on Gapado, and 354 individuals of 42 species on Marado; where seven threatened birds were confirmed to inhabit there. Apus pacificus is dominant on Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, and Marado while Passer montanus is dominant on Gapado. Species diversity was highest on Marado (2.54 which was followed by Gapado and Beomseom (1.99 and Hyeongjeseom (1.82. These findings will be used as valuable data to protect the biota of the islands off Seogwipo including Beomseom that was a state-designated natural reserve.

  10. Studying levels of Fukushima-derived radioactivity in sockeye salmon collected on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, T.; Starosta, K.; Chester, A.; Williams, J.; Ross, P. S.

    2017-11-01

    To investigate potential radioisotope contamination from the Fukushima nuclear accident, measurements of 10 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) collected on June 21 and June 31, 2014 in the Alberni Inlet on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada were performed using low-background gamma-ray spectroscopy. Activity concentrations of the anthropogenic radioisotopes 134Cs and 137Cs as well as the naturally occurring radioisotope 40K were measured. Detection of 137Cs occurred in half of the sockeye with activity concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.43 Bq/kg dry weight. The 134Cs isotope was detected in a single sockeye salmon with activity concentrations (±σ) measured in the two subsamples of 0.31(8) and 0.37(10) Bq/kg dry weight. The dose contribution from each of the measured radionuclides was calculated. In the sockeye salmon with the greatest radiocesium concentrations, the dose contribution from anthropogenic radiocesium (134Cs+137Cs) was found to be 450 times less than the dose from naturally occurring radionuclides in the same sample. In conclusion, the total radiocesium activity concentration in every sample is at least 500 times lower than Health Canada's action levels for radioactively contaminated food following a nuclear emergency. Assuming all seafood has as much radiocesium as the most contaminated sample measured, the added annual dose from radiocesium to an adult individual with an average Canadian level of seafood consumption would be 0.046 μSv per year.

  11. NOAA Digital Oblique Imagery Collection for the Coasts of Main/New Hampshire, Massachusetts/Rhode Island/Connecticut, and Hudson River/Long Island /NY/NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Project: NOAA Digital Orthophotography and Ancillary Oblique Imagery Collection for the Coasts of Main/New Hampshire, Massachusetts/Rhode Island/Connecticut, and...

  12. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m 3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m 3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Life on an Island: Early Settlers off the Rock Bound Coast of Maine. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs-Olson, Laurie

    This lesson, based on National Register of Historic Places files, describes early settlers' lives on some of the approximately 5,000 islands off the coast of Maine. During the mid-18th century many of these islands began to be inhabited by settlers eager to take advantage of this interface between land and sea. The lesson discusses the Blue Duck…

  14. Compared sub-bottom profile interpretation in fjords of King George Island and Danco Coast, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, C.; Vilches, L.; Vallejos, C.; Fernandez, R.; Molares, R.

    2015-12-01

    The fjords of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) and Danco Coast (Antarctic Peninsula) represent climatic transitional areas (subpolar to polar). The analysis of the distribution of sub-bottom facies helps to understand the prevailing sedimentary and climatic processes. This work seeks to characterize and compare the fjord seismic facies, of the indicated areas, to determine the main sedimentary processes in these regions. Compressed High-Intensity Radiated Pulse (CHIRP) records from 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler were obtained from the cruise: NBP0703 (2007); and pinger 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler records from the cruises: ECA-50 INACH (2014), and First Colombian Expedition (2015). Several seismic facies were recognized in all studied areas with some variability on their thickness and extent, and indicate the occurrence of similar sedimentary processes. These are: SSD facies (strong to weak intensity, stratified, draped sheet external shape), is interpreted as sedimentary deposits originated from suspended sediments from glaciar plumes and/or ice-rafting. This facies, in general, is thicker in the fjords of King George Island than in the larger fjords of the Danco Coast; on the other hand, within the Danco Coast area, this facies is thinner and more scarce in the smaller fjords and bays. MCM facies (moderate intensity, chaotic and with mounds) is associated with moraine deposits and/or basement. This is present in all areas, being most abundant in the Danco Coast area. WIC facies (weak intensity and chaotic) is interpreted as debris flows, which are present in both regions, but is most common in small fjords or bays in the Danco Coast, perhaps due to higher slopes of the seabed. In this work we discuss the influence of local climate, sediment plumes from the glaciers and other sedimentary processes on the distribution and geometry of the identified seismic facies.

  15. A Temporal Assessment of Barrier Island Vulnerability to Extreme Wave Events, Virginia Coast Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, D. J.; Moore, L. J.; Doran, K. J.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier island vulnerability to storm-generated waves is directly related to interactions between shoreface morphology and surf-zone dynamics. During storms, the seaward-most dune often limits the landward extent of wave energy; however, if maximum wave run-up exceeds the elevation of the top of the dune, overwash or inundation may occur. The ‘Storm Impact Scale’ presented by Sallenger (2000) classifies barrier beach vulnerability to individual storm events based on the elevation of the frontal dune crest and toe relative to maximum wave run-up. Changes to the dune and beachface can occur over a range of time scales, altering local vulnerability to extreme waves from storms, even as a storm is occurring. As sea level continues to rise, barrier beaches will become increasingly vulnerable to overwash and inundation from a greater number of storms. Our objective is to assess temporal trends in barrier island vulnerability while also exploring island-chain-wide response and recovery from two notably different storm events (Nor’Ida and Hurricane Bonnie) along the undeveloped barrier islands of the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR). We compare shoreline position and elevations of the frontal dune crest (DHIGH) and dune toe (DLOW) across four lidar data sets collected between 1998-2010. Observed significant wave height and period from the National Data Buoy Center and the Duck, NC Field Research Facility for the time period between 1985 and 2009 are classified to represent one-year, five-year, and ten-year storm events that serve as the basis for comparison of island vulnerability through time to a range of storm severity. Initial results reveal significant spatial and temporal variation in barrier island vulnerability to storms throughout the VCR. Despite the range of variability, all three beach features (i.e., shoreline position, DHIGH and DLOW), have moved landward indicating large-scale, widespread migration, or narrowing, of VCR barrier island landforms over the

  16. Assessment of wave energy potential along the south coast of Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingyang; Mayerle, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The south coast of Java Island has a great potential for wave energy. A long-term analysis of a 10-year wave dataset obtained from the ERA-Interim database is performed for preliminary wave energy assessment in this area, and it was seen that the annual median power is expected to exceed 20kW/m along the coast. A coastal wave model with an unstructured grid was run to reveal the wave conditions and to assess the wave energy potential along the coast in detail. The effect of swells and local wind on the wave conditions is investigated. Annual median wave power, water depth and distance from the coast are selected as criteria for the identification of suitable locations for wave energy conversion. Two zones within the study area emerge to be suitable for wave energy extraction. Swells from the southwest turned out to be the major source of wave energy and highest monthly median wave power reached about 33kW/m.

  17. Environmental disturbance and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.H.; Butler, R.W.; Vermeer, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Loss of habitat and oiling of birds represent two major threats to marine and shoreline bird populations on Vancouver Island's west coast, since their effects are widespread and cumulative. Offshore tanker traffic and local inshore shipments of petroleum products expose the coast to high risks of oiling. Large numbers of birds are most at risk when concentrated in relatively small areas, such as highly productive feeding areas, at communal roosting sites, and around nesting colonies. Logging of mature and old-growth forests has led to destruction of the nesting habitat of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus), while industrial development of estuaries, mudflats, and spawning grounds of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) has diminished feeding habitats for other marine and shoreline birds. Fisheries operations, human disturbance of colonies, and introduced predators, notably the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and mink (Mustela vison), have impacted upon local populations. Management actions and research needs to mitigate these threats are addressed. 40 refs

  18. The January 1989 Nestucca oil spill on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at the beginning of January 1989, bunker C oil from the barge Nestucca began coming ashore on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, necessitating a major environmental assessment and clean-up response on the part of a number of Canadian agencies, volunteers, Native groups and concerned Parties. The oil impacted the exposed outer coastline, including the recreational beaches of Pacific Rim National Park, and caused concerns with respect to harvesting the shellfish and other marine life, the important salmon and herring resources of the area, marine mammals including two colonies of sea otters and also with respect to seabird mortality. This spill, coupled wit public sensitivity to the Exxon Valdez spill and the transportation of oil and hazardous substances along the West Coast, led to several public inquiry processes as well as internal reviews of agency response, preparedness and other issues and generated considerable public outcry and criticism

  19. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inigo Valan, I.; Stephen, A.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Murthy, S.M.S.; Vijayalakshmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  1. Post-Glacial and Paleo-Environmental History of the West Coast of Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Annually laminated sediments in anoxic fjords are potentially ideal paleoclimate recorders, particularly once proxy measurements for atmospheric, oceanographic and sedimentological conditions have been calibrated. On the west coast of Canada, these sediments also record the changing environment as glaciers retreated from this area about 12 ka y BP. In Effingham Inlet, a 40 m core taken from the French ship the Marion Dufresne as part of the international IMAGES/PAGES program, gives evidence of an isolation basin at maximum glacial isostatic rebound and lowest paleo-sea level followed by eustatic sea level rise about 10 ka y BP. The Late Pleistocene record also marks dramatic changes in glacial sedimentary source and transport. Excellent chronological control is provided by complementary yet independent dating methods including radiocarbon dates on both plants and shells, identification of the Mazama Ash, varve counting and paleomagnetic, paleosecular variation correlations in the lower, pro-glacial section of the core which does not contain organic material. Paleoenvironmental evidence from this core provides information on immediate post-glacial conditions along the coast and rapid climatic changes throughout the Holocene, with implications for the possibility of early human migration routes and refugia.

  2. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source

  3. Hindcast of breaking waves and its impact at an island sheltered coast, Karwar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, G. Udhaba; Kumar, V. Sanil

    2018-01-01

    Variability in the characteristics of depth-induced wave breakers along a non-uniform coastal topography and its impact on the morpho-sedimentary processes is examined at the island sheltered wave-dominated micro-tidal coast, Karwar, west coast of India. Waves are simulated using the coupled wind wave model, SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III, forced by the reanalysis winds from different sources (NCEP/NCAR, ECMWF, and NCEP/CFSR). Impact of the wave breakers is evaluated through mean longshore current and sediment transport for various wave energy conditions across different coastal morphology. Study revealed that the NCEP/CFSR wind is comparatively reasonable in simulation of nearshore waves using the SWAN model nested by 2D wave spectra generated from WAVEWATCH III. The Galvin formula for estimating mean longshore current using the crest wave period and the Kamphuis approximation for longshore sediment transport is observed realistically at the sheltered coastal environment while the coast interacts with spilling and plunging breakers.

  4. Quantification of shoreline change along Hatteras Island, North Carolina: Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras, 1978-2002, and associated vector shoreline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Henderson, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Shoreline change spanning twenty-four years was assessed along the coastline of Cape Hatteras National Seashore, at Hatteras Island, North Carolina. The shorelines used in the analysis were generated from georeferenced historical aerial imagery and are used to develop shoreline change rates for Hatteras Island, from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras. A total of 14 dates of aerial photographs ranging from 1978 through 2002 were obtained from the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, and scanned to generate digital imagery. The digital imagery was georeferenced and high water line shorelines (interpreted from the wet/dry line) were digitized from each date to produce a time series of shorelines for the study area. Rates of shoreline change were calculated for three periods: the full span of the time series, 1978 through 2002, and two approximately decadal subsets, 1978–89 and 1989–2002.

  5. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-01-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T DM ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  6. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  7. COMPILATION OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP FOR RECONSTRUCTING THE DEGLACIATION OF ICE-FREE AREAS IN THE MARTEL INLET, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kellem Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We compiled a geomorphological map and a reconstruction map of glacier extension and ice-free areas in the Martel Inlet, located in King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Glacier extension data were derived of the digitized over a orthophotomosaic (2003, SPOT (February, 1988; March, 1995 and 2000, Quickbird (October, 2006 and Cosmo-Skymed (February, 2011 images. This mapping was supported by fieldworks carried out in the summers of 2007, 2010 and 2011, and by topographic surveys and geomorphic map in the proglacial area. Several types of glacial deposits were identified in the study area, such as frontal and lateral moraines, flutes, meltwater channels and erosional features like rock moutonnés, striations and U-shaped valleys. These features allowed reconstructing the evolution of the deglaciation environment in the Martel Inlet ice-free areas, which has been affected by a regional climate warming trend. The mapped data indicated the glaciers in study area lost about 0.71 km² of their ice masses (13.2% of the 50.3 km² total area, without any advances during 1979-2011. Since those years these glaciers receded by an average of 25.9 m a-1. These ice-free areas were susceptible to rapid post-depositional changes.

  8. 33 CFR 117.799 - Long Island, New York Inland Waterway from East Rockaway Inlet to Shinnecock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: (1) Only one moveable bridge span need be opened for the passage of vessel traffic between 7 a.m... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific... drawbridge listed in this section as soon as possible. (b) The draw of each bridge listed in this section...

  9. Tracing Sources of Total Gaseous Mercury to Yongheung Island off the Coast of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang S. Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations were measured on Yongheung Island off the coast of Korea between mainland Korea and Eastern China in 2013. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the impact of local mainland Korean sources and regional Chinese sources on local TGM concentrations using multiple tools including the relationship with other pollutants, meteorological data, conditional probability function, backward trajectories, and potential source contribution function (PSCF receptor modeling. Among the five sampling campaigns, two sampling periods were affected by both mainland Korean and regional sources, one was caused by mainland vehicle emissions, another one was significantly impacted by regional sources, and, in the remaining period, Hg volatilization from oceans was determined to be a significant source and responsible for the increase in TGM concentration. PSCF identified potential source areas located in metropolitan areas, western coal-fired power plant locations, and the southeastern industrial area of Korea as well as the Liaoning province, the largest Hg emitting province in China. In general, TGM concentrations generally showed morning peaks (07:00~12:00 and was significantly correlated with solar radiation during all sampling periods.

  10. Frog size on continental islands of the coast of Rio de Janeiro and the generality of the Island Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Rebouças

    Full Text Available Island Rule postulated that individuals on islands tend to dwarfism when individuals from mainland populations are large and to gigantism when mainland populations present small individuals. There has been much discussion about this rule, but only few studies were carried out aiming to reveal this pattern for anurans. Our study focused on measuring the size of individuals on islands and to find a possible pattern of size modification for insular anurans. Individuals were collected on continental islands, measured and compared to mainland populations. We selected four species with different natural history aspects during these analyses. Island parameters were compared to size of individuals in order to find an explanation to size modification. Three of the four species presented size shifting on islands. Ololygon trapicheiroi and Adenomera marmorata showed dwarfism, Boana albomarginata showed gigantism and in Thoropa miliaris there was no evident size modification. Allometric analysis also revealed differential modification, which might be a result of different selective pressures on islands in respect of mainland populations. Regression model explained most of the size modification in B. albomarginata, but not for the other species. Our results indicate that previous assumptions, usually proposed for mammals from older islands, do not fit to the anurans studied here. We support the assumption that size modification on islands are population-specific. Hence, in B. albomarginata some factor associated to competition, living area and isolation time might likely be responsible for gigantism on islands.

  11. On some aspects of Barrier Islands of the west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_11_508.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_11_508.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. The ecology, status, and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, K.; Butler, R.W.; Morgan, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    A symposium was held to combine various disciplines to provide a review of current knowledge about the marine biology of the west coast of Vancouver Island, with a particular emphasis on birds. Papers were presented on the physical and biological environment of the study region, the population and breeding ecology of marine and shoreline birds, the distribution of marine and shoreline birds at sea, the effects of oil pollution on the bird population, and the conservation of marine and shoreline birds. Separate abstracts have been prepared for two papers from this symposium

  13. Foraminiferal studies in nearshore regions of western coast of India and Laccadives Islands: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhalla, S.N.; Khare, N.; Shanmukha, D.H.; Henriques, P.J.

    The literature published on foraminiferal investigations carried out till date on nearshore, shallow water regions up to a depth of 50 m, along western coast of India, including Laccadive Archipelago has been reviewed. The aim is to prepare a...

  14. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Roland, N.W.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  16. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  17. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  18. Compositional variations and differential diagenesis in Miocene turbidites from the western coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Sonja; Westphal, Hildegard; Munnecke, Axel; Mateu Vicens, Guillem

    2010-05-01

    Compositional variations and differential diagenesis in Miocene turbidites from the western coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) Sonja Felder (1), Hildegard Westphal (1), Axel Munnecke (2), Guillem Mateu Vicens (1,3) (1) MARUM and Department of Geosciences, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen, Germany (2) GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Loewenichstr. 28, 91054 Erlangen, Germany (3) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Ple Aldo 7 Moro, 5. I-00185 Roma, Italy Cyclic alternations of limestone and marl beds crop out along the western coast of the Island of Mallorca. This Miocene succession is traditionally interpreted to represent more weathering-resistant turbidites interlayered by softer hemipelagic background sediment. However, the cementation patterns that dominate the appearance of the outcrop do not always consistently follow sedimentary layering; locally the cemented beds are systematically oblique to the sedimentary layers. Compositional studies demonstrate that differences in non-carbonate fraction, carbonate concentration and fossil content (e.g. foraminiferal assemblages) trace sedimentary bedding, regardless the diagenetic style. Limestone versus marl lithology, in contrast, is defined by the diagenetic style, tight cementation by calcite cements in the limestones versus low porosity and compaction in the marls. The reason for this striking pattern of diagenetic bedding cross-cutting sedimentary layers is assumed to be related to tectonic fracturing, opening pathways for diagenetic fluids. This example cautions the straight-forward interpretation of limestone-marl alternations as direct witnesses of environmental or climatic variations.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Méndez, E M; Astorga-España, M S; García-Montelongo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tanker traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms.

  20. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Mendez, E.Ma.; Garcia-Montelongo, F.J.; Astorga-Espana, Ma.S.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tank traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms. (Author)

  1. Factor driving heterotrophic dinoflagellate in relation to environment conditions in Kerkennah Islands (eastern coast of Tunisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Ben Brahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the seasonal variability of heterotrophic dinoflagellate in the station of Cercina (southern coast of Tunisia. Methods: Sampling was done in 2007 in Cercina station located in the western coast of Kerkennah (34°41'27'' N; 11°07'45'' E (Southern Tunisia. Three replicates of water samples were taken during 10 days of each month. Environmental variables and nutrients were measured in situ. Results: A significant seasonal difference was observed for temperature and water salinity. The highest values were observed in spring and summer. No significant seasonal difference was, however, detected for nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, silica and phosphate. Sixty-five species of dinoflagellate were identified in the station of Cercina. Abundance of dinoflagellates fluctuated between seasons with values showing a significant seasonal and monthly difference. The highest mean abundance was recorded in spring in April, while the lowest abundance was detected in December in winter. Protoperidinium granii was the main species contributing to the dissimilarity between spring and winter with 13.98% followed by Peridinium sp. with 12.5% of dissimilarity and by Polykrikos sp. with 10.58%. Conclusions: Heterotrophic dinoflagellates proliferate in spring and summer. This increase was justified by the nutrient availability. Protoperidinium granii and Polykrikos kofoidii were the main heterotrophic dinoflagellate making difference between seasons and their densities were positively correlated with both temperature and salinity.

  2. Shore protection for the coast of Mousuni Island in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sundar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mousuni Island in West Bengal, India is wide-open to Bay of Bengal. This island by virtue of its location is exposed to river flow as well as wave action. It is thus subjected to severe erosion along its south-western coastal stretch and also significantly affecting agriculture due to seawater inundation. This is due to the lower level of bund crest elevation combined with high water levels during coastal flooding. The most suitable method to arrest the shore erosion and salt water intrusion is to divert the flow gradually toward the deeper section of the channel. To meet this requirement, after carrying out a comprehensive profiling of the existing bund, bank connected series of spurs with locally available construction materials and unskilled labor are proposed. In order to design these spurs, the magnitude and direction of sediment movement along the stretch is estimated. The layout of protection measures is proposed based on a detailed analysis of site conditions and the environmental conditions. The tranquility inside the proposed coastal protecting structure is substantiated with a two-dimensional horizontal flow model. Furthermore, the behavior of the shorelines has been studied numerically with the proposed coastal protection measure. The detailed analysis of the results from the numerical model and the protection measure are discussed in this article.

  3. Cliffs and quarries in the eastern coast of the Favignana island (Sicily, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Luca; Peloso, Alessandro; Screpanti Tatì, Angelo; Verrubbi, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    Favignana Island (Sicily, Italy) is a historical and environmental attraction site frequented by tourists especially during the long warm season of the year. Over several centuries the sea cliffs constituted by calcareous sandstone outcropping in the east side of the island have been exploited for the production of building stone. Currently the quarries used for the rock extraction as well as the natural cliffs are undergoing extensive erosional and gravitational processes. Besides putting at risk the safety of the people attending the area, the widespread rock falls are likely to threaten sites of great historical and anthropological value that, once destroyed, can no longer be reconstructed. The rock mass quality assessment and slope displacements monitoring of cliffs were conducted with the aim of identifying the most active areas and providing support to the local authorities in the implementation of effective and sustainable mitigation measures. If adequate measures are taken in the future, operators and users of the tourist circuit will have the opportunity to enjoy these amazing sites with a lower landslide risk [it

  4. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  5. Nearshore waves and longshore sediment transport along Rameshwaram Island off the east coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Gowthaman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced Longshore Sediment Transport (LST play an important role in the dynamics of the Dhanushkodi sandspit located southeast of Rameshwaram. The LST along the Dhanushkodi coast is studied based on data collected simultaneously in Gulf of Mannar (GoM and Palk Bay (PB using directional waverider buoys. The numerical model REF/DIF1 was used to calculate the nearshore waves and the LST rate was estimated using three different formulae. The model validation was done based on the measured nearshore waves using InterOcean S4DW. Numerical model LITPACK was also used for simulating non-cohesive sediment transport and the LITLINE module was used to study the shoreline evolution over 5 years. Low net annual LST along PB (~0.01 × 106 m3 compared to the GoM region (0.3 × 106 m3 were due to the weak waves. Accretion in the region led to growth of the Dhanushkodi sandspit by 65 m during the period 2010-2015.

  6. Plutonium isotopes and 241Am in surface sediments off the coast of the Japanese islands before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am in the sediments at the coast of Japanese islands from 2008 to 2011 varied widely from one sampling site to another and were generally lower in sandy sediments at shallower sites, and higher in clayey sediments at deeper sites. In contrast, there seemed to be no temporal variation in the concentrations during the survey period. The 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu activity ratio was relatively higher than the global fallout presumably owing to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the ancestor, 241 Pu originating mainly from the hydrogen bomb explosion tests in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s. (author)

  7. Sediment textural characteristics and elemental distribution in the core sediments, Pullivasal and Kurusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two core samples were collected in order to assess the textual characteristics and elemental distribution of the sediments, from the lagoonal environment of Pullivasal and Kurusadai island, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. The distribution of the organic matter and calcium carbonate is chiefly controlled by the coral debris, shell fragments and mangrove litters. The elemental distribution is controlled by natural process and other trace elements are controlled by anthropogenic land based activities. Keywords: Sediment texture, Coral islands, Gulf of Mannar, Core sediments, Elemental distribution

  8. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  9. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inlet Geomorphology Evolution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Std Z39-18 Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP evaluates

  10. Boulder coastal deposits at Favignana Island rocky coast (Sicily, Italy): Litho-structural and hydrodynamic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Fabrizio; Corradino, Marta; Parrino, Nicolò; Besio, Giovanni; Presti, Valeria Lo; Renda, Pietro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; Sulli, Attilio; Antonioli, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    Boulders are frequently dislodged from rock platforms, transported and deposited along coastal zones by high-magnitude storm waves or tsunamis. Their size and shape are often controlled by the thickness of bedding planes as well as by high-angle to bedding fracture network. We investigate these processes along two coastal areas of Favignana Island by integrating geological data for 81 boulders, 49 rupture surfaces (called sockets) and fracture orientation and spacing with four radiocarbon dates, numerical hydrodynamic analysis, and hindcast numerical simulation data. Boulders are scattered along the carbonate platform as isolated blocks or in small groups, which form, as a whole, a discontinuous berm. Underwater surveys also highlight free boulders with sharp edges and sockets carved out in the rock platform. Boulders are composed of ruditic- to arenitic-size clastic carbonates. Their size ranges from 0.6 to 3.7 m, 0.55 to 2.4 m, and 0.2 to 1 m on the major (A), medium (B), and minor (C) axes, respectively. The highest value of mass estimation is 12.5 t. Almost all of boulders and sockets are characterized by a tabular or bladed shape. The comparisons between a) the fractures spacing and the length of A- and B-axes, and b) the frequency peaks of C-axis with the recurrent thickness of beds measured along the coastal zone demonstrate the litho-structural control in the size and shape of joint-bounded boulders. These comparisons, together with the similarity between the shapes of the boulders and those of the sockets as well as between the lithology of boulders and the areas surrounding the sockets, suggest that blocks originate by detachment from the platform edge. Thus, the most common pre-transport setting is the joint-bounded scenario. Hydrodynamic equations estimate that the storm wave heights necessary to initiate the transport of blocks diverge from 2 m to 8 m for joint-bounded boulders and from few tens of centimeters up to 11 m for submerged boulders. The

  11. LiDAR Mapping of Earthquake Uplifted Paleo-shorelines, Southern Wairarapa Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Angenent, J.; Marshall, J. S.; Clark, K.; Litchfield, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Pronounced forearc uplift occurs at the southern end of the margin along the Wairarapa coast, onshore of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. Along a narrow coastal lowland, a series of uplifted Holocene marine terraces and beach ridges preserve a geologic record of prehistoric coseismic uplift events. In January 2017, we participated in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program of the NSF SHIRE Project (Subduction at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment). We visited multiple coastal sites for reconnaissance fieldwork to select locations for future in-depth study. For the coastline between Flat Point and Te Kaukau Point, we used airborne LiDAR data provided by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) to create ArcGIS digital terrain models for mapping and correlating uplifted paleo-shorelines. Terrace elevations derived from the LiDAR data were calibrated through the use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying at one field site (Glenburn Station). Prior field mapping and radiocarbon dating results (Berryman et al., 2001; Litchfield and Clark, 2015) were used to guide our LiDAR mapping efforts. The resultant maps show between four and seven uplifted terraces and associated beach ridges along this coastal segment. At some sites, terrace mapping and lateral correlation are impeded by discontinuous exposures and the presence of landslide debris, alluvial fan deposits, and sand dunes. Tectonic uplift along the southern Hikurangi margin is generated by a complex interaction between deep megathrust slip and shallow upper-plate faulting. Each uplifted Holocene paleo-shoreline is interpreted to represent a single coseismic uplift event. Continued mapping, surveying, and age dating may help differentiate between very large margin-wide megathrust earthquakes (M8.0-9.0+) and

  12. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  13. History and distribution of steepland gullies in response to land use change, East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Michael; Arnold, Gregory; Seymour, Anne; Hambling, Randolph

    2012-06-01

    Following the clearance of indigenous forest (~ 1880s to 1920s) for pastoral use, actively eroding gullies had by the late 1950s become a pervasive form of erosion occupying 0.7% of the 7468 km2 of pastoral hill country within the East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand. Commencing in the early 1960s the primary strategy used to stabilise gully and other associated forms of erosion on degraded pastoral hill country was to establish exotic forest. We compare the status of gully erosion before reforestation commenced with that at the end of a ~ 40 year reforestation period (1957-1997) during which ~ 1350 km2 of exotic forest was planted. Trends in gully area and distribution by land cover (vegetation), but particularly in response to exotic reforestation, are examined for two contrasting geologic terrains. Over this ~ 40 year period, the incidence and extent of gully erosion in areas of hill country that have remained in pastoral use has declined. This was primarily due to the retirement and conversion of extensive areas of gully-prone farmland to exotic forest. Where implemented, the reforestation of this degraded pastoral hill country has proven to be efficient and successful in stabilising existing gullies. However, with the initiation of new gullies and growth of gullies that have remained untreated, the extent of land affected by gully erosion has increased by ~ 27% to ~ 0.9% of the regions' hill country area. To reverse this trend, further areas of severely eroding pastoral land will need to be retired with the aim of escalating the rate at which remaining gullies are treated and to prevent new ones developing, primarily through reforestation with exotic tree species or indigenous reversion.

  14. Seasonal behaviour of tidal inlets in a tropical monsoon area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.

    2008-01-01

    Morphodynamics of a tidal inlet system on a micro-tidal coast in a tropical monsoon influenced region is modelled and discussed. Influences of river flow and wave climate on the inlet morphology are investigated with the aid of process-based state-of-the-art numerical models. Seasonal and episodic

  15. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Lester

    Full Text Available Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1 to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2 to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44% will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m. Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  16. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  17. INLET STRATIFICATION DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An inlet stratification device (5) for a circuit circulating a fluid through a tank (1 ) and for providing and maintaining stratification of the fluid in the tank (1 ). The stratification de- vice (5) is arranged vertically in the tank (1) and comprises an inlet pipe (6) being at least partially...... formed of a flexible porous material and having an inlet (19) and outlets formed of the pores of the porous material. The stratification device (5) further comprises at least one outer pipe (7) surrounding the inlet pipe (6) in spaced relationship thereto and being at least partially formed of a porous...

  18. Annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) (Gastropoda: Nacellidae) in a rocky intertidal beach at Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    Widely distributed from the northern coast of Vietnam to the northern Japan, the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) occurs commonly on the south and east coasts of Korea. Despite their wide distribution range, few studies have investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata. In an attempt to understand the reproductive physiology of the limpet, we investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata from Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea. Histology revealed that the gonial mitosis commenced in January, as the female exhibited small oogonia (10-40 μm) in the follicle. From March to June, the oocyte size increased dramatically, and fully mature eggs (110-170 μm in diameter) appeared in early summer. First spawning males and females were observed in July, as the surface seawater temperature (SST) reached 22.1°C. The spawning male and females could be observed until the end of December. Gonad somatic index (GSI), a ratio of gonad mass to the total tissue weight, of the male ranged from 0.6 (April) to 17.9 (July), while the female GSI varied from 1.0 (February) to 18.3 (July). GSI of male and female declined rapidly from July to August, suggesting that the major purse of the spawning at the study site was between July and August. Our study suggested that the commercial catch of C. grata during July and August must be suspended at Ulleungdo Island, in order to protect the spawning limpets, which enhances C. grata recruitment and the population.

  19. Benthic habitat data of Wawaloi and Keei, Kona Coast, Island of Hawaii, August 2004 (NODC Accession 0070530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transects were made at two locations on the west side of the Island of Hawaii in August 2004 to study the structure and composition of the benthic habitat....

  20. Benthic habitat data for Wawaloi and Keei, Kona Coast, Island of Hawaii, August 2004 (NODC Accession 0070530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transects were made at two locations on the west side of the Island of Hawaii in August 2004 to study the structure and composition of the benthic habitat....

  1. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  2. Oil spill off the coast of Guimaras Island, Philippines: Distributions and changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Añasco, Nathaniel C; Iwai, Takenori; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-11-30

    The sinking of the Solar 1 tanker caused serious heavy oil pollution around Guimaras Island, Philippines. In the present study, variations of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs (alkPAHs) in some shellfish were investigated around Guimaras Island and other small islands from 3months to 5years after the spill. The total PAHs and alkPAHs in shellfish were detected in high concentrations at 448 and 33,666ng/g dry weight, respectively, in November 2006. The concentrations of alkPAHs gradually decreased, while the parent PAHs in shellfish degraded more slowly than the alkPAHs, which was likely due to the persistent characteristics of PAHs. The risks based on European Union regulations were insignificant in 2008, but total PAHs in shellfish were still over 8 times higher at the investigated sites in November 2011 than that before the oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elemental concentration and potential ecological risk assessment of reef associated surface sediments of Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, P; Krishnakumar, S; Silva, Judith D; Pradhap, D; Vidyasakar, A; Radhakrishnan, K; Godson, Prince S; Arumugam, K; Magesh, N S

    2018-03-01

    Thirty three surface sediments were collected for the present study to assess the elemental concentration and its associated ecological risk in the reef associated surface sediments, Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, South east coast of India. The distribution of calcium carbonate in the reef sediments is controlled by coral debris and shell fragments whereas the Organic matter (OM) content are chiefly derived from mangroves and sea grasses. The circulation of trace elements and Fe, Mn are controlled by the fluvial process and re-suspended sediments. The concentration of Pb was primarily controlled by migration of pollutants through long shore sediment transport process. The main source of Pb in the study area is from coal incinerating power plants and coal handling operations from harbors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Moneron Tsunami of September 5, 1971, and Its Manifestation on the Sakhalin Island Coast: Numerical Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, I. S.; Zaytsev, A. I.; Minaev, D. D.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Oshmarina, O. E.

    2018-01-01

    Observation data on the September 5, 1971, earthquake that occurred near the Moneron Island (Sakhalin) have been analyzed and a numerical simulation of the tsunami induced by this earthquake is conducted. The tsunami source identified in this study indicates that the observational data are in good agreement with the results of calculations performed on the basis of shallow-water equations.

  5. Distribution of 137Cs activities in clams, Tivela mactroidea collected along the northern coast of Venezuela and the island of Margarita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Clam meats were obtained directly from the fishermen on the beaches in front of where the clams were collected at eight sites; seven along the northern coast of Venezuela and one on the northern coast of the island of Margarita (Venezuela). Marine sediments were also collected in the same corresponding areas as the clams. 137 Cs was determined both in clam meats and the marine sediments by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry employing a hyperpure germanium detector. About 5 kg portions of clam meats were washed and dried in the laboratory, before 500 cm 3 volumes were transferred and weighed in the measuring containers. Similarly, 500 cm 3 volumes of marine sediments that were dried and ground to pass a 85 μm sieve were transferred to the measuring containers. The samples were counted for 150,000 seconds of real time. The 137 Cs activity of the clam meats ranged from -1 (our detection limit) to 0.36 Bq x kg -1 (dried weigh). These values are all within the range of values considered for environmental fallout from the nuclear weapons tests. Finally, all the values for the corresponding marine sediments were below our detection limit of 0.1 Bq x kg -1 of 137 Cs (dried weigh). (author)

  6. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  7. Conceptual development of the trail methodology for the preservation of intangible maritime heritage: A case for the Adriatic coast and islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Adriatic, the importance in tourism of the small rowing and sailing boats, like the gajeta and other heritage vessels, is clearly relevant, as icons of heritage boats adorn brochures, logos, and their names are bequested to hotels and restaurants. As a symbol, the gajeta stands for the heritage of the island, and the ethics of the place; these constitute an intangible treasure which highlights the lifestyle of the agriculturalist society. However, the distinct experience of the gajeta, or other local boats as a relevant form of tourist activity, is largely missing in the offerings of local tourist information centers and nature parks where they reside. This paper outlines a heritage trail interpretive strategy, which would create a network supporting small local tourist venues that showcase intangible maritime heritage of the coast and islands. The methodology creates an alterative to what is primarily leisure-based tourism that Adriatic counties like Croatia are experiencing in all but the largest cultural monuments and ecological reserves which provide avenues for community-based ecological management in remote regions.

  8. A study on the diversity of gastropods in Hormuz Island with first record of two species from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiallah Kheirabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the diversity of gastropod species in the intertidal zone of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf. Seasonal sampling was conducted in 7 selected sites by throwing nine random quadrates (0.5×0.5 m in each site. Samples of each site were separately transferred to the laboratory and identified by the standard keys and verified by the Conchology Museum of Tokyo University of Science. Forty -nine gastropod species were identified, from which 2 species, Turicula nelliae and Linatella caudata were recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The highest number of gastropods in one site was 28 species in site 1 (East of Marine Research Center, Also highest number of gastropods in one season was 35 species in winter and lowest number was in 28 species in summer. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, Margalef richness index and evenness index were calculated in the different sites and results showed that site 1 contained the most amount of the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices and site 6 (West of Island contained the most amount of the Simpson index. Also, site 3 (Mangrove forest showed the lowest amount of the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices, while maximum amount of evenness index occurred in this site.

  9. Mesostructural observations along the Western coast of Bel'kovsky Island: preliminary results (North-Eastern Laptev Sea region, Russian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzhbitsky, V. E.

    2003-04-01

    This study is based on the field works carried out by the Institute of the Lithosphere of Marginal Seas RAS in the central part of the Bel'kovsky island during 2002 August-September. In the tectonic sense the Bel'kovsky island is located in the eastern part of the Late Cretaceous (?) - Cenozoic Laptev Sea rift system and also is a part of extended Bel’kov horst, dividing Bel’kov Svyatoi Nos (in the east) and Anisin (in the west) rifts (e.g. Drachev et al, 1998). Mesostructural investigations included statistical measurments of kinematic indicators (cleavage planes, extensional veins, slickensides, axes of folds and bedding plains) in Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary formations and also slickensides in diabase magmatic complex (presumably of Late Paleozoic age). It is supposed, that this studies will allow to characterize the stages of regional tectonic processes: synsedimentary (slump) folds formation (1), NE-SW compression (2), which corresponds to the general (NW-SE trending) structural pattern of the island, E-W compression (3), expressed in N-S trending subvertical cleavage and associated strike-slips and thrust faults, NW-SE (4) and ENE-WSW - NE-SW (5) extension, expressed in strike-slip faults with different strike-slip component, and also, probably to specify the character of the recent tectonic processes near to the area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates. It is likely, that synsedimentary (slump) folds, identified in the Carboniferous clastic formation marks the paleoslope setting of New Siberian Islands Chukotka platform (block). Presumably, second of the determined stages corresponds to closing of the South Anyui Lyakhov paleooceanic basin in Neocomian; the last stage, expressed in wide-developed submeridional normal faults with sinistral strike-slip component along the western coast of the island, reflects the modern regional stress-field in area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates (e.g. Avetisov, 1999

  10. High Prevalence of Porocephalus crotali Infection on a Barrier Island (Cumberland Island) off the Coast of Georgia, with Identification of Novel Intermediate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Cleveland, Christopher A; Ruckdeschel, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Porocephalus crotali is a pentastomid parasite that uses crotaline snakes as definitive hosts and a variety of rodents as intermediate hosts. A study of definitive and intermediate pentastome hosts on Cumberland Island, Georgia, revealed high prevalence of P. crotali infection in crotalid snakes as well as several mammalian species. Despite the presence of numerous nymphs in some animals, clinical signs of disease were not observed. In intermediate hosts, the liver, mesentery, and reproductive organs were most commonly infected. No gross evidence of tissue damage was noted in association with the numerous encysted nymphal pentastomes, and histopathology demonstrated minimal reaction to the encysted nymphs. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the parasites were P. crotali. In contrast to many previous reports in rodents, the prevalence on this barrier island was high, and this is the first report of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and any insectivore species as intermediate hosts. Although generally not considered pathogenic, the long-term consequences of high nymph intensities on individuals deserve attention.

  11. Common SNPs in FTO gene are associated with obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population from the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple studies have provided compelling evidence that the FTO gene variants are associated with obesity measures. The objective of the study was to investigate whether FTO variants are associated with a broad range of obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population.We examined genetic association between 29 FTO SNPs and a comprehensive set of anthropometric traits in 843 unrelated individuals from an island population in the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia. The traits include 11 anthropometrics (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, bicondilar upper arm width, upper arm circumference, and biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal skin-fold thicknesses and two derived measures (BMI and WHR. Using single locus score tests, 15 common SNPs were found to be significantly associated with "body fatness" measures such as weight, BMI, hip and waist circumferences with P-values ranging from 0.0004 to 0.01. Similar but less significant associations were also observed between these markers and bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference. Most of these significant findings could be explained by a mediating effect of "body fatness". However, one unique association signal between upper arm width and rs16952517 (P-value = 0.00156 could not be explained by this mediating effect. In addition, using a principle component analysis and conditional association tests adjusted for "body fatness", two novel association signals were identified between upper arm circumference and rs11075986 (P-value = 0.00211 and rs16945088 (P-value = 0.00203.The current study confirmed the association of common variants of FTO gene with "body fatness" measures in an isolated island population. We also observed evidence of pleiotropic effects of FTO gene on fat-free mass, such as frame size and muscle mass assessed by bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference respectively and these pleiotropic effects might be

  12. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...morphologic response. Presently, the primary tool of the Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit is the Sediment Mobility Tool (SMT), which allows the user

  13. Age estimation and growth pattern of the island grouper, Mycteroperca fusca (Serranidae in an island population on the northwest coast of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Bustos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycteroperca fusca is one of the main predators of the Canarian archipelago coastal marine ecosystem. Nothing is known on the life history or population dynamics of this predatory serranid fish. In this study, age and growth of M. fusca were investigated by annual growth increment counts from 214 fish collected between January 2004 and December 2005. A year’s growth is represented by one opaque and one translucent ring. The island grouper is a slow-growing and long-lived species, with ages up to twenty years recorded. Length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=898 mm; k=0.062 year-1; and t0= −3.83 year, the Schnute growth model (y1=262 mm; y2=707 mm; a=0.008; and b=1.98, and the seasonalised von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=908 mm; k=0.061 year-1; t0= −3.83 year; C=2.58; and ts=0.542. Males and females show differences in growth.

  14. THE IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TERTIARY – QUARTENARY DEPOSITS BASED ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RECORDS OF SUBI KECIL ISLAND COAST, NATUNA DISTRICT, RIAU ARCHIPELAGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Tertiary to Quaternary deposits from coast of Subi Kecil Island, Natuna Distric, Riau Archipelago Province, were imaged with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR. The GPR survey was carried out by using GSSI Surveyor III/20 with 270 MHz and 40 MHz of 3200 MLF antennas. GPR data were processed using software GSSI’s RADAN for Windows NT™. The interpretation were done by using the radar facies as a groups of radar reflections. The GPR images of study area can be recoqnized in to several facies such as parallel, sub parallel, chaotic, oblique, mound and reflection-free. The calibration were done with geological data along the coast (cliff and outcrop. Unit A is the uppermost layer which is characterized by continous to non continous pararel reflection, srong reflector and high amplitude and is interpreted as alluvium deposits. Below the unit A is unit B which is characterized by non continous sub parallel, chaotic and mound reflector, strong reflector and high amplitude. Unit C and D (Mio-Oligocene are overlain by unit A and B include chaotic, reflection-free and, locally, discontinuous parallel, oblique mound reflector radar facies, correlatable at the cliff face to massive sands, mostly representing near coastal deposits. These units are bounded by continuous, high amplitude reflections that can be easily correlatable throughout the GPR profiles, serving as important stratigraphic markers. The GPR survey may improve the reconstruction of the depositional environments through the recognition of massive and unconsolidated sand deposits within unit A and B (Holocene. The stratigraphic framework was also improved through the recognition of the discontinuity surface between Units C and D.

  15. Post-Hurricane Ike coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, September 14-15, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Guy, Kristy K.

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 14-15, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, aboard a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ike data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown on September 9-10, 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail

  16. Modeling Interactions between Backbarrier Marshes, Tidal Inlets, Ebb-deltas, and Adjacent Barriers Exposed to Rising Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; FitzGerald, D.

    2016-02-01

    Along barrier island chains, tidal exchange between the backbarrier and the coastal ocean supports unique saltwater and brackish ecosystems and is responsible for exporting sediment and nutrients to the surrounding coast. Tidal prism, basement controls, and wave and tidal energy dictate the size and number of tidal inlets and the volume of sand sequestered in ebb-tidal deltas. The inlet tidal prism is a function of bay area, tidal range, and secondary controls, including flow inertia, basinal hypsometry, and frictional factors. Sea- level rise (SLR) is threatening coastal environments, causing mainland flooding, changes in sediment supply, and conversion of wetlands and tidal flats to open water. These factors are impacting basinal hypsometry and increasing open water area, resulting in enlarging tidal prisms, increased dimensions of tidal inlets and ebb-tidal deltas, and erosion along adjacent barrier shorelines. Although the effects of SLR on coastal morphology are difficult to study by field observations alone, physics-based numerical models provide a sophisticated means of analyzing coastal processes over decadal time-scales and linking process causation to long term development. Here, we use a numerical model that includes relevant features in the barrier/tidal basin system, linking back-barrier marsh degradation, inlet expansion, and ebb-delta growth to barrier erosion through long-term hydrodynamic and morphology simulations. Sediment exchange and process interactions are investigated using an idealized domain resembling backbarrier basins of mixed energy coasts so that the sensitivity to varying SLR rates, interior marsh loss, sediment supply, and hydrodynamic controls can be more easily analyzed. Model runs explore these processes over geologic time scales, demonstrating the vulnerability of backbarrier systems to projected SLR and marsh loss. Results demonstrate the links between changing basin morphology and shoreface sedimentation patterns that initiate

  17. General Investigation of Tidal Inlets: Stability of Selected United States Tidal Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    characteristics in relation to the variability of the hydr; aulic parameters. An inlet can fall into any of four "stability" classes 48 Orientation Parameter 80...nlot he ~ :Ke(: t 93. If a fairly straight coast with uniform offshore slopes and a regionally homogeneous wave climate is considered, a reasonable...expectation is LhaL the longshore transport quantities and directions are homogeneous. Given a long-term variability in wave climate , a corresponding

  18. Variability in patterns of macro-epiphytic leaf community of Posidonia oceanica in the Islands of Kuriate: Western coast of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brahim Mounir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the response of the epiphyte community structure and biomass of the Posidonia oceanica (P. oceanica leaves to natural disturbance. Methods: Sampling of P. oceanica was carried in winter and summer on three sites in Kuriate Islands (western coast of Tunisia subject to different environments disturbances. Shoots of P. oceanica were preserved in seawater-formalin (5% solution for macro-epiphytes species identification in the laboratory. The samples were examined for leaf surface per shoot and the coverage (expressed as a percentage of leaf surface of each morphological group, then carefully scraped with a razor blade. Epiphytes and scraped leaves were oven-dried at 60 °C for 48 h. Biomass was expressed as g dry weight/shoot. Results: The biomass and the percentage cover of macro-epiphytic leaves showed seasonal variation. The highest values of epiphytic leaves were detected in summer whereas the lowest values were registered during winter. ANOVA showed that Kuriate Islands functioned as a single ecosystem in terms assemblage of macro-epiphytic leaves since no significant variation was detected for biomass and percentage cover at the scale site. Our study showed that natural disturbance had no effect on the assemblage distribution and the biomass of macro-epiphyte on the leaves of P. oceanica between the scales of site, whereas variability at the smallest scale was detected. ANOVA showed that exposure to wind and current had no effect on the biomass of macro-epiphytes leaves. Conclusions: Biomass and assemblages of macro-epiphytic leaves of P. oceanica were high in summer and homogenous between all sites investigated. Natural disturbances such as exposure to wind have no effect on the distribution and the biomass of epiphytes on the shallow meadow.

  19. Jet Inlet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-044 Jet Inlet Efficiency Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John Wohleber Munitions Aerodynamics Sciences...CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John

  20. Occurrences of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata in relation with environmental factors in Kerkennah Island (Southern coast of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Ben brahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the seasonal and monthly variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata (O. ovata in relation to environmental parameters in Kerkennah Island. Methods: Three water samples replicate of one-litter were taken daily for ten consecutive days on 12 months. All sampling water was kept in the dark at ambient temperature until their microscopic observation. Environmental variables such as salinity and temperature were measured in the field concomitantly as phytoplankton sampling. Nutrients (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were analysed in laboratory with Auto-analyser Luebbe type. Cell identification and enumeration in water samples were performed with an inverted microscope after the sedimentation. Results: The highest abundance of O. ovata was recorded in summer. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of abundance between seasons, whereas no significant difference for month was detected. Factorial analysis ordination showed a positive correlation of Ostreopsis mainly with temperature and low correlation with nitrite and nitrate whereas the second axis (with 26.30% of variance showed that Ostreopsis was correlated with temperature and salinity. Conclusions: The maximum abundance of Ostreopsis was reached in summer when temperature was high and a low relationship between O. ovata and nutrient was detected.

  1. A Bayesian Network to Predict Barrier Island Geomorphologic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.; Plant, N. G.; Thieler, E. R.; Turecek, A.; Stippa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how barrier islands along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States respond to storms and sea-level rise is an important management concern. Although these threats are well recognized, quantifying the integrated vulnerability is challenging due to the range of time and space scalesover which these processes act. Developing datasets and methods to identify the physical vulnerabilities of coastal environments due to storms and sea-level rise thus is an important scientific focus that supports land management decision making. Here we employ a Bayesian Network (BN) to model the interactions between geomorphic variables sampled from existing datasets that capture both storm-and sea-level rise related coastal evolution. The BN provides a means of estimating probabilities of changes in specific geomorphic characteristics such as foredune crest height, beach width, beach height, given knowledge of barrier island width, maximum barrier island elevation, distance from an inlet, the presence of anthropogenic modifications, and long-term shoreline change rates, which we assume to be directly related to sea-level rise. We evaluate BN skill and explore how different constraints, such as shoreline change characteristics (eroding, stable, accreting), distance to nearby inlets and island width, affect the probability distributions of future morphological characteristics. Our work demonstrates that a skillful BN can be constructed and that factors such as distance to inlet, shoreline change rate, and the presence of human alterations have the strongest influences on network performance. For Assateague Island, Maryland/Virginia, USA, we find that different shoreline change behaviors affect the probabilities of specific geomorphic characteristics, such as dune height, which allows us to identify vulnerable locations on the barrier island where habitat or infrastructure may be vulnerable to storms and sea-level rise.

  2. 33 CFR 110.170 - Lockwoods Folly Inlet, N.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lockwoods Folly Inlet, N.C. 110.170 Section 110.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.170 Lockwoods Folly Inlet, N.C. (a) Explosives...

  3. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  4. Bioavailability and Variability of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu Pollution in Soft Tissues and Shell of Saccostrea cucullata Collected from the Coast of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine pollution is a global environmental problem that its monitoring by ideal biomonitors is of great importance. Marine organisms, especially mussels, have the ability to accumulate metals from the environment; they can be considered as a biomonitoring agent. Methods: In this study, concentrations of heavy metals were measured in Saccostrea cucullata collected from seven sites on Qeshm Island's Coast. To achieve a digesting sample, each soft tissue was obtained and each of the shell homogeneous powders, 0.8 g and 1 g, respectively, were mixed with 10 mL HNO3 (69% and poured into a PTFE digestion vessel. The prepared samples were evaluated for Cd, Cu, and Zn by using a flame AAS Model 67OG and for Pb by using a graphite furnace AAS. Results: The distributions of metals between soft tissues and shells were compared in each sampling site. For seven sites, Cd, Zn, and Cu levels in soft tissues were higher than in the shells, but Pb level was higher in the shells than in the soft tissues. In addition, the results indicated the coefficient of variation (CV in the soft tissues was lower than the shells for Cd, and in the shells lower than the soft tissues for Pb, whereas the CV values were different in both the soft tissues and shells for Zn and Cu. Conclusion: The results of this study support using these materials in S. cucullata for biomonitoring. Shells are appropriate for monitoring Pb contamination, and the soft tissues are more apt for monitoring Cd, Zn, and Cu contamination.

  5. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea, the Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2016-06-01

    The air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) in the tropical ocean is an important part of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle, but the related investigations are limited. In this study, we simultaneously measured Hg(0) concentrations in surface waters and overlaying air in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea (SCS), Hainan Island, China, for 13 days on January-February 2015. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal variation of Hg(0) concentrations in air and surface waters, estimate the air-sea Hg(0) flux, and reveal their influencing factors in the tropical coastal environment. The mean concentrations (±SD) of Hg(0) in air and total Hg (THg) in waters were 2.34 ± 0.26 ng m(-3) and 1.40 ± 0.48 ng L(-1), respectively. Both Hg(0) concentrations in waters (53.7 ± 18.8 pg L(-1)) and Hg(0)/THg ratios (3.8 %) in this study were significantly higher than those of the open water of the SCS in winter. Hg(0) in waters usually exhibited a clear diurnal variation with increased concentrations in daytime and decreased concentrations in nighttime, especially in cloudless days with low wind speed. Linear regression analysis suggested that Hg(0) concentrations in waters were positively and significantly correlated to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (R (2) = 0.42, p sea Hg(0) fluxes were estimated to be 1.73 ± 1.25 ng m(-2) h(-1) with a large range between 0.01 and 6.06 ng m(-2) h(-1). The high variation of Hg(0) fluxes was mainly attributed to the greatly temporal variation of wind speed.

  6. Modeling the Response of Human Altered Natural Barrier Island Dynamics Along Assateague Island National Seashore to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; McNamara, D.; Schupp, C.

    2009-12-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore comprises a long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Geological evidence suggests that over recent centuries Assateague Island has steadily transgressed up the continental shelf in response to rising sea level. More recently, the natural barrier island dynamics governing Assateague’s evolution have been altered by human activity in three ways: the construction of a jetty and the subsequent interruption of alongshore sediment transport on the north end of Assateague and both the ongoing and abandoned maintenance of a continuous dune system along portions of Assateague with the concomitant modification to overwash dynamics. It is unclear how these varied human alterations to the natural barrier island dynamics will influence the response of Assateague to climate change induced shifts in forcing such as increased rates of sea level rise and changing storm patterns. We use LIDAR detected morphological data of Assateague Island as initial conditions in an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of the various human altered segments of Assateague Island to forcing changes. Traditional models exploring barrier island evolution contain only cross-shore dynamics therefore lacking important alongshore-spatial dynamics in aeolian and surf zone sediment transport. Results show that including alongshore dynamics alter the steady state of Assateague relative to simulations that only include cross-shore dynamics. Results will also be presented exploring the potential for regime shifts in steady state behavior under various scenarios for the rate of sea level rise and storm climate and varying management strategies.

  7. Coastal Inlets Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Geomorphic  Evolution • ADCP Currents  • ADCP Backscatter • Total Suspended  Solids • Turbidity  Sensor  Array • Wave Array • Light Attenuation • Surface...shore for both East and West Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 38 Coast Applications Summary and New Initiatives http://cirp.usace.army.milCIRP...Nearshore Berm Target Date: Sep FY15- Sep FY17 • Coastal experiments on Atlantic • Estuary experiments in Currituck Sound • Overland

  8. How a barrier island may react on a sea-level rise: The Holocene to Recent Rømø barrier island, Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Møller, Ingelise

    set up the water level increases considerably and the highest measured water level is 4.9 m above mean sea level. The barrier island is c. 14 km long and c. 4 km wide and is separated from the mainland by a c. 8 km wide lagoon. At the northern and southern parts of the island, tidal inlets occur...... of c. 15 m and a resolution of c. 20–30 cm (Nielsen et al., 2009), and dating of 70 core samples using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The area has experienced a relative sea-level rise of c. 15 m during the last c. 8000 years. The Recent tidal amplitude reaches c. 1.8 m. During strong wind...... with a width of 400–1000 m and depths of 7–30 m. Salt marsh areas, up to 2 km wide, are fringing the lagoonal coast of the island. Active eastward migrating aeolian dunes cover large parts of the island. The Rømø barrier island system is a very sand rich system as it receives coast parallel transported sand...

  9. Ship Sensor Observations for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats...

  10. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Outer Shelf...

  11. Non-Dive Activities for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  12. Tidal and subtidal exchange flows at an inlet of the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Stanev, Emil; Badewien, Thomas H.

    2018-03-01

    Observations of underway velocity profiles during complete spring and neap tidal cycles were used to determine whether the spatial structures of tidal and subtidal flows at a tidal inlet in a multiple-inlet embayment are consistent with those observed at single-inlet embayments. Measurements were obtained at the Otzumer Balje, one of the multiple inlets among the East Frisian Islands of the Wadden Sea. The 1.5 km-wide inlet displayed a bathymetric profile consisting of a channel ∼15 m deep flanked by tide observations spanned 36 h in the period May 11-12, 2011, while spring tide measurements exceeded 48 h from May 17 to May 19, 2011. Analysis of observations indicate that frictional effects from bathymetry molded tidal flows. Spatial distributions of semidiurnal tidal current amplitude and phase conform to those predicted by an analytical model for a basin with one inlet. Maximum semidiurnal flows appear at the surface in the channel, furthest away from bottom friction effects. Therefore, Otzumer Balje displays tidal hydrodynamics that are independent of the other inlets of the embayment. Subtidal exchange flows are laterally sheared, with residual inflow in the channel combined with outflow over shoals. The spatial distribution of these residual flows follow theoretical expectations of tidally driven flows interacting with bathymetry. Such distribution is similar to the tidal residual circulation at other inlets with only one communication to the ocean, suggesting that at subtidal scales the Otzumer Balje responds to tidal forcing independently of the other inlets.

  13. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  14. Performance study for inlet installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, Donald C.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design trade study was conducted by McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) and NASA LARC PAB to determine the impact of inlet design features incorporated for reduced detectability on inlet performance, weight, and cost, for both fighter and attack-type aircraft. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) techniques were used to prioritize trade study issues, and select 'best' air induction system configurations for each of two notional aircraft, the Multi-Role Fighter (MRF) and the Advanced Medium Attack (AMA) bomber. Database deficiencies discovered in the trade study process were identified, and technology roadmaps were developed to address these deficiencies. Finally, two high speed inlet wind tunnel model concepts were developed for follow-on wind tunnel investigations.

  15. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    An historical analysis of images and documents shows that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are undergoing rapid land loss and translocation. The barrier island chain formed and grew at a time when there was a surplus of sand in the alongshore sediment transport system, a condition that no longer prevails. The islands, except Cat, display alternating wide and marrow segments. Wide segments generally were products of low rates of inlet migration and spit elongation that resulted in well-defined ridges and swales formed by wave refraction along the inlet margins. In contrast, rapid rates of inlet migration and spit elongation under conditions of surplus sand produced low, narrow, straight barrier segments. Since the mid 1800s, average rates of land loss for all the MS islands accelerated systematically while maintaining consistency from island to island. In contrast, Dauphin Island, off the Alabama coast, gained land during the early 20th century and then began to lose land at rates comparable to those of the MS barriers. There is an inverse relationship between island size and percentage of land reduction for each barrier such that Horn Island lost 24% and Ship Island lost 64% of its area since the mid 1800s. Ship Island is particularly vulnerable to storm-driven land losses because topographic and bathymetric boundary conditions focus wave energy onto the island. The three predominant morphodynamic processes associated with land loss are: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition, (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of the Gulf and Soundside shores, and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. The western three fourths of Dauphin Island are migrating landward as a result of storms that erode the Gulf shore, overwash the island, and deposit sand in Mississippi Sound. Petit Bois, Horn, and Ship Islands have migrated westward as a result of predominant

  16. Mepraia spinolai in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean Coast (Chile - First insular record and feeding pattern on the Pan de Azúcar Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagua Franco Hernán

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a field collection performed at Pan de Azúcar Island in Northern Chile, 95 specimens representing all instars of Mepraia spinolai were collected. The intestinal contents of 55 specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and were found to be negative. This is the first record of an insular habitat for M. spinolai, where the insects had fed mainly on seabirds (78%, some on marine mammals (5%, and some on reptiles (7%.

  17. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    Hainan\\'s coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia; Wu, Zhongjie; Richter, Claudio; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Hainan's coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A new species of the genus Ammonicera (Prosobranchia, Omalogyridae) in a coralline algae community from Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tsukasa; Rolán, Emilio; Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    A species of the genus Ammonicera Vayssière, 1893 collected from coralline algae communities in Jeju Island, South Korea, is described as a new species, A. aurea, for science. Its morphological characters are described and illustrated by SEM micrographs. This new species can be clearly distinguished from other Ammonicera species from the Pacific Ocean by the presence of a spiral cord and about 25 slightly-elevated axial ribs, resulting in about 25 nodules at intersecting points of the cord and ribs on the last whorl of the teleoconch.

  20. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... southeast of Flapjack Island; or Eider Island; or Boulder Island; or Geikie Rock; or Lone Island; or the... islands) of the easternmost point of Russell Island; or Graves Rocks (on the outer coast); or Cormorant... and Preserve Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1178 Closed waters, islands and other areas. The...

  1. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... West Coast Vancouver Island (WCVI) troll and sport fishery and 15 percent in Alaska's Southeast Alaska... Chinook recreational TAC for north of Cape Falcon (C.5). --Cape Alava to Queets River (La Push Subarea...

  2. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  3. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    ) policy stipulates that natural coastal processes be maintained to the greatest extent possible and not be impeded so as to conserve landforms, habitats and natural ecosystem resources that reply on the landforms and processes for long-term sustainability of the national park. Storms and associated processes such as waves, tides, currents and relative sea-level change are critical elements for the formation and evolution of these barrier islands, sand dunes, back-barrier sand flats and lagoons and vegetated wetlands. Processes such as wave run-up, overwash and barrier beaching, which occur during elevated storm surge are all necessary processes in enabling the efficient transfer of sediments, nutrients and marine water from the Atlantic Ocean across barriers and into Great South Bay. A large body of scientific data and information published over the past 50 years shows that such transfers of sediment and water from the ocean to the bays are essential for the long-term maintenance of the barrier island and back-bay systems and their biologically diverse habitats an d ecosystems. Current relative sea-level rise (~12 in/century) is chronic and pervasive in driving Long Island coastal change and with the likelihood of accelerating sea level rise in the near future, coastal hazards such as erosion, inundation, and storm surge flooding will increase, with corresponding increased risk to life and property on both Fire Island and on the mainland. In addition, the cumulative effects over the past century and more, both direct and indirect, of human impacts on the Long Island coast have altered the barrier beach and dunes and sediment transport processes. These impacts have likely increased the potential for breaching and increased risk to life and property on the coast and the mainland. Examples of direct impacts are: the stone jetties at Moriches, Shinnecock, and Fire Island tidal inlets and groin field structures at Westhampton that alter littoral processes, armoring and erosion

  4. Inlet design for high-speed propfans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study was performed to design inlets for high-speed propfan installation. The first part was a parametric study to select promising inlet concepts. A wide range of inlet geometries was examined and evaluated - primarily on the basis of cruise thrust and fuel burn performance. Two inlet concepts were than chosen for more detailed design studies - one apropriate to offset engine/gearbox arrangements and the other to in-line arrangements. In the second part of this study, inlet design points were chosen to optimize the net installed thrust, and detailed design of the two inlet configurations was performed. An analytical methodology was developed to account for propfan slipstream effects, transonic flow efects, and three-dimensional geometry effects. Using this methodology, low drag cowls were designed for the two inlets.

  5. Quantification of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast; implications for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen G.; Delaney, Keith B.

    2015-04-01

    Our assessment of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast (i.e., the coast of British Columbia) begins with a review of the 1964 tsunami generated by The Great Alaska Earthquake (M9.2) that resulted in significant damage to coastal communities and infrastructure. In particular, the tsunami waves swept up inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and damaged several communities; Port Alberni suffered upwards of 5M worth of damage. At Port Alberni, the maximum tsunami wave height was estimated at 8.2 m above mean sea level and was recorded on the stream gauge on the Somass River located at about 7 m a.s.l, 6 km upstream from its mouth. The highest wave (9.75 m above tidal datum) was reported from Shields Bay, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). In addition, the 1964 tsunami was recorded on tide gauges at a number of locations on the BC coast. The 1964 signal and the magnitude and frequency of traces of other historical Pacific tsunamis (both far-field and local) are analysed in the Tofino tide gauge records and compared to tsunami traces in other tide gauges in the Pacific Basin (e.g., Miyako, Japan). Together with a review of the geological evidence for tsunami occurrence along Vancouver Island's west coast, we use this tide gauge data to develop a quantitative framework for tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific coast. In larger time scales, tsunamis are a major component of the hazard from Cascadia megathrust events. From sedimentological evidence and seismological considerations, the recurrence interval of megathrust events on the Cascadia Subduction Zone has been estimated by others at roughly 500 years. We assume that the hazard associated with a high-magnitude destructive tsunami thus has an annual frequency of roughly 1/500. Compared to other major natural hazards in western Canada this represents a very high annual probability of potentially destructive hazard that, in some coastal communities, translates into high levels of local risk

  6. Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa tenuispora (Myxozoa), a parasite of the marine fish Aphanopus carbo (Trichiuridae), from the Atlantic coast of Madeira Island (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Costa, Graça; Azevedo, Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The first ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa tenuispora Kabata, 1960 (Myxozoa, Bivalvulida) from Madeira Island (Portugal), a parasite found in the gall bladder of the commercially important black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo Lowe is presented. This parasite possesses spherical to ellipsoidal disporous trophozoites. Spores have a central crescent-shaped body averaging 11.0 microm in length, 28.5 microm in thickness and 12.1 microm in width. The valves have two long opposite lateral processes (ribbon-like structures or tails), each averaging 173 microm in length. The total thickness of the spore averages 375 microm. The spore has two sub-spherical polar capsules (approximately 5.2 x 4.1 microm), each with a polar filament with 7 to 8 coils. Some ultrastructural aspects of the sporogonic stages are described. The trophozoites develop without contact with epithelial cells. The cytoplasmic membrane has numerous evenly distributed external slender projections about 0.3 to 0.7 microm long. The sporogenesis produces two spores without pansporoblast formation. In the matrix of the capsular primordium, microtubules with an unusual organisation were observed. A binucleate sporoplasm that contains several sporoplasmosomes and dense bodies fills the spore cavity and extends to the tails without penetrating them.

  7. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  8. Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities

  9. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  10. Shoaling Analysis at Brazos Island, Harbor Inlet, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and, consequently, is not a high priority for maintenance dredging funding. However, any impacts to inbound vessels ensure a major negative economic...Brownsville Ship Channel. Corpus Christi, TX. Report prepared for Port of Brownsville, TX. Martin Associates. 2008. Market assessment of the Port of

  11. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  12. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  13. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  14. Aerosol Inlet Characterization Experiment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Robert L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Uin, Janek [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observation System inlet stack was characterized for particle penetration efficiency from 10 nm to 20 μm in diameter using duplicate scanning mobility particle sizers (10 nm-450 nm), ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometers (60 nm-μm), and aerodynamic particle sizers (0.5 μm-20 μm). Results show good model-measurement agreement and unit transmission efficiency of aerosols from 10 nm to 4 μm in diameter. Large uncertainties in the measured transmission efficiency exist above 4 μm due to low ambient aerosol signal in that size range.

  15. Temporal and geographic variation in fish communities of lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Kettle, Arthur B.; Abookire, Alisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Nearshore and shelf fish communities were studied in three areas of lower Cook Inlet, Alaska: the Barren Islands (oceanic and well-mixed waters), Kachemak Bay (mixed oceanic waters with significant freshwater runoff), and Chisik Island (estuarine waters). Fish were sampled with beach seines (n=413 sets) and midwater trawls (n=39 sets). We found that lower Cook Inlet supported a diverse nearshore fish community of at least 52 species. Fifty of these species were caught in Kachemak Bay, 24 at Chisik Island, and 12 at the Barren Islands. Pacific sand lance dominated Barren Islands and Kachemak Bay nearshore habitats, comprising 99% and 71% of total individuals, respectively. The nearshore Chisik Island fish community was not dominated by any one species; instead it exhibited higher diversity. These spatial differences appeared linked to local oceanographic regimes and sediment influx. Analysis of historical data revealed that the nearshore Kachemak Bay fish community changed significantly between 1976 and 1996, showing increased diversity and abundance in several taxa, notably gadids, salmonids, pleuronectids, and sculpins. Decadal differences appeared to be related to large-scale climate changes in the North Pacific. Catches of most taxa peaked in May-August, and were low during other months of the year. Several species were present for only part of the summer. Species composition of seine catches differed significantly between consecutive high and low tides, but not between consecutive sets or years. Midwater trawls took 26 species, 14 of which were present in Kachemak Bay, 19 near Chisik Island, and 7 at the Barren Islands. Community structures in shelf and nearshore waters were similar: diversity was high and abundance low at Chisik Island, whereas a few abundant species dominated at both Kachemak Bay and the Barren Islands. In addition, the low fish abundance near Chisik Island appeared to be related to declining seabird numbers at this colony.

  16. Brazos Santiago Inlet, Texas, Shoaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared...focus of this study was to understand the shoaling process in the BSI and to suggest sand management alternatives to reduce inlet maintenance ...Santiago Inlet Entrance Channel maintenance dredging quantities (normal distribution). ........................................................ 20

  17. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  18. NOAA Digital Orthophotography for the Coasts of New York and New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Project: NOAA Digital Orthophotography for the Coasts of Main/New Hampshire, Massachusetts/Rhode Island/Connecticut, and Hudson River/Long Island /NY/NJ Contract No....

  19. Local and regional effects of reopening a tidal inlet on estuarine water quality, seagrass habitat, and fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrandt, Eric C.; Bartleson, Richard D.; Coen, Loren D.; Rybak, Olexandr; Thompson, Mark A.; DeAngelo, Jacquelyn A.; Stevens, Philip W.

    2012-06-01

    Blind Pass is an inlet that separates Sanibel and Captiva Islands in southwest Florida but has historically closed and opened by both anthropogenic and natural processes. In July 2010, a dredging project to open the small inlet between the two barrier islands was completed. The objective of this study was to use and supplement ongoing estuary-monitoring programs to examine the responses of water quality, seagrass habitat metrics, and fish assemblages both in the immediate vicinity of the inlet and at broader scales (up to 40 km2). As far as we are aware, there are no previous studies with this intensity of sampling, both before and after an inlet opening. Significant increases in salinity and turbidity were observed inside Blind Pass, with significant decreases in CDOM and chlorophyll a, however, the effects were not far-reaching and limited to less than 1.7 km from the inlet within Pine Island Sound. Seagrass habitat metrics were expected to respond rapidly after the inlet was opened given the reduced light attenuation. However, there were no changes in shoot densities, species composition, and epiphytic algae within the approximately one-year duration of the study. The reopening of the pass did not substantially change fish assemblage structure, except for those from deeper habitats. Although immediate increases in the abundances of estuarine-dependent species were predicted in shallow habitats post opening, this did not occur. In conclusion, the effects of reopening a relatively small ocean inlet on water quality were apparent in the immediate vicinity of the inlet (within 1.7 km), but far-reaching effects on water quality, seagrass metrics, and fish assemblages were not immediately apparent in this well-flushed estuary. If subtle changes in tidal exchange and circulation affect productivity of seagrasses or its fish assemblages at broad scales, it may take several years to reach a steady state.

  20. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  1. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  2. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  3. Disturbance effects of hurricane Hugo on a pristine coastal landscape: North Inlet, South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, L. R.; Michener, W. K.; Williams, T. M.; Blood, E. R.; Kjerve, B.; Smock, L. A.; Lipscomb, D. J.; Gresham, C.

    Despite its intensity and landfall at high tide, Hurricane Hugo (22 Sept. 1989) had only a modest impact on the geomorphology of the undeveloped coastal landscape at North Inlet, South Carolina. Pre- and post-Hugo aerial photographs (April 1987 and October 1989) showed no change in the salt-marsh creek network, nor could changes be seen in the size or shape of sand bars within the creeks. Several new, small washover fans formed on the adjacent barrier islands. These lobate fans extend 50 to 100 m from the dune line into the back barrier area and are deposited on older but recently formed fans in areas where the islands are thin and devoid of large shrubs and trees. Hugo's failure to have a more dramatic geomorphic effect was probably related to the rapid approach of the storm along a path perpendicular to the coast. This allowed minimal time for the surge to build and for wave attack to modify the shoreface. In contrast, the nearby coastal forest experienced extensive wind damage as well as tree mortality due to soil salinization by the surge. Wind damage was a function of tree species, diameter and soil type. The most severe damage occurred in mixed bottomland hardwood sites on Rutledge (sandy, silicious, thermic Typic Humaquepts) soils. Salt-induced foliage discoloration and defoliation became fully evident in the surge-inundated area by January 1990. Above-normal salt concentrations were found in shallow groundwater samples from sites up to the 3.0-m contour (MSL). Salt concentrations generally decreased inland from the forest-marsh boundary and with the passage of time. Trees standing along the forest-marsh boundary and in swales suffered the most severe salt-induced mortality. As of June 1991, new understory vegetation and pine seedlings appeared to be flourishing in the salt-affected area. Salinization also mobilized ammonium from soil storage as a result of ion exchange with seawater cations and disruption of nitrogen cycling processes. There was a virtual

  4. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  5. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  6. Ecological studies in the Bays and other waterways near Little Egg Inlet and in the Ocean in the vicinity of the proposed site for the Atlantic Generating Station, New Jersey (NODC Accession 7500270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September, 1971, Ichthyological Associates began an ecological study of Ocean sites off Long Beach Island and Little Egg Inlet, New Jersey, for Public Service...

  7. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  8. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  10. ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE STABILITY OF SMALL TIDAL INLETS: Part 2- DATA RICH ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Trang Minh; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Thatcher, Marcus; Mahanama, Sarith; Wang, Zheng Bing; Dissanayake, Pushpa Kumara; Hemer, Mark; Luijendijk, Arjen; Bamunawala, Janaka; Roelvink, Dano; Walstra, Dirkjan

    2018-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is likely to affect the thousands of bar-built or barrier estuaries (here referred to as Small tidal inlets - STIs) around the world. Any such CC impacts on the stability of STIs, which governs the dynamics of STIs as well as that of the inlet-adjacent coastline, can result in significant socio-economic consequences due to the heavy human utilisation of these systems and their surrounds. This article demonstrates the application of a process based snap-shot modelling approach, using the coastal morphodynamic model Delft3D , to 3 case study sites representing the 3 main STI types; Permanently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 1), Permanently open, alongshore migrating inlets (Type 2) and Seasonally/Intermittently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 3). The 3 case study sites (Negombo lagoon - Type 1, Kalutara lagoon - Type 2, and Maha Oya river - Type 3) are all located along the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. After successful hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model validation at the 3 case study sites, CC impact assessment are undertaken for a high end greenhouse gas emission scenario. Future CC modified wave and riverflow conditions are derived from a regional scale application of spectral wave models (WaveWatch III and SWAN) and catchment scale applications of a hydrologic model (CLSM) respectively, both of which are forced with IPCC Global Climate Model output dynamically downscaled to ~ 50 km resolution over the study area with the stretched grid Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model CCAM. Results show that while all 3 case study STIs will experience significant CC driven variations in their level of stability, none of them will change Type by the year 2100. Specifically, the level of stability of the Type 1 inlet will decrease from 'Good' to 'Fair to poor' by 2100, while the level of (locational) stability of the Type 2 inlet will also decrease with a doubling of the annual migration distance. Conversely, the stability of the Type 3 inlet

  11. Coolant inlet device for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroshi; Abe, Yasuhiro; Iwabuchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji.

    1969-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a coolant inlet device for liquid-metal cooled reactors which employs a coolant distributor serving also as a supporting means for the reactor core. The distributor is mounted within the reactor vessel so as to slide horizontally on supporting lugs, and is further slidably connected via a junction pipe to a coolant inlet conduit protruding through the floor of the vessel. The distributor is adapted to uniformly disperse the highly pressured coolant over the reactor core so as to reduce the stresses sustained by the reactor vessel as well as the supporting lugs. Moreover, the slidable nature of the distributor allows thermal shock and excessive coolant pressures to be prevented or alleviated, factors which posed major difficulties in conventional coolant inlet devices. (Owens, K. J.)

  12. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun; Tan, Ji Jian

    2016-01-01

    Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets

  13. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Tan, Ji Jian [Dept. of Research and Development, Shenyang Blower Works Group Co., Ltd., Shenyang (China)

    2016-11-15

    Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets.

  14. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  15. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  16. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  17. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  18. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  19. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  20. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined, where the second cone of a two cone center body collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  1. A Tale of Two Inlets: Tidal Currents at Two Adjacent Inlets in the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, B. M.; Weaver, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The tidal currents and hydrography at two adjacent inlets of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (Florida) were recently measured using a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system. Although the two inlets—Sebastian Inlet and Port Canaveral Inlet—are separated by only 60 km, their characteristics and dynamics are quite unique. While Sebastian Inlet is a shallow (~4 m), curved inlet with a free connection to the estuary, Port Canaveral Inlet is dominated by a deep (~13 m), straight ship channel and has limited connectivity to the Banana River through a sector gate lock. Underway measurements of tidal currents were obtained using a bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profiler; vertical casts of hydrography were obtained with a conductivity-temperature-depth profiling instrument; and continuous underway measurements of surface water hydrography were made using a Portable SeaKeeper system. Survey transects were performed to elucidate the along-channel variability of tidal flows, which appears to be significant in the presence of channel curvature. Ebb and flood tidal currents in Sebastian Inlet routinely exceeded 2.5 m/s from the surface to the bed, and an appreciable phase lag exists between tidal stage and current magnitude. The tidal currents at Port Canaveral Inlet were much smaller (~0.2 m/s) and appeared to be sensitive to meteorological forcing during the study period. Although the lagoon has free connections to the ocean 145 km to the north and 45 km to the south, Sebastian Inlet likely drains much of the lagoon to its north, an area of ~550 sq. km.

  2. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  3. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  4. Flow Control in a Compact Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, John C.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental investigation of flow control, via various control jets actuators, was undertaken to eliminate separation and secondary flows in a compact inlet. The compact inlet studied was highly aggressive with a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. A brand new facility was designed and built to enable various actuation methodologies as well as multiple measurement techniques. Techniques included static surface pressure, total pressure, and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Experimental data were supplemented with numerical simulations courtesy of Prof. Kenneth Jansen, Dr. Onkar Sahni, and Yi Chen. The baseline flow field was found to be dominated by two massive separations and secondary flow structures. These secondary structures were present at the aerodynamic interface plane in the form of two counter-rotating vortices inducing upwash along centerline. A dominant shedding frequency of 350 Hz was measured both at the aerodynamic interface plane and along the lower surface of the inlet. Flow control experiments started utilizing a pair of control jets placed in streamwise locations where flow was found to separate. Tests were performed for a range of inlet Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.44. Steady and unsteady static pressure measurements along the upper and lower walls of the duct were performed for various combinations of actuation. The parameters that were tested include the control jets momentum coefficient, their blowing ratio, the actuation frequency, as well as different combinations of jets. It was shown that using mass flux ratio as a criterion to define flow control is not sufficient, and one needs to provide both the momentum coefficient and the blowing ratio to quantify the flow control performance. A detailed study was undertaken on controlling the upstream separation point for an inlet Mach number of 0.44. Similar to the baseline flow field, the flow field associated with the activation of a two-dimensional control jet actuator was dominated by

  5. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone on Lake Erie, Port Clinton, Ohio. This zone is intended to...

  6. 76 FR 39292 - Special Local Regulations & Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... and fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is... Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on July 6, 2011 through 6 p.m. on October 2, 2011...

  7. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and adding an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the...

  8. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  9. Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series: Admiralty Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dethier, Megan N.; Hodson, Timothy O.; Kull, Kristine K.; Golden, Nadine E.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Moegling, Crescent; Pacunski, Robert E.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 initiated the Puget Sound Scientific Studies and Technical Investigations Assistance Program, designed to support research in support of implementing the Puget Sound Action Agenda. The Action Agenda was created in response to Puget Sound having been designated as one of 28 estuaries of national significance under section 320 of the U.S. Clean Water Act, and its overall goal is to restore the Puget Sound Estuary's environment by 2020. The Southern Salish Sea Mapping Project was funded by the Assistance Program request for proposals process, which also supports a large number of coastal-zone- and ocean-management issues. The issues include the recommendations of the Marine Protected Areas Work Group to the Washington State Legislature (Van Cleve and others, 2009), which endorses a Puget Sound and coast-wide marine conservation needs assessment, gap analysis of existing Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and recommendations for action. This publication is the first of four U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Maps that make up the Southern Salish Sea Mapping Project. The remaining three map blocks to be published in the future, located south of Admiralty Inlet, are shown in figure 1.

  10. Wind energy potential on Malaysian Resort Islands: a case study of Tioman, Redang and Perhentian Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2000-01-01

    Wind data collected at three east coast islands of Peninsular Malaysia namely Tioman, Redang and Perhentian Island were analyzed for the wind energy potential. The results were presented as Weibull distribution and preliminary analysis indicate that the site at Redang Island have the greatest potential with a mean power density of 85.1 w/m 2 at 10 meters above sea level. (Author)

  11. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-22

    considered to be divided into two groups of * islands. One is the eastern islands, made up of Gran Canaria, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura and the other...feet (1,370 to 2,130 meters) and Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the islands closest to the African coast, do not exceed 2,400 feet (730 meters) in...heights. Each island, except Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, is divided into two faces, one to the north, exposed to the humid winds, full of vegetation

  12. Fishery Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  13. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  14. Variable geometry for supersonic mixed-compression inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A.; Smeltzer, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    Study of two-dimensional and axisymmetric supersonic mixed-compression inlet systems has shown that the geometry of both systems can be varied to provide adequate transonic airflow to satisfy the airflow demand of most jet engines. Collapsing geometry systems for both types of inlet systems provide a generous amount of transonic airflow for any design Mach number inlet system. However, the mechanical practicality of collapsing centerbodies for axisymmetric inlet systems is doubtful. Therefore, translating centerbody axisymmetric inlets with auxiliary airflow systems to augment the transonic airflow capability are an attractive alternative. Estimates show that the capture mass-flow ratio at Mach number 1.0 can be increased approximately 0.20 for a very short axisymmetric inlet system designed for Mach number 2.37. With this increase in mass-flow ratio, even variable-cycle engine transonic airflow demand can be matched without oversizing the inlet at the design Mach number.

  15. Unstart coupling mechanism analysis of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.

  16. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  17. Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, Monty [ORPC Alaska, LLC, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-02-05

    Cook Inlet, Alaska is home to some of the greatest tidal energy resources in the U.S., as well as an endangered population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Successfully permitting and operating a tidal power project in Cook Inlet requires a biological assessment of the potential and realized effects of the physical presence and sound footprint of tidal turbines on the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Cook Inlet beluga whales. ORPC Alaska, working with the Project Team—LGL Alaska Research Associates, University of Alaska Anchorage, TerraSond, and Greeneridge Science—undertook the following U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) study to characterize beluga whales in Cook Inlet – Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with the Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project (Project). ORPC Alaska, LLC, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, (collectively, ORPC). ORPC is a global leader in the development of hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of ocean and river currents to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC is developing a tidal energy demonstration project in Cook Inlet at East Foreland where ORPC has a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) preliminary permit (P-13821). The Project collected baseline data to characterize pre-deployment patterns of marine mammal distribution, relative abundance, and behavior in ORPC’s proposed deployment area at East Foreland. ORPC also completed work near Fire Island where ORPC held a FERC preliminary permit (P-12679) until March 6, 2013. Passive hydroacoustic devices (previously utilized with bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea) were adapted for study of beluga whales to determine the relative abundance of beluga whale vocalizations within the proposed deployment areas. Hydroacoustic data collected during the Project were used to characterize the ambient acoustic environment of the project site pre-deployment to inform the

  18. 77 FR 22217 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Oregon Slough, Hayden Island, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0290] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Oregon Slough, Hayden Island, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., at Hayden Island, OR. This deviation is necessary to accommodate maintenance of the train signaling...

  19. 75 FR 35651 - Safety Zone, Long Island Sound Annual Fireworks Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Zone, Long Island Sound Annual Fireworks Displays AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce annual fireworks display safety zones for thirteen fireworks displays taking place throughout the Sector Long Island Sound Captain of the Port Zone...

  20. Geometry of tidal inlet systems : A key factor for the net sediment transport in tidal inlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, W.; de Swart, H. E.; van der Vegt, M.; Alebregtse, N. C.; Hoekstra, P.

    2014-01-01

    The net transport of sediment between the back-barrier basin and the sea is an important process for determining the stability of tidal inlet systems. Earlier studies showed that in a short basin, tidal flats favor peak ebb-currents stronger than peak flood currents, implying export of coarse

  1. The influence of groundwater depth on coastal dune development at sand flats close to inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; de Groot, Alma V.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2018-05-01

    A cellular automata model is used to analyze the effects of groundwater levels and sediment supply on aeolian dune development occurring on sand flats close to inlets. The model considers, in a schematized and probabilistic way, aeolian transport processes, groundwater influence, vegetation development, and combined effects of waves and tides that can both erode and accrete the sand flat. Next to three idealized cases, a sand flat adjoining the barrier island of Texel, the Netherlands, was chosen as a case study. Elevation data from 18 annual LIDAR surveys was used to characterize sand flat and dune development. Additionally, a field survey was carried out to map the spatial variation in capillary fringe depth across the sand flat. Results show that for high groundwater situations, sediment supply became limited inducing formation of Coppice-like dunes, even though aeolian losses were regularly replenished by marine import during sand flat flooding. Long dune rows developed for high sediment supply scenarios which occurred for deep groundwater levels. Furthermore, a threshold depth appears to exist at which the groundwater level starts to affect dune development on the inlet sand flat. The threshold can vary spatially depending on external conditions such as topography. On sand flats close to inlets, groundwater is capable of introducing spatial variability in dune growth, which is consistent with dune development patterns found on the Texel sand flat.

  2. Characterisation and airborne deployment of a new counterflow virtual impactor inlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shingler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new counterflow virtual impactor (CVI inlet is introduced with details of its design, laboratory characterisation tests and deployment on an aircraft during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE. The CVI inlet addresses three key issues in previous designs; in particular, the inlet operates with: (i negligible organic contamination; (ii a significant sample flow rate to downstream instruments (∼15 l min−1 that reduces the need for dilution; and (iii a high level of accessibility to the probe interior for cleaning. Wind tunnel experiments characterised the cut size of sampled droplets and the particle size-dependent transmission efficiency in various parts of the probe. For a range of counter-flow rates and air velocities, the measured cut size was between 8.7–13.1 μm. The mean percentage error between cut size measurements and predictions from aerodynamic drag theory is 1.7%. The CVI was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS Twin Otter for thirty flights during E-PEACE to study aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions off the central coast of California in July and August 2011. Results are reported to assess the performance of the inlet including comparisons of particle number concentration downstream of the CVI and cloud drop number concentration measured by two independent aircraft probes. Measurements downstream of the CVI are also examined from one representative case flight coordinated with shipboard-emitted smoke that was intercepted in cloud by the Twin Otter.

  3. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  4. Investigation on inlet recirculation characteristics of double suction centrifugal compressor with unsymmetrical inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Wang, Yingjun; Lao, Dazhong; Tong, Ding; Wei, Longyu; Liu, Yixiong

    2016-08-01

    The inlet recirculation characteristics of double suction centrifugal compressor with unsymmetrical inlet structures were studied in numerical method, mainly focused on three issues including the amounts and differences of the inlet recirculation in different working conditions, the circumferential non-uniform distributions of the inlet recirculation, the recirculation velocity distributions of the upstream slot of the rear impeller. The results show that there are some differences between the recirculation of the front impeller and that of the rear impeller in whole working conditions. In design speed, the recirculation flow rate of the rear impeller is larger than that of the front impeller in the large flow range, but in the small flow range, the recirculation flow rate of the rear impeller is smaller than that of the front impeller. In different working conditions, the recirculation velocity distributions of the front and rear impeller are non-uniform along the circumferential direction and their non-uniform extents are quite different. The circumferential non-uniform extent of the recirculation velocity varies with the working conditions change. The circumferential non-uniform extent of the recirculation velocity of front impeller and its distribution are determined by the static pressure distribution of the front impeller, but that of the rear impeller is decided by the coupling effects of the inlet flow distortion of the rear impeller, the circumferential unsymmetrical distribution of the upstream slot and the asymmetric structure of the volute. In the design flow and small flow conditions, the recirculation velocities at different circumferential positions of the mean line of the upstream slot cross-section of the rear impeller are quite different, and the recirculation velocities distribution forms at both sides of the mean line are different. The recirculation velocity distributions in the cross-section of the upstream slot depend on the static pressure

  5. CFD Models of a Serpentine Inlet, Fan, and Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, R. V.; Arend, D. J.; Castner, R. S.; Slater, J. W.; Truax, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were used to analyze the Versatile Integrated Inlet Propulsion Aerodynamics Rig (VIIPAR) located at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig consists of a serpentine inlet, a rake assembly, inlet guide vanes, a 12-in. diameter tip-turbine driven fan stage, exit rakes or probes, and an exhaust nozzle with a translating centerbody. The analyses were done to develop computational capabilities for modeling inlet/fan interaction and to help interpret experimental data. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the fan stage were used to predict the operating line of the stage, the effects of leakage from the turbine stream, and the effects of inlet guide vane (IGV) setting angle. Coupled axisymmetric calculations of a bellmouth, fan, and nozzle were used to develop techniques for coupling codes together and to investigate possible effects of the nozzle on the fan. RANS calculations of the serpentine inlet were coupled to Euler calculations of the fan to investigate the complete inlet/fan system. Computed wall static pressures along the inlet centerline agreed reasonably well with experimental data but computed total pressures at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) showed significant differences from the data. Inlet distortion was shown to reduce the fan corrected flow and pressure ratio, and was not completely eliminated by passage through the fan

  6. Hypersonic Combustor Model Inlet CFD Simulations and Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, E.; TokarcikPolsky, S.; Deiwert, G. S.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Numerous two-and three-dimensional computational simulations were performed for the inlet associated with the combustor model for the hypersonic propulsion experiment in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. The inlet was designed to produce a combustor-inlet flow that is nearly two-dimensional and of sufficient mass flow rate for large scale combustor testing. The three-dimensional simulations demonstrated that the inlet design met all the design objectives and that the inlet produced a very nearly two-dimensional combustor inflow profile. Numerous two-dimensional simulations were performed with various levels of approximations such as in the choice of chemical and physical models, as well as numerical approximations. Parametric studies were conducted to better understand and to characterize the inlet flow. Results from the two-and three-dimensional simulations were used to predict the mass flux entering the combustor and a mass flux correlation as a function of facility stagnation pressure was developed. Surface heat flux and pressure measurements were compared with the computed results and good agreement was found. The computational simulations helped determine the inlet low characteristics in the high enthalpy environment, the important parameters that affect the combustor-inlet flow, and the sensitivity of the inlet flow to various modeling assumptions.

  7. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one

  8. Coast Guard Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    looks on as Adm. Charles Ray thanks Adm. Chuck Michel for his service as the 30th vice commandant of the commandant Adm. Charles W. Ray relieved Adm. Charles D. Michel as vice commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard by . Following graduation and commissioning as an officer in the Coast Guard, Wright will be heading to the

  9. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East... within Big Lagoon; (iii) The areas within 200 feet from the remnants of the old fishing pier and within 200 feet from the new fishing pier at Fort Pickens; and (iv) Within 200 feet of non-motorized vessels...

  10. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet. [Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined where the second cone of a two cone centerbody collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  11. A comprehensive sediment budget for the Mississippi Barrier Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; De Vroeg, J.H.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; Swinkels, C.; Luijendijk, A.P.; De Boer, W.P.; Hoekstra, R.; Hoonhout, B.; Henrotte, J.; Smolders, T.; Dekker, F.; Godsey, E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to conceive any realistic plan for post-Katrina island restoration, it is necessary to understand the physical processes that move sand along the littoral drift zone off the coast of Mississippi. This littoral zone influences the character of the Mississippi barrier islands as they exist in

  12. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay. The...

  13. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo Bay...

  14. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ..., Molokai; Kaumalapau, Lanai; Kahalui, Maui and Kawaihae and Hilo on the Island of Hawaii). The purpose of...; Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kaumalapau, Lanai; Kahalui, Maui and Kawaihae and Hilo on the Island of Hawaii. The... Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish permanent safety zones in Hawaii's nine...

  15. The lichen and bryophyte vegetation of Cuverville Island, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, C; Aptroot, A; van Zanten, B

    1998-01-01

    In the Antarctic summer of 1993 the vegetation of Cuverville Island, a small island near the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, was mapped and described. Eleven different plant communities of algae, lichens, bryophytes and spermatophytes have been distinguished. The 51 species Vary from endemic

  16. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  17. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.; Breward, C. J. W.; Howell, P. D.; Oliver, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown

  18. Long time durability tests of fabric inlet stratification pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    and that this destroys the capability of building up thermal stratification for the fabric inlet stratification pipe. The results also show that although dirt, algae etc. are deposited in the fabric pipes in the space heating tank, the capability of the fabric inlet stratifiers to build up thermal stratification...

  19. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  20. Understanding processes controlling sediment transports at the mouth of a highly energetic inlet system (San Francisco Bay, CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Edwin P.L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is one of the largest estuaries along the U.S. West Coast and is linked to the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate, a 100 m deep bedrock inlet. A coupled wave, flow and sediment transport model is used to quantify the sediment linkages between San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate, and the adjacent open coast. Flow and sediment transport processes are investigated using an ensemble average of 24 climatologically derived wave cases and a 24.8 h representative tidal cycle. The model simulations show that within the inlet, flow and sediment transport is tidally dominated and driven by asymmetry of the ebb and flood tides. Peak ebb velocities exceed the peak flood velocities in the narrow Golden Gate channel as a result of flow convergence and acceleration. Persistent flow and sediment gyres at the headland tips are formed that limit sediment transfer from the ebb-tidal delta to the inlet and into the bay. The residual transport pattern in the inlet is dominated by a lateral segregation with a large ebb-dominant sediment transport (and flow) prevailing along the deeper north side of the Golden Gate channel, and smaller flood dominant transports along the shallow southern margin. The seaward edge of the ebb-tidal delta largely corresponds to the seaward extent of strong tidal flows. On the ebb-tidal delta, both waves and tidal forcing govern flow and sediment transport. Wave focusing by the ebb-tidal delta leads to strong patterns of sediment convergence and divergence along the adjacent Ocean Beach.

  1. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by a...

  2. 78 FR 61937 - Safety Zone; Port of Galveston, Pelican Island Bridge Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    ... Zone; Port of Galveston, Pelican Island Bridge Repair AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... safety during the Pelican Island Bridge Repair Project. This action is necessary to protect public... barge will be placed under the Pelican Island Bridge; therefore immediate action is needed to protect...

  3. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels waiting to enter... Sound that under current informal practice is routinely used by mariners as an anchorage while waiting...

  4. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  5. 78 FR 21537 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Front Street 5K Run...

  6. 78 FR 69995 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time...

  7. 75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Upper Mississippi River, mile 481.4, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow... Rock Island, Illinois to open on signal if at least 24 hours advance notice is given for 44 days from...

  8. 75 FR 41373 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race AGENCY: Coast... regulation for the annual Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race. This action is necessary to safely control... the Port Sector Detroit has determined that the start of the Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race...

  9. Movement and Dance on the Sea Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Mary Arnold

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of movement and dance in the lives of Blacks living on the Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. Claims that the isolation of this area helps preserve its Africanicity and culture. Focuses particularly on the uses of rhythmic chanting in worship and in children's games. (KH)

  10. Escaping Devil's Island: Confronting Racism, Learning History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that African Americans, especially males living in urban areas, are physically and mentally trapped on a Devil's Island. The penal colony on the coast of French Guiana is a metaphor for the boundaries and constraints that close off opportunities and constrain African American historical knowledge. The article argues that…

  11. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  12. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  13. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  14. Probabilistic estimation of dune retreat on the Gold Coast, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2014-01-01

    Sand dunes are an important natural buffer between storm impacts and development backing the beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. The ability to forecast dune erosion at a prediction horizon of days to a week would allow efficient and timely response to dune erosion in this highly populated area. Towards this goal, we modified an existing probabilistic dune erosion model for use on the Gold Coast. The original model was trained using observations of dune response from Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, USA (Plant and Stockdon 2012. Probabilistic prediction of barrier-island response to hurricanes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(F3), F03015). The model relates dune position change to pre-storm dune elevations, dune widths, and beach widths, along with storm surge and run-up using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian approach captures the uncertainty of inputs and predictions through the conditional probabilities between variables. Three versions of the barrier island response Bayesian network were tested for use on the Gold Coast. One network has the same structure as the original and was trained with the Santa Rosa Island data. The second network has a modified design and was trained using only pre- and post-storm data from 1988-2009 for the Gold Coast. The third version of the network has the same design as the second version of the network and was trained with the combined data from the Gold Coast and Santa Rosa Island. The two networks modified for use on the Gold Coast hindcast dune retreat with equal accuracy. Both networks explained 60% of the observed dune retreat variance, which is comparable to the skill observed by Plant and Stockdon (2012) in the initial Bayesian network application at Santa Rosa Island. The new networks improved predictions relative to application of the original network on the Gold Coast. Dune width was the most important morphologic variable in hindcasting dune retreat, while hydrodynamic variables, surge and

  15. Inlet Trade Study for a Low-Boom Aircraft Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Slater, John W.; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion integration for low-boom supersonic aircraft requires careful inlet selection, placement, and tailoring to achieve acceptable propulsive and aerodynamic performance, without compromising vehicle sonic boom loudness levels. In this investigation, an inward-turning streamline-traced and axisymmetric spike inlet are designed and independently installed on a conceptual low-boom supersonic demonstrator aircraft. The airframe was pre-shaped to achieve a target ground under-track loudness of 76.4 PLdB at cruise using an adjoint-based design optimization process. Aircraft and inlet performance characteristics were obtained by solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isolated cruise inlet performance including total pressure recovery and distortion were computed and compared against installed inlet performance metrics. Evaluation of vehicle near-field pressure signatures, along with under- and off-track propagated loudness levels is also reported. Results indicate the integrated axisymmetric spike design offers higher inlet pressure recovery, lower fan distortion, and reduced sonic boom. The vehicle with streamline-traced inlet exhibits lower external wave drag, which translates to a higher lift-to-drag ratio and increased range capability.

  16. Flow Simulation of Supersonic Inlet with Bypass Annular Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyoungJin; Kumano, Takayasu; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Conners, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    A relaxed isentropic compression supersonic inlet is a new concept that produces smaller cowl drag than a conventional inlet, but incurs lower total pressure recovery and increased flow distortion in the (radially) outer flowpath. A supersonic inlet comprising a bypass annulus to the relaxed isentropic compression inlet dumps out airflow of low quality through the bypass duct. A reliable computational fluid dynamics solution can provide considerable useful information to ascertain quantitatively relative merits of the concept, and further provide a basis for optimizing the design. For a fast and reliable performance evaluation of the inlet performance, an equivalent axisymmetric model whose area changes accounts for geometric and physical (blockage) effects resulting from the original complex three-dimensional configuration is proposed. In addition, full three-dimensional calculations are conducted for studying flow phenomena and verifying the validity of the equivalent model. The inlet-engine coupling is carried out by embedding numerical propulsion system simulation engine data into the flow solver for interactive boundary conditions at the engine fan face and exhaust plane. It was found that the blockage resulting from complex three-dimensional geometries in the bypass duct causes significant degradation of inlet performance by pushing the terminal normal shock upstream.

  17. Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.

  18. Yearly to decennial beach morphodynamics south the Arcachon inlet, France from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Aurelie; Sénéchal, Nadia; Lafon, Virginie; Almar, Rafael; Castelle, Bruno; Froidefond, Jean-Marie

    2010-05-01

    Historical shoreline oscillations along adjacent beaches south the Arcachon tidal inlet (south-west France) have been directly controled by sediment inputs carried through the inlet by the littoral drift. In parallell, field observations aiming at understanding high frequency processes governing short-term beach morphodynamics are conducted on a very few local beach sites, among them the beach of Biscarrosse located 12 km south the inlet where video cameras are implemented. It have been suggested that Biscarrosse Beach was recently affected by nearshore large-scale sandy structures propagating southward and originating from the inlet. But, basic information about the space and time dynamics of these bodies is actually missing. In addition, there is a spatial gap in knowledge concerning the hydro and morphodynamics particularities along the south-Gironde coast, i.e. between the ebb-delta and adjacent beaches which have been subject to intense monitoring and the beach of Biscarrosse. In fact, this is a complex area where beaches are dominated by channeled tidal flows on one hand, while typical swell-dominated beaches extend for several tens of kilometers on the other hand, characterized by rhythmic crescentic outer bar patterns and oblique bar-and-rip inner bar. So, large-scale observations are needed to fill the spatial gap in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of nearshore sandbar morphodynamics. To achieve this objective, we benefited from satellite remote sensing timeseries that were recently made available by the CNES, the French Space Agency, through the Kalideos database. It encompasses SPOT high resolution (10-m and 20-m pixels) multispectral imagery from 1986 to 2009. The method is based on a semi-empirical algorithm using seawater optical properties to invert satellite reflectance at the sea level into water depth (Lee et al., 1998; Lafon et al., 2002). The algorithm was calibrated with in situ reflectance measurements collected in the nearshore

  19. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  20. Field Observations of Meteotsunami in Kami-koshiki Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishimura, N.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Meteotsunami; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band, are known in Japan by the local term "abiki", literally meaning "net-dragging waves" in Japanese. Large abiki occur in bays and harbors along the west coast of Kyushu almost every year during winter and early spring. On 24-25 February, 2009, Urauchi Bay, located on west coast of Kami-Koshiki Island on the southeast coast of Kyushu, was subjected to a destructive meteotsunami. In this event, a maximum sea surface height of 3.1 m was observed at the inner part of the bay. At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. This event surpassed the previous record height for an abiki in Japan: 278 cm in Nagasaki Bay, also located west coast of Kyushu, in 1979. Generally, such an elongated inlet with narrow mouth as Urauchi bay provides calm water conditions even when offshore weather is stormy. Therefore, the area is regarded as a suitable place for the farming of large fish with a high market value. Possible damage to the extensive fish cage system as a result of meteotsunami events is of concern, especially because aquaculture is the main industry in the isolated islands. Forecasting of meteotsunami is a serious request from the local people. AIMS The objectives of the present study are to detect a meteotsunami event in Urauchi Bay and to clarify the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions related to its occurrence. This work attempts to observe the whole process of a meteotsunami event: generation offshore, resonance while it propagates, and finally amplification in the bay. Observations were conducted over a period of 82 days; 12 January to 4 April, 2010, aiming to record large secondary oscillations. A comprehensive measuring system for sea level, current and barometric pressure fluctuations was deployed covering not only inside and near Urauchi Bay but also further offshore in the vicinity of Mejima in the East China Sea. MAIN RESULTS 1) Large

  1. Should we attempt global (inlet engine airframe) control design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of multivariable design of the entire airplane control system is briefly addressed. An intermediate step in that direction is to design a control for an inlet engine augmentor system by using multivariable techniques. The supersonic cruise large scale inlet research program is described which will provide an opportunity to develop, integrate, and wind tunnel test a control for a mixed compression inlet and variable cycle engine. The integrated propulsion airframe control program is also discussed which will introduce the problem of implementing MVC within a distributed processing avionics architecture, requiring real time decomposition of the global design into independent modules in response to hardware communication failures.

  2. Simultaneous mass detection for direct inlet mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.L.

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of analytical techniques for application in trace analysis has led to interest in practical methods for real-time monitoring. Direct inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS) has been the subject of considerable activity in recent years. A DIMS instrument is described which consists of an inlet system designed to permit particles entrained in the inlet air stream to strike a hot, oxidized rhenium filament which serves as a surface ionization source. A mass analyzer and detection system then permits identification of the elemental composition of particulates which strike the filament

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  4. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  5. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  6. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  7. PIE Nacelle Flow Analysis and TCA Inlet Flow Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, C. F.; Arslan, Alan; Sundaran, P.; Kim, Suk; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation includes three topics: (1) Analysis of isolated boattail drag; (2) Computation of Technology Concept Airplane (TCA)-installed nacelle effects on aerodynamic performance; and (3) Assessment of TCA inlet flow quality.

  8. Status of the variable diameter centerbody inlet program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John D.; Linne, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Variable Diameter Centerbody (VDC) inlet is an ongoing research program at LeRC. The VDC inlet is a mixed compression, axisymmetric inlet that has potential application on the next generation supersonic transport. This inlet was identified as one of the most promising axisymmetric concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft during the SCAR program in the late 1970's. Some of its features include high recovery, low bleed, good angle-of-attack tolerance, and excellent engine airflow matching. These features were demonstrated at LeRC in the past by the design and testing of fixed hardware models. A current test program in the LeRC 10' x 10' Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) will attempt to duplicate these features on model hardware that actually incorporates a flight-like variable diameter centerbody mechanism.

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  10. AFSC/REFM: Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to collect data to understand the publics preferences for protecting the Cook Inlet beluga whale (CIBW), a distinct population...

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  14. Wave-driven fluxes through New River Inlet, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargula, A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of wave forcing to inlet circulation is examined using observations of waves, water levels, and currents collected in and near New River Inlet, NC during April and May, 2012. A boat-mounted system was used to measure current profiles along transects across the inlet mouth during three 14-hr periods, providing information on cross-inlet current structure, as well as discharge. Additionally, an array of 13 colocated pressure gages and profilers were deployed along 2 km of the inlet channel (5 to 10 m water depths) and ebb shoal channel (2 to 3 m water depths) and 19 colocated pressure gages and acoustic Doppler velocimeters were deployed across and offshore of the ebb shoal (1 to 5 m water depths) (Figure 1). The inlet is well mixed and tidal currents ranged from +/- 1.5 m/s, maximum discharge rates at peak ebb and flood were about 700 to 900 m3/s, offshore significant wave heights Hsig were 0.5 to 2.5 m, and wind speeds ranged from 0 to 14 m/s. Time-integrated residual discharge over semi-diurnal tidal cycles with similar ranges was ebb dominant during calm conditions (May 11, net out-of-inlet discharge ~ 55 m3, Hsig ~ 0.5 m, NW winds ~ 3 m/s) and flood dominant during stormier conditions (May 14, net into-inlet discharge ~ 15 m3, Hsig ~ 1.2 m, S winds ~ 6.5 m/s). Low-pass filtered in situ profiler data suggest wave-forcing affects the fluxes into and out of the inlet. The observations will be used to examine the momentum balance governing the temporal and cross-inlet (channel vs. shoal) variation of these fluxes, as well as the effect of waves on ebb and flood flow dominance. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research and a National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship.; Figure 1: Google Earth image of New River Inlet, NC. Colors are depth contours (scale on the right, units are m relative to mean sea level) and symbols are locations of colocated current meters and pressure gages.

  15. Energy efficient air inlet humidity control; Energiezuinige inblaasvochtregeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2005-03-15

    This project report describes the results of research conducted on the control of the inlet, humidification and dehumidification, based on the air inlet humidity rate. The project was carried out at a mushroom cultivation business in Heijen, the Netherlands [Dutch] Deze projectrapportage geeft de resultaten van het onderzoek naar het regelen van de luchtklep, bevochtiging en ontvochtiging, op basis van het inblaasvochtgehalte. Het project werd uitgevoerd op een champignonkwekerij in Heijen.

  16. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  17. The Scale Effects of Engineered Inlets in Urban Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, L.; Montalto, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff from urban surfaces is typically captured by engineered inlets for conveyance to receiving water bodies or treatment plants. Normative hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling tools generally assume 100% efficient inlets, though observations by the authors suggest this assumption is invalid. The discrepancy is key since the more efficiently the inlet, the more linearly hydrologic processes scale with catchment area. Using several years of remote sensing, the observed efficiencies of urban green infrastructure (GI) facility inlets in New York City are presented, as a function of the morphological and climatological properties of their catchments and events. The rainfall-runoff response is modeled with EPA to assess the degree of inaccuracy that the assumption of efficient inlets introduces in block and neighborhood-scale simulations. Next, an algorithm is presented that incorporates inlet efficiency into SWMM and the improved predictive skill evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe and root-mean-square error (RMSE). The results are used to evaluate the extent to which decentralized green stormwater management facilities positioned at the low points of urban catchments ought to be designed with larger capacities than their counterparts located further upslope.

  18. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  19. Impeller inlet geometry effect on performance improvement for centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianwu; Zhang, Yao; Peng, Junqi; Xu, Hongyuan; Yu, Weiping

    2008-01-01

    This research treats the effect of impeller inlet geometry on performance improvement for a boiler feed pump, who is a centrifugal pump having specific speed of 183 m.m 3 min -1 .min -1 and close type impeller with exit diameter of 450 mm. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. In order to improve the pump, five impellers have been considered by extending the blade leading edge or applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet compared with the original impeller. The 3-D turbulent flow inside those pumps has been analyzed basing on RNG k-ε turbulence model and VOF cavitation model. It is noted that the numerical results are fairly good compared with the experiments. Based on the experimental test and numerical simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Impeller inlet geometry has important influence on performance improvement in the case of centrifugal pump. Favorite effects on performance improvement have been achieved by both extending the blade leading edge and applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet: (2) It is suspected that the extended leading edge have favorite effect for improving hydraulic performance, and the much larger blade angle at impeller inlet have favorite effect for improving cavitation performance for the test pump: (3) Uniform flow upstream of impeller inlet is helpful for improving cavitation performance of the pump

  20. Impeller inlet geometry effect on performance improvement for centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xianwu; Zhang, Yao; Peng, Junqi; Xu, Hongyuan [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yu, Weiping [Zhejiang Pump Works, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-10-15

    This research treats the effect of impeller inlet geometry on performance improvement for a boiler feed pump, who is a centrifugal pump having specific speed of 183 m.m{sup 3}min{sup -1}.min{sup -1} and close type impeller with exit diameter of 450 mm. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. In order to improve the pump, five impellers have been considered by extending the blade leading edge or applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet compared with the original impeller. The 3-D turbulent flow inside those pumps has been analyzed basing on RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model and VOF cavitation model. It is noted that the numerical results are fairly good compared with the experiments. Based on the experimental test and numerical simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Impeller inlet geometry has important influence on performance improvement in the case of centrifugal pump. Favorite effects on performance improvement have been achieved by both extending the blade leading edge and applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet: (2) It is suspected that the extended leading edge have favorite effect for improving hydraulic performance, and the much larger blade angle at impeller inlet have favorite effect for improving cavitation performance for the test pump: (3) Uniform flow upstream of impeller inlet is helpful for improving cavitation performance of the pump

  1. Marine archaeological exploration on the western coast, Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Bhatt, B.K.

    large number of stone anchors at Gogha, Hatab, and Gopnath. These are similar to those reported from the western coast of the Saurashtra, particularly at Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2001), Bet Dwarka (Sundaresh et al. 2004), Miyani, Visawada (Gaur et al. 2007.... Stone Anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat Coast, Bulletin of Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology 26: 43-50 Yang, Q.Z. 1990. South- Song Stone Anchors in China, Korea and Japan, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 19 (2): 113-121. ...

  2. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  3. CFD application to supersonic/hypersonic inlet airframe integration. [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Supersonic external compression inlets are introduced, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and tests needed to study flow associated with these inlets are outlined. Normal shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction is discussed. Boundary layer control is considered. Glancing sidewall shock interaction is treated. The CFD validation of hypersonic inlet configurations is explained. Scramjet inlet modules are shown.

  4. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the

  5. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  6. Propagation of tides in the Cochin estuarine system, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; Revichandran, C.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Murukesh, N.

    analysis, (Heritage Publishers, New Delhi) 1988, pp. 400. 10 Srinivas K, Seasonal and interannual variability of sea level and associated surface meteorological parameters at Cochin, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 1999.... 11 Joseph K A, Strait dynamics of tropical tidal inlets, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 1996. 12 Unnikrishnan A S, Shetye S R & Gouveia A D, Tidal propa- gation in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network, west coast...

  7. Decadal morphological response of an ebb-tidal delta and down-drift beach to artificial breaching and inlet stabilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, E.; Sousa, C.; Ferreira, Ó.; Morales, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The morphodynamic response of a mixed-energy ebb-tidal delta (Guadiana estuary, southern Portugal) and its down-drift barrier island (Canela Island) to channel relocation and stabilisation by jetties is examined using a series of sequential bathymetric maps and vertical aerial photographs spanning five decades. Morphological analysis indicates that the ebb delta is in an immature state, characterised by weak sediment bypassing. Landward-migrating shoals on the swash platform have been produced by the jetty-induced artificial bank-breaching and by the collapse of the eastern portion of the delta. The welding of these shoals has largely controlled the evolution of the coast, with local accretion and erosion lasting for years, and large amounts of regional accretion occurring over decades due to sand accumulation against jetties located further down-drift. These observations provide insights into the potential response of a coast to very large, locally concentrated sand nourishment in the form of shoals. The main effects of the jetties on the coast are observed at the centre of Canela Island, with the production of an erosion hot-spot associated with a temporally persistent and divergent longshore transport providing sand to the adjacent areas. Significant accretion is anticipated for the next decade along the entire island due to the ongoing attachment of the presently observed shoals. After the depletion of this sediment source, and in the context of weak sediment bypassing, the most severe down-drift erosion induced by the jetties is predicted to occur some decades after their construction. This study demonstrates that the geomorphic response of an ebb-tidal delta to jetty construction must be considered at multiple temporal and spatial scales when assessing the impacts of jetties on the down-drift coast.

  8. Transmission geometry laserspray ionization vacuum using an atmospheric pressure inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; El-Baba, Tarick J; Inutan, Ellen D; Manly, Cory D; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    This represents the first report of laserspray ionization vacuum (LSIV) with operation directly from atmospheric pressure for use in mass spectrometry. Two different types of electrospray ionization source inlets were converted to LSIV sources by equipping the entrance of the atmospheric pressure inlet aperture with a customized cone that is sealed with a removable glass plate holding the matrix/analyte sample. A laser aligned in transmission geometry (at 180° relative to the inlet) ablates the matrix/analyte sample deposited on the vacuum side of the glass slide. Laser ablation from vacuum requires lower inlet temperature relative to laser ablation at atmospheric pressure. However, higher inlet temperature is required for high-mass analytes, for example, α-chymotrypsinogen (25.6 kDa). Labile compounds such as gangliosides and cardiolipins are detected in the negative ion mode directly from mouse brain tissue as intact doubly deprotonated ions. Multiple charging enhances the ion mobility spectrometry separation of ions derived from complex tissue samples.

  9. Validation of helium inlet design for ITER toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, C.; Seo, K.; Hamada, K.; Foussat, A.; Le Rest, M.; Mitchell, N.; Decool, P.; Savary, F.; Sgobba, S.; Weiss, K.P.

    2014-01-01

    The ITER organization has performed design and its validation tests on a helium inlet structure for the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil under collaboration with CERN, KIT, and CEA Cadarache. Detailed structural analysis was performed in order to optimize the weld shape. A fatigue resistant design on the fillet weld between the shell covers and the jacket is an important point on the helium inlet structure. A weld filler material was selected based on tensile test at liquid helium temperature after Nb 3 Sn reaction heat treatment. To validate the design of the weld joint, fatigue tests at 7 K were performed using heat-treated butt weld samples. A pressure drop measurement of a helium inlet mock-up was performed by using nitrogen gas at room temperature in order to confirm uniform flow distribution and pressure drop characteristic. These tests have validated the helium inlet design. Based on the validation, Japanese and European Union domestic agencies, which have responsibilities of the TF coil procurement, are preparing the helium inlet mock-up for a qualification test. (authors)

  10. Effect of inlet straighteners on centrifugal fan performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayomi, N.N.; Abdel Hafiz, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, 11718 Masaken, El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt); Osman, A.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Shoubra, Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The use of straighteners in the inlet duct of centrifugal fans is suggested for eliminating any inlet distortion. An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of inlet straighteners on the performance characteristics of centrifugal fans. Two types of straighteners were used, circular tubes and zigzag cross section, with different lengths. Circular tubes with different diameters have been investigated. The study was conducted on three types of fans, namely radial, backward with exit blade angles 60{sup o} and 75{sup o} and forward with 105{sup o} and 120{sup o}. The results confirm that the inlet straighteners exhibit different effects on the fan performance for the different blade angles. Accordingly, the results indicate the selection of long circular tube straighteners with large diameter for radial blades, long zigzag type for backward 60{sup o} blade angle and short zigzag type for backward 75{sup o} blade angle. Generally, good improvements in efficiency are observed for radial and backward blades on account of a slight drop in static head. In addition, an increase in the flow margin up to 12% and a decrease in the noise level from 3 to 5dB are indicated compared to the free inlet condition. On the contrary, unfavorable influences are exerted on the forward fan performance. (author)

  11. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 70, Number 2, February 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-02-01

    described in Ordnance Pamphlet No. 2018 and in such texts as Gunnery and Position Finding for Antiaircraft Artillery, published by the Coast Artillery School...native tribes, the principal one of which, the Hova, formerly ruled the island, are of Malaysian stock. There is but one language spoken. The French...has cost money and taxation has been disproportionately heavy. Madagascar like France is over officialled. A third cause of friction is religion, the

  12. Description of a new species of Glycymeris (Bivalvia: Arcoidea) from Madeira, Selvagens and Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.; Gulden, G.

    2009-01-01

    After revision of the Glycymerididae in the collection of the National Museum of Natural history, a new species, Glycymeris vanhengstumi is described here. It occurs off the coast of Madeira, the Selvagens and the Canary Islands.

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline change of a 280-km high-energy disrupted sandy coast from 1950 to 2014: SW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Guillot, Benoit; Marieu, Vincent; Chaumillon, Eric; Hanquiez, Vincent; Bujan, Stéphane; Poppeschi, Coline

    2018-01-01

    A dataset of 15 geo-referenced orthomosaics photos was generated to address long-term shoreline change along approximately 270 km of high-energy sandy coast in SW France between 1950 and 2014. The coast consists of sandy beaches backed by coastal dunes, which are only disrupted by two wide tidal inlets (Arcachon and Maumusson), a wide estuary mouth (Gironde) and a few small wave-dominated inlets and coastal towns. A time and spatially averaged erosion trend of 1.12 m/year is found over 1950-2014, with a local maximum of approximately 11 m/year and a maximum local accretion of approximately 6 m/year, respectively. Maximum shoreline evolutions are observed along coasts adjacent to the inlets and to the estuary mouth, with erosion and accretion alternating over time on the timescale of decades. The two inlet-sandspit systems of Arcachon and Maumusson show a quasi-synchronous behaviour with the two updrift coasts accreting until the 1970s and subsequently eroding since then, which suggests that shoreline change at these locations is controlled by allocyclic mechanisms. Despite sea level rise and the well-established increase in winter wave height over the last decades, there is no capture of significant increase in mean erosion rate. This is hypothesized to be partly the result of relevant coastal dune management works from the 1960s to the 1980s after a long period of coastal dune disrepair during and after the Second World War. This study suggests that long-term shoreline change of high-energy sandy coasts disrupted by inlets and/or estuaries is complex and needs to consider a wide range of parameters including, non-extensively, waves, tides, inlet dynamics, sea level rise, coastal dune management and coastal defences, which challenges the development of reliable long-term coastal evolution numerical models.

  14. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  15. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    this report represent past conditions and therefore are not intended for predicting future shoreline positions or rates of change. Rates of erosion for the Southeast Atlantic region were generally highest in South Carolina along barrier islands and headland shores associated with the Santee delta. Erosion was also rapid along some barrier islands in North Carolina. Highest rates of erosion in Florida were generally localized around tidal inlets. The most stable Southeast Atlantic beaches were along the east coast of Florida where low wave energy and frequent beach nourishment minimized erosion. Some beach segments in Florida accreted as a result of net longshore drift convergence around Cape Canaveral and around tidal inlets that were stabilized by jetties. Seawalls, riprap revetments, and groins were constructed in all the Southeast Atlantic states as initial community responses to long-term beach erosion. Although some states, such as Florida, still permit shoreline stabilization structures, beach nourishment has become the preferred method of mitigating long-term erosion. Beach nourishment is common in all of the Southeast Atlantic states except Georgia.

  16. Optimization of inlet plenum of A PBMR using surrogate modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Moon; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of present work is to optimize the design of inlet plenum of PBMR type gas cooled nuclear reactor numerically using a combining of three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis and surrogate modeling technique. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure. Three geometric design variables are selected, namely, rising channel diameter to plenum height ratio, aspect ratio of the plenum cross section, and inlet port angle. The objective function is defined as a linear combination of uniformity of three-dimensional flow distribution term and pressure drop in the inlet plenum and rising channels of PBMR term with a weighting factor. Twenty design points are selected using Latin-hypercube method of design of experiment and objective function values are obtained at each design point using RANS solver. (author)

  17. Effect of inlet cone pipe angle in catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira Zainal, Nurul; Farhain Azmi, Ezzatul; Arifin Samad, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    The catalytic converter shows significant consequence to improve the performance of the vehicle start from it launched into production. Nowadays, the geometric design of the catalytic converter has become critical to avoid the behavior of backpressure in the exhaust system. The backpressure essentially reduced the performance of vehicles and increased the fuel consumption gradually. Consequently, this study aims to design various models of catalytic converter and optimize the volume of fluid flow inside the catalytic converter by changing the inlet cone pipe angles. Three different geometry angles of the inlet cone pipe of the catalytic converter were assessed. The model is simulated in Solidworks software to determine the optimum geometric design of the catalytic converter. The result showed that by decreasing the divergence angle of inlet cone pipe will upsurge the performance of the catalytic converter.

  18. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2012-08-10

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown at an outlet, where it is governed by the local behaviour near the film-forming meniscus. In the limit of vanishing capillary number Ca it is well known that the flux scales with Ca 2/3, but this classical result is non-uniform as the contact angle approaches π. By examining this limit we find a solution that is uniformly valid for all contact angles. Furthermore, by considering the far-field behaviour of the free surface we show that there exists a critical capillary number above which the problem at an inlet becomes over-determined. The implications of this result for the modelling of coating flows are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  19. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in thoracic inlet tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Eiro (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    To evaluate the detectability of tumor invasion to the thoracic inlet, MRI was performed in 57 patients with thoracic inlet tumor, and the diagnostic accuracy of MRI was compared with that of CT concerning the utility for thoracic inlet lesions. And we assessed abnormal findings in comparison with surgical or autopsy findings. In the local extent of the tumor, the accuracy for tumor invasion to the vessels such as subclavian artery and vein was 94.9% for MRI, and 83.5% for CT, and to the brachial plexus was 95.0% for MRI, and 60.0% for CT. MRI was superior to CT, but MRI was equivalent to CT with regard to invasion to the base of the neck, lateral chest wall, ribs, and vertebral bodies. However on MRI, it is easier to understand the longitudinal tumor extent than on CT. CT has superior spatial resolusion but CT has also disadvantages, such as streak artifact caused by shoulder joints, resulting in image degradation. In contrast, MRI has inherent advantages, and multiple images which facilitate the relationship between tumor and normal structures. Coronal and sagittal MR images facilitated three-dimensional observation of tumor of invasion in the thoracic inlet. Furthermore to improve image quality of MRI for the thoracic inlet, we newly devised a high molecular polyester shell for fixing a surface coil. On the high resolution MR (HR-MR) imaging using our shell, normal lymph nodes, muscles, blood vessels and the branches of the branchial plexus were clearly visualized in detail. Our shell was simple to process and facilitated immobilization of a surface coil. HR-MR technique produces images of high resolution after simple preparation. In conclusion, MRI was very useful for detecting lesions of the thoracic inlet and in deciding surgical indication and the planning for radiotherapy. (author).

  20. Tangential inlet supersonic separators: a novel apparatus for gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Walther, Jens Honore; Yang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    A novel supersonic separator with a tangential inlet is designed to remove the condensable components from gas mixtures. The dynamic parameters of natural gas in the supersonic separation process are numerically calculated using the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Peng-Robinson real gas...... be generated by the tangential inlet, and it increases to the maximum of 200 m/s at the nozzle throat due to decrease of the nozzle area of the converging part. The tangential velocity can maintain the value of about 160 m/s at the nozzle exit, and correspondingly generates the centrifugal acceleration of 3...

  1. The effect of inclusion of inlets in dual drainage modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Wang, Chia-Ho; Chen, Albert S.; Djordjević, Slobodan

    2018-04-01

    In coupled sewer and surface flood modelling approaches, the flow process in gullies is often ignored although the overland flow is drained to sewer network via inlets and gullies. Therefore, the flow entering inlets is transferred to the sewer network immediately, which may lead to a different flood estimation than the reality. In this paper, we compared two modelling approach with and without considering the flow processes in gullies in the coupled sewer and surface modelling. Three historical flood events were adopted for model calibration and validation. The results showed that the inclusion of flow process in gullies can further improve the accuracy of urban flood modelling.

  2. Bedform evolution in a tidal inlet referred from wavelet analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraccascia, Serena; Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge

    2011-01-01

    Bedforms are common morphological features in subaqueous and aeolian environments and their characterization is commonly the first step to better understand forcing factors acting in the system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral characteristics of compound bedforms in a tidal...... inlet and evaluate how they changed over consecutive years, when morphology was modified and bedforms migrated. High resolution bathymetric data from the Grådyb tidal inlet channel (Danish Wadden Sea) from seven years from 2002 to 2009 (not in 2004) were analyzed. Continuous wavelet transform of bed...

  3. Effects of selected design variables on three ramp, external compression inlet performance. [boundary layer control bypasses, and mass flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, J. H.; Hall, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Two inlet performance tests and one inlet/airframe drag test were conducted in 1969 at the NASA-Ames Research Center. The basic inlet system was two-dimensional, three ramp (overhead), external compression, with variable capture area. The data from these tests were analyzed to show the effects of selected design variables on the performance of this type of inlet system. The inlet design variables investigated include inlet bleed, bypass, operating mass flow ratio, inlet geometry, and variable capture area.

  4. 77 FR 61721 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... received comments from the Town of Chincoteague, Virginia informing us of their space tourism plan and... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities (i.e., small businesses and small governments). The Corps determined that this regulation would have practically no economic impact on the...

  5. 76 FR 62692 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Virginia; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ...://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: david.b.olson@usace.... Army Corps of Engineers, Attn: CECW-CO-R (David B. Olson), 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000... publicly available only in hard copy form. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Olson, Headquarters...

  6. Experimental Research on Optimizing Inlet Airflow of Wet Cooling Towers under Crosswind Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Liang; Shi, Yong Feng; Hao, Jian Gang; Chang, Hao; Sun, Feng Zhong

    2018-01-01

    A new approach of installing air deflectors around tower inlet circumferentially was proposed to optimize the inlet airflow and reduce the adverse effect of crosswinds on the thermal performance of natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT). And inlet airflow uniformity coefficient was defined to analyze the uniformity of circumferential inlet airflow quantitatively. Then the effect of air deflectors on the NDWCT performance was investigated experimentally. By contrast between inlet air flow rate and cooling efficiency, it has been found that crosswinds not only decrease the inlet air flow rate, but also reduce the uniformity of inlet airflow, which reduce NDWCT performance jointly. After installing air deflectors, the inlet air flow rate and uniformity coefficient increase, the uniformity of heat and mass transfer increases correspondingly, which improve the cooling performance. In addition, analysis on Lewis factor demonstrates that the inlet airflow optimization has more enhancement of heat transfer than mass transfer, but leads to more water evaporation loss.

  7. 78 FR 74009 - Safety Zone; Nike Fireworks, Upper New York Bay, Ellis Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0962] Safety Zone; Nike Fireworks, Upper New York Bay, Ellis Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... published in the Federal Register on November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69614). [[Page 74010

  8. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ...-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY AGENCY: Coast... in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display. This action is necessary to provide for the... the Coast Guard to define regulatory safety zones. On May 10, 2012 New York Fun Factory Events is...

  9. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Whitehead, R.L.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Olcott, Perry G.

    1997-01-01

    Alaska is the largest State in the Nation and has an area of about 586,400 square miles, or about one-fifth the area of the conterminous United States. The State is geologically and topographically diverse and is characterized by wild, scenic beauty. Alaska contains abundant natural resources, including ground water and surface water of chemical quality that is generally suitable for most uses.The central part of Alaska is drained by the Yukon River and its tributaries, the largest of which are the Porcupine, the Tanana, and the Koyukuk Rivers. The Yukon River originates in northwestern Canada and, like the Kuskokwim River, which drains a large part of southwestern Alaska , discharges into the Bering Sea. The Noatak River in northwestern Alaska discharges into the Chukchi Sea. Major rivers in southern Alaska include the Susitna and the Matanuska Rivers, which discharge into Cook Inlet, and the Copper River, which discharges into the Gulf of Alaska . North of the Brooks Range, the Colville and the Sagavanirktok Rivers and numerous smaller streams discharge into the Arctic Ocean.In 1990, Alaska had a population of about 552,000 and, thus , is one of the least populated States in the Nation. Most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau, all of which are located in lowland areas. The mountains, the frozen Arctic desert, the interior plateaus, and the areas covered with glaciers lack major population centers. Large parts of Alaska are uninhabited and much of the State is public land. Ground-water development has not occurred over most of these remote areas.The Hawaiian islands are the exposed parts of the Hawaiian Ridge, which is a large volcanic mountain range on the sea floor. Most of the Hawaiian Ridge is below sea level (fig. 31) . The State of Hawaii consists of a group of 132 islands, reefs, and shoals that extend for more than 1 ,500 miles from southeast to northwest across the central Pacific Ocean between about 155

  10. 77 FR 420 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Stathmere, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... the course of the project, while the railings on the moveable span portion of the bridge are replaced... deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Corson Inlet Bridge (County Route 619), across... INFORMATION: The Cape May County Bridge Commission, who owns and operates this bascule drawbridge, has...

  11. 76 FR 63840 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Strathmere, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... during the project while the railings on the moveable span portion of the bridge are replaced. DATES... deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Corson Inlet Bridge (County Route 619), at.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Cape May County Bridge Commission, who owns and operates this bascule drawbridge...

  12. Critical flashing flows in nozzles with subcooled inlet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Wu, B.J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of a large number of experiments dealing with flashing flows in converging and converging-diverging nozzles reveals that knowledge of the flashing inception point is the key to the prediction of critical flow rates. An extension of the static flashing inception correlation of Jones [16] and Alamgir and Lienhard [17] to flowing systems has allowed the determination of the location of flashing inception in nozzle flows with subcooled inlet conditions. It is shown that in all the experiments examined with subcooled inlet regardless of the degree of inlet subcooling, flashing inception invariably occurred very close to the throat. A correlation is given to predict flashing inception in both pipes and nozzles which matches all data available, but is lacking verification in intermediate nozzle geometries where turbulence may be important. A consequence of this behavior is that the critical mass flux may be correlated to the pressure difference between the nozzle inlet and flashing inception, through a single phase liquid discharge coefficient and an accurate prediction of the flashing inception pressure at the throat. Comparison with the available experiments indicate that the predicted mass fluxes are within 5 percent of the measurements

  13. Validation of Helium Inlet Design for ITER Toroidal Field Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, C; Hamada, K; Foussat, A; Le Rest, M; Mitchell, N; Decool, P; Savary, F; Sgobba, S; Weiss, K-P

    2014-01-01

    The ITER organization has performed design and its validation tests on a helium inlet structure for the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil under collaboration with CERN, KIT, and CEA-Cadarache. Detailed structural analysis was performed in order to optimize the weld shape. A fatigue resistant design on the fillet weld between the shell covers and the jacket is an important point on the helium inlet structure. A weld filler material was selected based on tensile test at liquid helium temperature after Nb$_{3}$Sn reaction heat treatment. To validate the design of the weld joint, fatigue tests at 7 K were performed using heat-treated butt weld samples. A pressure drop measurement of a helium inlet mock-up was performed by using nitrogen gas at room temperature in order to confirm uniform flow distribution and pressure drop characteristic. These tests have validated the helium inlet design. Based on the validation, Japanese and European Union domestic agencies, which have responsibilities of the TF coil procurement, a...

  14. Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas land vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages

  15. Improved Hypersonic Inlet Performance Using Validated Strut Compression Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, M. J.; Stout, P. W.; Fernandez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Aerojet is currently executing two Strutjet propulsion contracts: one a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for a NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Reusable Transportation Technology (ARTT) program, the second a Dual Mode Ram/Scramjet engine for a USAF Wright Laboratories Storable Fuel Scramjet Flow Path Concepts program. The engines employed in both programs operate at supersonic and low hypersonic speeds and use inlets employing forebody external and sidewall compression. Aerojet has developed and validated a successful design methodology applicable to these inlet types. Design features include an integrated vehicle forebody, external side compression struts, strut sidewall and throat bleed, a throat shock trap, and variable geometry internal contraction. Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) predictions and test data show these inlets allow substantially increased flow turning angles over other designs. These increased flow turning angles allow shorter and lighter engines than current designs, which in turn enables higher performing vehicles with broad operating characteristics. This paper describes the designs of two different inlets evaluated by the NASA-MSFC and USAF programs, discusses the results of wind tunnel tests performed by NASA-Lewis Research Center, and provides correlations of test data with CFD predictions. Parameters of interest include low Mach number starting capability, start sensitivity as a function of back pressure at various contraction ratios, flow turning angles, strut and throat bleed effects, and pressure recovery at various Mach numbers.

  16. Boussinesq Modeling for Inlets, Harbors & Structures (Bouss-2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    circulation in surf and swash zone; wave-current interaction in channels and inlets; generation and impacts of infra-gravity waves on ports and...Guam, Samoa, Korea, Japan, Canada, EU countries, South Africa, Brazil, Peru, India, Indonesia , and Persian Gulf states. BMT helps the Corps evaluate

  17. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given...

  18. Inlet effect induced ''upstream'' critical heat flux in smooth tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, J.B. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An unusual form of ''upstream'' critical heat flux (CHF) has been observed and directly linked to the inlet flow pattern during an experimental study of high pressure (17 - 20 MPa) water flowing through a vertical 38.1 mm ID smooth bore tube with uniform axial and nonuniform circumferential heating. These upstream CHF data were characterized by temperature excursions which initially occurred at a relatively fixed axial location in the middle of the test section while the outlet and inlet heated lengths experienced no change. A rifled tube inlet flow conditioner could be substituted for a smooth tube section to generate the desired swirling inlet flow pattern. The upstream CHF data were found to match data from a uniformly heated smooth bore tube when the comparison was made using the peak local heat flux. The mechanism proposed to account for the upstream CHF observations involves the destructive interference between the decaying swirl flow and the secondary circumferential liquid flow field resulting from the one-sided heating

  19. Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Envia, Edmane; Chien, Eugene W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geometry of the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) is used. Fan noise consists of tones and broadband sound. This investigation considers the radiation of tones associated with upstream propagating duct modes. The primary objective is to identify the dominant physical processes that determine the directivity of the radiated sound. Two such processes have been identified. They are acoustic diffraction and refraction. Diffraction is the natural tendency for an acoustic wave to follow a curved solid surface as it propagates. Refraction is the turning of the direction of propagation of sound waves by mean flow gradients. Parametric studies on the changes in the directivity of radiated sound due to variations in forward flight Mach number and duct mode frequency, azimuthal mode number, and radial mode number are carried out. It is found there is a significant difference in directivity for the radiation of the same duct mode from an engine inlet when operating in static condition and in forward flight. It will be shown that the large change in directivity is the result of the combined effects of diffraction and refraction.

  20. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  1. Microjet flow control in an ultra-compact serpentine inlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xingya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microjets are used to control the internal flow to improve the performance of an ultra-compact serpentine inlet. A highly offset serpentine inlet with length-to-diameter ratio of 2.5 is designed and static tests are conducted to analyze the internal flow characteristics in terms of pressure recovery, distortion and flow separation. Flow separation is encountered in the second S-turn, and two strong counter-rotating vortices are formed at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP face which occupy a quarter of the outlet area and result in severe pressure loss and distortion. A flow control model employing a row of microjets in the second turn is designed based on the internal flow characteristics and simplified CFD simulations. Flow control tests are conducted to verify the control effectiveness and understand the characteristics as a function of inlet throat Mach number, injection mass flow ratio, jet Mach number and momentum coefficient. At all test Mach numbers, microjet flow control (MFC effectively improves the recovery and reduces the distortion intensity. Between inlet throat Mach number 0.2 and 0.5, the strong flow separation in the second S-turn is suppressed at an optimum jet flow ratio of less than 0.65%, resulting in a maximum improvement of 4% for pressure recovery coefficient and a maximum decrease of 75% for circumferential distortion intensity at cruise. However, in order to suppress the flow separation, the injection rate should retain in an effective range. When the injection rate is higher than this range, the flow is degraded and the distortion contour is changed from 90° circumferential distortion pattern to 180° circumferential distortion pattern. Detailed data analysis shows that this optimum flow ratio depends on inlet throat Mach number and the momentum coefficient affects the control effectiveness in a dual stepping manner.

  2. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...'' W (Port Morris Stacks), and all waters of the Bronx Kill southeast of the Bronx Kill Rail Road...-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards Islands, New York. This...

  3. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  4. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds. Southward of a line 312 feet south of and parallel to the south side...

  5. 76 FR 43893 - Special Local Regulations; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Local Regulations; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race. This action is necessary to safely control vessel movements in... Mackinac boat race (officially titled the ``Bell's Beer Bayview Mackinac Race'') will set sail on Saturday...

  6. 78 FR 31454 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... that governs the highway bridge (Troy Green Island) across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy... the regulations for the 112th Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been...

  7. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... operation of the highway bridge across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York... Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been converted to a fixed bridge. It is...

  8. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the

  9. 33 CFR 165.151 - Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... annual fireworks displays. 165.151 Section 165.151 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.151 Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays. (a) Safety Zones. The following...) Indian Harbor Yacht Club Fireworks Safety Zone. All waters of Long Island Sound off Greenwich CT, within...

  10. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  11. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): Isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, B.; Echeverria, L.M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-02-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8x2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb proportional 19.75) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface and discrete observations using flow-through pump and other instruments from M/V Equinox in the North Atlantic ocean (east coast of Miami, FL, Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos Islands) from 2015-03-07 to 2015-03-09 (NCEI Accession 0154382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and pH from the east coast of Florida to Puerto Rico....

  13. Urban Agglomeration and Extension in Northern Coast of West Java: A Transformation into Mega Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octifanny, Y.; Hudalah, D.

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, at least three neighbouring metropolitan areas in the northwestern part of the island have been merging with each other: Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Jabodetabek), Bandung Metropolitan Area (Bandung Raya), and Cirebon Metropolitan Area (Ciayumajakuning). It is expected to be the first island-based mega-conurbation. This paper explores the potential emergence of mega region as a ground study, where mega region can be used for economic, logistic, transportation development. Authors use scoring analysis from economic and demographic indicators. The outcomes found a new and larger formation of city-region in the northern coast road networks (Pantura) - specifically western part of Java Island.

  14. Longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Coast. Maharashtra Coast and the part between Pondicherry and Point Calimere in Tamilnadu, show negligible order of annual net transport. Annual net transport along the east coast is in north and along the west coast in south but for South Gujarat Coast....

  15. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...

  16. 76 FR 24513 - Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ...] Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida AGENCY... as part of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area. DATES: Effective Date: May 2, 2011... U.S.C. 1787), which created the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area, and which...

  17. A Combined CFD/Characteristic Method for Prediction and Design of Hypersonic Inlet with Nose Bluntness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenzhi; Li, Zhufei; Yang, Jiming

    Leading edge bluntness is widely used in hypersonic inlet design for thermal protection[1]. Detailed research of leading edge bluntness on hypersonic inlet has been concentrated on shock shape correlation[2], boundary layer flow[3], inlet performance[4], etc. It is well known that blunted noses cause detached bow shocks which generate subsonic regions around the noses and entropy layers in the flowfield.

  18. Modelling Morphological Response of Large Tidal Inlet Systems to Sea Level Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dissanayake, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation qualitatively investigates the morphodynamic response of a large inlet system to IPCC projected relative sea level rise (RSLR). Adopted numerical approach (Delft3D) used a highly schematised model domain analogous to the Ameland inlet in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Predicted inlet

  19. Stability analysis for tidal inlets of Thuan An and Tu Hien using Escoffier diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Wegen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stability analysis of tidal inlets is very important in providing knowledge on the behaviour of tidal inlet and lagoon systems. The analysis results can help to plan and manage the system effectively as well as to provide information for stability design of the inlets. This paper presents a method

  20. 36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, Incorporated. 13.320 Section 13.320 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. (a) The Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated (CIRI), in cooperation with village corporations within the Cook Inlet region when appropriate, will have a right of first...

  1. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...; Kaumalapau, Lanai; Kahului, Maui and Kawaihae and Hilo on the Island of Hawaii). The purpose of these safety... the piers faces. (9) All waters of Hilo Harbor, Hawaii immediately adjacent to commercial piers 1 and.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing nine (9) permanent safety zones encompassing Hawaii's commercial...

  3. Geology--hydrology of Avery Island Salt Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, C.H.

    1977-07-01

    After a review of the geology of the Gulf Coast salt domes, the geology (geomorphology and tectonics) and hydrology of Avery Island Dome, 10 miles south-southwest of New Iberia, Louisiana, were studied in detail. Rock mechanics were studied using grouts and piezometers. 17 figs

  4. The age of the Takatika Grit, Chatham Islands, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollis, Christopher J.; Stickley, Catherine E.; Bijl, Peter K.; Schiøler, Poul; Clowes, Christopher D.; Li, Xun; Campbell, Hamish

    2017-01-01

    The oldest Paleogene strata on Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand, are the phosphatized conglomerates and sandstones of the Takatika Grit that crops out on the northeastern coast at Tioriori and unconformably overlies the Chatham Schist. An intact Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary transition is not

  5. Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast during the summers of 1974 - 1976 and 1977 - 1978 and correction factors for undercounting and seasonal cycles were applied. Present population size is approximately 200000, giving an intrinsic rate of ...

  6. Inlet for fuel assembly having finger control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.; Suvanto, A.; Tornblom, L.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with vertically arranged fuel assemblies positioned on supporting members and with control rods displaceably arranged in guide tubes between the fuel rods inside the fuel assemblies is described. The supporting plate is provided with a transverse end piece with throttling means for the liquid flow which passes from below up through the supporting member and past the fuel rods in the fuel assembly. The inlets for the guide tubes for the control rods are located below the end piece and the throttling means. In this way a higher pressure prevails at the inlet to the guide tubes than above the end piece, so that a stronger flow of coolant is produced through guide tubes than through the fuel assembly. (U.S.)

  7. New piezo driven gas inlet valve for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usselmann, E.; Hemmerich, J.L.; How, J.; Holland, D.; Orchard, J.; Winkel, T.; Schargitz, U.; Pocheim, N.

    1989-01-01

    The gas inlet valves used at the JET experiment are described and their performances are discussed. A new gas-valve development suitable to replace the existing valves at JET and for future use in large fusion experiments is presented. The new valve is equipped with a piezo-electric translator and has a dosing range of 0-800 mbarls -1 for D 2 . The operating mode of the valve is fail-safe closed with a leak-rate of ≤ 10 -9 mbarls -1 . The design, the test results and throughput values in dependence of filling pressure and control voltage are presented and experiences with the prototype valve as a new gas inlet valve for the JET operation are described

  8. Predictions of Bedforms in Tidal Inlets and River Mouths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    including suggestions for reducing the burden, to the Department of Defense, Executive Service Directorate {0704-0188). Respondents should be aware...temporally varying roughness. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bedforms, hydraulic roughness, tidal inlets, rivers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a...fluctuation representing local turbulence. However, once bedforms are created, the local flow around the bedforms is altered via feedback: flow is reduced in

  9. Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume 2. Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    herein will be used in the design of integral inlet particle separators for future Army aircraft gas turbine engines. Apprupriate technical personnel...into the comprensor at some future date. 5. A typical scavenge vane design Js; shown in Figures 85 and 86. The important features of the scavenge...service passageweys, for cooling of oil, and for directing sand and air into the scroll. Orientetion of the vanes is set by collection efficiency

  10. Bedload transport in an inlet channel during a tidal cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, V. B.; Becker, M.; Winter, C.

    2007-01-01

      Based on high-resolution swath bathymetry measurements at centimetre-scale precision conducted during a tidal cycle in a dune field in the Grådyb tidal inlet channel in the DanishWadden Sea, a simple tool to calculate bedload transport is presented. Bedload transport was related to simultaneous...... variations in grain-size composition of the mobilised sediment should be taken into account by sediment transport formulae....

  11. Long-term Morphological Modeling at Coastal Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    that of Humboldt Bay, CA. The model reproduces reasonably well several geomorphic and hydrodynamic features of the inlet at Humboldt Bay. The...geometries, and model setup (e.g., sediment transport formulas) to investigate the controlling geomorphic parameters and the applicability of the CMS...2015 9 The model reproduces the general geomorphic features of Humboldt Bay. The ebb shoal volume is in the lower range of the estimated amount

  12. Climate change and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellnhuber, H.J.; Sterr, H.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation of climatic processes and behaviour examines the effects of climatic changes on human beings and the surrounding environment. The authors discuss, in a wide-subject perspective, the regional impacts of the greenhouse effect, increase of the sea level, and changed conditions of both precipitation and wind using the North and Baltic Sea as examples. In this effort, questions dealing with changes of water level, motion and (disturbance) of the sea and morphodynamic in the coastal apron, in reference to requirements on a future protection of the shore, are handled. In addition, not only the aspects of ecosystem-orientated adaption in the strip of land between the continent northern islands 'Wattenmeer' and ground landscape (Bodenlandschaft) are taken into consideration, but also the impact of these on human beings and their interest to use the coastal regions. (orig.). 102 figs., 9 tabs [de

  13. Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, P.; Grinson-George, G.; Vikas, N.; Titus-Immanuel, T.; Goutham-Bharathi, M.P.; Anand, A; VinodKumar, K.; SenthilKumar, S.

    The reefs in some islands of Andaman and Nicobar suffered severe damage following a tropical storm in the Bay of Bengal off Myanmar coast during 13-17 March 2011. Surveys were conducted at eight sites in Andaman, of which five were located...

  14. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... in rural areas and the expected boom in West Coast tourism, it is evident that ... systems have been erected in the Canary Islands, Peru, Ecuador and the Sultanate of .... As is the case in the Namib (Olivier, 1992, 1995), high.

  15. Exchange inlet optimization by genetic algorithm for improved RBCC performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorkawy, G.; Etele, J.

    2017-09-01

    A genetic algorithm based on real parameter representation using a variable selection pressure and variable probability of mutation is used to optimize an annular air breathing rocket inlet called the Exchange Inlet. A rapid and accurate design method which provides estimates for air breathing, mixing, and isentropic flow performance is used as the engine of the optimization routine. Comparison to detailed numerical simulations show that the design method yields desired exit Mach numbers to within approximately 1% over 75% of the annular exit area and predicts entrained air massflows to between 1% and 9% of numerically simulated values depending on the flight condition. Optimum designs are shown to be obtained within approximately 8000 fitness function evaluations in a search space on the order of 106. The method is also shown to be able to identify beneficial values for particular alleles when they exist while showing the ability to handle cases where physical and aphysical designs co-exist at particular values of a subset of alleles within a gene. For an air breathing engine based on a hydrogen fuelled rocket an exchange inlet is designed which yields a predicted air entrainment ratio within 95% of the theoretical maximum.

  16. Characterizing Interferences in an NOy Thermal Dissociation Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, C.; Veres, P. R.; Brock, C. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Eilerman, S. J.; Zarzana, K. J.; Dube, W. P.; Wild, R. J.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) are emitted into the troposphere by various anthropogenic and natural sources, and contribute to increased levels of ambient ozone. Reactive nitrogen species (NOy), which include nitric acid, peroxy acetyl and organic nitrates, and other species, serve as reservoirs and sinks for NOx, thus influencing O3 production. Their detection is therefore critical to understanding ozone chemistry. However, accurate measurements of NOy have proven to be difficult to obtain, and measurements of total NOy sometimes do not agree with the sum of measurements of its individual components. In recent years, quartz thermal dissociation (TD) inlets have been used to thermally convert all NOy species to NO2, followed by detection by techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF) or cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we discuss recent work in characterizing the NOy channel of our four-channel TD-CRDS instrument. In particular, we have examined the thermal conversion efficiency of several representative NOy species under a range of experimental conditions. We find that under certain conditions, the conversion efficiency is sensitive to inlet residence time and to the concentration of other trace gases found in ambient sampling, such as ozone. We also report the thermal dissociation curves of N2O5 and ammonium nitrate aerosol, and discuss the interferences observed when ammonia and ozone are co-sampled in the inlet.

  17. JET ENGINE INLET DISTORTION SCREEN AND DESCRIPTOR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  18. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  19. Impact of inlet coherent motions on compressor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlese, Jacopo; Spoleti, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Automotive engine induction systems may be characterized by significant flow angularity and total pressure distortion at the compressor inlet. The impact of the swirl on compressor performance should be quantified to guide the design of the induction systems. In diesel engines, the presence of a valve for flow reduction and control of low pressure EGR recirculation could generate coherent motion and influence the performance of the compressor. Starting from experimental map, the compressor speed-lines have been simulated using a 3D CFD commercial code imposing different concept motion at the inlet. The swirl intensity, the direction and the number of vortices have been imposed in order to taking into account some combinations. Finally, a merit function has been defined to evaluate the performance of the compressor with the defined swirl concepts. The aim of the current work is to obtain an indication on the effect of a swirling motion at the compressor inlet on the engine performance and provide a guideline to the induction system design.

  20. Physical data collected from towed CTD from the R/V Lowell Weicker in the eastern Long Island Sound in support of the Collaborative Research: Investigating Tidal Influences on Subtidal Estuary-Coast Exchange Using Observations and Numerical Simulations from 21 July 2009 to 25 August 25, 2010 (NODC Accession 0115770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset is an archive of CTD data obtained from a towed undulating platform (Acrobat) in the region near the mouth of Long Island Sound. The observations were...

  1. Effect of the inlet throttling on the thermal-hydraulic instability of the natural circulation BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi

    1997-01-01

    Although it is well-established that inlet restriction has a stabilizing for forced circulation BWR, the effect of inlet on the thermal-hydraulic stability of natural circulation BWR remains unknown since increasing inlet restriction affect thermal-hydraulic stability due to reduction of the recirculation flow rate. Therefore experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of inlet restriction on the thermal-hydraulic stability. A test facility used in this experiments was designed and constructed to have non-dimensional values which are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Experimental results showed that driving force of the natural circulation was described as a function of heat flux and inlet subcooling independent of inlet restriction. Stability maps in reference to the channel inlet subcooling, heat flux were presented for various inlet restriction which were carried out by an analysis based on the homogeneous flow various using this function. Instability region during the inlet subcooling shifted to the higher inlet subcooling with increasing inlet restriction and became larger with increasing heat flux. (author)

  2. Andrew spares Florida Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    When geologists heard of the intensity of Hurricane Andrew, which struck the Florida coast on August 25 and then moved on to southern Louisiana, they were expecting the same kinds of coastal damage that Hurricane Hugo brought to the Caribbean and Carolina shores in 1989. Both storms were category 4 hurricanes, having winds of 131-155 mph and surges of 13-18 feet. However, the coastal damage never materialized, leaving geologists to analyze the factors that lessened the impact of the storm. “For minimum coastal damage, you couldn't have designed a better storm,” said Orrin Pilkey, director of the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines (PSDS) in Durham, N.C. This was due in part to the nature of the storm itself and where it hit land, and in part to the regional geology, said Rob Thieler of PSDS. Despite the huge amounts of damage to buildings, there was virtually no evidence of coastal process destruction, he said.

  3. Experimental Investigation of a Large-Scale Low-Boom Inlet Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Vyas, Manan A.; Wayman, Thomas R.; Conners, Timothy R.; Reger, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale low-boom inlet concept was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 8- x 6- foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose of this test was to assess inlet performance, stability and operability at various Mach numbers and angles of attack. During this effort, two models were tested: a dual stream inlet designed to mimic potential aircraft flight hardware integrating a high-flow bypass stream; and a single stream inlet designed to study a configuration with a zero-degree external cowl angle and to permit surface visualization of the vortex generator flow on the internal centerbody surface. During the course of the test, the low-boom inlet concept was demonstrated to have high recovery, excellent buzz margin, and high operability. This paper will provide an overview of the setup, show a brief comparison of the dual stream and single stream inlet results, and examine the dual stream inlet characteristics.

  4. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; González, M.; Otero, L.

    2011-01-01

    Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  5. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  6. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  7. Effects of Inlet Modification and Rocket-Rack Extension on the Longitudinal Trim and Low-Lift Drag of the Douglas F5D-1 Airplane as Obtained with a 0.125-Scale Rocket-Boosted Model between Mach Numbers of 0.81 and 1.64, TED No. NACA AD 399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Earl C., Jr.; Dickens, Waldo L.

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effects of an inlet modification and rocket-rack extension on the longitudinal trim and low-lift drag of the Douglas F5D-1 airplane. The investigation was conducted with a 0.125-scale rocket-boosted model which was flight tested at the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. Results indicate that the combined effects of the modified inlet and fully extended rocket racks on the trim lift coefficient and trim angle of attack were small between Mach numbers of 0.94 and 1.57. Between Mach numbers of 1.10 and 1.57 there was an average increase in drag coefficient of about o,005 for the model with modified inlet and extended rocket racks. The change in drag coefficient due to the inlet modification alone is small between Mach numbers of 1.59 and 1.64

  8. An Investigation of the Drag and Pressure Recovery of a Submerged Inlet and a Nose Inlet in the Transonic Flight Range with Free-fall Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selna, James; Schlaff, Bernard A

    1951-01-01

    The drag and pressure recovery of an NACA submerged-inlet model and an NACA series I nose-inlet model were investigated in the transonic flight range. The tests were conducted over a mass-flow-ratio range of 0.4 to 0.8 and a Mach number range of about 0.8 to 1.10 employing large-scale recoverable free-fall models. The results indicate that the Mach number of drag divergence of the inlet models was about the same as that of a basic model without inlets. The external drag coefficients of the nose-inlet model were less than those of the submerged-inlet model throughout the test range. The difference in drag coefficient based on the maximum cross-sectional area of the models was about 0.02 at supersonic speeds and about 0.015 at subsonic speeds. For a hypothetical airplane with a ratio of maximum fuselage cross-sectional area to wing area of 0.06, the difference in airplane drag coefficient would be relatively small, about 0.0012 at supersonic speeds and about 0.0009 at subsonic speeds. Additional drag comparisons between the two inlet models are made considering inlet incremental and additive drag.

  9. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  10. F00237: NOS Hydrographic Survey , East Coast Investigations, Approach to Brigantine Inlet, New Jersey, 1980-12-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. Residual fluxes of water and nutrient transport through the main inlet of a tropical estuary, Cochin estuary, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinita, J.; Lallu, K.R; Revichandran, C.; Muraleedharan, K.R; Jineesh, V.K.; Shivaprasad, A.

    of Oceanic Engineering, 25(4), 437-445. 13    Sooria, P.M., Jyothibabu, R., Anjusha, A., Vineetha, G., Vinita, J., Lallu, K. R., Paul, M., Jagadeesan, L., et al. (2015). Plankton food web and its seasonal dynamics in a large monsoonal estuary (Cochin... J., Lallu K.R., Muraleedharan K. R., Jineesh V.K., Shivaprasad A. Abstract Determining robust values for estuarine material fluxes has been a complex task and an interdisciplinary research challenge. With the advent of Acoustic Doppler...

  12. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  13. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  14. Geomorphology of the Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    This paper is based on the observations and interpretations of aerial photographs (1;25, 000 and 1:15, 000) of the Goa Coast. Aerial photocharacters like zonal differences, texture, shape, size, form, pattern, vegetation, soil characteristics...

  15. Investigating sea bed morphology of an estuary located in the western coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P.; Behera, M. R.; Ranjan, P.

    2016-02-01

    Estuaries and tidal inlets are complex natural systems. They form a vital ecosystem and host a plethora of diverse flora and fauna. The major problem associated with them is that they experience both climate effects and human interference in different spatial and temporal scales. The increasing threats of sea level variability and changes in the other ocean parameters like currents, waves, winds and tidal ranges may cause these inlets to behave differently. Mandovi - Zuari is one such complex inlet situated in the western coast of India. It is a major tourist attraction and a home to dense mangrove forest. It experiences mixed tides (mainly semi-diurnal in nature). Also the salinity of this region tends to change seasonally. The annual evolution in morphology of this region is of importance as the sediment transport in this area plays an important role in determining the beach morphology of the adjacent beaches. Tourism being the most important economic driver of this state, it is important to assess the possible changes in the beach morphology over the coming decades. A state-of-the-art process based model, Delft 3D, is used to calculate the annual sediment transport with a focus to understand the morphological evolution history of this inlet. In this regard a hydrodynamic analysis of the region is carried out by forcing a composite tide at the offshore boundary of the model domain to obtain the tidal levels and currents. The sea bed contours are obtained with the help of admiralty charts. For estimating the sediment transport, Van Rijn formula is used as found in the sediment module of Delft 3D. The morphological changes along the coast of Goa, India is estimated and the locations of accretion and erosion are identified.

  16. Islands in the Midst of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the

  17. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  18. Titanium Aluminide Scramjet Inlet Flap Subelement Benchmark Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Draper, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    A subelement-level ultimate strength test was completed successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/) on a large gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) inlet flap demonstration piece. The test subjected the part to prototypical stress conditions by using unique fixtures that allowed both loading and support points to be located remote to the part itself (see the photograph). The resulting configuration produced shear, moment, and the consequent stress topology proportional to the design point. The test was conducted at room temperature, a harsh condition for the material because of reduced available ductility. Still, the peak experimental load-carrying capability exceeded original predictions.

  19. Temperature-programmed desorption for membrane inlet mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, R.A.; Grøn, C.; Lauritsen, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    We present a novel technique for analyzing volatile organic compounds in air samples using a solid adsorbent together with temperature-programmed desorption and subsequent detection by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (TPD-MIMS). The new system has the advantage of a fast separation of compounds...... to diffuse through the membrane into the mass spectrometer in a few seconds. In this fashion we could completely separate many similar volatile compounds, for example toluene from xylene and trichloroethene from tetrachloroethene. Typical detection limits were at low or sub-nanogram levels, the dynamic range...

  20. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T. chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T. ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T. chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T. ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T. chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T. ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T. chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  1. Canadian markets for east coast gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Markets for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces were discussed. Maritime markets are the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas, in Canada or the United States. Total market potential was estimated at 430,000 MMBtu/day or in excess of 150 BCF annually, with most market potential distribution in Halifax, Nova Scotia and in the Saint John, New Brunswick area. Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline is involved in a joint effort with Westcoast Energy Inc., Duke Energy, and Mobil Oil Canada in bringing the Sable Gas resources to market. Details of the Sable offshore project were provided. The project involves the development of six separate gas fields located near Sable Island, on the Scotian Shelf, approximately 250 km off the coast of Nova Scotia. The six fields under development represent about 3.5 trillion cubic feet of proven gas supply. Another two trillion cubic feet of gas has been discovered in nearby pools. There is an estimated additional 13 trillion cubic feet of potential gas reserve in the Scotian Shelf region. The two billion dollar offshore project involves twenty-eight production wells, construction and installation of six platforms and a 225 km long two-phase pipeline from the central platform that will transport the product to shore. A gas plant will be constructed on-shore at Goldboro at which point the liquids will be stripped from the gas stream and transported by an onshore pipeline to Point Tupper, Cape Breton Island, to a fractionation facility for further market processing

  2. INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSC IN CORAL REEF OF BACAN ISLAND WATERS, NORTH MALUKU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A.W. Cappenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacan Island waters of North Maluku Province consisted of three main tropical ecosystems, namely mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef with the highest marine biodiversity. Mollusc is a group of marine fauna that most of them associated with coral reef.  However, little is known about their information in the Bacan Island due to lack of study conducted there. The purpose of this study is to observe the diversity and distribution of mollusc fauna in the coral reef flat of Bacan Island. Mollusc inventory was done using Rapid Reef Resource Assessment (RRA method by snorkling in the reefs of east coast (25 sites and west coast (10 sites of Bacan Island. The molluscs found were directly identified into species level and recorded.  Results of inventory show that there are 47 species belong to 19 families with the family of Muricidae is the highest diversity (6 species, while the lowest are Buccinidae, Bursidae, Haliotidae, Olividae, Cardiidae, Isognomonidae and Spondylidae, respectively with only 1 species in each of those families. The highest species number of mollusc was distributed along the east coast of the island (40 species, and the lowest one was in the west coast (37 species. Some species such as Tridacna spp., Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin are important species, because they have economical values. Keywords:       biodiversity, molluscs, coral reef, Bacan Island, North Maluku

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations of BWR fuel bundle inlet flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoashi, E; Morooka, S; Ishitori, T; Komita, H; Endo, T; Honda, H; Yamamoto, T; Kato, T; Kawamura, S

    2009-01-01

    We have been studying the mechanism of the flow pattern near the fuel bundle inlet of BWR using both flow visualization test and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In the visualization test, both single- and multi-bundle test sections were used. The former test section includes only a corner orifice facing two support beams and the latter simulates 16 bundles surrounded by four beams. An observation window is set on the side of the walls imitating the support beams upstream of the orifices in both test sections. In the CFD simulation, as well as the visualization test, the single-bundle model is composed of one bundle with a corner orifice and the multi-bundle model is a 1/4 cut of the test section that includes 4 bundles with the following four orifices: a corner orifice facing the corner of the two neighboring support beams, a center orifice at the opposite side from the corner orifice, and two side orifices. Twin-vortices were observed just upstream of the corner orifice in the multi-bundle test as well as the single-bundle test. A single-vortex and a vortex filament were observed at the side orifice inlet and no vortex was observed at the center orifice. These flow patterns were also predicted in the CFD simulation using Reynolds Stress Model as a turbulent model and the results were in good agreement with the test results mentioned above. (author)

  4. 20% inlet header break analysis of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Venkat Raj, V.; Singh, R.; Iyer, K.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a 750 MWt vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. A passive design feature of this reactor is that the heat removal is achieved through natural circulation of primary coolant at all power levels, with no primary coolant pumps. Loss of coolant due to failure of inlet header results in depressurization of primary heat transport (PHT) system and containment pressure rise. Depressurization activates various protective and engineered safety systems like reactor trip, isolation condenser and advanced accumulator, limiting the consequences of the event. This paper discusses the thermal hydraulic transient analysis for evaluating the safety of the reactor, following 20% inlet header break using RELAP5/MOD3.2. For the analysis, the system is discretized appropriately to simulate possible flow reversal in one of the core paths during the transient. Various modeling aspects are discussed in this paper and predictions are made for different parameters like pressure, temperature, steam quality and flow in different parts of the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system. Flow and energy discharges into the containment are also estimated for use in containment analysis. (author)

  5. Flow distribution in the inlet plenum of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadamakar, H.P.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Padmakumar, G.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Various flow distribution devices have been studied to make the flow distribution uniform in axial as well as tangential direction. → Experiments were performed using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). → CFD modeling has been carried out to give more insights. → Various flow distribution devices have been compared. - Abstract: The flow distribution in a 1/5th and 1/8th scale models of inlet plenum of steam generator (SG) has been studied by a combination of experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The distribution of liquid sodium in the inlet plenum of the SG strongly affects the thermal as well as mechanical performance of the steam generator. Various flow distribution devices have been used to make the flow distribution uniform in axial as well as tangential direction in the window region. Experiments have been conducted to measure the radial velocity distribution using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under a variety of conditions. CFD modeling has been carried out for various configurations to give more insight into the flow distribution phenomena. The various flow distribution devices have been compared on the basis of a non-uniformity index parameter.

  6. Development of tidal watersheds in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Vroom, J.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Labeur, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Hansen, M.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Wadden Sea consists of a series of tidal lagoons which are connected to the North Sea by tidal inlets. Boundaries to each lagoon are the mainland coast, the barrier islands on both sides of the tidal inlet, and the tidal watersheds behind the two barrier islands. Behind each Wadden Island there

  7. Experimental Investigation of Inlet Distortion in a Multistage Axial Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Razvan

    The primary objective of this research is to present results and methodologies used to study total pressure inlet distortion in a multi-stage axial compressor environment. The study was performed at the Purdue 3-Stage Axial Compressor Facility (P3S) which models the final three stages of a production turbofan engine's high-pressure compressor (HPC). The goal of this study was twofold; first, to design, implement, and validate a circumferentially traversable total pressure inlet distortion generation system, and second, to demonstrate data acquisition methods to characterize the inter-stage total pressure flow fields to study the propagation and attenuation of a one-per-rev total pressure distortion. The datasets acquired for this study are intended to support the development and validation of novel computational tools and flow physics models for turbomachinery flow analysis. Total pressure inlet distortion was generated using a series of low-porosity wire gauze screens placed upstream of the compressor in the inlet duct. The screens are mounted to a rotatable duct section that can be precisely controlled. The P3S compressor features fixed instrumentation stations located at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) and downstream and upstream of each vane row. Furthermore, the compressor features individually indexable stator vanes which can be traverse by up to two vane passages. Using a series of coordinated distortion and vane traverses, the total pressure flow field at the AIP and subsequent inter-stage stations was characterized with a high circumferential resolution. The uniformity of the honeycomb carrier was demonstrated by characterizing the flow field at the AIP while no distortion screens where installed. Next, the distortion screen used for this study was selected following three iterations of porosity reduction. The selected screen consisted of a series of layered screens with a 100% radial extent and a 120° circumferential extent. A detailed total

  8. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  10. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  11. Calculation of external-internal flow fields for mixed-compression inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, W. J.; Kawamura, T.; Bencze, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    Supersonic inlet flows with mixed external-internal compressions were computed using a combined implicit-explicit (Beam-Warming-Steger/MacCormack) method for solving the three-dimensional unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form. Numerical calculations were made of various flows related to such inlet operations as the shock-wave intersections, subsonic spillage around the cowl lip, and inlet started versus unstarted conditions. Some of the computed results were compared with wind tunnel data.

  12. Oregon inlet: Hydrodynamics, volumetric flux and implications for larval fish transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, C.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Springs, MD (United States); Pietrafesa, L.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The temporal response of Oregon Inlet currents to atmospheric forcing and sea level fluctuations is analyzed using time and frequency domain analysis. Temporally persistent and spatially extensive ebb and flood events are identified using data sets from both within and outside of Oregon Inlet. Prism estimates are made to generate a time series of volumetric flux of water transported through the inlet. Water masses flooding into the Pamlico Sound via Oregon Inlet are identified in temperature (T) and salinity (S) space to determine their source of origin. Correlations are examined between the atmospheric wind field, the main axial slope of the inlet`s water level, inlet flow and T, S properties. Synoptic scale atmospheric wind events are found to dramatically and directly affect the transport of water towards (away from) the inlet on the ocean side, in concert with the contemporaneous transport away from (towards) the inlet on the estuary side, and a subsequent flooding into (out of) the estuary via Oregon Inlet. Thus, while astronomical tidal flooding and ebbing events are shown to be one-sided as coastal waters either set-up or set-down, synoptic scale wind events are shown to be manifested as a two-sided in-phase response set-up and set-down inside and outside the inlet, and thus are extremely effective in driving currents through the inlet. These subinertial frequency flood events are believed to be essential for both the recruitment and subsequent retention of estuarine dependent larval fish from the coastal ocean into Pamlico Sound. Year class strength of these finish may be determined annually by the relative strength and timing of these climatological wind events.

  13. U-Pb zircon age for a volcanic suite in the Rankin Inlet Group, Rankin Inlet map area, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tella, S; Roddick, J C; VanBreemen, O [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    U-Pb zircon analyses from a felsic band within dominantly mafic volcanics of the Rankin Inlet Group yields a U-Pb upper concordia intercept age of 2663 {+-} 3 Ma. These supracrustals at Rankin Inlet appear to be 15-20 Ma younger than volcanics of the Kaminak Group in the Tavani area, 70 km to the southwest. The 2.68-2.66 Ga volcanism in the Tavani and Rankin Inlet areas coincided with the last stage of the main phase of magmatism in the Slave Structural Province. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. U-Pb zircon age for a volcanic suite in the Rankin Inlet Group, Rankin Inlet map area, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tella, S.; Roddick, J.C.; VanBreemen, O.

    1996-01-01

    U-Pb zircon analyses from a felsic band within dominantly mafic volcanics of the Rankin Inlet Group yields a U-Pb upper concordia intercept age of 2663 ± 3 Ma. These supracrustals at Rankin Inlet appear to be 15-20 Ma younger than volcanics of the Kaminak Group in the Tavani area, 70 km to the southwest. The 2.68-2.66 Ga volcanism in the Tavani and Rankin Inlet areas coincided with the last stage of the main phase of magmatism in the Slave Structural Province. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Smart Materials Technology for High Speed Adaptive Inlet/Nozzle Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Enabling a new generation of high speed civil aircraft will require breakthrough developments in propulsion design, including novel techniques to optimize inlet...

  16. Performance and Adaptive Surge-Preventing Acceleration Prediction of a Turboshaft Engine under Inlet Flow Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Dalu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to research the inlet flow distortion influence on overall performance of turboshaft engine and put forward a method called Distortion Factor Item (DFI to improve the fuel supply plan for surge-preventing acceleration when turboshaft engine suddenly encounters inlet flow distortion. Based on the parallel compressor theory, steady-state and transition-state numerical simulation model of turboshaft engine with sub-compressor model were established for researching the influence of inlet flow distortion on turboshaft engine. This paper made a detailed analysis on the compressor operation from the aspects of performance and stability, and then analyzed the overall performance and dynamic response of the whole engine under inlet flow distortion. Improved fuel supply plan with DFI method was applied to control the acceleration process adaptively when encountering different inlet flow distortion. Several simulation examples about extreme natural environments were calculated to testify DFI method’s environmental applicability. The result shows that the inlet flow distortion reduces the air inflow and decreases the surge margin of compressor, and increase the engine exhaust loss. Encountering inlet flow distortion has many adverse influences such as sudden rotor acceleration, turbine inlet temperature rise and power output reduction. By using improved fuel supply plan with DFI, turboshaft engine above-idle acceleration can avoid surge effectively under inlet flow distortion with environmental applicability.

  17. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  18. Reconstruction of core inlet temperature distribution by cold leg temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarinen, S.; Antila, M.

    2010-01-01

    The reduced core of Loviisa NPP contains 33 thermocouple measurements measuring the core inlet temperature. Currently, these thermocouple measurements are not used in determining the inlet temperature distribution. The average of cold leg temperature measurements is used as inlet temperature for each fuel assembly. In practice, the inlet temperature distribution is not constant. Thus, using a constant inlet temperature distribution induces asymmetries in the measured core power distribution. Using a more realistic inlet temperature distribution would help us to reduce virtual asymmetries of the core power distribution and increase the thermal margins of the core. The thermocouples at the inlet cannot be used directly to measure the inlet temperature accurately because the calibration of the thermocouples that is done at hot zero power conditions is no longer valid at full power, when there is temperature change across the core region. This is due to the effect of neutron irradiation on the Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple wires. Therefore, we investigate in this paper a method to determine the inlet temperature distribution based on the cold leg temperature measurements. With this method we rely on the assumption that although the core inlet thermocouple measurements do not measure the absolute temperature accurately they do measure temperature changes with sufficient accuracy particularly in big disturbances. During the yearly testing of steam generator safety valves we observe a large temperature increase up to 12 degrees in the cold leg temperature. The change in the temperature of one of the cold legs causes a local disturbance in the core inlet temperature distribution. Using the temperature changes observed in the inlet thermocouple measurements we are able to fit six core inlet temperature response functions, one for each cold leg. The value of a function at an assembly inlet is determined only by the corresponding cold leg temperature disturbance

  19. A salp bloom (Tunicata, Thaliacea) along the Apulian coast and in the Otranto Channel between March-May 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Ferdinando; Belmonte, Genuario; Bracale, Roberta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Piraino, Stefano; Zampardi, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Between March-May 2013 a massive Salpa maxima bloom was recorded by a citizen science study along the Ionian and Adriatic coast of the Salento peninsula (Italy). Citizen records were substantiated with field inspections along the coast and during an oceanographic campaign in the Otranto Channel. Salps clogged nets, impairing fishing activities along the coast. Swimmers were scared by the gelatinous appearance of the salps, and thought they were jellyfish. At the end of the bloom the dead bodies of the colonies, that were up to 6-7 m long, were accumulated along the coast and stirred by the waves, forming foams along dozens of kilometers of coast. The bloom also occurred at the Tremiti Islands, north of the Gargano Peninsula. The possible impacts of such events on the  functioning of pelagic systems are discussed.

  20. Observations of Seafloor Roughness in a Tidally Modulated Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, T. C.; Hunt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical structure of shallow water flows are influenced by the presence of a bottom boundary layer, which spans the water column for long period waves or mean flows. The nature of the boundary is determined in part by the roughness elements that make up the seafloor, and includes sometimes complex undulations associated with regular and irregular shaped bedforms whose scales range several orders of magnitude from orbital wave ripples (10-1 m) to mega-ripples (100 m) and even larger features (101-103) such as sand waves, bars, and dunes. Modeling efforts often parameterize the effects of roughness elements on flow fields, depending on the complexity of the boundary layer formulations. The problem is exacerbated by the transient nature of bedforms and their large spatial extent and variability. This is particularly important in high flow areas with large sediment transport, such as tidally dominated sandy inlets like New River Inlet, NC. Quantification of small scale seafloor variability over large spatial areas requires the use of mobile platforms that can measure with fine scale (order cm) accuracy in wide swaths. The problem is difficult in shallow water where waves and currents are large, and water clarity is often limited. In this work, we present results from bathymetric surveys obtained with the Coastal Bathymetry Survey System, a personal watercraft equipped with a Imagenex multibeam acoustic echosounder and Applanix POS-MV 320 GPS-aided inertial measurement unit. This system is able to measure shallow water seafloor bathymetry and backscatter intensity with very fine scale (10-1 m) resolution and over relatively large scales (103 m) in the presence of high waves and currents. Wavenumber spectra show that the noise floor of the resolved multibeam bathymetry is on the order of 2.5 - 5 cm in amplitude, depending on water depths ranging 2 - 6 m, and about 30 cm in wavelength. Seafloor roughness elements are estimated from wavenumber spectra across the inlet

  1. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  2. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  3. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  4. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  5. Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig [Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Everett, WA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    This document represents the final report for the Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, located in Puget Sound, Washington, United States. The Project purpose was to license, permit, and install a grid-connected deep-water tidal turbine array (two turbines) to be used as a platform to gather operational and environmental data on tidal energy generation. The data could then be used to better inform the viability of commercial tidal energy generation from technical, economic, social, and environmental standpoints. This data would serve as a critical step towards the responsible advancement of commercial scale tidal energy in the United States and around the world. In late 2014, Project activities were discontinued due to escalating costs, and the DOE award was terminated in early 2015. Permitting, licensing, and engineering design activities were completed under this award. Final design, deployment, operation, and monitoring were not completed. This report discusses the results and accomplishments achieved under the subject award.

  6. Moderator inlet line hanger replacement for Pickering nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.A.; Bowman, J.M.; Symmons, W.R.; El-Nesr, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS), Units 1 and 2 were shutdown for large scale fuel channel replacement. Other nonroutine inspection and maintenance activities were performed to determine the overall condition of the units and it was seen that a moderator inlet line hanger (identified as HR-29) had failed in both units. Subsequent inspections during planned maintenance outages of Pickering NGS Units 3 and 4 revealed that hanger HR-29 had failed and required replacement. A research program was conducted to find a suitable technique. These problems included accessing tooling through small inspection ports, manipulating tooling from a significant distance and the high radiation fields within the vault. This paper describes the program undertaken to replace hanger HR-29. (author)

  7. Mitigation of thermal transients by tube bundle inlet plenum design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1984-06-01

    A multiphase program aimed at investigating the importance of thermal buoyancy to LMFBR steam-generator and heat-exchanger thermal hydraulics under low-flow transient conditions is being conducted in the Argonne Mixing Components Test Facility (MCTF) on a 60 0 sector shell-side flow model of the Westinghouse straight-tube steam generator being developed under the US/DOE large-component development program. A series of shell-side constant-flow thermal-downramp transient tests have been conducted focusing on the phenomenon of thermal-buoyancy-induced-flow channeling. In addition, it was discovered that a shell-inlet flow-distribution plenum can play a significant role in mitigating the severity of a thermal transient entering a steam generator or heat exchanger

  8. Inlet throttling effect on the boiling two-phase flow stability in a natural circulation loop with a chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, M.; Inada, F.; Yasuo, A.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate an effect of inlet restriction on the thermal-hydraulic stability. A Test facility used in this study was designed and constructed to have non-dimensional values that are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Experimental results showed that driving force of the natural circulation at the stability boundary was described as a function of heat flux and inlet subcooling independent of inlet restriction. In order to extend experimental database regarding thermal-hydraulic stability to different inlet restriction, numerical analysis was carried out based on the homogeneous flow model. Stability maps in reference to the core inlet subcooling and heat flux were presented for various inlet restrictions using the above-mentioned function. Instability region during the inlet subcooling shifted to the higher inlet subcooling with increasing inlet restriction and became larger with increasing heat flux. (orig.)

  9. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  10. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  11. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Climate Data with Water Parameters from North Inlet Meteorological Station, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1982-1996.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Meteorological data with water parameters were collected on an hourly basis from June 3, 1982 through April 29, 1996 in the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown County,...

  12. Phosphorus mass balance in a highly eutrophic semi-enclosed inlet near a big metropolis: a small inlet can contribute towards particulate organic matter production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2011-01-01

    Terrigenous loading into enclosed water bodies has been blamed for eutrophic conditions marked by massive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia due to decomposition of dead algal cells. This study aims to describe the eutrophication and hypoxia processes in a semi-enclosed water body lying near a big metropolis. Phosphorus mass balance in a small inlet, Ohko Inlet, located at the head of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, was quantified using a numerical model. Dissolved inorganic phosphorous inflow from Kaita Bay next to the inlet was five times higher than that from terrigenous load, which may cause an enhancement of primary production. Therefore, it was concluded that not only the reduction of material load from the land and the suppression of benthic flux are needed, but also reducing the inflow of high phosphorus and oxygen depleted water from Kaita Bay will form a collective alternative measure to remediate the environmental condition of the inlet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of impact of inlet air cooling techniques on gas turbine and combined cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Alok Ku; Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The article is focused on the comparison of impact of two different methods of inlet air cooling (vapor compression and vapor absorption cooling) integrated to a cooled gas turbine based combined cycle plant. Air-film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. A parametric study of the effect of compressor pressure ratio, compressor inlet temperature (T i , C ), turbine inlet temperature (T i , T ), ambient relative humidity and ambient temperature on performance parameters of plant has been carried out. Optimum T i , T corresponding to maximum plant efficiency of combined cycle increases by 100 °C due to the integration of inlet air cooling. It has been observed that vapor compression cooling improves the efficiency of gas turbine cycle by 4.88% and work output by 14.77%. In case of vapor absorption cooling an improvement of 17.2% in gas cycle work output and 9.47% in gas cycle efficiency has been observed. For combined cycle configuration, however, vapor compression cooling should be preferred over absorption cooling in terms of higher plant performance. The optimum value of compressor inlet temperature has been observed to be 20 °C for the chosen set of conditions for both the inlet air cooling schemes. - Highlights: • Inlet air cooling improves performance of cooled gas turbine based combined cycle. • Vapor compression inlet air cooling is superior to vapor absorption inlet cooling. • For every turbine inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio. • The optimum compressor inlet temperature is found to be 293 K

  15. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  16. Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanita, Nita; Pratama, Roka; Husrin, Semeidi

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia Tulamben coast is located in Lombok Strait on the northeastern coast of Bali island, Indonesia, as part of Karang Asem district. Severe erosion along the coastline has long been occurred in Karang Asem area and threatening houses, religious buildings (Hindu temples), and a national heritage site. As one of most popular diving site in Bali Island, Tulamben attracted many local and international tourist since 1980. The main attraction of Tulamben diving site is the USAT Liberty ship that was shipwrecked in Tulamben beach in 1942, after attacked by Japanese torpedo in Lombok Strait. Currently about 150 diver visit Tulamben per day. Due to physical changes of coastal environmental such as coastal erosion, sliding, and scouring, the shipwreck is vulnerable. It had been slipped off the beach several times and is predicted would be moved to deeper offshore floor if it is not protected. Coastal erosion in Karang Asem district is occurred probably due to interaction between cross-shore and long-shore wave-generated current and river sand supply decreasing after sand mining activities. In this study, the effect of cross-shore and longshore transport to coastal erosion in Tulamben is analyzed by doing numerical model. Numerical simulation of shoreline changes is performed by using Beach Processes Module of CEDAS (Coastal Engineering Design and Analysis System) consists of SBEACH and GENESIS. The model domain is covered Karang Asem coastline about 60 km length and wave data is calculated from hourly wind data (10 years). Simulated shoreline is calibrated using shoreline data from 1972 to 2013. Using calibrated model, then the simulation is performed from 2003 - 2013. From the simulation it is determined that longshore current and longshore sediment contribute to coastal erosion in Tulamben. Based on model results, several alternatives of general layout and configuration of coastal protection structures is proposed

  17. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  18. Pronounced particularity: a comparison of governance structures on Lord Howe Island and Fernando de Noronha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Reis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the management systems and governance structures of two island sites with national and international World Heritage recognition: Lord Howe Island (off the mid-east coast of Australia and Fernando de Noronha (off the north-east coast of Brazil. Using historical and contemporary references, the paper explores the manner in which two distinct approaches to governance are implicated in the daily living of community members, and considers their socioeconomic activities. We use the case of tourism and World Heritage management as examples of the complexities involved in the different forms of governance structures adopted by these two small oceanic islands: similar in nature and official status, but significantly different when the outcomes of their governance practices are analysed. In the final part of the paper, we suggest mechanisms and approaches that can promote sustainable local engagement with island issues.

  19. Origin and location of new Arctic islands and straits due to glacial recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Wiesław; Ostafin, Krzysztof

    2018-03-29

    A total of 34 new islands (each 0.5 km 2 or above) have appeared due to recession of Arctic glaciers under climate warming since the 1960s. Analysis of maps and satellite images of the Arctic coasts has been a basic method of recognizing these islands. Their origin is the final stage of a process which began in the twentieth century. They appear only on the coasts where bedrock elevations above sea level are surrounded by depressions below this level, filled (at least from the landside) with glaciers. Their recession leads to flooding of the depressions by sea water, thus creating straits which separate the new islands from the mainland. Hence, such new islands appear only in Greenland and the European Arctic. Their ecosystems accommodate to new environmental conditions. In the near future, this process will be intensified in a situation of further warming.

  20. Synecology of Cutandia maritima (L. Barbey, a rare psammophytic species along the Montenegrin Coast (East Adriatic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutandia maritima is a circum-Mediterranean species that inhabits sandy dunes along the coast line. It is fairly frequent on the western Adriatic coast but fairly rare and possibly even non-native in the east. In Croatia, it was discovered in 1990 in Crnika Bay on the island of Rab, which was considered until 2005 to be the only site on the eastern Adriatic coast from the Gulf of Trieste in the north to Corfu in the south. In 2009, the species was briefly reported for Velika plaža (Long Beach in Ulcinj (Montenegro but without details about the habitat type and synecology. The aim of this paper is thus to provide a deeper insight into the ecology and synecology of C. maritima in the eastern Adriatic part of the distribution area. On Velika plaža in Ulcinj, the species was found along the whole sea-inland gradient of sand dunes, in various types of vegetation: [1210] - annual vegetation of drift lines, [2110] - embryonic shifting dunes, [2120] - shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes, [2220] - dunes with Euphorbia terracina, [2130*] - fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes, and also [2190] - humid dune slacks.

  1. Blade bowing effects on radial equilibrium of inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The circumferentially averaged equation of the inlet flow radial equilibrium in axial compressor was deduced. It indicates that the blade inlet radial pressure gradient is closely related to the radial component of the circumferential fluctuation (CF source item. Several simplified cascades with/without aerodynamic loading were numerically studied to investigate the effects of blade bowing on the inlet flow radial equilibrium. A data reduction program was conducted to obtain the CF source from three-dimensional (3D simulation results. Flow parameters at the passage inlet were focused on and each term in the radial equilibrium equation was discussed quantitatively. Results indicate that the inviscid blade force is the inducement of the inlet CF due to geometrical asymmetry. Blade bowing induces variation of the inlet CF, thus changes the radial pressure gradient and leads to flow migration before leading edge (LE in the cascades. Positive bowing drives the inlet flow to migrate from end walls to mid-span and negative bowing turns it to the reverse direction to build a new equilibrium. In addition, comparative studies indicate that the inlet Mach number and blade loading can efficiently impact the effectiveness of blade bowing on radial equilibrium in compressor design.

  2. Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets for new surveillance air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to adapt an existing sampling inlet or develop a new one to collect airborne dust particles <10-μm aerodynamic equivalent diameter. These inlets are necessary to meet new EPA and DOE guidelines for surveillance of nuclear facilities

  3. Biochar-amended filter socks reduce herbicide losses via tile line surface inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing water in depressions and behind terraces in fields with subsurface drainage systems can result in reduced crop yields. This concern can be partially alleviated by installing surface inlets that reduce the duration of ponding. Unfortunately, these inlets provide an open conduit for surface w...

  4. Unsteady flow characteristic analysis of turbine based combined cycle (TBCC inlet mode transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A turbine based combined cycle (TBCC propulsion system uses a turbine-based engine to accelerate the vehicle from takeoff to the mode transition flight condition, at which point, the propulsion system performs a “mode transition” from the turbine to ramjet engine. Smooth inlet mode transition is accomplished when flow is diverted from one flowpath to the other, without experiencing unstart or buzz. The smooth inlet mode transition is a complex unsteady process and it is one of the enabling technologies for combined cycle engine to become a functional reality. In order to unveil the unsteady process of inlet mode transition, the research of over/under TBCC inlet mode transition was conducted through a numerical simulation. It shows that during the mode transition the terminal shock oscillates in the inlet. During the process of inlet mode transition mass flow rate and Mach number of turbojet flowpath reduce with oscillation. While in ramjet flowpath the flow field is non-uniform at the beginning of inlet mode transition. The speed of mode transition and the operation states of the turbojet and ramjet engines will affect the motion of terminal shock. The result obtained in present paper can help us realize the unsteady flow characteristic during the mode transition and provide some suggestions for TBCC inlet mode transition based on the smooth transition of thrust.

  5. Vortex Generators in a Two-Dimensional, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed as part of a process to design a vortex generator array for a two-dimensional inlet for Mach 1.6. The objective is to improve total pressure recovery a on at the engine face of the inlet. Both vane-type and ramp-type vortex generators are examined.

  6. The NASA Ames Hypersonic Combustor-Model Inlet CFD Simulations and Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Tokarcik-Polsky, S.; Deiwert, G. S.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Computations have been performed on a three-dimensional inlet associated with the NASA Ames combustor model for the hypersonic propulsion experiment in the 16-inch shock tunnel. The 3-dimensional inlet was designed to have the combustor inlet flow nearly two-dimensional and of sufficient mass flow necessary for combustion. The 16-inch shock tunnel experiment is a short duration test with test time of the order of milliseconds. The flow through the inlet is in chemical non-equilibrium. Two test entries have been completed and limited experimental results for the inlet region of the combustor-model are available. A number of CFD simulations, with various levels of simplifications such as 2-D simulations, 3-D simulations with and without chemical reactions, simulations with and without turbulent conditions, etc., have been performed. These simulations have helped determine the model inlet flow characteristics and the important factors that affect the combustor inlet flow and the sensitivity of the flow field to these simplifications. In the proposed paper, CFD modeling of the hypersonic inlet, results from the simulations and comparison with available experimental results will be presented.

  7. 77 FR 6065 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... beluga whales found in the Cook Inlet of Alaska is one of five distinct population segments in United... beluga whale, such as population increases, are primarily the result of the non- consumptive value people...

  8. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  9. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  10. 30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 77.303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... employ a hot gas inlet chamber shall be equipped with drop-out doors at the bottom of the inlet chamber...

  11. Jet Engine Fan Response to Inlet Distortions Generated by Ingesting Boundary Layer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, James Edward

    Future civil transport designs may incorporate engines integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlets ingest the lower momentum boundary layer flow that develops along the surface of the aircraft. Previous studies have shown, however, that the efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) inlets are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This project represents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of TURBO, an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code, to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations. Extending TURBO to simulate the external and inlet flow field upstream of the fan will allow accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI inlet configurations to be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the modifications for the BLI inlet flow field, an experimental NASA project to study flush-mounted S-duct inlets with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Once the inlet modifications were validated, a hypothetical compressor fan was connected to the inlet, matching the inlet operating conditions so that the effect on the distortion could be evaluated. Although the total pressure distortion upstream of the fan was symmetrical for this geometry, the pressure rise generated by the fan blades was not, because of the velocity non-uniformity of the distortion

  12. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    the premonsoon and monsoon periods. Waters from deeper layers of the shelf appear to reach the surface causing considerable fall of surface temperature near the coast. The probable causes for these differences in upwelling along the coast are discussed...

  13. Zooplankton along the Tamil Nadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Saraswathy, M.

    Zooplankton abundance along two sectors at Cape Comorin and Tuticorin of Tamil Nadu Coast, southeast coast of India was studied. High biomass contributed by Ostracods, Salps, Chaetognaths etc., were observed along Tuticorin transect. In the Cape...

  14. Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Figueiredo da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ∼16 m water depth from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria de Aveiro. The buoyant plume has a distinctive reddish brown colour and is clearly visible at the water surface. The transport and dispersion of the plume was monitored by airborne photography and by in situ water sampling. Results revealed the surface currents present and water mass fronts in the nearshore zone of the Aveiro coast. During the spring and summer, the plume was not transported offshore in the manner expected by the upwelling shelf circulation. Instead, it was commonly observed to be transported alongshore with the prevailing southerly circulation or with an onshore component. The transport to the south caused the outfall plume to interact with the circulation associated with the tidal currents generated in the inlet channel to the Ria de Aveiro. The observations suggest that the trophic status of the Ria de Aveiro is unlikely to change because of the operation of the submarine outfall. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how simple observations of wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall can be used to improve understanding of nearshore circulation. Keywords: water circulation, upwelling, ocean outfall, remote sensing, eutrophication, Ria de Aveiro

  15. Design of a reactor inlet temperature controller for EBR-2 using state feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.; Planchon, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    A new reactor inlet temperature controller for pool type liquid-metal reactors has been developed and will be tested in EBR-II. The controller makes use of modern control techniques to take into account stratification and mixing in the cold pool during normal operation. Secondary flowrate is varied so that the reactor inlet temperature tracks a setpoint while reactor outlet temperature, primary flowrate and secondary cold leg temperature are treated as exogenous disturbances and are free to vary. A disturbance rejection technique minimizes the effect of these disturbances on inlet temperature. A linear quadratic regulator improves inlet temperature response. Tests in EBR-II will provide experimental data for assessing the performance improvements that modern control can produce over the existing EBR-II analog inlet temperature controller. 10 refs., 8 figs

  16. Selective catalytic reduction converter design: The effect of ammonia nonuniformity at inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramadayalan, Thiyagarajan; Pant, Atul

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model of SCR converter with detailed chemistry is developed. The model is used to study the effects of radial variation in inlet ammonia profile on SCR emission performance at different temperatures. The model shows that radial variation in inlet ammonia concentration affects the SCR performance in the operating range of 200-400 .deg. C. In automotive SCR systems, ammonia is non-uniformly distributed due to evaporation/reaction of injected urea, and using a 1D model or a 3D model with flat ammonia profile at inlet for these conditions can result in erroneous emission prediction. The 3D SCR model is also used to study the effect of converter design parameters like inlet cone angle and monolith cell density on the SCR performance for a non-uniform ammonia concentration profile at the inlet. The performance of SCR is evaluated using DeNO x efficiency and ammonia slip

  17. A Breeding Population of the Western Pacific Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) Established on the Atlantic Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J J

    1991-08-01

    The west Pacific grapsid crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was found in the United States for the first time in 1988. Additional crabs were recovered in 1990 from Townsends Inlet and Cape May Harbor, New Jersey (22 males, 16 females), and four of the females collected from June through September were ovigerous. Thus, H. sanguineus has now established itself in southern New Jersey, the first well-documented case of an exotic brachyuran becoming established along the east coast of the United States.

  18. Static pressure recovery analysis in the vane island diffuser of a centrifugal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Qiaorui [National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Dupont, Patrick; Bayeul-Laine, Annie-Claude; Dazin, Antoine; Roussette, Olivier; Bois, Gerard [LML, UMR CNRS 8107 Ecole Centrale de Lille, Lille (France)

    2016-02-15

    The overall performance of a vane-island type diffuser of a centrifugal pump model was obtained by means of directional probe traverses. These measurements were performed in an air model of a real hydraulic pump for five volume flow rates. Directional probe traverses are performed with a classical three-hole probe to cover most of the complete inlet section of the diffuser from hub to shroud and from pressure to suction side. Existing Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement results are also used to compare probe measurement results between the inlet and outlet throats of vane island diffuser at mid-span. Some assistance from already existing unsteady calculation, including leakage effects, is used to evaluate the numerical approach capability and to correctly define the mean initial conditions at impeller's outlet section. Pressure recovery and the measured total pressure loss levels inside this particular vane diffuser geometry are then calculated. Detailed analysis of the flow structure at the inlet section of the vane island diffuser is presented to focus on pressure evolution inside the entire diffuser section for different flow rates. The combined effects of incidence angle and blockage distributions along hub to shroud direction are found to play an important role on loss distribution in such a diffuser.

  19. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations. Siberian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 3. Area 15 - Okhotsk Sea NE, Area 16 - West Coast Kamchatka, Area 17 - Tatar Strait N, Area 18 - Tatar Strait S, Area 19 - Okhotsk Sea SW, Area 20 - Sakhalin Island SE, Area 21 - Okhotsk Sea SE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    8217 " ■., . "■ ’■<*. PEKIODI IPRIDARY) 1939-197* (OVER-ALL) 1907-197* 1UCUST TtlU 17 ADEl 0016 HtST COAST KtMCHAUA 9A.AN 15J.JE rCT ntQ 0f AIR...8217—■ ■- ^"’"’""ÜIBMÜMIÜlffifattllll i^iuiimb&m<miiM& *J W \\j- \\j PEKIQOI (DVER-4LLI 1961-1974 OCTUBE« TABLE U (CONTI «Kt» 0016 HtST CUA$T ««^CHJTK» S4.1N

  20. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the

  1. Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) Inlet-Fan Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, James; Chen, Jen-Ping; Beach, Timothy; Bakhle, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Future civil transport designs may incorporate engine inlets integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlet ingests the lower momentum boundary layer flow. Previous studies have shown, however, that efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) ingestion are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This paper presents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations, such as the development of rotating stall and inlet distortion through compressor stages. This paper describes the first phase of an effort to extend the TURBO model to calculate the external and inlet flowfield upstream of fan so that accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI configurations can be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the TURBO program modifications for the BLI flowfield, experimental test data obtained by NASA for a flushmounted S-duct with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Quantitative data is presented that indicates good predictive capability of the model in the upstream flow. A representative fan is attached to the inlet and results are presented for the coupled inlet/fan model. The impact on the total pressure distortion at the AIP after the fan is attached is examined.

  2. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: Long... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine...

  3. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  4. Spatial Reconnaissance : Technical Report ComCoast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Ahlhorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    ComCoast (Combined Functions in Coastal Defence Zones) is an INTERREG IIIB project funded by the EU. ComCoast aims to develop and demonstrate innovative solutions for flood protection in coastal areas. In ComCoast, five countries from the North Sea Region are involved: Belgium, Denmark, The

  5. Parametric Analysis of a Hypersonic Inlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliden, Daniel

    For CFD validation, hypersonic flow fields are simulated and compared with experimental data specifically designed to recreate conditions found by hypersonic vehicles. Simulated flow fields on a cone-ogive with flare at Mach 7.2 are compared with experimental data from NASA Ames Research Center 3.5" hypersonic wind tunnel. A parametric study of turbulence models is presented and concludes that the k-kl-omega transition and SST transition turbulence model have the best correlation. Downstream of the flare's shockwave, good correlation is found for all boundary layer profiles, with some slight discrepancies of the static temperature near the surface. Simulated flow fields on a blunt cone with flare above Mach 10 are compared with experimental data from CUBRC LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel. Lack of vibrational non-equilibrium calculations causes discrepancies in heat flux near the leading edge. Temperature profiles, where non-equilibrium effects are dominant, are compared with the dissociation of molecules to show the effects of dissociation on static temperature. Following the validation studies is a parametric analysis of a hypersonic inlet from Mach 6 to 20. Compressor performance is investigated for numerous cowl leading edge locations up to speeds of Mach 10. The variable cowl study showed positive trends in compressor performance parameters for a range of Mach numbers that arise from maximizing the intake of compressed flow. An interesting phenomenon due to the change in shock wave formation for different Mach numbers developed inside the cowl that had a negative influence on the total pressure recovery. Investigation of the hypersonic inlet at different altitudes is performed to study the effects of Reynolds number, and consequently, turbulent viscous effects on compressor performance. Turbulent boundary layer separation was noted as the cause for a change in compressor performance parameters due to a change in Reynolds number. This effect would not be

  6. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    -494 #02060313 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data RICHA CHOUDHARY 1 , R. GOWTHAMAN 2 AND V. SANIL KUMAR 2 1... years period. Gangavali river mouth has narrowed due to siltation. Significant changes in the geomorphic features like spit growth, braided island, creeks, tidal flat are observed near Kali and Gangavali river mouth. Keywords: Remote sensing...

  7. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G. Poole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  8. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  9. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zalewski

    Full Text Available Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55, genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  10. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of ocean shoreline location on the Virginia barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Shoreline change along the Eastern Atlantic shore of Virginia has been studied for the individual barrier islands but not as an integrated system. This study combines the Atlantic shoreline locations for eleven barrier islands obtained from LANDSAT 5, 7, and 8 images. Approximately 250 shoreline locations over a 24-year period from Jan 1990 to Dec 2014 were extracted from the digitized shoreline data at 338 transects. The resulting 338 by 250 matrix was analyzed by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) technique. The first four principal components (PC) explained 86 percent of the sample variance. Since the data was not detrended, the first PC was the overall trend of the data with a discontinuity in 2004-2005. The 2004-2005 interval included storm events and large shoreline changes. PCs 2 to 4 reflect the effects of El Nino events and tropical and non-tropical storms. Eigenvectors 1 to 4 all show the effects of the nine inlets in the island group. Eigenvector (EV) 1 explains 59 percent of the shoreline spatial variance and shows the largest changes at the northern and southern island ends. EVs 2 to 4 reflect the pattern of EV1 but at sequentially smaller percentages of the spatial variance. As a group, the eleven islands are losing ocean side shoreline. The lone exception is Hog Island. Sea level had the strongest correlation with the shoreline loss trend of PC1. The coefficient of determination was 0.41. The NAO and MEI also correlated with PC1 with correlations of determination of 0.05 and 0.12 respectively. These confidence level for the three factors was better than 99 percent. Sea level also correlated with PC3 and PC4. The PCs as a group show that the year intervals 2004-2005 and 2009-2010 had large effects on the shoreline change pattern for the island group. EVs 1 to 4 had the highest range of shoreline change at the island ends indicating the effect the changes of the inlets have on the adjacent islands. The smaller islands as a group had a higher level

  11. A longshore sediment transport estimation for the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.

    in Tamilnadu, and the Maharashtra Coast experience negligible annual net transport. The direction of annual net transport along the east coast is towards north and along the west coast towards south except at south Gujarat Coast...

  12. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure

  13. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure.

  14. Smart actuation of inlet guide vanes for small turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovici, Razvan; Kwok Choon, Stephen T.; Sepri, Paavo; Feys, Joshuo

    2011-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained popularity over the past few years to become an indispensable part of aerial missions that include reconnaissance, surveillance, and communication [1]. As a result, advancements in small jet-engine performance are needed to increase the performance (range, payload and efficiency) of the UAV. These jet engines designed especially for UAV's are characterized by thrust force on the order of 100N and due to their size and weight limitations, may lack advanced flow control devices such as IGV [2]. The goal of the current study was to present a conceptual design of an IGV smart-material based actuation mechanism that would be simple, compact and lightweight. The compressor section of an engine increases the pressure and conditions the flow before the air enters the combustion chamber [3]. The airflow entering the compressor is often turbulent due to the high angle of incidence between engine inlet and free-stream velocity, or existing atmospheric turbulence. Actuated IGV are used to help control the relative angle of incidence of the flow that enters the engine compressor, thereby preventing flow separation, compressor stall and thus extending the compressor's operating envelope [4]. Turbine jet- engines which employ variable IGV were developed by Rolls Royce (Trent DR-900) and General Electric (J79).

  15. Water resources of the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Scully, David R.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water and surface-water systems of Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, are analyzed. Geologic and topographic features that control the movement and regional availability of ground water are explained and illustrated. Five aquifer systems beneath the most populous areas are described. Estimates of ground-water yield were determined for the region by using ground-water data for the populated areas and by extrapolating known subsurface conditions and interpreting subsurface conditions from surficial features in the other areas. Area maps of generalized geology, Quaternary sediment thickness, and general availability of ground water are shown. Surface-water resources are summarized by describing how basin characteristics affect the discharge in streams. Seasonal trend of streamflow for three types of streams is described. Regression equations for 4 streamflow characteristics (annual, monthly minimum, and maximum discharge) were obtained by using gaging station streamflow characteristics and 10 basin characteristics. In the 24 regression equations presented, drainage area is the most significant basin characteristic, but 5 others are used. Maps of mean annual unit runoff and minimum unit yield for 7 consecutive days with a recurrence interval of 10 years are shown. Historic discharge data at gaging stations is tabulated and representative low-flow and flood-flow frequency curves are shown. (USGS)

  16. Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry for Homeland Security and Forensic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Brkić, Boris; Taylor, Stephen; France, Neil

    2015-02-01

    A man-portable membrane inlet mass spectrometer has been built and tested to detect and monitor characteristic odors emitted from the human body and also from threat substances. In each case, a heated membrane sampling probe was used. During human scent monitoring experiments, data were obtained for inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds emitted from human breath and sweat in a confined space. Volatile emissions were detected from the human body at low ppb concentrations. Experiments with compounds associated with narcotics, explosives, and chemical warfare agents were conducted for a range of membrane types. Test compounds included methyl benzoate (odor signature of cocaine), piperidine (precursor in clandestine phencyclidine manufacturing processes), 2-nitrotoluene (breakdown product of TNT), cyclohexanone (volatile signature of plastic explosives), dimethyl methylphosphonate (used in sarin and soman nerve agent production), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (simulant compound for sulfur mustard gas). Gas phase calibration experiments were performed allowing sub-ppb LOD to be established. The results showed excellent linearity versus concentration and rapid membrane response times.

  17. Detecting Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn; Mikulski, Rose; Tu, Chingkuang; Li, Ying; Wang, Hai; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Frost, Susan C.; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Current research into the function of carbonic anhydrases in cell physiology emphasizes the role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases, such as carbonic anhydrase IX that has been identified in malignant tumors and is associated with extracellular acidification as a response to hypoxia. We present here a mass spectrometric method to determine the extent to which total carbonic anhydrase activity is due to extracellular carbonic anhydrase in whole cell preparations. The method is based on the biphasic rate of depletion of 18O from CO2 measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The slopes of the biphasic depletion are a sensitive measure of the presence of carbonic anhydrase outside and inside of the cells. This property is demonstrated here using suspensions of human red cells in which external carbonic anhydrase was added to the suspending solution. It is also applied to breast and prostate cancer cells which both express exofacial carbonic anhydrase IX. Inhibition of external carbonic anhydrase is achieved by use of a membrane impermeant inhibitor that was synthesized for this purpose, p-aminomethylbenzenesulfonamide attached to a polyethyleneglycol polymer. PMID:20417171

  18. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  19. Geodetic Volcano Monitoring Research in Canary Islands: Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Arjona, A.; Camacho, A. G.; Prieto, J. F.; Seco, A.; Tizzani, P.; Manzo, M. R.; Lanari, R.; Blanco, P.; Mallorqui, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Canarian Archipelago is an oceanic island volcanic chain with a long-standing history of volcanic activity (> 40 Ma). It is located off the NW coast of the African continent, lying over a transitional crust of the Atlantic African passive margin. At least 12 eruptions have been occurred on the islands of Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma in the last 500 years. Volcanism manifest predominantly as basaltic strombolian monogenetic activity (whole archipelago) and central felsic volcanism (active only in Tenerife Island). We concentrate our studies in the two most active islands, Tenerife and La Palma. In these islands, we tested different methodologies of geodetic monitoring systems. We use a combination of ground- and space-based techniques. At Tenerife Island, a differential interferometric study was performed to detect areas of deformation. DInSAR detected two clear areas of deformation, using this results a survey-based GPS network was designed and optimized to control those deformations and the rest of the island. Finally, using SBAS DInSAR results weak spatial long- wavelength subsidence signals has been detected. At La Palma, the first DInSAR analysis have not shown any clear deformation, so a first time series analysis was performed detecting a clear subsidence signal at Teneguia volcano, as for Tenerife a GPS network was designed and optimized taking into account stable and deforming areas. After several years of activities, geodetic results served to study ground deformations caused by a wide variety of sources, such as changes in groundwater levels, volcanic activity, volcano-tectonics, gravitational loading, etc. These results proof that a combination of ground-based and space-based techniques is suitable tool for geodetic volcano monitoring in Canary Islands. Finally, we would like to strength that those results could have serious implications on the continuous geodetic monitoring system design and implementation for the Canary Islands which is under

  20. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  1. Massive decline of Cystoseira abies-marina forests in Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown macroalgae within the genus Cystoseira are some of the most relevant “ecosystem-engineers” found throughout the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic coasts. Cystoseira-dominated assemblages are sensitive to anthropogenic pressures, and historical declines have been reported from some regions. In particular, Cystoseira abies-marina, thriving on shallow rocky shores, is a key species for the ecosystems of the Canary Islands. In this work, we analyse changes in the distribution and extension of C. abies-marina in the last decades on the island of Gran Canaria. This alga dominated the shallow rocky shores of the entire island in the 1980s; a continuous belt extended along 120.5 km of the coastline and occupied 928 ha. In the first decade of the 21st century, fragmented populations were found along 52.2 km of the coastline and occupied 12.6 ha. Today, this species is found along 37.8 km of the coastline and occupies only 7.4 ha, mainly as scattered patches. This regression has been drastic around the whole island, even in areas with low anthropogenic pressure; the magnitude of the decline over time and the intensity of local human impacts have not shown a significant correlation. This study highlights a real need to implement conservation and restoration policies for C. abies-marina in this region.

  2. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  3. Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ugur

    2005-01-01

    The design and operational variables of inlet and exhaust systems are decisive to determine overall engine performance. The best engine overall performance can be obtained by proper design of the engine inlet and exhaust systems and by matching the correct turbocharger to the engine. This paper presents the results of investigations to design the inlet and exhaust systems of a stationary natural gas engine family. To do this, a computational model is verified in which zero dimensional phenomena within the cylinder and one dimensional phenomena in the engine inlet and exhaust systems are used. Using this engine model, the effects of the parameters of the inlet and exhaust systems on the engine performance are obtained. In particular, the following parameters are chosen: valve timing, valve diameter, valve lift profiles, diameter of the exhaust manifold, inlet and exhaust pipe lengths, and geometry of pipe junctions. Proper sizing of the inlet and exhaust pipe systems is achieved very precisely by these investigations. Also, valve timing is tuned by using the results obtained in this study. In general, a very high improvement potential for the engines studied here is presented

  4. Classifier utility modeling and analysis of hypersonic inlet start/unstart considering training data costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juntao; Hu, Qinghua; Yu, Daren; Bao, Wen

    2011-11-01

    Start/unstart detection is one of the most important issues of hypersonic inlets and is also the foundation of protection control of scramjet. The inlet start/unstart detection can be attributed to a standard pattern classification problem, and the training sample costs have to be considered for the classifier modeling as the CFD numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments of hypersonic inlets both cost time and money. To solve this problem, the CFD simulation of inlet is studied at first step, and the simulation results could provide the training data for pattern classification of hypersonic inlet start/unstart. Then the classifier modeling technology and maximum classifier utility theories are introduced to analyze the effect of training data cost on classifier utility. In conclusion, it is useful to introduce support vector machine algorithms to acquire the classifier model of hypersonic inlet start/unstart, and the minimum total cost of hypersonic inlet start/unstart classifier can be obtained by the maximum classifier utility theories.

  5. Experimental Investigation of a Forward Swept Rotor in a Multistage Fan with Inlet Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspi R. Wadia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of transonic swept rotors in single stage fans have demonstrated the potential of significant improvements in both efficiency and stall margin with forward swept blading. This paper extends the assessment of the payoff derived from forward sweep to multistage configurations. The experimental investigation compare two builds of an advanced two-stage fan configuration tested alternately with a radial and a forward swept stage 1 blade. In the two-stage evaluations, the testing was extended to include the effect on inlet flow distortion. While the common second stage among the two builds prevented the overall fan from showing clean inlet performance and stability benefits with the forward swept rotor 1, this configuration did demonstrate superior front stage efficiency and tolerance to inlet distortion. Having obtained already low distortion sensitivity with the radial rotor 1 configuration relative to current production military fan standards, the sensitivity to inlet distortion was halved with the forward swept rotor 1 configuration. In the case of the 180-degree one-per-rev distortion pattern, the two-stage configuration was evaluated both with and without inlet guide vanes (IGVs. The presence of the inlet guide vanes had a profound impact in lowering the two-stage fan's sensitivity with inlet distortion.

  6. 75 FR 1582 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Cook Inlet Beluga Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... designate critical habitat for the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, under the... the Cook Inlet beluga whale can be found on our Web site at: http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/ FOR FURTHER...

  7. Background-Oriented Schlieren used in a hypersonic inlet test at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark; Saunders, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is a derivative of the classical schlieren technology, which is used to visualize density gradients, such as shock wave structures in a wind tunnel. Changes in refractive index resulting from density gradients cause light rays to bend, resulting in apparent motion of a random background pattern. The apparent motion of the pattern is determined using cross-correlation algorithms (between no-flow and with-flow image pairs) producing a schlieren-like image. One advantage of BOS is its simplified setup which enables a larger field-of-view (FOV) than traditional schlieren systems. In the present study, BOS was implemented into the Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX) in the 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. The model hardware for the CCE LIMX accommodates a fully integrated turbine based combined cycle propulsion system. To date, inlet mode transition between turbine and ramjet operation has been successfully demonstrated. High-speed BOS was used to visualize the behavior of the flow structures shock waves during unsteady inlet unstarts, a phenomenon known as buzz. Transient video images of inlet buzz were recorded for both the ramjet flow path (high speed inlet) and turbine flow path (low speed inlet). To understand the stability limits of the inlet, operation was pushed to the point of unstart and buzz. BOS was implemented in order to view both inlets simultaneously, since the required FOV was beyond the capability of the current traditional schlieren system. An example of BOS data (Images 1-6) capturing inlet buzz are presented.

  8. Description of deaths on Easter Island, 2000-2012 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

    2014-01-01

    Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.

  9. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  10. Post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis

    2016-02-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On August 30-31, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Irene data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in May 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  11. Evaluation of Coastline Changes under Human Intervention Using Multi-Temporal High-Resolution Images: A Case Study of the Zhoushan Islands, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Continued sea-level rise and coastal development have led to considerable concerns on coastline changes along inhabited islands. Analysis of long-term coastline changes of islands is however limited due to unavailable data and the cost of field work. In this study, high-resolution images taken from 1970–2011 at an interval of about 10 years and topographic maps were collected to determine coastline changes and their drivers in the Zhoushan Islands, China. Results show that nearly all inhabited islands appeared to have noteworthy seaward expansion during the past four decades. Coastline change rates varied among islands, and the annual change rate of Zhoushan Island (the main island reached 12.83 ± 0.17 m/year during the same period. Since 2003, the study area has been dominated by artificial coast. The proportion of harbor/port and urban/industrial coast has significantly increased, while rocky coasts and shelter-farm coasts have shrunk greatly. Preliminary analysis of drivers for these coastline changes across the Zhoushan Islands highlights the roles of human policies during different periods as well as location, which were the dominant factors controlling the great spatial and temporal complexity of coastline changes of the major islands. Sediment supply from the Yangtze River decreased after the completion of the Three Gorges Dam in 2003; however, the Zhoushan coast rapidly accreted seaward during the last decade and the artificial siltation, coastal engineering, and harbor dredging materials could be responsible for the observed coastline changes. Pressured by rapid development of the port industry, the Zhoushan coast may face unprecedented challenges in coastal use in the near future. This research provides the basic background information for future studies on coastal protection and management.

  12. Inlet effects on vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Shouxu; Mena, Daniel; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Inlet effects on two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward flow are studied. • Flow regimes in the vertical-downward two-phase flow are defined. • Vertical-downward flow regime maps for three inlet configurations are developed. • Frictional pressure loss analysis for three different inlets is performed. • Database of local two-phase flow parameters for each inlet configuration. - Abstract: This paper focuses on investigating the geometric effects of inlets on global and local two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow. Flow visualization, frictional pressure loss analysis, and local experiments are performed in a test facility constructed from 50.8 mm inner diameter acrylic pipes. Three types of inlets of interest are studied: (1) two-phase flow injector without a flow straightener (Type A), (2) two-phase flow injector with a flow straightener (Type B), and (3) injection through a horizontal-to-vertical-downward 90° vertical elbow (Type C). A detailed flow visualization study is performed to characterize flow regimes including bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flow. Flow regime maps for each inlet are developed and compared to identify the effects of each inlet. Frictional pressure loss analysis shows that the Lockhart–Martinelli method is capable of correlating the frictional loss data acquired for Type B and Type C inlets with a coefficient value of C = 25, but additional data may be needed to model the Type A inlet. Local two-phase flow parameters measured by a four-sensor conductivity probe in four bubbly and near bubbly flow conditions are analyzed. It is observed that vertical-downward two-phase flow has a characteristic center-peaked void profile as opposed to a wall-peaked profile as seen in vertical-upward flow. Furthermore, it is shown that the Type A inlet results in the most pronounced center-peaked void fraction profile, due to the coring phenomenon. Type B and Type C inlets

  13. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  14. Monitoring changing geologic features along the Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Water truth observations, NASA aerial photography from an altitude of 60,000 feet, and ERTS-1 imagery made off the South Texas coast showed a mutually consistent pattern of water turbidity in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the measurements, plumes of turbid water were being formed by ebb-tidal discharges from the bays through tidal passes and were being diverted southward by the coastwise drift. The occurrence of the bands of turbid and relatively clear water suggests the existence of large scale helical circulation cells having axes almost parallel to shore with the outer turbid band probably being a zone of surface divergence and bottom water upwelling. The impingement of a turbid water mass onto the shoreline suggests that some, and perhaps most, of the suspended sediment in nearshore waters may not have been stirred up from the nearshore sea floor but may have traveled long distances in the water mass, perhaps even having remained in suspension from the time of its entry into the Gulf tidal inlets such as Aransas Pass.

  15. Onshore excavation at Bet Dwarka Island, in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    -hook and an antimony rod. The remains of the historical period were noticed over a large area of the island. Three trenches were laid on the southern coast. The important activity during this period was the exploitation of marine resources like different types...

  16. 77 FR 51912 - Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2012-0618] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY AGENCY.... 165.T01-0618 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0618 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long...

  17. 78 FR 39597 - Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility...'' W (NAD83) for the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, Item number 17. This...

  18. 75 FR 18056 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... the event, and enhancing public and maritime safety. Basis and Purpose Fireworks displays are... promote public and maritime safety during a fireworks display, and to protect mariners transiting the area...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  20. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  1. Nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 heat exchanger inlet nozzle flow - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, Gabriel; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Fainer, Gerson; Angelo, Edvaldo

    2009-01-01

    As a computational fluid mechanics training task, a preliminary model was developed. ANSYS-CFX R code was used in order to study the flow at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger of the primary circuit of the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The geometry of the inlet nozzle is basically compounded by a cylinder and two radial rings which are welded on the shell. When doing so there is an offset between the holes through the shell and the inlet nozzle. Since it is not standardized by TEMA, the inlet nozzle was chosen for a preliminary study of the flow. Results for the proposed model are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Smart Materials Technology for High Speed Adaptive Inlet/Nozzle Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Enabling a new generation of high-speed civil aircraft will require breakthrough developments in propulsion systems, including novel techniques to optimize inlet...

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations...

  4. Fuel effects on the stability of turbulent flames with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, T. F.; Juddoo, M.; Lacoste, Deanna; Dunn, M. J.; Roberts, William L.; Masri, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the influence of fuels on the stabilization of turbulent piloted jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets. The burner is identical to that used earlier by the Sydney Group and employs two concentric tubes within

  5. Analysis of DC control in double-inlet GM type pulse tube refrigerators for detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Pulse tube refrigerators have demonstrated many advantages with respect to temperature stability, vibration, reliability and lifetime among cryo-coolers for detectors. Double-inlet type pulse tube refrigerators are popular in GM type pulse tube refrigerators. The single double-inlet valve may introduce DC flow in refrigerator, which deteriorates the performance of pulse tube refrigerator. One new type of DC control mode is introduced in this paper. Two parallel-placed needle valves with opposite direction named double-valve configuration, instead of single double-inlet valve, are used in our experiment to reduce the DC flow. With two double-inlet operating, the lowest cold end temperature of 18.1K and a coolant of 1.2W@20K have been obtained. It has proved that this method is useful for controlling DC flow of the pulse tube refrigerators, which is very important to understand the characters of pulse tube refrigerators for detectors.

  6. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  8. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: RIPS (Rip Current Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of rip currents in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent rip zone locations. Location-specific type and source...

  9. Thermal stratification built up in hot water tank with different inlet stratifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stratification in a water storage tank can strongly increase the thermal performance of solar heating systems. Thermal stratification can be built up in a storage tank during charge, if the heated water enters through an inlet stratifier. Experiments with a test tank have been carried out...... in order to elucidate how well thermal stratification is established in the tank with differently designed inlet stratifiers under different controlled laboratory conditions. The investigated inlet stratifiers are from Solvis GmbH & Co KG and EyeCular Technologies ApS. The inlet stratifier from Solvis Gmb...... for Solvis GmbH & Co KG had a better performance at 4 l/min. In the intermediate charge test the stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS had a better performance in terms of maintaining the thermal stratification in the storage tank while charging with a relative low temperature. [All rights reserved...

  10. Viscous flow considerations in the design of the Busemann hypersonic air inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.C.; Tahir, R.B.; Molder, S.

    2002-01-01

    A cost effective means of traveling to a low earth orbit is using an aircraft that relies on air-breathing engine technology for most of its trajectory while in the atmosphere. The scramjets that would be used to provide propulsion require inlet air diffusion with minimal total pressure losses to maintain efficiency. The Busemann inlet was designed using inviscid flow assumptions specifically for such purposes. This paper presents an investigation into the effects of viscosity on inlet performance in terms of static pressure rise and internal shockwave configuration. The viscous effects within the inlet can alter the design pressure ratio as much as 50%. It was shown that a correction based on a displacement radius calculation was sufficient to restore the static pressure performance of the inviscid design. An improvement of 16% in total pressure losses was observed with the corrected Busemann profile. Results are compared to experimentally determined surface pressure values. (author)

  11. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  12. Evaluation of turbine microjet engine operating parameters in conditions conducive to inlet freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of turbine microjet engine operation is related to flight conditions of unmanned aircraft. These flights are often performed at low altitudes, where, in autumn and winter conditions, the air can be characterized by high humidity and low temperature. Such operating conditions may cause freezing the turbine engine inlet. In particular, this problem may be related to microengines, which most often are not equipped with a de-icing installation. Frosting of the inlet violates the air flow conditions at the engine inlet and may cause unstable operation and even outages, which eventually may lead to a loss of aircraft’s stability and breakdown. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the changes in operational parameters of the turbine microjet engine under conditions leading to the freezing of the inlet. The engine test was performed in stationary conditions and the analysis of the obtained results are presented in this article.

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Cook Inlet, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems (NODC Accession 0046027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  14. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale Counts from Aerial Surveys in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducted aerial surveys to monitor the abundance and distribution of beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska. This database...

  15. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ICE (Ice Extent Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of ice extent in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent 50 percent ice coverage. Location-specific type and...

  16. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  17. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for communities, wildlife refuges, and National, State, and regional parks in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska....

  19. The effect of inlet distorted flow on steady and unsteady performance of a centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyoung; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2005-01-01

    Effects of inlet distorted flow on performance, stall and surge are experimentally investigated for a high-speed centrifugal compressor. Tested results for the distorted inlet flow cases are compared with the result of the undistorted one. The performance of compressor is slightly deteriorated due to the inlet distortion. The inlet distortion does not affect the number of stall cell and the propagation velocity. It also does not change stall inception flow rate. However, as the distortion increases, stall starts at the higher flow rate for low speed at the lower flow rate for high speed. For 50,000 rpm stall occurs as the flow rate decreases, however disappears for the smaller flow rate. This is due to the interaction of surge and stall. After the stall and surge interact, the number of stall cell decreases

  20. Empirical method to calculate Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) inlet plenum transient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Sodium flow enters the CRBR inlet plenum via three loops or inlets. An empirical equation was developed to calculate transient temperatures in the CRBR inlet plenum from known loop flows and temperatures. The constants in the empirical equation were derived from 1/4 scale Inlet Plenum Model tests using water as the test fluid. The sodium temperature distribution was simulated by an electrolyte. Step electrolyte transients at 100 percent model flow were used to calculate the equation constants. Step electrolyte runs at 50 percent and 10 percent flow confirmed that the constants were independent of flow. Also, a transient was tested which varied simultaneously flow rate and electrolyte. Agreement of the test results with the empirical equation results was good which verifies the empirical equation

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet...

  2. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale aerial survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted aerial counts of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from 1993 to 2014 (excluding 2013)....

  3. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  4. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, classified according to...

  5. Effect of a dual inlet channel on cell loading in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2014-11-01

    Unwanted sedimentation and attachment of a number of cells onto the bottom channel often occur on relatively large-scale inlets of conventional microfluidic channels as a result of gravity and fluid shear. Phenomena such as sedimentation have become recognized problems that can be overcome by performing microfluidic experiments properly, such as by calculating a meaningful output efficiency with respect to real input. Here, we present a dual-inlet design method for reducing cell loss at the inlet of channels by adding a new " upstream inlet " to a single main inlet design. The simple addition of an upstream inlet can create a vertically layered sheath flow prior to the main inlet for cell loading. The bottom layer flow plays a critical role in preventing the cells from attaching to the bottom of the channel entrance, resulting in a low possibility of cell sedimentation at the main channel entrance. To provide proof-of-concept validation, we applied our design to a microfabricated flow cytometer system (μFCS) and compared the cell counting efficiency of the proposed μFCS with that of the previous single-inlet μFCS and conventional FCS. We used human white blood cells and fluorescent microspheres to quantitatively evaluate the rate of cell sedimentation in the main inlet and to measure fluorescence sensitivity at the detection zone of the flow cytometer microchip. Generating a sheath flow as the bottom layer was meaningfully used to reduce the depth of field as well as the relative deviation of targets in the z-direction (compared to the x-y flow plane), leading to an increased counting sensitivity of fluorescent detection signals. Counting results using fluorescent microspheres showed both a 40% reduction in the rate of sedimentation and a 2-fold higher sensitivity in comparison with the single-inlet μFCS. The results of CD4(+) T-cell counting also showed that the proposed design results in a 25% decrease in the rate of cell sedimentation and a 28% increase in

  6. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  7. Euler Calculations at Off-Design Conditions for an Inlet of Inward Turning RBCC-SSTO Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, N.; Kothari, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    The inviscid performance of an inward turning inlet design is calculated computationally for the first time. Hypersonic vehicle designs based on the inward turning inlets have been shown analytically to have increased effective specific impulse and lower heat load than comparably designed vehicles with two-dimensional inlets. The inward turning inlets are designed inversely from inviscid stream surfaces of known flow fields. The computational study is performed on a Mach 12 inlet design to validate the performance predicted by the design code (HAVDAC) and calculate its off-design Mach number performance. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved for Mach 4, 8, and 12 using a software package called SAM, which consists of an unstructured mesh generator (SAMmesh), a three-dimensional unstructured mesh flow solver (SAMcfd), and a CAD-based software (SAMcad). The computed momentum averaged inlet throat pressure is within 6% of the design inlet throat pressure. The mass-flux at the inlet throat is also within 7 % of the value predicted by the design code thereby validating the accuracy of the design code. The off-design Mach number results show that flow spillage is minimal, and the variation in the mass capture ratio with Mach number is comparable to an ideal 2-D inlet. The results from the inviscid flow calculations of a Mach 12 inward turning inlet indicate that the inlet design has very good on and off-design performance which makes it a promising design candidate for future air-breathing hypersonic vehicles.

  8. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from USCGC BURTON ISLAND, USCGC GLACIER and USCGC NORTHWIND in the Arctic Ocean from 1971-07-30 to 1977-08-05 (NODC Accession 7800474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, temperature, depth (STD) and other data was collected using the United States Coast Guard (USCG) ships BURTON ISLAND, GLACIER and NORTH WIND by the US...

  9. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  10. The Effect of Inlet Waveforms on Computational Hemodynamics of Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, J.; Siddiqui, A.H.; Meng, H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic qu...

  11. National Assessment of Shoreline Change; historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    -term shoreline change for the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts was -0.5 meters per year with an uncertainty in the long-term trend of plus or minus 0.09 meters per year. The rate is based on shoreline change rates averaged from 21,184 individual transects, of which 68 percent were eroding. In both the long and short term, the average rates of shoreline change for New England and the Mid-Atlantic were erosional. Long-term erosion rates were generally lower in New England than in the Mid-Atlantic. This is a function of the dominant coastal geomorphology; New England has a greater percentage of shore types that tend to erode more slowly (rocky coasts, pocket beaches, and mainland beaches), whereas the Mid-Atlantic is dominated by more vulnerable barrier islands and dynamic spit/inlet environments. However, the percentage of coastline eroding was higher in New England than in the Mid-Atlantic, highlighting that although rates of shoreline erosion may not be extreme, coastal erosion is still widespread along this region of the U.S. coastline. The average rate of short-term shoreline change for the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts was also erosional but the rate of erosion decreased in comparison to long-term rates. The net short-term rate as averaged along 17,045 transects was -0.3 meters per year. Uncertainties for these rates range from 0.06 to 0.1 meters per year depending on the data sources used in the rate calculations. Of transects used to measure short-term change, 60 percent were erosional, as compared to 65 percent of coast eroding in the long term. The slight decrease (5 percent) in the amount of coastline eroding may be related to an increase in the frequency and extent of nourishment programs and (or) the effects of hardened structures during the more recent time period. The most stable (lower rates of erosion) beaches were more commonly found in New England. Despite an overall lowering of the average rates of erosion from long-term to short-term, the amount

  12. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  13. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  14. Prediction of the Inlet Nozzle Velocity Profiles for the CANDU-6 Moderator Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Joo Hwan

    2006-01-01

    For the moderator analysis of the CANDU reactors in Korea, predicting local moderator subcooling in the Calandria vessels is one of the main concerns for the estimation of heat sink capability of moderator under LOCA transients. The moderator circulation pattern is determined by the combined forces of the inlet jet momentum and the buoyancy flow. Even though the inlet boundary condition plays an important role in determining the moderator circulations, no measured data of detailed inlet velocity profiles is available. The purpose of this study is to produce the velocity profiles at the inlet nozzles by a CFD simulation. To produce the velocity vector fields at the inlet nozzle surfaces, the internal flows in the nozzle assembly were simulated by using a commercial CFD code, CFX-5.7. In the reference, the analytical capability of CFX-5.7 had been estimated by a validation of the CFD code against available experimental data for separate flow phenomena. Various turbulence models and grid spacing had been also tested. In the following section, the interface treatment between the computational domains would be explained. In section 3, the inlet nozzle flow through the CANDU moderator nozzle assembly was predicted by using the obtained technology of the CFD simulation

  15. Influence of inlet water on the biotic and abiotic variables in a fish pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of treated and untreated water inlets with macrophytes on the improvement of water quality and zooplankton community were evaluated in a fish pond with continuous water flow. Water and zooplankton samples were retrieved at four sites during nine months. There were differences (p<0.01 between inlet water from fish pond and inlet water from canal with macrophytes, featuring higher concentrations of nutrient load, mainly TAN and TP in the former. The inlet water from fish pond contained a higher number of abundant species (9 species, whilst the water supply from the canal with macrophytes had a greater richness (31 species of zooplankton species. Results showed that inlet water without macrophytes directly affected the characteristics of the water column and the dominance of zooplankton species such as Thermocyclops decipiens, and greater abundance of Rotifera species. Since aquatic plants in the inlet water of fish pond analyzed showed lower allochthonous material loads from the previous fish pond, the management adopted with macrophytes may be applied to avoid eutrophication risks, common in farm ponds.

  16. Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets for new surveillance air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.

    1986-01-01

    The inlet for the present Rock Flats Plant surveillance sampler does not meet the new but still tentative PM-10 (<10-μm particle mass) criterion for sampling the hazardous fraction of airborne dust. Since this criterion relates mainly to non-radioactive emissions, DOE and EPA are presently in the process of promulgating emission guidelines specifically for non-reactor DOE nuclear facilities. The authors present approach is to select a commercial inlet and modify its, if necessary, to meet the PM-10 criterion, keeping in mind that they may have to recover the dust collected in the inlet. There is no EPA-approved PM-10 inlet design; instead, EPA issued a performance specification. As a nuclear operation, Rocky Flats has to sample continuously to ensure no period remains unmonitored, instead of every sixth day, as set forth by EPA for non-nuclear installations. During this study period, the authors developed an inlet evaluation methodology to meet the above, anticipated EPA requirements. Also, they started testing two potential inlets. 6 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  17. Dynamics of the inlet system of a four-stroke engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, R H; Schecter, Harry

    1944-01-01

    Tests were run on a single-cylinder and a multicylinder four-stroke engine in order to determine the effect of the dynamics of the inlet system upon indicated mean effective pressure. Tests on the single-cylinder engine were made at various speeds, inlet valve timings, and inlet pipe lengths. These tests indicated that the indicated mean effective pressure could be raised considerably at any one speed by the use of a suitably long inlet pipe. Tests at other speeds with this length of pipe showed higher indicated mean effective pressure than with a very short pipe, although not so high as could be obtained with the pipe length adjusted for each speed. A general relation was discovered between optimum time of inlet valve closing and pipe length; namely, that longer pipes require later inlet valve closing in order to be fully effective. Tests were also made on three cylinders connected to a single pipe. With this arrangement, increased volumetric efficiency at low speed was obtainable by using a long pipe, but only with a sacrifice of volumetric efficiency at high speed. Volumetric efficiency at high speed was progressively lower as the pipe length was increased.

  18. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Interaction Between an Ultra-Compact Inlet and a Transonic Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Rabe, Douglas; Scribben, Angie

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, unsteady flow interaction between an ultra-compact inlet and a transonic fan stage is investigated. Future combat aircraft require ultra-compact inlet ducts as part of an integrated, advanced propulsion system to improve air vehicle capability and effectiveness to meet future mission needs. The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow interaction between two different ultra-compact inlets and a transonic fan for future design applications. Both URANS and LES approaches are used to calculate the unsteady flow field and are compared with the available measured data. The present study indicates that stall inception is mildly affected by the distortion pattern generated by the inlet with the current test set-up. The numerical study indicates that the inlet distortion pattern decays significantly before it reaches the fan face for the current configuration. Numerical results with a shorter distance between the inlet and fan show that counter-rotating vortices near the rotor tip due to the serpentine diffuser affects fan characteristics significantly.

  19. Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet-outlet arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; George, D.; Sajeesh, P.; Manivannan, P. V.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report a planar solenoid actuated valveless micropump with multiple inlet-outlet configurations. The self-priming characteristics of the multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropump are studied. The filling dynamics of the micropump chamber during start-up and the effects of fluid viscosity, voltage and frequency on the dynamics are investigated. Numerical simulations for multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropumps are carried out using fluid structure algorithm. With DI water and at 5.0 Vp-p, 20 Hz frequency, the two inlet-two outlet micropump provides a maximum flow rate of 336 μl min-1 and maximum back pressure of 441 Pa. Performance characteristics of the two inlet-two outlet micropump are studied for aqueous fluids of different viscosity. Transport of biological cell lines and diluted blood samples are demonstrated; the flow rate-frequency characteristics are studied. Viability of cells during pumping with multiple inlet multiple outlet configuration is also studied in this work, which shows 100% of cells are viable. Application of the proposed micropump for simultaneous pumping, mixing and distribution of fluids is demonstrated. The proposed integrated, standalone and portable micropump is suitable for drug delivery, lab-on-chip and micro-total-analysis applications.

  20. A hybrid CFD/characteristics method for fast characterization of hypersonic blunt forebody/inlet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, WenZhi; Li, ZhuFei; Yang, JiMing

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid CFD/characteristic method (CCM) was proposed for fast design and evaluation of hypersonic inlet flow with nose bluntness, which targets the combined advantages of CFD and method of characteristics. Both the accuracy and efficiency of the developed CCM were verified reliably, and it was well demonstrated for the external surfaces design of a hypersonic forebody/inlet with nose bluntness. With the help of CCM method, effects of nose bluntness on forebody shock shapes and the flowfield qualities which dominate inlet performance were examined and analyzed on the two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. The results showed that blunt effects of a wedge forebody are more substantial than that of related cone cases. For a conical forebody with a properly blunted nose, a recovery of the shock front back to that of corresponding sharp nose is exhibited, accompanied with a gradually fading out of entropy layer effects. Consequently a simplification is thought to be reasonable for an axisymmetric inlet with a proper compression angle, and a blunt nose of limited radius can be idealized as a sharp nose, as the spillage and flow variations at the entrance are negligible, even though the nose scale increases to 10% cowl lip radius. Whereas for two-dimensional inlets, the blunt effects are substantial since not only the inlet capturing/starting capabilities, but also the flow uniformities are obviously degraded.

  1. CFD analysis of flow distribution at the core inlet of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin, E-mail: ybae@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young In; Park, Cheon Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Core inlet flow distribution of system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) is numerically investigated. ► Effects of mesh resolution, turbulence model, Reynolds number, and inflow condition are examined. ► Numerical results show that lower core support plate effectively distributes the flow at the core inlet of SMART. -- Abstract: This study numerically investigates the flow distribution at the core inlet region of the system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART). The single-phase turbulent flow is computed by the commercial CFD code, Fluent 12.0 on the computational domain consisting of three main parts: fuel assemblies, a lower core support plate, and a flow skirt. Simulations are carried out with different mesh resolutions, turbulence models, and upstream boundary conditions. The CFD results show that the flow distribution at the core inlet is almost identical for the two Reynolds numbers and turbulence models tested here, and the effect of mesh refinement on the flow distribution at the core inlet is negligible. It is also found that under a uniform upstream boundary condition, the maximum difference in mass flow rate between the fuel assemblies is less than 2%, while it slightly increases to 2.3% under a non-uniform condition. These results consequently indicate that the present design of the lower core support plate effectively distributes the flow at the core inlet of SMART, even when the flow discharged from the upstream has a certain degree of non-uniformity.

  2. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  3. Phycocyanin stability in microcapsules processed by spray drying method using different inlet temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamayati, L.; Dewi, EN; Kurniasih, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Phycocyanin is natural blue colorant which easily damages by heat. The inlet temperature of spray dryer is an important parameter representing the feature of the microcapsules.The aim of this study was to investigate the phycocyanin stability of microcapsules made from Spirulina sp with maltodextrin and κ-Carrageenan as the coating material, processed by spray drying method in different inlet temperature. Microcapsules were processed in three various inlet temperaturei.e. 90°C, 110°C, and 130°C, respectively. The results indicated that phycocyanin microcapsule with 90°C of inlet temperature produced the highest moisture content, phycocyanin concentration and encapsulation efficiency of 3,5%, 1,729% and 29,623%, respectively. On the other hand, the highest encapsulation yield was produced by 130°C of theinlet temperature of 29,48% and not significantly different with 110°C. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that phycocyanin microcapsules with 110°C of inlet temperature produced the most rounded shape. To sum up, 110°C was the best inlet temperature to phycocyanin microencapsulation by the spray dryer.

  4. From 3D to 4D seismic tomography at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we are going to show the advantages of a dynamic tomography 4D, versus a static image 3D related with a volcanic reactivation and eruption at El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). In this process a high number of earthquakes before and during the eruptive processes have been registered. We are going to show a 3D image as an average of the velocity structure and then the characteristics and physical properties on the medium, including the presence or not of magma. This image will be complemented with its evolution along the time, observing its volcanic dynamic and its influence over the medium properties, including its power as an important element on early warnings protocols. After more than forty years of quiet at Canary Islands, since 1971 with Teneguía eruption at La Palma Island, and more than 200 years on El Hierro Island (The last eruption known at El Hierro took place in 1793, volcán de Lomo Negro), on 19th July on 2011 the Spanish seismic national network, administered by IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional), detected an increase of local seismic activity below El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since this moment an intense swarm took place, with more than 11000 events, until 11th December, with magnitudes (MLg) from 0.2 to 4.4. In this period two eruptive processes have been declared in front of the South coast of El Hierro island, and they have not finished yet. This seismic swarm has allowed carrying out a 3D seismic tomography, using P and S waves traveltimes. It has showed a low velocity from the North to the South. On the other hand, we have performed a 4D seismic tomography, taking the events occurred at different intervals of time. We can observe the evolution of the negative anomaly along the time, from the North to the South, where has taken place La Restinga submarine eruption. 4D seismic tomography is an innovative and powerful tool able to show the evolution in time of a volcanic process.

  5. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  6. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  7. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  8. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  9. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of a Coastal Island Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case in Hatiya Island, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, S.; Mahmud, M. S.; Hossain, M. A.; Hasan, M.; Ashrafi, Z. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh is recognized for its high vulnerability to sea level rise (SLR). SLR directly and indirectly (by altering morphology of river estuary) accelerates erosion processes, washes out the loose materials of the coast and coastal islands. Hatiya, highly populated coastal island, located in Meghna river estuary is under severe threat of coastal erosion, which has not been quantified yet. The accurate mapping of the shoreline and coastal changes are very important for adopting conservation measures e.g. protection of human life, property and the natural environment. The objectives of the present study are to use remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in the shoreline and coastal land area of the Hatiya Island between the year of 1985 and 2016 from multi-temporal satellite images, i.e. assessing shifting of the shoreline position through digital shoreline analysis besides the erosion-accretion measurements. Study reveals that about 67 square kilometer areas has been lost between 1985 and 2016 which was about 17 percent of original area (1985). Erosion mainly took place in northern, north-western banks of the island. In these areas, the landward movement and rate of the shoreline were higher with a highest value of the net shoreline movement (NSM) around 6.2 km. Erosion rate is significant in exposed part of the island where tidal water pressure, shoreline configuration, loose bank materials and steep slope were observed. However, the accretion was noticed in recent years (2010-2016) in southern part of the island where slopes were gentle, perhaps due to backwash sediment deposition. As erosion process is prominent in this island, significant amounnt of usable land was lost. Therefore, local livelihood pattern has changed that has noticable effect on local economy. By quantifying the erosion-accretion rate, livelihood planning can be initiated in climatically threated vulnerable islands.

  10. Numerical simulation of progressive BWR fuel inlet orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sara Lundgren; Hernan Tinoco; Aleksander Pohl; Wiktor Frid

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A 'progressive' orifice is characterized by an edge-shaped hole that gives a Reynolds number dependent resistance coefficient. For Reynolds numbers smaller than a critical one, the resistance coefficient has a high constant value that drops to a much lower value for Reynolds numbers greater than this critical value. A similar effect is widely known for external flows around bodies of different shapes, i. e. spheres, cylinders, etc., and the sudden drop in drag coefficient is due to the shift from laminar to turbulent boundary-layer flow. Experimentally, progressive orifices have been investigated under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions by Akiba et al. (2001) for a reduced set of geometrical parameters. Using the sparse experimental data, a core stability study was carried out by Forsmaks Kraftgrupp AB that showed an improvement in core stability but without the expected reduction in pump power at normal operation. The reason for this partial success was the impossibility of optimizing the fuel inlet pressure drop owing to the limited amount of available data. Due to the high costs associated with the experimental generation of high-pressure, high-temperature data, it was considered that, if possible, the lacking data could be generated numerically at much lower cost. Therefore, the present work deals with the possibility of numerically simulate the flow through progressive orifices, and with the conditions under which to reproduce and generate resistance coefficient data by means of a commercial CFD-code. The results obtained with a two-dimensional, axisymmetric approximation show that Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models are able to qualitatively capture the physics of the phenomenon but with an earlier transition to turbulent boundary-layer flow and with an underestimation of the resistance coefficient by approximately 20 %. This underestimation of the resistance coefficient is related to the two

  11. Numerical simulation of progressive BWR fuel inlet orifices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Lundgren; Hernan Tinoco [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, 742 03 Oesthammar (Sweden); Aleksander Pohl; Wiktor Frid [The Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. Energy Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A 'progressive' orifice is characterized by an edge-shaped hole that gives a Reynolds number dependent resistance coefficient. For Reynolds numbers smaller than a critical one, the resistance coefficient has a high constant value that drops to a much lower value for Reynolds numbers greater than this critical value. A similar effect is widely known for external flows around bodies of different shapes, i. e. spheres, cylinders, etc., and the sudden drop in drag coefficient is due to the shift from laminar to turbulent boundary-layer flow. Experimentally, progressive orifices have been investigated under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions by Akiba et al. (2001) for a reduced set of geometrical parameters. Using the sparse experimental data, a core stability study was carried out by Forsmaks Kraftgrupp AB that showed an improvement in core stability but without the expected reduction in pump power at normal operation. The reason for this partial success was the impossibility of optimizing the fuel inlet pressure drop owing to the limited amount of available data. Due to the high costs associated with the experimental generation of high-pressure, high-temperature data, it was considered that, if possible, the lacking data could be generated numerically at much lower cost. Therefore, the present work deals with the possibility of numerically simulate the flow through progressive orifices, and with the conditions under which to reproduce and generate resistance coefficient data by means of a commercial CFD-code. The results obtained with a two-dimensional, axisymmetric approximation show that Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models are able to qualitatively capture the physics of the phenomenon but with an earlier transition to turbulent boundary-layer flow and with an underestimation of the resistance coefficient by approximately 20 %. This underestimation of the resistance coefficient is related to

  12. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  13. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  14. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): Isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, B.; Echeverria, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8x2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pbproportional19.75) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island. Other rock types (komatiites of the east coast, K-tholeiites, picrites and tuffs) have isotopic characteristics intermediate between these two extreme values. These results are explained by the existence of two distinct mantle sourbe regions, and by mixing or contamination between them. (orig.)

  15. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, B.; Echeverría, L. M.

    1984-02-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8 × 2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios ( 206Pb/ 204Pb˜ 19.75 ) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island. Other rock types (komatiites of the east coast, K-tholeiites, picrites and tuffs) have isotopic characteristics intermediate between these two extreme values. These results are explained by the existence of two distinct mantle source regions, and by mixing or contamination between them.

  16. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... proposed Trawl Rationalization Program. We are interested in feedback concerning proposed regulations to... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a trawl rationalization program that...

  17. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  18. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  19. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  20. Large Eddy Simulation and the effect of the turbulent inlet conditions in the mixing Tee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndombo, Jean-Marc; Howard, Richard J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LES of Tee junctions can easily reproduce the bulk flow. → The presence or absence of a turbulent inlet condition has an affect on the wall heat transfer. → The maximum heat transfer moves 1 cm and reduces by 10% when a turbulent inlet is used. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue in Pressurized Water Reactor plants has been found to be very acute in some hot/cold Tee junction mixing zones. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can be used to capture the unsteadiness which is responsible for the large mechanical stresses associated with thermal fatigue. Here one LES subgrid model is studied, namely the Dynamic Smagorinsky model. This paper has two goals. The first is to demonstrate some results obtained using the EDF R and D Code Saturne applied to the Vattenfall Tee junction benchmark (version 2006) and the second is to look at the effect of including synthetic turbulence at the Tee junction pipe inlets. The last goal is the main topic of this paper. The Synthetic Eddy Method is used to create the turbulent inlet conditions and is applied to two kinds of grids. One contains six million cells and the other ten million. The addition of turbulence at the inlet does not seem to have much effect on the bulk flow and all computations are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the inlet turbulence does have an effect on the near wall flow. All cases show that the wall temperature fluctuation and the wall temperature/velocity correlation are not the same when a turbulent inlet condition is used. Inclusion of the turbulent inlet condition moves the downstream location of the maximum temperature/velocity correlation by 1 cm and reduces its magnitude by 10%. This result is very important because the temperature/velocity correlation is closely related to the turbulent heat transfer in the flow, which is in turn responsible for the mechanical stresses on the structure. Finally we have studied in detail the influence of the turbulent inlet condition just