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Sample records for islamabad capital area

  1. Preferences Of Doctors For Working In Rural Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sana Azmat; Sarfraz, Mariyam; Kamran, Irum; Jadoon, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are faced with acute shortages of human resources in rural/remote areas. Decisions of human resources for health to work in rural areas are influenced by many financial and non-financial factors. This study focused on preferences of doctors for working in rural and resource constrained areas of Pakistan. The study was based on qualitative research techniques. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with final year medical students and house officers and In-depth Interviews (IDIs) with senior health managers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT). Results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis technique to present the findings. The results showed that quality of facilities; career development, lack of incentives, quality of life, and lack of connectivity between rural and urban health facilities, transportation services and governance issues are some of the main factors identified by young doctors of ICT that contribute in their decision of choosing a certain job or not in rural areas. Study results show the indepth detail of deciding factors for attracting and retaining health workforce in rural areas. These can be used for designing DCE (Discrete Choice Experiment) questionnaire to further analyze the preference incentive packages for attracting doctors to work in rural Islamabad.

  2. Preliminary report on the environmnetal geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, V.S.; Sheikh, I.; Pasha, M.K.; Khan, K.S.A.; Reza, Q.

    1994-01-01

    Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, is a planned city constructed since about 1960 at the foot of the Margala hills just north of the old city of Rawalpindi. Since then, rapid growth of both Islamabad and Rawalpindi to a combined population of about 1.3 million has caused ever increasing demands for natural resources and adverse effects on the environment. To maintain the quality of the capital, municipal authorities need information on the physical environment to guide future development. Environment concerns include (1) availability of building materials, (2) environmental degradation from extraction and processing of building materials, (3) availability of surface and ground water (4) pollution of water by waste disposal, (5) geological hazards, and (6) engineering characteristics of soil ad rock. This preliminary report summarizes information on the environmental geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi area. The information has been collected by a cooperative project of the geological Survey of Pakistan and the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the United States Agency for International Development. (author)

  3. EIMERIOSIS IN POULTRY OF RAWALPINDI/ISLAMABAD AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. KHAN, H. IRSHAD, R. ANJUM, M. JAHANGIR AND U. NASIR

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the prevalence of eimeriosis in poultry and identify potential risk factors for its spread in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area of Pakistan. Of 359 gut samples (suspected for harbouring eimeriosis examined, 258 (71.86% were found infected. Four species of Eimeria (E. maxima, 34.10%, E. tenella, 30.62%, E. mitis, 13.95% and E. necatrix, 7.75% were recorded. The prevalence of eimeriosis was highest in the month of September (89.74%, while lowest during June (28.57%. The disease was more common at the farms where the litter was wet and not managed properly.

  4. Seismic Microzonation of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2018-01-01

    Microzonation deals with classifying seismic hazards in terms of ground motions resulting from amplification of seismic waves by nature of soil profiles underlying a site, town or city. This paper presents the results of microzonation study for Islamabad metropolitan, the capital of Pakistan. Cumulative SPT- N values from geophysical borehole and microtremor (Tromino Engy Plus) data were used to classify the soils into classes C (very dense soil profile and soft rock) and D (stiff soil profile) as devised by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). Soil response analyses were carried out based on scaled time histories of Kashmir earthquake (2005, 0.02 g), Mangla earthquake (2006, 0.031 g) and Haripur earthquake (2010, 0.13 g) corresponding to return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years. Spectral accelerations on the ground surface are calculated by two different approaches (1) soil response analysis performed using one dimensional shear wave propagation method (equivalent linear approach); and (2) NEHRP and Borcherdt amplification factors. Microzonation maps are produced with respect to ground shaking intensity for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years taking into account the variation of the spectral accelerations calculated based on these two procedures. The results show that the accelerations at the ground surface in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan are in the range of 0.40-0.48 g (for 150 years), 0.59-0.65 g (for 475 years), 0.71-0.77 g (for 975 years), and 0.92-0.94 g (for 2475 years). The amplification factors for these four hazard levels range from 0.96 to 1.38 (150 years), 0.90-1.14 (475 years), 0.85-1.04 (975 years) and 0.84-1.00 (2475 years).

  5. Socio-Economic Determinants of Working Children: Evidence from Capital Territory of Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child labor work is a tireless social wonder in the creating scene particularly in Pakistan. In recent decades, the touchy issue of tyke work has been the consideration of policymakers, statesmen, and analysts. Any correct data on tyke work is normally rare as vast majority of the children, work in disorderly casual division, which is neither controlled by work laws nor is checked by any association. In this review, an endeavor has been made to examine the significant supply side financial determinants of working kids in Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT, Pakistan. Essential information has been gathered from child workers, working in various business markets of ICT. Results demonstrate that the absence of education and obliviousness of guardians, substantial family sizes, low salary of guardians and poor work status, low grown-up business proportion were the causative variables of tyke work. These working children are typically unskilled and secure employment at an early age and are susceptible, when working time-frames are extended in disreputable conditions, have no beneficial protection, abandon adequate and legitimate sustenance and attire, and get little rest and diversion. Enactment against child work is not a perfect arrangement in a nation such as Pakistan. This misuse of child work cannot be ceased by tyke work laws as it were. In such manner, different measures, for example, destitution lessening programs, more offices for instruction and professional preparing are fundamental. In the light of the results, positive steps and policies have been developed.

  6. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  7. Trace element concentration in head hair of the inhabitans of the Rawalpindi-Islamabad area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Chaudhary, M.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique has been used to determine the concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from 105 individuals living in various areas of Rawalpindi-Islamabad. The data show that the average concentrations of Mn, Co, Ag and Au are higher in the female group as compared to the male group. Four individuals were found to have elevated levels of Se due to the use of anti-dandruff shampoos, whereas two individuals had elevated levels of Hg. (author)

  8. Measurement of radioactivity in vegetation of the Bahawalpur Division and Islamabad federal capital territory-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matiullah, M.; Ahad, A.; Faheem, Munazza; Nasir, Tabassum; Rahman, Said

    2008-01-01

    Radioactivity is present everywhere in soil wherefrom it migrates to vegetation and plants. These vegetation/fruits when taken as food result in transfer of the radioactivity to human beings which may cause health hazards. Therefore, information about the presence of radioactivity in vegetation, plants and soil is highly desirable. In this context, we have measured activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in the vegetation samples which were collected from different towns of the Bahawalpur Division and Islamabad. From the measured activity, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices and absorbed dose rates were calculated in order to assess the health risk. Transfer factors of the above-mentioned radionuclides from soil to vegetation have also been calculated and presented in this article

  9. Measurement of radioactivity in vegetation of the Bahawalpur Division and Islamabad federal capital territory-Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matiullah, M. [PD, PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Ahad, A; Faheem, Munazza [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Nasir, Tabassum [Department of Physics, Gomal University, D.I. Khan (Pakistan); Rahman, Said [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-08-15

    Radioactivity is present everywhere in soil wherefrom it migrates to vegetation and plants. These vegetation/fruits when taken as food result in transfer of the radioactivity to human beings which may cause health hazards. Therefore, information about the presence of radioactivity in vegetation, plants and soil is highly desirable. In this context, we have measured activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation samples which were collected from different towns of the Bahawalpur Division and Islamabad. From the measured activity, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices and absorbed dose rates were calculated in order to assess the health risk. Transfer factors of the above-mentioned radionuclides from soil to vegetation have also been calculated and presented in this article.

  10. Measurement of trace elements in drinking water of Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Mohammad, D.; Khan, K.; Orfi, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc and iron were determined in potable water, supplied from Rawal Lake and Simly Dam to residential areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, using AAS and ICP-AES techniques. Average measured concentration of these elements were 56.58 plus minus 15.21,18.02 plus minus 4.62, 24.27 plus minus 15.01, 0.15 plus minus 0.105 and 0.34 plus minus 0.11 ppm, respectively. Median contributions of Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and Zn were 13.29%, 12.13%, 1.14%, 5.38% and 2% to our daily intake and were found to be in the safe range for human consumption as per WHO standards. A comparison with previous estimates shows no significant change in trace element contents over the years. (author)

  11. Hyper accumulators of heavy metals of industrial areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, A.; Malik, R.N.; Ajaib, M.; Khan, N.; Siddiqui, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major threats to water and soil as well as human health. Phytoremediation has been used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential of 23 plant species growing on contaminated sites in Industrial areas of the Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Plant root, shoot and the soil samples were collected and analyzed for selected metal concentration values. To evaluate the potential of plant species for phyto remediation: Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) and Biological Transfer Coefficient (BCF) were calculated. The concentration of Pb in soils varied from 2-29 mg/kg, Zn from 28.82-172.56 mg/ kg, Cu from 8.88-306 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in plant shoots varied from 1.0 to 39 mg/kg, Zn from 17.25 to 194.03 mg/kg, Cu from 0.65 to 171.83 mg/kg. The concentration of Pb in roots of plant varied 1-43 mg/kg, Zn from 3.34-116.16 mg/kg, Cu from 3.35- 416.89 mg/kg. Brachiaria raptans and Malvastrum coromandelianum were found most suitable for phyto stabilization of sites contaminated with Pb and Cu (BCF= 18 and 9.12). Considering the BAC values, 15 species for Pb, two species for Cu, five species for Zn possessed the characteristics of hyper accumulator, none of the plant species was found as hyper accumulator; however plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil) and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plants shoots to roots) have the potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. The results of this study can be used for management and decontamination of soils with heavy metals using plant species having phyto remediation potential/characteristics. (author)

  12. Principal component analysis of air particulate data from the industrial area of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Daud, M.

    2008-01-01

    A Gent air sampler was used to collect 72 pairs of size fractionated coarse and fine (PM/sub 10/ and PM/sub 2.5/) particulate mass samples from the industrial zone (sector I-9) of Islamabad. These samples were analyzed for their elemental composition using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Principal component analysis (PCA), which can be used for source apportionment of quantified elemental data, was used to interpret the data. Graphical representations of loadings were used to explain the data through grouping of the elements from same source. The present work shows well defined elemental fingerprints of suspended soil and road dust, industry, motor vehicle exhaust and tyres, and coal and refuses combustions for the studied locality of Islamabad. (author)

  13. Dissipation and degradation of /sup 14/C-DDT in Potohar area Islamabad soil under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Asi, M.R.; Iqbal, Z.; Muhammad, A.; Khan, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Potohar area, Islamabad for one and half year period to investigate the dissipation and degradation of /sup 14/C-DDT in soil The study revealed that binding of /sup 14/C-DDT to the soil increased gradually with the passage of time. The extractable residues decreased in the same period. Results also indicated that /sup 14/C-DDT dissipated more rapidly in this environment as compared to the temperate regions. The overall half-life of DDT was 260 days. (author)

  14. Composition of urinary calculi of the inhabitants of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Ahmed, J.

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and twenty eight urinary calculi of the inhabitants of Rawalpindi / Islamabad are were analysed employing infrared spectrophotometric method using the potassium bromide pellet technique. Calcium oxalate was the most frequently occurring component of adult upper urinary tract as well as of lower urinary tract calculi. In children ammonium hydrogen urate was the commonest component of upper urinary tract calculi, whereas the maximum frequency of occurrence of calcium oxalate was observed in the lower urinary tract calculi of children. The frequency of occurrence of different components was discussed and compared with the reported values for other countries. (author)

  15. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Islamabad and its Comparison with Capital Development Authority (CDA) 2006 Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaan, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing is very useful for the production of land use and land cover statistics which can be beneficial to determine the distribution of land uses. Using remote sensing techniques to develop land use classification mapping is a convenient and detailed way to improve the selection of areas designed to agricultural, urban and/or industrial areas of a region. In Islamabad city and surrounding the land use has been changing, every day new developments (urban, industrial, commercial and agricultural) are emerging leading to decrease in vegetation cover. The purpose of this work was to develop the land use of Islamabad and its surrounding area that is an important natural resource. For this work the eCognition Developer 64 computer software was used to develop a land use classification using SPOT 5 image of year 2012. For image processing object-based classification technique was used and important land use features i.e. Vegetation cover, barren land, impervious surface, built up area and water bodies were extracted on the basis of object variation and compared the results with the CDA Master Plan. The great increase was found in built-up area and impervious surface area. On the other hand vegetation cover and barren area followed a declining trend. Accuracy assessment of classification yielded 92% accuracies of the final land cover land use maps. In addition these improved land cover/land use maps which are produced by remote sensing technique of class definition, meet the growing need of legend standardization.

  16. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in school going children of Bhara Kahu area, Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Bilal, R.; Khanum, A.

    2009-07-01

    Most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected individuals remain asymptomatic, but the presence of H. pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite the fact of high prevalence of H. pylori infection around the world, data about its prevalence in children in Pakistan is scanty. Our study was the first epidemiologic study in Pakistan designed to assess H. pylori prevalence in a school based population of children without gastrointestinal symptoms. The children were enrolled from three schools in the suburbs of Islamabad and their anthropometric data were noted. The non-invasive urea breath test was applied to find the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Overall, 72.3% of apparently healthy children were harboring the H. pylori bacterium and the prevalence was 69% in 3-6 years, 71% in 7-8 years, 79% in 9-10 years, 76% in 11-12 years and 55% in 13-16 years of age. The prevalence decreased in the higher age group significantly, while gender was not a risk factor for acquiring this infection as the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in males and females (74.0% vs. 70.3%, p=0.41). The lower prevalence in higher age group might be explained by change in degree of contact, Increasing antibody production with increasing age or improvement in sanitary habits of children as compared to younger children. (author)

  17. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Malik, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  18. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-01-01

    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)

  19. Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.N.; Husain, S.Z.; Nazir, I.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to assess total contents of 6 toxic metals viz., Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, and Cr in the soil and plant samples of 16 plant species collected from industrial zone of Islamabad, Pakistan. The concentration, transfer and accumulation of metals from soil to roots and shoots was evaluated in terms of Biological Concentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF) and Bioaccumulation Coefficient (BAC). Total metal concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Cr in soils varied between 2.0-29.0, 61.9-172.6, 8.9 to 357.4, 7.3-24.7, 41.4-59.3, and 40.2-927.2 mg/kg. Total metal concentrations pattern in roots were: Cu>Cr>Zn>Ni>Pb>Co. Grasses showed relatively higher total Zn concentration. Accumulation of Cu was highest in shoots followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Co and Ni. None of plant species were identified as hyper accumulator; however, based on BCFs, TFs, and BACs values, most of the studied species have potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. Parthenium hysterophoirus L., and Amaranthus viridis L., is suggested for phytoextraction of Pb and Ni, whereas, Partulaca oleracea L., Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. and Hubb., Solanum nigrum L., and Xanthium stromarium L., for hytostabilization of soils contaminated with Pb and Cu. (author)

  20. Vegetation role in controlling the ecoenvironmental conditions for sustainable urban environments: a comparison of Beijing and Islamabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Cao, Chunxiang; Waqar, Mirza Muhammad; Wei, Chen; Acharya, Bipin Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in urbanization due to population growth leads to the degradation of vegetation in major cities. This study investigated the spatial patterns of the ecoenvironmental conditions of inhabitants of two distinct Asian capital cities, Beijing of China and Islamabad of Pakistan, by utilizing Earth observation data products. The significance of urban vegetation for the cooling effect was studied in local climate zones, i.e., urban, suburban, and rural areas within 1-km2 quantiles. Landsat-8 (OLI) and Gaofen-1 satellite imagery were used to assess vegetation cover and land surface temperature, while population datasets were used to evaluate environmental impact. Comparatively, a higher cooling effect of vegetation presence was observed in rural and suburban zones of Beijing as compared to Islamabad, while the urban zone of Islamabad was found comparatively cooler than Beijing's urban zone. The urban thermal field variance index calculated from satellite imagery was ranked into the ecological evaluation index. The worst ecoenvironmental conditions were found in urban zones of both cities where the fraction of vegetation is very low. Meanwhile, this condition is more serious in Beijing, as more than 90% of the total population is living under the worst ecoenvironment conditions, while only 7% of the population is enjoying comfortable conditions. Ecoenvironmental conditions of Islamabad are comparatively better than Beijing where ˜61% of the total population live under the worst ecoenvironmental conditions, and ˜24% are living under good conditions. Thus, Islamabad at this early growth stage can learn from Beijing's ecoenvironmental conditions to improve the quality of living by controlling the associated factors in the future.

  1. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S [Allergy and Asthma Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Raza, S M [Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Khan, M A [Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    2009-10-15

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  2. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Raza, S.M.; Khan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  3. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency and ... sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study with ... Location map of the study area, the bold light grey line shows the boundary of the Islamabad region. .... frequency disturbances (wind blowing, in case of near tall ...

  4. Pollution level assessment of road dust from islamabad expressway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Y.; Siddiqui, N.

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen road dust and four soil samples were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) to determine the elemental composition of road dust collected from Islamabad Expressway. Pollution parameters and indicators such as Enrichment Factors (EFs), Pollution Load Index (PLI), Geoaccumulation Index (I G eo), Pollution Index (PI) and Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) were calculated and showed that the area around Islamabad Expressway is low to moderately polluted especially by elements such as Mg and Sb. The IPI of the elements was found to vary in the order; Mg>Sb>Cu>Sr ≅Pb>Ga>Na >Sn≅ Zn>Yb>Se>Hf. The 5 samples collected around the busy intersections of Faizabad and Zero Point have higher amounts of most of the elements determined. Moreover the pollution indices for these samples indicate that these sites are more contaminated than the remaining 8 sampling sites. (author)

  5. Evaluation of drinking water quality in Rawalpindi and Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzaira, R.; Sumreen, I.; Uzma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Drinking water quality of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was determined in terms of its microbiological and physicochemical characteristics. Water samples were collected from fifty schools of cantonment area Rawalpindi and fifty houses of Sector G-9/4 Islamabad. Survey revealed that surface and ground water are the two major sources of drinking water. Efficiency of domestic filtration units was determined by taking samples before and after filtration, whereas, level of contamination was assessed by collecting samples from storage and dispensing devices in schools. Water quality was determined by pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, concentration of anions and cations, coliforms, viable and colony counts using multiple tube fermentation, titrimetry, UV-Visible spectrophotometry and flame emission photometry. Drinking water quality of Islamabad was found to be better than Rawalpindi. However filtration showed no significant impact in improving water quality due to improper cleaning of filters. Samples were found to exceed WHO guidelines and EPA standards for total dissolved solids and microbiological parameters (WHO, 1996 and EPA, 1980) making water unfit for use due to poor sanitation and cross contamination with sewers in distribution network. (author)

  6. Dignity of environmental protection. A lesson well learnt by the Facto cement Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, B.; Hussain, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    FECTO Cement, Islamabad was commissioned in the late 80's to cope the ever-increasing demand of building material in Pakistan. The first ever heavy industry issued license in the Capital area. At that time, environmental issues in Pakistan were merely a subject, discussed only by the professionals in their drawing rooms. The Management of Fecto Cement foresaw the now's burning whirlpool issue and fabricated the company's policy under the slogan ' no race will prosper until it learns the dignity of environmental protection'. The Management's true commitment, consistent, support and steps taken to preserve the biodiversity of eco system in surrounding including Social impacts were discussed. Every industrial process has certain adverse effects on environment. The only way to cope / fight them is approximation, which minimizes those to such an extent that they become appreciably harmless to Biodiversity. Plantation of thousands of plant's and orchids in suburb by Fecto cement, employing costly but highly efficient dust collectors besides Cone's which consume 13 % of the plant energy. To reduce SO/sub x/ in emission gases designing of the efficient and trust worthy Raw meal design, use of low SO/sub x. fuels stagnant Quality Control System and environmentally efficient GMP's enforced in production area plus the supply to municipal facilities like fresh water, schools for children specially girls and jobs to fight the ever increasing unemployment in Islamabad, Made it a prestigious, trust worthy environmental friendly state of the art industrial establishment, which stood as a hallmark and glittering example to other industrial enterprises in Pakistan. (author)

  7. Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1990-09-01

    Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun hours, number of clear days and temperature for solar energy applications. Beam irradiance values are used to get clear sky (maximum) sun hours by ab-initio. The need for replacing the conventional sunshine recorder is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  8. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1998-01-01

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m 3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  9. Job satisfaction in nurses working in tertiary level health care settings of Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahalkani, Habib Akhtar; Kumar, Ramesh; Lakho, Abdul Rehman; Mahar, Benazir; Mazhar, Syeda Batool; Majeed, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction greatly determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally means: 'the extent to which Health Professionals like or dislike their jobs'. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with employee's work environment, job responsibilities, and powers; and time pressure among various health professionals. As such it affects employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of health services. Objective of this study was to determine the level of job satisfaction and factors influencing it among nurses in a public sector hospital of Islamabad. A cross sectional study with self-administered structured questionnaire was conducted in the federal capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. Sample included 56 qualified nurses working in a tertiary care hospital. Overall 86% respondents were dissatisfied with about 26% highly dissatisfied with their job. The work environments, poor fringe benefits, dignity, responsibility given at workplace and time pressure were reason for dissatisfaction. Poor work environment, low salaries, lack of training opportunities, proper supervision, time pressure and financial rewards reported by the respondents. Our findings state a low level of overall satisfaction among workers in a public sector tertiary care health organization in Islamabad. Most of this dissatisfaction is caused by poor salaries, not given the due respect, poor work environment, unbalanced responsibilities with little overall control, time pressure, patient care and lack of opportunities for professional development.

  10. Area-based initiatives – and their work in bonding, bridging and linking social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how Area-based Initiatives (ABIs) can facilitate contact between networks in deprived neighbourhoods and external forms of power (linking social capital). These relations provide the residents and other members...... of social capital (bridging, bonding and linking). The article concludes that ABIs contribute to creating linking social capital, but the extent of the contribution depends on the level of bonding and bridging social capital in the area. We argue that public planners as well as evaluators of the ABIs should...

  11. Neighbourhood Renewal, Participation and Social Capital in Deprived Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants to consi...

  12. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL DENGAN WORK ENGAGEMENT PADA KARYAWAN PT. BANK MEGA REGIONAL AREA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ari Setyo Nugroho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between psychological capital with work engagement employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang. Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development and is characterized by self- efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Then, work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. This study used proportional sampling technique. The subjects were all employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang which have staff levels (N=73. The research instrument was psychological capital scales with 28 items (α = 0.953 and work engagement scales with 29 items (α = 0.938. The results by simple regression analysis obtained rxy = 0.716, with p value = 0.000 (p <0.05. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between psychological capital and work engagement. The higher psychological capital was higher work engagement. Coefficient of determination by 51,3, it meaning that psychological capital effectively contributed for 51,3 % of work engagement. The remaining 48,7 % determined by other factors that are not revealed in this study, for example: job resources and job demands. Keywords: Psychological capital, work engagement, employee

  13. Studying the Association between Green Space Characteristics and Land Surface Temperature for Sustainable Urban Environments: An Analysis of Beijing and Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Naeem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trends of urbanization lead to vegetation degradation in big cities and affect the urban thermal environment. This study investigated (1 the cooling effect of urban green space spatial patterns on Land Surface Temperature (LST; (2 how the surrounding environment influences the green space cool islands (GCI, and vice versa. The study was conducted in two Asian capitals: Beijing, China and Islamabad, Pakistan by utilizing Gaofen-1 (GF-1 and Landsat-8 satellite imagery. Pearson’s correlation and normalized mutual information (NMI were applied to investigate the relationship between green space characteristics and LST. Landscape metrics of green spaces including Percentage of Landscape (PLAND, Patch Density (PD, Edge Density (ED, and Landscape Shape Index (LSI were selected to calculate the spatial patterns of green spaces, whereas GCI indicators were defined by Green Space Range (GR, Temperature Difference (TD, and Temperature Gradient (TG. The results indicate that both vegetation composition and configuration influence LST distributions; however, vegetation composition appeared to have a slightly greater effect. The cooling effect can be produced more effectively by increasing green space percentage, planting trees in large patches with equal distribution, and avoiding complex-shaped green spaces. The GCI principle indicates that LST can be decreased by increasing the green space area, increasing the water body fraction, or by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces. GCI can also be strengthened by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and increasing the fraction of water body or vegetation in the surrounding environment. The cooling effect of vegetation and water could be explained based on their thermal properties. Beijing has already enacted the green-wedge initiative to increase the vegetation canopy. While designing the future urban layout of Islamabad, the construction of artificial lakes within the urban green

  14. Social capital and disaster preparedness among low income Mexican Americans in a disaster prone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Lee, Minjae; Chen, Zhongxue; Alam, Sartaj R; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community's ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR = 3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital's presence among a low

  15. Air quality study of the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Arif, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 1100 pairs of coarse and fine filters were collected using Gent samplers and polycarbonate filters from 4 sites in Islamabad and Rawalpindi from the period 1998 to 2010. The Black carbon (BC) in these samples was determined by reflectance measurement while their elemental composition were determined using the techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Islamabad is a well planned and relatively small city as compared to Rawalpindi, Lahore or Karachi therefore its air quality is better than the air quality of other major Pakistani cities. It was found that the new air quality standards to be implemented in Pakistan with effect from January 2012 may not be attained even in Islamabad without the implementation of control and remedial measures. An overview of the elemental data obtained and calculation of enrichment factors (EF) and application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that the particles in Islamabad originated from re-suspended soil, vehicular emissions and coal combustion. (Orig./A.B.)

  16. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Islamabad city using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Wasim, M.; Khalid, N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Iqbal, J.

    2009-01-01

    The soil samples of nine different sites in Islamabad were studied for their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed and 33 elements were determined. The acquired data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, pollution level index and enrichment factor. A perusal of results shows a distribution of elemental concentration in two major groups, one along the highway and the other in industrial area of Islamabad. The soil along the highway sites was found to be relatively less polluted than at the sites in the industrial area. The enrichment factor indicates the presence of As, Pb, Sb, Se and Sn at higher levels. The method validation was done by analyzing IAEA reference materials SL-1 (lake sediment) and S7 (soil). (orig.)

  17. Identifying the Risk Factors for Typhoid Fever among the Residents of Rural Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Bashir, F.; Abbasi, S.; Tahir, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: During August 2015, unusually high typhoid fever cases were reported from rural Islamabad at Federal General Hospital (FGH), Islamabad. Objectives: To determine the risk factors for typhoid fever outbreak and recommend preventive measures. Study design, settings and duration: Outbreak investigation study conducted in Union Councils 19 and 22 of rural Islamabad in the catchment area for Federal General Hospital, from 7 th July-30 th August 2015. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify risk factors of typhoid fever. A case was defined as any resident of the rural Islamabad within the mauza Chatta Bakhtawar and Terlai Kalan presenting with high grade fever (>101 F) with one of the following signs/symptoms; headache, abdominal pain and vomiting with positive typhidot test from 7 th July-30 th August 2015. Two age and sex matched controls for each case was selected from the neighborhood. Epi Info 7 was used for analysis. Results: Total of 50 cases and 100 controls were enrolled. Among cases 30 (61 percent) were females and 20 (39 percent) males with M;F ratio of 1:1.5. Mean age was 23.0 years (9.9 +- SD). The most affected age group was 15-25 years (AR 0.19 percent, n=21). Only one case died (CFR 2percent). Use of untreated public water after rains (OR 3.7 CI 1.6-9.7 p< 0.0002), reconstruction areas and bursting/leaking of water pipes (OR 4.017 CI 1.6-9.7 p < 0.001) and presence of confirmed typhoid cases at home/close contacts (OR 5.7 CI 2.019-16.18 p < 0.0003) were the significant risk factors found associated with the disease. Whereas using well/private bore (OR 0.29 CI 0.329-0.653 p < 0.001) and hand washing practices (OR 0.7 CI 0.297-1.9 < 0.5) had a protective effect. Multivariate analysis showed that use of untreated public water (OR: 3.34, CI: 1.52-7.29, p < 0.002), bursting/leaking pipes (OR 2.86, CI 0.96-8.48, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with typhoid disease. Conclusion: Contamination of drinking water with sewage

  18. Pollution level and health risk assessment of road dust from Islamabad expressway, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Y.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen road dust and four soil samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of road dust collected from Islamabad Expressway. The amounts of most of the elements determined were generally in the lower range of the global data with the exception of Ce, Nd, Sn and Zr which were measured at higher concentrations in Islamabad. Pollution parameters and indicators such as Enrichment Factors (EFs), Pollution Load Index (PLI), Geo accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Index (PI) and Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) showed that the area around Islamabad Expressway is low to moderately polluted especially by elements such as Mg and Sb. The IPI of the elements was found to vary in the order; Mg>Sb>Cu>Sr Pb>Ga>Na >Sn Zn>Yb>Se>Hf. Elemental health risk was assessed through dose calculations for carcinogenic and non carcinogenic metals; and by the determination of LADD (lifetime average daily dose). The carcinogenic metals studied showed the following variation in their LADD values; Cr>Ni>Co>Cd>As. Dose calculations for non-cancerous and cancerous elements showed the data obtained to lie within the safe threshold of 10 3 10 6 mg kg/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ for most elements. The soil based elements Al, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Ti were the exception and originated from the exposed soil around the highway. Moreover highest Hazard Index (HI) was found to be associated with the presence of Al, Cr, Pb and V in road dust showing soil, transport and industry to be the major sources of road dust. (orig./A.B.)

  19. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous impacts on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping sites of Islamabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Maria Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating soil quality and decrease in vegetation abundance are grave consequences of open waste dumping which have resulted in growing public concern. The focus of this study is to assess the contribution of open waste dumping in soil contamination and its effect on plant diversity in one of the renowned green cities of Pakistan. Surface soil samples (n = 12 + 12 were collected from both the open waste dumping areas allocated by Capital Development Authority (CDA and sub- sectors of H-belt of Islamabad city (representative of control site. The diversity of vegetation was studied at both sampling sites. Significant modifications were observed in the soil properties of the dumping sites. Soils at the disposal sites showed high pH, TDS and EC regime in comparison to control sites. Various heavy metal concentrations i.e., Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn were also found to be higher at the dumping sites except for Cadmium (Cd which had a higher value in control site. A similar trend was observed in plant diversity. Control sites showed diversified variety of plants i.e., 44 plant species while this number reduced to only 32 plant species at the disposal sites. This is attributed to changes in soil characteristics at disposal sites and in its vicinity areas.

  20. Testing the association between the incidence of schizophrenia and social capital in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, J B; Boydell, J; Ploubidis, G B; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; McKenzie, K; Murray, R M; Jones, P B

    2008-08-01

    Social capital has been considered aetiologically important in schizophrenia but the empirical evidence to support this hypothesis is absent. We tested whether social capital, measured at the neighbourhood level, was associated with the incidence of schizophrenia (ICD-10 F20). MethodWe administered a cross-sectional questionnaire on social capital to 5% of the adult population in 33 neighbourhoods (wards) in South London (n=16 459). The questionnaire contained items relating to two social capital constructs: social cohesion and trust (SC&T) and social disorganization (SocD). Schizophrenia incidence rates, estimated using data from the Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (AESOP) study, provided the outcome. We used multi-level Poisson regression to test our hypothesis while controlling for individual- and neighbourhood-level characteristics. We identified 148 cases during 565 576 person-years at-risk. Twenty-six per cent of the variation in incidence rates was attributable to neighbourhood-level characteristics. Response from the social capital survey was 25.7%. The association between SC&T and schizophrenia was U-shaped. Compared with neighbourhoods with medial levels of SC&T, incidence rates were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with low [incidence rates ratio (IRR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3] and high (IRR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8) levels of SC&T, independent of age, sex, ethnicity, ethnic density, ethnic fragmentation and socio-economic deprivation. ConclusionNeighbourhood variation in SC&T was non-linearly associated with the incidence of schizophrenia within an urban area. Neighbourhoods with low SC&T may fail to mediate social stress whereas high SC&T neighbourhoods may have greater informal social control or may increase the risk of schizophrenia for residents excluded from accessing available social capital.

  1. Social Capital and Public Participation on Planning in Coastal Area Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.

  2. Water pollution in Rawal lake Islamabad (part-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Ali, S.; Tariq, M.; Ikram, M.

    2001-01-01

    Water pollution of Rawal Lake, one of the three major drinking water sources (21 MG) to Rawalpindi and Islamabad, by anionic pollutants is reported. Physicochemical analysis of water samples collected during September 1996 - January 1997, was carried out using ASTM and AOAC methods. Water samples from Rawal Lake and its tributaries were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, TDS, TSS, anions (chlorides, phosphates, nitrates, sulfates) and trace metals. (author)

  3. Identification of measles virus genotype B3 associated with outbreaks in Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Suleman Rana, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Umair, Massab; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Hussain, Maqbool; Sharif, Salmaan; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan

    2017-11-09

    Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015. Serum samples were tested for the presence of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while throat swabs were used for the isolation (Vero/SLAM cell line) and subsequent characterization and phylogenetic analysis of measles strains. Of 373 blood samples, 66% tested positive for measles IgM. Male subjects were more often infected (58%) than female (42%) with the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) in the 0-5-years age group. Among the positive cases, only 13% had received one or two doses of the measles vaccine, while 87% were unvaccinated. Of 80 throat swabs, 29 (36%) showed a measles virus-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) and were characterized as genotype B3 through partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Pakistani B3 strains to be closely related to strains from neighboring countries (Iran and Afghanistan) as well as with B3 viruses from the USA, Germany, and the UK. The study results showed that despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the burden of measles infections is very high in Pakistan due to poor routine immunization coverage even in major cities, including the capital city of Islamabad. It is imperative that national health authorities take urgent strategic steps to improve routine immunization and implement adequate molecular identification methods to tackle future measles outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  4. SOCIAL CAPITAL AS THE BASIS FOR THE FORMATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECURITY IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Sukhostavets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is the basis for the definition of the future concept of rural areas management. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is to determine the various factors of existence, development, and formation of social capital. One of these factors is the security of rural areas and the definition of how social capital affects it. The analysis of the available scientific works in various areas reveals the lack of consensus in the definition of the category “socio-economic security of rural areas”. This is due to the fact that the definition of social and economic security of rural areas is identified with such concepts as the ability to provide resistance to various internal and external environmental influences. The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of social capital, as well as to study its impact on the socio-economic security of the state. The methodology of the research is based on the monographic method, the method of dialectic cognition, the scenario methods used to find the optimal scenario implementation option; SWOT-analysis is used to assess the positive or negative impact of social capital on the socio-economic security of rural areas. Understanding the essence of socio-economic security has led to the conclusion that it consists of economic, social, environmental and other types of security. The term “social security” in the understanding of researchers usually has two interpretations: traditional (absence of threats to the society and alternative (absence of threats from the society. It is proved that the social security of the region should be focused on ensuring primarily human rights and freedoms, namely, personal, political, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and family ones. Social and economic security should also provide social standards and guarantees, as well as norms. The economic basis of the security of rural areas is manifested in the development of market relations, infrastructure

  5. Human Capital of Family and Social Mobility in Rural Areas-Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-hua; YU Mei-lian; WU Fang-wei; CHEN Wei

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the impact of family’s human capital on social mobility in China’s rural community. Empirical research is conducted based on data from surveying a typical rural community in the past 20 yr. The study indicates that social mobility in rural area is active in the past 20 yr, and the human capital of family, represented by primary labor’s education level, has played an essential role in mobility of low social class. Meanwhile, socio-economic development and the change of supply and demand in labor market dims the signaling role of degree education, but the impact of occupational training is increasingly remarkable. Therefore, the change from sole degree education to multi-leveled education including occupational education and training is a main way for China’s rural families in low class to realize social mobility.

  6. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical relationships: Implications for seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-04-01

    Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a special nuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve as a source of seismic amplification that may enhance the seismic shaking of many folds. Determination of the thickness of the soft sediments is therefore crucial in seismic hazard analysis. A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency and amplitude spectrum obtained from the noise measurements during the recording of natural seismicity can be used to obtain thickness of soft sediments covering the bedrock. Nakamura (1989) presented a technique to determine such spectrum using ratio of horizontal to vertical components of the Rayleigh waves. The present study is based on an extensive set of microtremor measurements carried out in the Islamabad city, Pakistan. Fundamental frequencies were obtained from weak motion sensors and Tromino Engy Plus instruments to show that the correlation is clearly valid for a wide range of sediment thickness. A simple formula was derived for the investigated area to determine directly the thickness of sediments from the main peaks in the H/ V spectrum for seismometer and Tromino data separately. A comparison is made between sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study with those given in literature to demonstrate a positive correlation. The correlation of instrumental resonant frequencies with calculated resonant frequencies (theoretical) suggests that the relation derived from the noise measurements mostly depends on the velocity depth function of the shear wave. The fundamental frequency of the main peak of spectral ratio of H/ V using the both instruments correlates well with the thickness of sediments at the site obtained from the

  7. Social capital, outpatient care utilization and choice between different levels of health facilities in rural and urban areas of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Chantal; Phuntsho, Sonam

    2018-06-18

    This study examines the factors that explain outpatient care utilization and the choice between different levels of health facilities in Bhutan, focusing on individual social capital, given Bhutan's geography of remote and sparsely populated areas. The more isolated the living, the more important individual social capital may become. Standard factors proposed by the Andersen model of healthcare utilization serve as control variables. Data for 2526 households from the 2012 Bhutan Living Standards Survey, which contains a social capital module covering structural, cognitive and output dimensions of social capital, are used. The results from the logistic regression analysis show that individual social capital is positively related with the probability of seeking treatment when ill or injured. Informal social contacts and perceived help and support are most important in rural areas, whereas specific trust matters in urban areas. The explanatory power of the model using a subset of the data for urban areas only, however, is very low as most predisposing and enabling factors are insignificant, which is not surprising though in view of better access to health facilities in urban areas and the fact that healthcare is provided free of charge in Bhutan. Multinomial regression results further show that structural and output dimensions of social capital influence the likelihood of seeking care at secondary or tertiary care facilities relative to primary care facilities. Moreover, economic status and place of residence are significantly associated with healthcare utilization and choice of health facility. The findings with respect to social capital suggest that strategizing and organizing social capital may help improve healthcare utilization in Bhutan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NRCMS capitation reform and effect evaluation in Pudong New Area of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Limei; Bai, Jie; Sun, Xiaoming; Zakus, David; Lou, Jiquan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Qunfang; Zhuang, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    The Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (RCMS) had played an important role in guaranteeing the acquisition of basic medical healthcare of China's rural populations, being an innovative model of the medical insurance system for so many years here in China. Following the boom and bust of RCMS, the central government rebuilt the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) in 2003 across the whole country. Shanghai, one of the developed cities in China, has developed its RCMS and NRCMS as an advanced and exemplary representative of Chinese rural health insurance. But in the past 10 years, its NRCMS has encountered such challenges as a spiral of medical expenditures and a decrease of insurance participants. Previous investigations showed that the capitation and general practitioner (GP) system had great effect on medical cost containment. Thus, the capitation reform combined with GP system reform of NRCMS, based on a system design, was implemented in Pudong New Area of Shanghai as of 1 August 2012. The aim of the current investigation was to present how the reform was designed and implemented, evaluating its effect by analyzing the data acquired from 12 months before and after the reform. This was an empirical study; we made a conceptual design of the reform to be implemented in Pudong New Area. Most data were derived from the institution-based surveys and supplemented by a questionnaire survey, qualitative interviews and policy document analysis. We found that most respondents held an optimistic attitude towards the reform. We employed a structure-process-outcome evaluation index system to evaluate the effect of the reform, finding that the growth rate of the insured population's total medical costs and NRCMS funds slowed down significantly after the reform; that the total medical expenditure of the insured rural population decreased by 3.60%; and that the total expenditure of NRCMS decreased by 3.99%. The capitation was found to help the medical staff build active

  9. "Everyone just ate good food": 'Good food' in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Saher

    2018-08-01

    In recent years, consumption of alternatively produced foods has increased in popularity in response to the deleterious effects of rapidly globalising and industrialised food systems. Concerns over food safety in relation to these changes may result from elevated levels of risk and changing perceptions associated with food production practices. This paper explores how the middle class residents of Islamabad, Pakistan, use the concept of 'good food' to reconnect themselves with nature, changing food systems, and traditional values. The paper also demonstrates how these ideas relate to those of organic, local, and traditional food consumption as currently used in more economically developed states in the Global North. Through research based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this paper illustrates that besides price and convenience, purity, freshness, association with specific places, and 'Pakistani-ness' were considered as the basis for making decisions about 'good food'. The results show that while individuals are aware of and have some access to imported organic and local food, they prefer using holistic and culturally informed concepts of 'good food' instead that reconnect them with food systems. I argue that through conceptualisations of 'good food', the urban middle class in Islamabad is reducing their disconnection and dis-embeddedness from nature, the food systems, and their social identities. The paper contributes to literature on food anxieties, reconnections in food geography, and 'good food' perceptions, with a focus on Pakistan. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Types of social capital and mental disorder in deprived urban areas: a multilevel study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bertotti

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which individual and ecological-level cognitive and structural social capital are associated with common mental disorder (CMD, the role played by physical characteristics of the neighbourhood in moderating this association, and the longitudinal change of the association between ecological level cognitive and structural social capital and CMD.Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. We used a contextual measure of the physical characteristics of each neighbourhood to examine how the neighbourhood moderates the association between types of social capital and mental disorder. We analysed the association between ecological-level measures of social capital and CMD longitudinally.4,214 adults aged 16-97 (44.4% men were randomly selected from 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12.Structural rather than cognitive social capital was significantly associated with CMD after controlling for socio-demographic variables. However, the two measures of structural social capital used, social networks and civic participation, were negatively and positively associated with CMD respectively. 'Social networks' was negatively associated with CMD at both the individual and ecological levels. This result was maintained when contextual aspects of the physical environment (neighbourhood incivilities were introduced into the model, suggesting that 'social networks' was independent from characteristics of the physical environment. When ecological-level longitudinal analysis was conducted, 'social networks' was not statistically significant after controlling for individual-level social capital at follow up.If we conceptually distinguish between cognitive and structural components as the quality and quantity of social capital respectively, the conclusion of this study is that the quantity rather than quality of social capital is important in relation to CMD at both the

  11. Comprehensive urban air quality studies of Islamabad: elemental characterization of PM10 and PM2.5, source apportionment and transboundary pollutant migration (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Daud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long term urban air quality of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been investigated as a part of the joint UNDP/IAEA/RCA/RAS/7/015 project, entitled C haracterization and source identification of particulate air pollution in the Asian region (RCA) . Around 380 pairs of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) polycarbonate filters from the Nilore area were collected using GENT sampler. The average PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 masses at this site were found to be 15.02 and 37.01 g/m/sup 3/ respectively that are far below to the Pakistani limit for PM10 of 100 g/m/sup 3/. The average Black Carbon (BC) was found to be 2.58 and 1.22 g/m/sup 3/ corresponding to 20.7% and 4.54% of the fine and coarse mass respectively. The non destructive Ion Beam Analysis method, Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were employed to quantify more than 40 elements in both fine and coarse fractions. The acquired elemental data has been statistically treated and subjected to mass closure studies, principal component and factor analysis to calculate correlation matrices. The reconstructed mass (RCM) was calculated for both particle modes using soil, sulphate, smoke, sea salt and BC as pseudo sources. Data analysis performed using EPA-PMF3 shows that the fine and coarse data for the suburban site identifies 4 sources; biomass/ combustion, road dust, soil and automobile. Long range transport of pollutants was studied using HYSPLIT4 model. It was observed that high fine soil contributions in this area were mainly from dust storms arriving from west and North West of the country. (author)

  12. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran; Chishtie, Farrukh; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan; Hundal, Rabia Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air

  13. The Strengthening of Development Capital and Governance towards Sustainable Livelihood in Coastal Areas of Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfenti Sadalia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to analyze the potential and sustainable livelihood through the strengthening of development capital and governance applied to the sustainable livelihood of coastal community in Medan. The present research used descriptive quantitative method. The analysis was used to answer the hypothesis testing using Structural Equation Model or SEM to view relationship in the strengthening between development capital and governance towards the livelihood sustainability in coastal community. Furthermore, through this relationship, a model was then designed for sustainable livelihood development via the strengthening of development capital and governance. The results indicate that sustainable development and governance positively and significantly affect the development capital. However, the existing potential of development capital should be improved through community empowerment model to be better, stronger and more sustainable.

  14. Social Capital, Neighbourhood Attachment and Participation in Distressed Urban Areas. A Case Study in The Hague and Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Karien

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, academic interest in residents’ participation in maintaining the quality of life in distressed urban areas has risen. Many articles seeking to explain why people participate relate the social networks dimension of social capital to participation. However, according to

  15. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  16. The quality assessment to drinking water supplied to Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Hussain, F.; Ashraf, H.; Hussain, S.; Rana, N.N.; Anwar, K.; Sami, Z.; Dil, S.

    1997-01-01

    Drinking water supply system of Islamabad draws major quantities of water from sources such as Simli dam, Rawal dam and the underground aquifer through an integrated system of tube wells sunk in different parts of the city. For an extensive assessment of drinking water quality samples were collected at source from 80 CDA tube wells. Samples were also collected from 3 to 5 predetermined consumer points in sectors 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, G-9, G-10, F-9 and F-10. All these samples apart form coliform organisms, cationic and anionic species present, were analyzed for different parameters required to delineate the drinking water quality using the most reliable techniques like ICP-AES, AAS, HPLC, TIMS and Electro-chemistry. The tube well water samples, generally, contained higher amounts of the TDS and hence higher Ca++ and Mg++ concentration as compared with those of dam water samples. Further all these samples contained reasonable concentration of Sr, an element usually associated with calcite deposits. Samples were also checked for the total radioactivity and were found to be free of such contamination. The results have been discussed with a view to assess the quality of drinking water during the stipulated period. (author)

  17. Scaling up model of social capital: Developing a model of empowerment for poor society in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawa, A. F.; Kusumastuti, A.; Harjo, I. W. W.

    2017-06-01

    Indonesian government has delivered various community development programs to alleviate poverty problems of rural communities. This is despite the fact that the numbers of people who live in poverty in this area is going to increase. This has given rise to a crucial question in how development programs should be distributed to rural community members. This article present empirical findings of research depicts a model or mechanism by which rural community members who have been involved in Posdaya (Pos Pemberdayaan Keluarga/ Family Empowerment Post) program success in achieving economic empowerment objective by employing their social capital. This study employs qualitative method with an approach of case study and multiple case design. It conducts the logic of ‘replica’, meaning that it would lead the analysed case to be used either for making predictions of similar results (literal logic) or for achieving different results (theoretical replica). The fundamental assumption of the study refers to the lack involvement or participation of the empowered community or social groups. The domination of top-down approach has allowed people to rely on external party. On the other hand, bottom-up approach has not been fully implemented due to the absence of strong social capital in the empowered society. As a consequence, there have been only parts of people controlling and enjoying the presented empowerment program. Social capital is not an existing or a given capital in society. Rather, social capital is a mere potential, and in order to shape and develop it some strategies or endeavours are required. Thus, the study attempts to find out a suitable model to arrange and progress the social capital in the implementation of social empowerment program. Additionally, the study will advance the scaling up model into a wider space with an expectation to create a powerful community.

  18. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  19. Determination of toxic heavy metals in indigenous medicinal plants used in Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Rashid, Sadia; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2013-06-21

    History of medicinal plants used in local healthcare systems dates back centuries as the user considers them safe from toxic effects. Present study was aimed to document the commonly used indigenous medicinal plants and to investigate the metal toxicity and impact of pollution load in most frequently used medicinal plants from study area. Semi-structured interviews and rapid appraisal approach were employed to record the ethnomedicinal information and toxic metals were analyzed through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 21 wild medicinal plants was reported, and 7 were screened for toxic metal analysis. Oral mode of application (93%) was the chief route of herbal remedy administration, and leaves were found to be used as major plant part against different diseases. Main sources of remedies were wild herb (68%) followed by wild trees (18%), wild spiny shrubs (09%) and wild shrubs (5%). Trend of metal concentration was found as Fe>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd. Indigenous medicinal plants of both cities posed the toxicity risk for Ni, Cu, Fe and crossed the safety limits set by WHO. Medicinal plants of Rawalpindi were more toxic compared to the medicinal plants of Islamabad. Prolonged intake or over dose of these medicinal plants may lead to chronic accumulation of various elements that may cause severe hazardous effect upon human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Entrepreneurial Human Capital Accumulation and the Growth of Rural Businesses: A Four-Country Survey in Mountainous and Lagging Areas of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal…

  1. Chernobyl radioactivity and high altitude air-particulate monitoring at Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, M.S.; Ihsanullah; Shafiq, M.; Perveen, N.; Orfi, S.D.

    1987-11-01

    High altitude sampling of air particulates for radioactivity monitoring was conducted at Islamabad after the CHERNOBYL accident. Smears from aeroplanes flying at varying altitudes were collected and analysed for fresh fission products mainly gamma emitters e.g. Ru-103 and Cs-137 etc. The maximum radioactivity observed was of the order of 15Bq/sample for Ru-103 and 9Bq/sample for Cs-137 respectively. The study was purely qualitative in nature indicated the presence of fresh fission radioactivity at high altitudes over Islamabad. For quantitative measurements at high altitudes sophisticated instrumentation/procedure needs to be adopted. (author)

  2. Order of the 23 March 2006 relative to the return rate on the immobilized capital for the electric power production installation in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This order fixes the return rate on the investments capital of electric power production in non connected areas, used for the calculation of the compensation expenses of the electric utilities. (A.L.B.)

  3. The spread of human capital in the former Soviet Union area in a comparative perspective: Exploring a new dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Didenko

    2013-07-01

    The data presented in this paper follow after the discussion of the information value of the primary sources utilised, and the various problems that arose when linking and splicing the data from various sources. After constructing series of human capital indicators we perform a time-series and spatial analysis in order to identify the long-term trends of education penetration and of the human capital development in the FSU area with a strong emphasis on inequality issues between the NIS. Applying these results in a simple growth accounting framework provides us with some preliminary insights on the role of human capital in economic development in the FSU area.

  4. Assessment of Iodine Status among Hostel Employees and Students of a University in Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, M.; Tufail, M.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Irfan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and related disorders are the major health hazard in the world, especially along the Himalayas. A study has been carried out to assess the status of iodine in students and employees living in the hilly area in the premises of a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out for 76 students living in university hostels and 32 employees serving in the hostels. Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was used as the biochemical marker of iodine concentration in the donors. Catalytic kinetic method based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction was employed for the measurement of iodine concentration in the samples of urine. Out of 76 students, 8% had UIE greater or equal to 100 mg/L, while 39% had between 50-99 mg/L, 49% had between 20-49 mg/L and 4% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Similarly, out of 32 employees, 22% had UIE greater or equal 100 mg/L while 28% had between 50-99 mg/L, 44% had between 20-49 mg/L and 6% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Target groups of the study area were iodine deficient, indicating mild to severe iodine deficiency. The iodine level in the employees was relatively better than that in the students. Improvement of iodine status is recommended among the students and employees by the mandatory use of iodized salt in all the cafeterias of the university. (author)

  5. CONCEIVING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF OAȘ AREA, SATU MARE COUNTY, ON THE BASIS OF NATURAL CAPITAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA NEAGU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development essentially depends on natural capital or environment assets and conceiving a sustainable development strategy at local level means first to evaluate it, through inventorying all types of natural resources: vegetable, animal, protected areas, forest and water resources, crops and farming resources, land and pastures and meadows. The area called Țara Oașului, located in the north-eastern part of Satu Mare county has some particular features: a wealth of natural resources (such as forests, stone, mineral water, wild flora and fauna, population with a high level of income and luxurious but uninhabited houses, a high level of migration for work abroad (from the very beginning of nineties, a lack of labour force and active population, a reduced life expectancy, and specific popular traditions (costume, events and culture. We carried out a field reseach, by applying a questionnaire to local population, authorities and experts in order to obtain an estimation of natural resources, as volumes and ways of exploitation (for own consumption or market selling and the main trends in local traditional employment. The research conclusions are valuable in order to conceive the sustainable development strategy of the area, taking into consideration the local capabilities to use the existing natural resources by protecting the environment, to build an appropriate social capital and to attract the required for economic growth human and financial resources.

  6. Current situation of Islamabad solid waste dumpsite and options for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.; Elahi, R.E.; Malik, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the existing situation of H-12 dumpsite, where solid waste from Islamabad City is being dumped since 1988, and to propose options for its improvement. The study methodology involved collection of baseline information, topographical survey, analysis of leachate samples, characterization of incoming waste and evaluation of options for rehabilitation and improvement of the site. The results of the study revealed that solid waste dumped at the H-12 dumpsite, which currently receives about 320 tons of solid waste daily, covers an area of 22.4 hectares. The corresponding volume and weight of the waste were found to be 0.45 million m3 and 0.143 million tons, respectively. Specific weight and moisture content of the old dumped waste were found to be 22 percent and 320 kg/m3, respectively. Analysis of leachate samples collected from the dumpsite were found to be highly contaminated. Characterization of solid waste delivered at the site showed that it mainly comprises a mix of construction and demolition waste, food waste and hospital waste thus indicating that material recovery operations would not be feasible. In order to improve and rehabilitate the dumpsite with a view to mitigate its adverse environmental impacts, three options were considered. These include (a) improvement and rehabilitation of the site without making provision for further inflow of waste; (b) improvement and rehabilitation of the dumpsite with provision to receive the waste for a period of another 10 years; and (c) shifting the dumped waste to the proposed Kurri Landfill site. Technical and financial aspects of all the three options are described and recommendations regarding the most environment friendly option are presented. (author)

  7. Drinking water quality in Pakistan: a case study of Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Majeed, A.; Ashraf, M.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, major cities of Pakistan are facing problems of shortage of municipal water supplies as the water requirements are increasing due to rapid urbanization. The water being supplied to many cosmopolitan cities and towns is generally of poor quality. Microbial contamination of drinking water is responsible for directly or indirectly spreading major infections and parasitic diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Hepatitis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Guinea worm. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has launched a major programme of water quality monitoring in the country to document the existing water quality status. The PCRWR has recently completed water quality assessment studies in twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. For monitoring purposes, grids of 2x2 and 3x3 km were established for Islamabad and Rawalpindi respectively. In total, thirty-nine water-sampling points were established. Apart from the groundwater samples, eight samples from surface water sources in Islamabad and one from Rawalpindi were collected. Water samples were collected in 200 ml sterilized containers during July 2001. In both cities, most of water samples except for Simly Reservoir in Islamabad, and Chitti Tanki in Rawalpindi were found fit with respect to color, odor and taste. The average EC values were 0.56 and 0.81 dS m/sup -1/ for Islamabad and Rawalpindi, respectively. The pH of collected samples varied from 7 to 8.3. Arsenic, chloride, chromium, fluoride, nitrate, sodium, and water hardness were within the safe limit. The Lead concentration however, was found within safe limits in only 21% samples. The quality of drinking water in both cities in respect of bacterial contamination was very poor. Only 25% samples in Islamabad and 13% samples in Rawalpindi were found fit for drinking purpose. Water samples collected from the points nearest to the source were free from bacterial contamination. It is concluded that the problem of bacterial

  8. The area of the Physical Education/ Sport Cciences in the era of the artistic or transaesthetic capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Camargo Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This book review presents the book “The world anesthetization: live in the era of the artistic capitalism” written by Gilles Lipovetsky and Jean Serroy, published in 2015, by Companhia das letras (publishing house. With an instigate analysis and its criticism about the relationship between the esthetic and the world in the capitalist context, the book contributes to the reflections related to the mediation between the Physical Education/ Sport Sciences and the body practices. Nowadays, the impact perceived in the artistic or transaesthetic capitalism in the styles of life, presented, carefully by the authors, allows the comprehension of multiples and widespread individualistic and hedonist ways to take care of himself/herself. This reality is still relevant to the debates among the academic and professional area.

  9. [Study on the psychological-health status and its relationship with social capital among left behind children in rural area, Macheng, Hubei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang; Yang, Senbei; Xu, Yanghuan; Xie, Shu; Liu, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    To understand the status of mental health among left-behind children in rural area and to explore its relationship with social capital. A sample of 1 031 left behind children, aged 10-18 years, was randomly selected from six schools of two townships in Macheng city of Hubei province where large number of rural parents were working in the urban area. Data from a cross-sectional survey was collected among the sampled students from primary, middle and high schools, using self-designed questionnaires which targeting the 'left-behind' condition and social capital Mental Health Inventory of Middle-School Students (MMHI-60). Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in mental health among different groups. Spearman correlation and logistical regression analysis were applied to assess the relationship between social capital and mental health. The prevalence of mental problems was 54.12%. Results from linear χ² test indicated that the detection rates of mental problems were parallel with the monthly pocket money and the reduction in the frequency of contacting migrant father/mother (P < 0.01). Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were senior(OR = 2.410-2.682, P < 0.001), and who reported not caring about their parents (OR = 2.048-2.420, P < 0.001)were at increased risks for mental health problems. After controlling the demographic characteristics and conditions of staying relevant factors, family social capital(OR = 0.845, 95%CI:0.801-0.891), neighborhood social capital (OR = 0.867, 95%CI:0.826-0.910)and school social capital(OR = 0.893, 95%CI:0.863-0.923) were all associated with declined risks of mental health problems, in which the family social capital was the most important one. The prevalence of mental health problems was high among the left-behind children in rural area. Much attention should be paid to assist these children in improving their mental health status. One promising approach appeared to be

  10. Controlling Factors of the Stable Isotope Composition in the Precipitation of Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant temporal variations in δ18O and deuterium isotopes were found in the rainfall water of Islamabad, Pakistan, over a 15-year period (1992–2006. The data were obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency/Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (IAEA/GNIP database, and statistical correlations were investigated. In particular, this study provides the first detailed analysis of GNIP data for Islamabad. Both dry (1999-2000 and wet years (1994, 1997, and 2000 were chosen to investigate the correlations between precipitation amount, vapor flux, and temperature. We observed obvious differences between the dry and wet years and among seasons as well. Long-term features in the isotope composition agreed with the global meteorological water line, whereas short-term values followed rainfall amounts; that is, a total of 72% of the precipitation’s isotopic signature was dependent on the rainfall amount, and temperature controlled 73% of the isotopic features during October to May. The lower d-excess values were attributed to conditions during the spring season and a secondary evaporation boost during dry years; precipitation originating from the Mediterranean Sea showed high d-excess values. Overall, the results of this study contribute to the understanding of precipitation variations and their association with water vapor transport over Islamabad, Pakistan.

  11. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  12. Young people and their relationships with urban areas in a capital city

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez-Pereira, Giovanni; López Rueda, Blanca Aracely; Suárez González, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand how young people who pass by, visit or interact with the new urban area of the "Parque Intercambiador Vial Neomundo" in Bucaramanga, access to cultural goods and services. To identify criteria for making decisions on the offer and cultural consumption of public and private sectors of this project.Methodology: A qualitative study with a descriptive scope that follows phenomenology guidelines was carried out. Participant observation and conversational interviews were us...

  13. Young people and their relationships with urban areas in a capital city

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez Pereira, Giovanni; López Rueda, Blanca Aracely; Suárez González, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand how young people who pass by, visit or interact with the new urban area of the "Parque Intercambiador Vial Neomundo" in Bucaramanga, access to cultural goods and services. To identify criteria for making decisions on the offer and cultural consumption of public and private sectors of this project.Methodology: A qualitative study with a descriptive scope that follows phenomenology guidelines was carried out. Participant observation and conversational interviews were us...

  14. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul, E-mail: mabdulqadir@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad Capital Territory (Pakistan); Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township, Lahore (Pakistan); Yaseen, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Gugrat University, Gugrat (Pakistan); Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2012-05-15

    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 {mu}m. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion is made on Total suspended Particulate (TSP) matter in the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement of Radio active elements in the TSP by using SSNTD which was found non significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 23 Trace element analysis of the TSPs in the atmosphere of twin cities i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad and their relation to their sources by using Neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mountain of Islamabad has some unique and important deposits of Nb and Gd , this paper will help the Geological survey of Pakistan to explore their deposits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is high level of TSPs>10 um, which is a great threat to the peoples of Islamabad.

  15. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain; Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad; Yaseen, Muhammad; Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma

    2012-01-01

    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 μm. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. - Highlights: ► Discussion is made on Total suspended Particulate (TSP) matter in the atmosphere. ► Measurement of Radio active elements in the TSP by using SSNTD which was found non significant. ► 23 Trace element analysis of the TSPs in the atmosphere of twin cities i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad and their relation to their sources by using Neutron activation analysis. ► The mountain of Islamabad has some unique and important deposits of Nb and Gd , this paper will help the Geological survey of Pakistan to explore their deposits. ► There is high level of TSPs>10 um, which is a great threat to the peoples of Islamabad.

  16. Assessment of natural radiation exposure and radon exhalation rates from the soil of Islamabad District of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The earth's crust is a main source of natural radionuclides in soils and rocks. The specific levels of background gamma radiation depend upon the geological composition of each lithologically separated area, and the content of the rock from which the soils originate the radioactive elements of 226Rn, 232Th and 40K. These naturally occurring radionuclides of terrestrial origin in soil can be a source of external radiation exposure through the gamma ray emission whereas internal exposure occurs through the inhalation of radon gas. The measurements of natural radioactivity and the assessment of radiological hazards in the soil samples of Islamabad district of Pakistan have been carried out using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The radon exhalation rates from these samples have also been estimated employing the 'closed-can' technique of passive dosimeters. The measured activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found in the range 14 - 30, 18 - 40 and 301 - 655 Bq.kg-1. The annual effective dose was calculated in the range 0.15 - 0.31 mSv. The values of external and internal hazard indices were less than 1. The radon exhalation rates these areas were found in the range 200 - 345 mBq.m-2h-1.

  17. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  18. Multilevel, cross-sectional study on social capital with psychogeriatric health among older Japanese people dwelling in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Ikeno, Tamiko; Kawabata, Tomoko

    2014-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in the effect of social capital (SC) on health over the last decade both in Japan and internationally. This study elucidated whether components of SC are linked to the psychogeriatric health of older Japanese individuals. Data for 169 eligible older people living in three rural areas were collected. Multilevel analyses were performed to examine associations between general trust, informal social interaction and formal group participation with self-rated health, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), self-rated depression scale (SDS) and general self-efficacy scale (GSES). Our study revealed that MMSE, SDS and GSES were significantly associated with informal social interaction and formal group participation after adjusting for area-level SC. However, we observed no relationship between general trust and health outcomes. The findings suggest that the strategic enhancement of social cohesion and social networks for older people may promote their health and quality of later life. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. LOCAL GENIUS AS SOCIO-CULTURAL CAPITAL FOR EMPOWERING THE BAJO ETHNIC PEOPLE RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF BUNGIN PERMAI VILLAGE, SOUTH EAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Ali Basri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this dissertation the local genius as socio-cultural capital for empowering theBajo ethnic people residing at the costal area of Bungin Permai Village, TinanggeaDistrict, South Konawe Regency, South Sulawesi Province is discussed. The Bajo ethnicpeople have a set of local genius within their socio-cultural system which is reflected intheir belief, tradition and custom and is used as the reference for conceiving andexplaining the objective and essence of life and the world. However, such local geniushas not functioned optimally yet as they are still marginalized.This research is focused on (1 what forms of local genius serve as the sociocultural capital for empowering the Bajo ethnic group residing at the coastal area?; (2how the local genius is developed to empower the Bajo ethnic people residing at thecoastal area?; and (3 what factors which may support and obstruct the local genius usedas the socio cultural capital for empowering the Bajo ethnic people residing at the coastalarea? Qualitative method is employed in this study with the approach of cultural studies.The theories used are the post colonial theory, structural theory, generative theory,hegemony theory and semiotic theory. The techniques used for collecting the data neededare participative observation, in-depth interview, library research, and focus groupdiscussion. The data obtained are analytically and descriptively processed and arepresented in the forms of narration, tables and visual illustration.The results of the study show that the Bajo ethnic people residing at BunginPermai Village have a set of local genius which may be potentially used as the sociocultural capital for empowering their community such as (1 indigenous skills andknowledge; (2 working culture; and (3 local organizations. The development of theindigenous skills and knowledge (pengetahuan dan ketrampilan asli; hereon abbreviatedto PKA and the revitalization of their local organizations may be used as the

  1. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  2. Assessing soil pollution from a municipal waste dump in Islamabad, Pakistan. A study by INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.

    2010-01-01

    INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad. Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga, Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed. (author)

  3. "We can see a future here": Place attachment, professional identity, and forms of capital mobilized to deliver medical education in an underserviced area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Halseth, Greg; Snadden, David

    2010-09-01

    Community-integrated undergraduate medical education is becoming a more common option for students predisposed to practice in rural and small town places. One such initiative, the Northern Medical Program, has been operating since 2004 in the northern interior of British Columbia, Canada. The NMP's curriculum relies heavily on the involvement of practicing physicians in its host community, Prince George. Drawing on Bourdieu's conceptualization of capital in its different forms, the commitment of the local physician community is understood as social capital derived from cultural capital centred on a collective sense of professional identity forged by conditions of practice in an underserviced area. The findings of this study are discussed with respect to the long-term operation and success of community-integrated medical education programs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The issue of air pollution affects the entire globe, but the countries having huge urban growth and industries are specially confronted with high amounts of suspended particles in atmosphere. According to WHO, for the areas where air pollution is monitored in Pakistan, the air pollution is deteriorating the air quality as time is passing. Pakistan, during the last decade, has seen an extensive rise in population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, together with a great increase in motorization and energy use. As a result, rise has taken place in the emission of various air pollutants. However, due to the lack of air quality management, the country is suffering from deterioration of air quality. From the air quality point of view, spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and its variations are very important. The variations in the atmospheric aerosol, land surface properties, greenhouse gases, solar radiations and climatic changes alter the energy balance of the earth's atmospheric system. The addition of aerosol particles to the atmosphere is not only dependent upon the anthropogenic sources but these are also formed by physical and chemical atmospheric processes. Aerosols are a mixture of particles and these are characterized by their shape, their size (from nanometers (nm) to micrometers (µm) in radius) and their chemical composition. PM10 is the designation for particulate matter in the atmosphere that has an aerodynamic diameter of 10µm or less. The sources of PM10 may be natural (volcanoes, dust, storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, or anthropogenic (burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and industrialization). The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) is mainly due to its effect on human health and its role in climate change. Therefore, the particulate matter must be monitored continuously to understand their likely impact on the atmosphere, environment and particularly human

  5. Variations of PM2.5, PM10 mass concentration and health assessment in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memhood, Tariq; Tianle, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Shen, F.; Akram, W.; Dong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Sparse information appears in lack of awareness among the people regarding the linkage between particulate matter (PM) and mortality in Pakistan. The current study is aimed to investigate the seasonal mass concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of Islamabad to assess the health risk of PM pollution. The sampling was carried out with two parallel medium volume air samplers on Whatman 47 mm quartz filter at a flow rate of 100L/min. Mass concentration was obtained by gravimetric analysis. A noticeable seasonal change in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. In case of PM2.5, the winter was a most polluted and spring was the cleanest season of 2017 in Islamabad with 69.97 and 40.44 μgm‑3 mean concentration. Contrary, highest (152.42 μgm‑3) and lowest (74.90 μgm‑3) PM10 mass concentration was observed in autumn and summer respectively. Air Quality index level for PM2.5 and PM10 was remained moderated to unhealthy and good to sensitive respectively. Regarding health risk assessment, using national data for mortality rates, the excess mortality due to PM2.5 and PM10 exposure has been calculated and amounts to over 198 and 98 deaths annually for Islamabad. Comparatively estimated lifetime risk for PM2.5 (1.16×10-6) was observed higher than PM10 (7.32×10-8).

  6. Erratum to: Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., doi:10.1007/s12040-016-0675-0, 125(3), pp. 623–644. In the original version of this article, which appeared in Journal of Earth System Science 125(3). 623–644, figures 1 and 2 were incorrectly presented. The corrected figures are as follows. Figure 1. Location map of the study area, the bold light grey line shows the ...

  7. Gender association of prayer for health - perspective from university students in Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kamal, Anila; Naqvi, Irum

    2015-10-01

    The role of religion and spirituality in coping with disease and promoting health has been reported from many parts of the World. However, no scientific studies on the use of prayers for health and wellbeing have been reported from Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted among 1342 graduate and undergraduate students in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. A huge majority of students had prayed for their own as well as their family members' health in the preceding three months. There is a need to better understand the role in Pakistan of prayers related to health.

  8. Does area-based social capital matter for the health of Australians? A multilevel analysis of self-rated health in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Turrell, Gavin; Subramanian, S V

    2006-06-01

    Material circumstances and collective psychosocial processes have been invoked as potential explanations for socioeconomic inequalities in health; and, linking social capital has been proposed as a way of reconciling these apparently opposing explanations. We conducted multilevel logistic regression of self-rated health (fair or poor vs excellent, very good, or good) on 14 495 individuals living within 41 statistical local areas who were respondents to the 1998 Tasmanian Healthy Communities Study. We modelled the effects of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital (neighbourhood integration, neighbourhood alienation, neighbourhood safety, social trust, trust in public/private institutions, and political participation), and adjusted for the effects of individual characteristics. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with poor self-rated health (beta = 0.0937, P trust was associated with a reduction in poor self-rated health (beta = -0.0501, p = 0.008) and remained significant when individual characteristics (beta = -0.0398, P = 0.005) were included. Political participation was non-significant in the unadjusted model but became significant when adjusted for individual characteristics (beta = -0.2557, P = 0.045). The effects of social trust and political participation were attenuated and became non-significant when area-level socioeconomic disadvantage was included. Area-based socioeconomic disadvantage is a determinant of self-rated health in Tasmania, but we did not find an independent effect of area-level social capital. These findings suggest that in Tasmania investments in improving the material circumstances in which people live are likely to lead to greater improvements in population health than attempts to increase area-level social capital.

  9. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Amin, M.; Amber, M.; Malik, M.W.; Sherwani, S.K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  10. Biodiversity of soil-mycoflora of islamabad pakistan using two isolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, F.; Asif, M.; Ayub, N.

    2005-01-01

    The soil microfungal flora of Islamabad were investigated, by using the direct plate and dilution plate methods. A total of 4,225 fungal colonies were isolated from 80 samples collected from Islamabad, Pakistan. The species-composition revealed 66 different species belonging to 20 fungal genera. Among these, Penicillium, being most common and prevalent, was ranked as the dominant genus with respect to the test-sites. Most of the species belong to genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The maximum number of colonies i.e. 1797 were developed on DRBC, followed by PDA (1320) and the minimum number was recorded on SDA (1108). The results indicate that 4 of these species belong to Mucorales, one to Sphaeriales, one to Coelomycetes and 60 to Hyphomycetes. The most widespread genera were Aspergillus (16 species), Penicillium (15 species) and Acremonium (7 species). The most common species were Aspergillus niger (241 colonies), Cladosporium cladosporioides (219 colonies), Penicillium charlesii (201 colonies), Aspergillus flavus (200 colonies), Penicillium frequantus (198 colonies), Penicillium purpurogenum (178 colonies) and Alternaria alternata (176 colonies). Direct plating and dilution plating with three media, i.e. Potato Dextrose Agar, Dichloran Rose Bengal Agar, and Sabrouad Dextrose Agar, were used in this study. Dilution plating with Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) was found to be the most suitable. Other two media i.e. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Sabrouad Dextrose Agar (SDA) were also tried for cultivation of fungal species with successful results. (author)

  11. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  12. Screening for suitable areas for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage within the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium using coupled groundwater flow and heat transport modelling tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Kukral, Janik; Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md; Huysmans, Marijke

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas have a great potential for shallow geothermal systems. Their energy demand is high, but currently they have only a limited potential to cover their own energy demand. The transition towards a low-carbon energy regime offers alternative sources of energy an increasing potential. Urban areas however pose special challenges for the successful exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. High building densities limit the available space for drillings and underground investigations. Urban heat island effects and underground structures influence the thermal field, groundwater pollution and competing water uses limit the available subsurface. To tackle these challenges in the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium two projects 'BruGeo' and the recently finished 'Prospective Research of Brussels project 2015-PRFB-228' address the investigation in urban geothermal systems. They aim to identify the key factors of the underground with respect to Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) installations like thermal properties, aquifer thicknesses, groundwater flow velocities and their heterogeneity. Combined numerical groundwater and heat transport models are applied for the assessment of both open and closed loop shallow geothermal systems. The Brussels Capital Region comprises of the Belgian Capital, the City of Brussels and 18 other municipalities covering 161 km2 with almost 1.2 million inhabitants. Beside the high population density the Brussels Capital Region has a pronounced topography and a relative complex geology. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for the exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. The most important shallow hydrogeological formation in the Brussels-Capital Region are the Brussels Sands with the Brussels Sands Aquifer. Scenarios where developed using criteria for the hydrogeological feasibility of ATES installations such as saturated aquifer thickness, groundwater flow velocity and the groundwater head below surface. The Brussels Sands

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-05-15

    Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7-12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.15-26.61, p = 0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.08-7.60, p = 0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides

  14. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND UNDER THE MULTIANNUAL FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK 2014–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investment in human capital is a key determinant of socio-economic development in the twenty-fi rst century. These investments in rural areas require well-planned interventions in the fi eld of education. The necessary funds for this purpose will be available under the multiannual fi nancial framework EU 2014–2020. Interventions in this area in Poland are planned mainly under the Operational Programme Knowledge Education Development POWER and the Regional Operational Programmes (RPO. It should therefore be valuable to preliminarily assess the opportunities and threats connected with the development of human capital in rural areas in Poland in the fi eld of education in 2014–2020. The aim of this article is, thus, an attempt to make such an assessment, taking into account the following aspects: scope of the EU support; procedures for obtaining fi nancial support; available funds and financial instruments. The article verifi es the following hypothesis: based on program POWER establishments and RPO 2014–2020 in the section on education potential chances of the HRD in rural areas mainly result from wide range scope of this suport; while the main threats stem from a very limited scale of prioritization in the procedure of obtaining fi nancial support and the use of non-repayable fi nancial instruments (grants. The article draws upon the analysis of regulations of the European Commission and national legislative sources, as well as literature on development of human capital in rural areas and the absorption of EU funds for social projects.

  15. Simple energy auditing of male and female campus International Islamic University, Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anam, S.; Irum, S.; Tahira, S.; Anjuman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Natural resources are an important source of national wealth around the world play an important role in the development of a nation. Due to limited amount of nonrenewable energy sources it is important to conserve natural resources so that they will be available for future generations. Energy audit is a tool to conserve energy. A simple energy audit was conducted at male and female campus of International Islamic university Islamabad. The data has been collected through w alk through survey . Total electricity consumption was determined by calculating the watts of existing electrical appliances in the campuses and than calculate saving potential by replacing three parameters computers, large tube lights and air conditions by energy efficient appliances. The results shows that by replacing current electrical appliances installed in the buildings about 26.5 % of energy would be saved. The university is still under construction it is suggested that in new buildings energy efficient appliance should be installed. (author)

  16. EVALUATION OF NEW PRIMARY TEACHERS ORIENTATION COURSE PROJECT LAUNCHED THROUGH ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzoor H. SHAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary Education is an important stage in the education system of any country. Every developed and developing nation is keen to develop and improve its primary education. In service training of the primary school teachers is a major factor in improving primary education. In Pakistan efforts have been made from the very beginning to improve the primary education especially in the late seventy’s. Different Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs, Donors Agencies and Institutions had been involved in taking different initiatives for the improvement of the quality of primary education. New Primary Teachers Orientation Course (N-PTOC was a similar effort of the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD in joint collaboration of Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (AIOU. The major objective of the project was to improve the teaching of primary school teachers through selected microteaching skills, lesson planning, use of teaching kit and AV aids. This project was started in 1991-92 and completed in the year, 1999. Different studies were conducted which indicated that the project has an impact on the performance of the trained teachers. The present study aimed for evaluation of the N-PTOC project launched through Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. The study is based on the documentary analysis. All the existing record of the project including different reports, documents etc. were consulted for the purpose. It was concluded that the project achieved its trainee teacher’s targets up to 70% and training of tutors and senior tutors up to 100%. Moreover the project produced a model teachers training module for the in-service training of the primary school teachers. There were some problems and challenges in its implementation including; late release of funds, shifting of targets to next semester and its non continuation by the AIOU.

  17. Situation analysis of health care waste management in private sector hospitals in federal capital territory, islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.; Hasan, S.; Umar, M.; Azad, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious and harmful effects of hospital waste on environment and human health is well documented in Pakistan. The hospital waste that may be produced as a result of patient care in hospitals, clinical settings including the diagnostic laboratories is one of the potential health hazards. It significantly contributes to the transfusion transmitted diseases and ever increasing incidence of HBV, HCV and HIV. (author)

  18. Prevalence of arterial hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists of the São Paulo state capital and inner area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leilane Bagno Eleutério da; Silva, Stael Silvana Bagno Eleutério da; Marcílio, Amanda Garcia; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo

    2012-04-01

    Inadequate life habits are known to favor hypertension, and Adventists recommend healthy life habits. To assess the prevalence of hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists from the inner São Paulo state and São Paulo state capital. This study assessed 264 Adventists (mean age, 41.17 ± 15.27 years; women, 59.8%) with a high religiosity level assessed by use of the Duke University Religion Index. Blood pressure was measured with a validated automatic device. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. The total prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% (27.4% in the inner state and 15% in the capital). The Adventists from the capital differed from those of inner state as follows (p < 0.05), respectively: higher education (62% vs 36.6%); employed by a third party (44%) vs self-employed (40.9%); family income (8.39 ± 6.20 vs 4.59 ± 4.75 minimum wages); individual income (4.54 ± 5.34 vs 6.35 ± 48; couple responsible for family income (35% vs 39.6%); vegetarianism (11% vs 3%); blood pressure (115.38 ± 16.52/68.74 ± 8.94 vs 123.66 ± 19.62/74.88 ± 11.85 mmHg); white ethnicity (65% vs 81.1%); married (53% vs 68.9%); lower tangible support in the social aspect (15.7 ± 5.41 vs 16.9 ± 4.32); and recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (65% vs 48.8%). On multivariate analysis, hypertension associated with the following: 1) vegetarianism (OR 0.051; 95% CI: 0.004-0.681); 2) educational level (OR 5.317; 95% CI: 1.674-16.893); 3) recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (OR 2.725; 95% CI: 1.275-5.821); 4) being retired (OR 8.846; 95% CI: 1.406-55.668); and 5) being responsible for family income (OR 0.422; 95% CI: 0.189-0.942). The prevalence of hypertension among Adventists was lower as compared with that reported in Brazilian studies, and it was lower in the São Paulo state capital as compared with that in the inner São Paulo state, possibly because of the better socioeconomic conditions and life habits of the former.

  19. Comparative Study of the Availability and Use of Information Technology in the Subject of Education in Public and Private Universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Yasmeen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to compare availability and use of information technology in the subject of education in public and private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The objectives of the study were, first, to highlight the status of information technology in public and private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi; second, to compare the availability and utilization of resources for information technology in public and private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi; third, to find out the problems in the use of information technology in public and private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi and to recommend strategies for better use of information technology in public and private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The design of the study was descriptive, and it was a survey study. Two questionnaires were used for data collection: one for teachers and one for students. A stratified random sampling technique was used. Two groups of teachers were selected from public and private universities, and 50% teacher and 10% students were selected from the population. The data were analyzed in terms of percentage, and t test was also applied. A significant difference was found between the availability and usage of equipment in education departments of public and private universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Difference between the students learning and teachers training skills was not significant.

  20. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  1. The impact of the level of market competition intensity on enterprises activities in area of intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusak Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Market activity for today’s enterprises means continuing work to better understand the needs of their customers to provide them higher level of satisfaction. Building market advantages using a traditional approach based on material resources becoming less and less likely to increase competitiveness over the long term. The ability to use intangible assets, often more difficult to identify and manage, is becoming a key issue. Proper management of intangible assets can provide the company with unique market advantages that are unique, durable, and difficult to imitate. This study attempts to characterize selected dependencies between the nature of the actions undertaken by enterprises in relation to intellectual capital in the context of the strength of the level of competition in the market.

  2. A decision support system for selecting IT audit areas using a capital budgeting approach / Dewald Philip Pieters

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Dewald Philip

    2015-01-01

    Internal audit departments strive to control risk within an organization. To do this they choose specific audit areas to include in an audit plan. In order to select areas, they usually focus on those areas with the highest risk. Even though high risk areas are considered, there are various other restrictions such as resource constraints (in terms of funds, manpower and hours) that must also be considered. In some cases, management might also have special requirements. Traditionally this area...

  3. Measuring Capital

    OpenAIRE

    W. Erwin Diewert

    2003-01-01

    The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...

  4. General prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic population of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, T.Z.; Saleem, K.; Zafar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori was known as campylobacter pyloridis in the beginning of the twentieth century. Doenges was the first to find this bacterium in the autopsy specimens of stomach using haematoxylin and eosin Stains. In 1940 Freedburg and Baron carried out a study on 35 partial gastrectomy specimens and found spirochetes in 37% after a long search. A major breakthrough occurred with the advent of fibroptic biopsy technique permitting the biopsy of stomach. Then in 1975 Steer and Colin Jones observed gram negative bacilli in 80% of patients with gastric ulcer. The bacterium was closely associated with the surface epithelium, both within and between pits. These microorganisms were poorly stained by haematoxylin and eosin stains but could be seen easily with Warthin Starry silver stain. Later on, a heavy growth of campylobacter like organism was found on non-selective culture media and so the first culture of helicobacter pylori was achieved in April 1982. Since then eight other helicobacter species have been found, one in man and the remainder in other animals including birds. The organism may remain silent for years or produce serious gastric disorders in the beginning. Many studies have been conducted on asymptomatic healthy individuals but its presence in dyspeptic patients has always been ignored and dyspepsia has been treated as a result of over acid production This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helicobacter pylori (hp) infection in dyspeptic population of Islamabad using /sup 13/C urea breath test, and to find the possible role of water in bug transmission. We have also tried to assess the type of gastric pathology resulted by bacterial colonization in stomach. A total of 278 individuals were studied. Out of these 115 who had serious complaints/symptoms were sent for endoscopy to get the antral biopsy sample. Breath samples of dyspeptic individuals were sent to Isotope Application Division, PINSTECH for /sup 13/C//sup 12/C isotope ratio

  5. Awareness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in medical-students and doctors in Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir, Q.; Nadeem, A.; Rizvi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the level of awareness regarding basic and practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its importance in the eyes of medical/dental students and doctors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in medical and dental colleges as well as hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from June to September 2011. Non-probability convenience sampling was used and structured questionnaires on basic and practical knowledge of the procedure were distributed. The questionnaire had 26 items related to basic and advanced knowledge of the required skills. Doctors were divided into two groups based on their years of service and practice. Those with less than 5 years' experience were grouped as junior doctors, while rest as senior doctors. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the data using SPPS version 17 and Microsoft Excel. Percentages were worked out and the results were interpreted. Result: Of the 1000 questionnaires distributed, 646 (64.6%) were received duly filled and represented the study sample. Of the 646 participants, 34 (5.26%) were dentists, 424 (65.63%) were medical students, 92 (14.24%) were doctors and 96 (14.86%) were dental students. Basic knowledge of doctors was found to be better than that of dentists (n=96; 50% vs. n=8; 23%). Similarly, the advance knowledge of doctors was better than the dentists (n=53; 58% vs. n=11; 31%). The basic knowledge of junior doctors was found to be almost equal to the senior doctors (n=26; 44.75% vs. n=15; 45.5%). The advance knowledge of junior doctors was found to be better than the senior doctors (n=27; 45.37% vs. n=10; 29.48%). Among the students, 157 (37%) of the medical students had basic knowledge of CPR, while 36 (38%) dental students had basic knowledge of the topic. Medical students had more advanced knowledge (n=157; 37%) than dental students (n=34; 35%). Conclusion: The awareness of basic and advance knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in medical

  6. Analyzing the Stock Markets Role as a Source of Capital Formation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Ali Kanasro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to examine the stock markets role in the capital formation in Pakistan from the period 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2008. This analytical study is based on the data collected from the secondary sources such as State Bank of Pakistan and three stock exchanges; Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad Stock exchanges. The stock market size of capital, number of listed companies and liquidity positions has been examined in the study. The study reveals that Karachi Stock exchange is the oldest and biggest Stock exchange of Pakistan and it is the first mover to adapt institutional developments, new policies and procedures in the business of securities exchange and shares a big role in the capital formation in Pakistan. In recent years all stock exchanges have implemented the advanced technology and fully automated trading systems. This has changed the stock markets role in the capital formation as great boom has been observed during the study period.

  7. Depression among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Association with Poor Glycemic Control in Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, J.; Khan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus patient results in negative health outcomes. Objectives: To determine the association between depression and glycemic control in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study design, settings and duration: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic of Capital Hospital, Islamabad which is a tertiary care hospital from 1st September 2015 to 30th November 2015. Patients and Methods: The serum glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) were recorded from the medical records of patients while Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression in these patients. Poor glycemic control was taken as value of HbA1c = 7 percent. Equal number of depressive and non-depressive type 2 diabetics were recruited. The data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and Chi-square was used to find out association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Results: A total of 250 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in the study. Their mean HbA1c level was 8.5% (S.D +- 2.15) and the PHQ-9 score was 9.0 (S.D +- 4.11). Almost 83.2 percent patients had poor glycemic control and were depressed while 57.6 percent had poor glycemic control but were non-depressed. Depression was strongly associated with poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Depression among type 2 diabetes patients was significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Policy message: Type 2 diabetic patients should be regularly monitored for their glycemic control and assessed for depression and treated accordingly.(author)

  8. Capital gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blishen, C.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)

  9. Understanding Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state expend...

  10. Comparative Study Regarding EU Urban Areas Tourism Promotion Using Official Websites - Examples of Good Practices for Romania's Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century the importance of Internet has gained dimensions which cannot be ignored both in respect of the business environment, as well as in respect of recreational activities. As a result of technological development which made superior technology available for a large part of population, Internet has become one of the most employed marketing channels. In these conditions, the urban destinations for tourists, in order to face the fierce international competition, had to use as a solution the promotion over the Internet, which ultimately makes the difference between success and failure. The present study aims to research a series of practices for tourism promotion of leading cities of the EU (London, Paris and Rome by the creation and use of official websites, in order to identify a set of best practices which will allow the know-how transfer for building a tourism website for the Romanian capital.

  11. Study of particle size and trace metal distribution in atmospheric aerosols of islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.H.; Shaheen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on glass fibre filters using high volume air samplers Half of each aerosol sample was solubilized in nitric acid/hydrochloric acid based wet digestion method and the concentration of trace metals was determined through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Among the eight trace metals analyzed, mean concentration recorded for Zn (844 ng/m3), Fe (642 ng/m3) and Pb (253 ng/m3), was found to be higher than mean levels of Mn, Cr and Co. The size distribution of the collected particulate samples was carried out on mastersizer, which revealed PM/sub 100-10/ as the major fraction (55 %) followed by PM/sub 2.5-10/ (28 %). The correlation study evidenced a strong tendency of trace metals to be associated with fine particulate fractions. The atmospheric trace metal levels showed that the mean metal concentrations in the atmosphere of Islamabad are far higher than background and European urban sites mainly due to the anthropogenic emissions. (author)

  12. Hazard perception and occupational injuries in the welders and lathe machine operators of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A

    2001-02-01

    To study the prevalence of occupational injuries in the welders and lathe machine operators and their hazard perception. This study was conducted in the welders and lathe machine operators working in the welding and metal working shops in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by two trained health interviewers using uniform questionnaire with both close and open-ended questions. Two hundred and eight welders and 104 lathe machine operators were interviewed. Thirty nine (18.7%) welders and 27 (26%) lathe machine operators reported an injury in the past three months, while 63 (30.3%) welders and 76 (73.8%) lathe machine operators reported sustaining an injury in the past twelve months. However, only half of the welders and 31 (29.8%) lathe machine operators believed that their occupation was hazardous for health. For effective public health policy there is a need preventive education and enforcement of safety regulations for the informal occupational sector in Pakistan.

  13. Qualitative assessment of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.S.; Rauf, N.; Batool, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the health risks in the indoor air of the four government. hospitals of the Islamabad city, Pakistan. Four different main wards, i.e., general male/female surgical wards, children's ward and microbiology laboratory were included. The sampling was done in the summer season due to the possibility of maximum recovery of microorganisms. Results showed presence of bacterial and fungal pathogens in the air of hospitals especially in surgical wards of all hospitals. Lowest bacterial counts were recorded in microbiology laboratory. Among bacterial isolates Micrococcus and Staphylococcus auleus were abundantly found in all hospitals as 22.09 % and 21.2 %, respectively followed by gram negative group of bacteria i.e, Enterobacteriaceae spp. (Escherichia coil), Pseudomonas spp. were found to be lowest as 6.5 % of the total bacterial load in all hospitals. Among the fungi Aspergillus (fumigatus.niger; flavus) recovery was the most in the environment of all hospitals with the value of 27.7 % and Tricosporon was observed lowest with the value of 1.15 %. p- value for total microbial load among the hospitals sampled was not significant. (author)

  14. Molecular characterization of salmonella isolated from patients at a local hospital in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, F.; Sultana, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is based on molecular characterization of 17 clinical isolates of Salmonella obtained from Children's Hospital, PIMS, Islamabad, Pakistan. Whole cell protein profile analysis of all the isolates was similar and did not reveal any difference within the population. However, analysis of outer membrane protein profiles showed that the isolates fell into two groups on the basis of level of expression and presence or absences of two peptide, i.e. 48 Kd and 43 Kd. A 27 Kd outer membrane protein was expressed strongly only in one isolate. Analysis of purified lipopolysaccharide fractions obtained from Salmonella paratyphi showed a lower optical density/absorption, i.e. 1.003 as compared to the fractions obtained from Salmonella typhoid i.e. 2.001-2.224. Western blot analysis of cell lysate fraction against sera from a typhoid patient indicated that four major outer membrane protein bands were immunogenic. The data revealed a 46 Kd outer membrane protein to be highly immunogenic which was not reported earlier. (author)

  15. Evaluation of environmental education at higher secondary level in the model schools of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, F.; Ahmad, U.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) has emerged as a new dimension in the dimensional sphere. It is a process aimed at the developing world's population, which should be well aware and concerned about the total environment and its associated problems and which should have knowledge, attitudes, skills, motivation and commitment to work, individually and collectively, towards the solution of current problems and the prevention of new ones. Evaluation is a process that provides feedback for the improvement of any project. The present study has been designed to investigate the current performance of EE at higher secondary level. Data were collected from Biology teachers and F. Sc. students of Islamabad Model Colleges, through separate questionnaires. The information collected from teachers was regarding their qualifications and involvement, institutional provisions and their opinion about EE. Students were evaluated on the basis of EE. The results showed that Biology is the only subject that contains a considerable content of EE at higher secondary level. In these institutions, although there is no deficiency of competent teaching staff, A/V aids and other physical facilities , the teacher's involvement and utility of teaching aids is not up to the mark, Book/magazines relevant to EE are not available in most of the institutions. Although students have enough knowledge and awareness about environmental issues, there is a need to produce appropriate skills and attitudes for making them 'environment-friendly'. (author)

  16. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran

    2017-07-24

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air sampler and its elemental composition was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Sampling was done for a duration of 24 hours on selected days, including all foggy days in a period from January 2016 to February 2016. The concentration of PM varied from 123 µg m to 202 µg m with an overall mean concentration of 177 µg m. On most occasions, PM levels were considerably high as compared to permissible limits of both Pak-NEQS and WHO guidelines. It has been observed that the air quality during fog days was much worse, with elevated levels of particulate matter observed during foggy days. The SEM-EDS revealed the presence of different elements including some metals Si, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cr, Pb, Al etc. The morphological studies suggest that most of the particles are crystalline in shape, suggesting their main source as soil. Some samples also showed round spherical shape which refers their anthropogenic source. The sun photometer observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and satellite observations from Aqua’s Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) showed significant correlation. Moreover, elevated level of AOD were found during heavy fog days. The validated high satellite AOD were associated with high PM concentration during heavy fog days.

  17. Distribution of lead in relation to size of airborne particulate matter in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M; Saqib, M

    2004-02-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from two sampling stations in Islamabad, Pakistan, was analyzed for lead content and size gradation. A high volume air sampler was used to trap particulates on glass fiber filters for 8-12 h on a daily basis. Lead was estimated using a nitric acid digestion based AAS method on 44 samples from station 1 and 61 samples from station 2. Particle size fractions were categorized as 100 microm. The correlation between lead concentration and particle size was investigated. The results from two stations indicated average airborne lead concentrations of 0.505 and 0.185 microg/m3. Enhanced levels of lead were measured at a maximum of 4.075 microg/m3 at station 1 and 4.000 microg/m3 at station 2. PM 100 were found to constitute the local atmosphere in comparable proportions. A comparison of the lead levels is made with the existing permissible levels of this element laid down by different international agencies.

  18. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  19. CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.

  20. Venture Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, M. J; Andreassen, A; Bales, Shanda; Biddle, J. G; Chang, M. M; McCormick, R; Packard, W. J; Sun, T

    2006-01-01

    Leveraging venture capital to the advantage of the Naval Services should be viewed as part of the larger project of reforming the acquisition system to permit rapid introduction of new technologies...

  1. Research regarding agro-tourism stage in Apuseni Mountains area and capitalize of traditional products through this

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have shown that rural tourism combined with rural resources and traditional products would be an important "tool" for revitalizing the rural economy, and that they should be essential components of the rural economy development strategy, desirable goal for Apuseni Mountains. A great part of the localities from this area are great keeper of traditions. If on the customs and traditions we put the mountain natural resources and specific traditional products results a valuable tourist product that could local increase revenue and attract young people in rural areas. Many rural areas have a potentially remarkable natural and cultural history, and those who developed the required tourist infrastructure (boarding/private farms, and realized tourist opportunity and have used it with success.

  2. The Use of Social Networking among Senior Secondary School Students in Abuja Municipal Area of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F. A. Farah; Aliyu, Umar Yanda

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use of social networking among senior secondary school students in Abuja Municipal Area Council of FCT. The study employed quantitative method for data collection involving questionnaire administration. Fifteen questions with Likert model and ten yes/no responses in a questionnaire were personally administered to 400…

  3. Investigation the awareness level about diabetes mellitus and associated factor in Tarlai (rural Islamabad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvi, O.S.; Chaudhary, R.Y.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the baseline level of awareness amongst a rural community about Diabetes Mellitus (irrespective of type 1 or type 2), its risk factors and complications. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted at the community of Tarlai, Islamabad, Pakistan, in January of 2008. A structured questionnaire was used and 300 adults (age > 18 years) were assessed on their knowledge regarding awareness of Diabetes Mellitus, its risk factors and complications. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 10.0. The data was re-validated and analyzed. Out of the three hundred adults subjected to the survey, only 129 (43%) adults had any awareness of Diabetes Mellitus. Adults with no regular, scheduled exercise were 221 (73.7%) and 256 (85.3%) did not have healthy eating habits. Awareness of risk factors was present in 42 (14%) while awareness of the complications associated with the disease was 65 (22%). Adults which reported as never going for regular checkups to any clinic or hospital were 232 (77%). Family history of diabetes mellitus was statistically significantly associated with awareness about diabetes mellitus (65% vs 32%, p <0.001), people who were in contact regularly with health care providers were more aware about diabetes and the associated risk factors than those who were not (71% vs 35%, p <0.001). Sex was not associated (p=0.28) with awareness about diabetes mellitus, nor was the educational status (p=0.46). Majority of adults were unaware of Diabetes Mellitus itself and associated risk factors. Raising public awareness of the disease through outreach programmes and mass media should be planned and implemented (JPMA 59:798; 2009).

  4. Knowledge and misconceptions about sexually transmitted infections in married women--perspective from Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, S B; Agha, M A; Shaikh, M A

    2006-01-01

    To study the knowledge of married women regarding existence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) their complications, treatment seeking, ways of preventing STI acquisition and opinion about sex education in schools/colleges and media. The Mother and Child Health Center, a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. A cross-sectional survey based on sample of convenience was conducted, using a structured questionnaire with both close and open-ended questions. Trained women physician interviewers conducted the interviews after obtaining verbal consent. Out of 218 women approached for interviewing, only two refused to participate in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 28.5 years (range 18-53 years). One hundred and sixty-eight (77.8%) respondents had heard/knew about sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two hundred and ten (97.2%) respondents had heard/ knew about AIDS and out of these 162 (77.1%) knew that it is also transmitted through sexual contact. One hundred and eighty two (84.2%) felt a need for sex education in the media, both print and electronic and 204 (94.4%) respondents said that they would like to learn more about sexually transmitted infections. One hundred ninety four (98.8%) respondents had heard the Latin term Leukorrhoea. Of these 158 (81.5%) thought it was a gynecological disease. Majority thought it caused weakness. Widespread misperceptions were found to exist, which does not augur well for the effective prevention of STIs in the country. Population based studies are required to study the knowledge and epidemiology of STIs, as well as a need for a health education campaign in the country (JPMA 51:389; 2001).

  5. PROBIT MODEL ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER’S FARMERS DECISION TO USE AGROCHEMICAL INPUTS IN GWAGWALADA AND KUJE AREA COUNCILS OF FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Olugbenga Alabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined Probit model analysis of smallholder’s farmers decision to use agrochemical inputs in Gwagwalada and Kuje Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Primary data were used for this study. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to sixty smallholder’s farmers sampled using a two-stage sampling technique. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Probit model. Eight estimators, age; farm-size; education–level; extension services; access to credit; off-farm income; experiences in farming; in the Probit model were found statistically significant. Results show that the probability of using agrochemical inputs increases with age; farm-size; family-size; education-level; extension services; experiences in farming but decreases where they have off-farm income and access to credits. Mc Fadden Pseudo-R 2 gives 0.6866 and Probit model correctly classified 93%. This study concluded that capacity of agricultural extension agents needs to be improved in the study area to educate farmers to invest in agrochemicals and improved agricultural technologies. Also, Government needs to improve on good road networks and appropriate policies to regulate standard, use, safety needs and environment of use of agrochemicals in the study area.

  6. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  7. Deployment of Low-Cost, Carbon Dioxide Sensors throughout the Washington Metropolitan Area - The Capital Climate Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.

    2016-04-01

    According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional

  8. Comparison between hemoglobin and packed cell volume among young male and female students from a Medical College of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Q.U.A.

    2015-01-01

    To high light the importance of laboratory investigations for students and encourage them to participate in research. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Islamabad Medical and Dental College Islamabad for a three months period from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2014. Students with age 18-20 years were chosen by convenience sampling for sample collection. Verbal consent was taken from candidates before sample collection. Packed cell volume (PCV) was measured by using Micro Hematocrit method and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by Sahli acid haematin method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 106 students, there were 32 males and 74 females. Male participants had significantly greater Hb concentration and PCV as compared to females (p=0.05). Conclusion: Both Hb and PCV were significantly higher in males as compared to females of almost same age. For improving Hb concentration, dietary sources of iron and iron supplements may be used for better health of future generation. (author)

  9. Distribution of Cytomegalovirus Genotypes among Neonates Born to Infected Mothers in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mujtaba

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV infection contributes to considerable long-term sequelae in neonates and children all over the world. The association between viral genotypes and severity of clinical cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is yet to be defined. The objective of this study was to find the impact of active CMV infection during pregnancy and the clinical significance of genotypes in neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus infections in Pakistan.A total of 409 blood samples from pregnant women seeking health care services at the two antenatal hospitals of Islamabad during January to December 2012 were tested by ELISA and nested-PCR. Pregnant women with active infection (detected as IgM positive, PCR positive or positive on both assays were followed until delivery, to detect the outcome of overt cCMV infection in neonates. Genetic characterization of CMV strains was performed by sequence analysis of envelope glycoproteins: gB, gN and gH to detect the contributing CMV genotypes.The seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM was 97.5% (399 out of 409 and 12.7% (52 out of 409, respectively, while 20% (82/409 pregnant women were found positive for CMV DNA by PCR. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of active infection with parity [OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.82-2.62, p = 0.04], febrile illness [OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.76-3.65, p = 0.01] and jaundice [OR = 22.5, 95% CI = 4.53-85.02, p = 0.002]. We were able to isolate virus in 41 out of 70 neonates; 36.6% (15 out of 41 of them were symptomatic at birth while 63.4% (26 out of 41 were asymptomatic. The most prominent clinical feature observed in symptomatic neonates was hepatosplenomegaly (26.6%; 4 out of 15. All three genotypes gB, gN and gH were found with the highest frequency of gB1 genotype, found in 75% infants with hepatic damage. Phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani strains showed 96%-100% homology to their prototype strains.Active CMV infection during pregnancy is a major cause

  10. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to face one of the season’s biggest problems: tree pollen . Common symptoms of springtime allergies include: Runny nose Itchy eyes Sneezing Congestion “Our Spring Allergy Capitals report is a valuable tool to help identify cities where seasonal allergy symptoms can create challenges,” ...

  11. Capital Unchained

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryan, Dick; Rafferty, Michael; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    on measuring (by accountants), managing (by corporations) and monitoring (by International Political Economy scholars and regulators), this article explores the longer term implications of accumulation of internationalised capital in intangible and abstract forms, and the prominent role of finance and offshore...

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary school children in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-01-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is commonly prevalent in the tropical/subtropical regions, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unclear. A seroepidemiological survey was undertaken for investigating T. gondii infection in primary school children (PSC) using the latex agglutination (LA) test in the capital area of RMI. Information on demographic characteristics and environmental risk factors was collected via a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression model was applied for multivariate analysis. The overall infection rate of T. gondii was found to be 54.8%. Significant gender differences were found at different urbanization levels. PSC with LA titers of ≥ 1:1,024, indicating high responders, were found to be younger age group than others (8.7 years vs. 10.3 years, P = 0.003); moreover, infection rates among both age groups as well as high responders showed a decreasing trend with age. Multivariate analysis revealed that residing in urban rather than suburban settings was associated with increased risk of infection (P = 0.04). No associations were found between raw meat consumption, drinking unboiled water, and cleaning of cat hutch using gloves. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii infection among PSC in RMI and could help in the development of strategies in the future for disease prevention and control of T. gondii transmission.

  13. Antiretroviral treatment outcome in HIV-1-infected patients routinely followed up in capital cities and remote areas of Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouara, Abou Abdallah Malick; Ndiaye, Halimatou Diop; Guindo, Ibrehima; Bangoura, Nestor; Cissé, Mohamed; Edmond, Tchiakpe; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Mboup, Souleymame; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Kane, Ndèye Coumba Touré

    2014-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) becomes more and more effective in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, this global effort would be even more profitable if the access to laboratory services especially in decentralized settings was strengthened. We report the virological outcome and HIV-1 drug resistance in three West African countries using dried blood spots (DBS) samples. We included HIV-1-infected adults on ART ≥6 months and followed up in capital cities and decentralized sites in Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry. Patients were consecutively enrolled and DBS were collected in field conditions and kept at ambient temperature before transfer to the reference laboratory. Viral load (VL) was quantified using the NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v1.2. Genotyping of HIV-1 pol gene was performed using in-house protocol. Of the 407 participants, 119, 152 and 136 were from Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry, respectively. The median treatment duration was 36 months [IQR: 6-136]. Virological failure (VF) (VL≥3log10 copies/mL) was observed in 26% (95% confidence interval (CI), 18-35; n=31), 11% (95% CI, 6-17; n=16) and 24% (95% CI, 17-32; n=33) of patients in Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry, respectively (p=0.001). Of samples presenting VL≥3log10 copies/mL (n=80), 70 were successfully genotyped. At least one drug resistance mutation (DRM) was detected in the following proportions: 70% (95% CI, 50-86; n=19), 93% (95% CI, 68-100; n=14) and 68% (95% CI, 48-84; n=19) in Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry, respectively (p=0.22). Twenty-six per cent (26%; 95% CI, 16-38; n=18) of patients in VF harboured wild-type viruses, which is likely indicative of weak adherence. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of CRF02_AG subtype (73%; 95% CI, 61-83; n=51). We describe the ART outcome in capital and rural settings of Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry. Our results in all of the three countries highlight the need to reinforce the ART adherence in order to minimize the

  14. Trinidadian capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  15. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  16. partial capitalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    A world away, in the Cape Winelands, architects of Stellenbosch struggle for the identity of the city, the capital of the unique cultural landscape. Here the traditional African culture is mixed with three century-long tradition of winegrowing and winemaking. This wonderful mixture was placed on the UNESCO Tentative List of World Heritage Sites. The authors of the project use cultural heritage protection laws to protect their city from chaotic development.

  17. Knowledge of Dengue Among Students Exposed to Various Awareness Campaigns in Model Schools of Islamabad: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Nismat; Ghazanfar, Haider; Naseem, Sajida

    2018-04-10

    Objective To determine the knowledge of dengue among school students exposed to various awareness campaigns in model schools of Islamabad. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of students who were studying in Islamabad Model School for Girls F-7/2 and Islamabad Model College for Boys F-7/3 from September 2017 to October 2017. Students in the ninth and tenth grades who were willing to participate in the study and who were studying in the school for more than six months were included in the study. The data was collected through a self-constructed questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of the questionnaire, and it was found to be 0.83. The data obtained was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Results Out of 601 participants, 345 (57.4%) were males and 256 (42.6%) were females. The mean age of the participants was 14.72±1.09. About 380 participants (63.2%) were studying in the ninth grade and 221 participants (36.8%) were studying in the tenth grade. A majority of the participants (67.2%) had poor knowledge of dengue. The participants scored highest in knowledge of prevention of the dengue domain and scored the lowest in knowledge of transmission of dengue. A majority of the participants (72.9%) reported that they acquire knowledge about dengue fever through television and radio. About 44.60% of the participants reported that they acquired knowledge about dengue fever through awareness campaigns in school. Conclusions The knowledge of the students was found to be insufficient despite several awareness campaigns. There is a need to re-evaluate the structure of the awareness campaigns as they fail to reach their target. Electronic media was identified as the most useful source of knowledge, and its incorporation can help increase the effectiveness of awareness campaigns.

  18. Investigation of factors influencing the formation of the middle class on the territory of regions of Capital socio-geographical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pereguda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article stated that to determine the specifics of a middle class it is necessary to apply economic and mathematical methods allowing one to display a certain proportion and sometimes qualitative patterns of distribution of different forms and types of settlement and problems that are investigated. The key components of each factor can be determined based on the analysis of factor analysis and the indicators playing a major role in shaping sets of factors can be shown based on a factor variance. The spatial organization of society in this research study has been noted to have a multi-level character, because it is going to cover the territory within the regions and the accommodation of diverse population on it will include spatial distribution of various types of economic activity and economic indicators. In this study, the special attention has been paid to economic poverty to determine the boundaries of the middle class, and conduction of more accurate inequality of economic indicators in the regions. The regional specifics of the Capital socio-geographical area has been conducted through socio-geographical approach aimed at disclosing the middle class. Based on statistical data systematization, the analysis has been conducted due to the matrix factorization of selected indicators intercorrelation. It has been noted that the study of the middle class from the standpoint of social geography as spatially conditioned phenomenon requires the formulation of methodological regulations, it defines procedures for research highlighting the main stages, and it studies the techniques and methods of forming the system of scientific research to further disclosure issues.

  19. Exploring public sector physicians' resilience, reactions and coping strategies in times of economic crisis; findings from a survey in Portugal's capital city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Pires, Carlos André; Perelman, Julian; Gonçalves, Luzia; Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-03-15

    Evidence is accumulating on the impact of the recent economic crisis on health and health systems across Europe. However, little is known about the effect this is having on physicians - a crucial resource for the delivery of healthcare services. This paper explores the adaptation to the crisis of public sector physicians and their ability to keep performing their functions, with the objective of gaining a better understanding of health workers' resilience under deteriorating conditions. We conducted a survey among 484 public primary care and hospital physicians in Portugal's capital city area and explored their perceptions of the crisis, adaptation and coping strategies. We used ordinal and logistic regression models to link changes in hours worked and intentions to migrate with physicians' characteristics and specific answers. We found little evidence of physicians changing their overall allocation of working time before and after the crisis, with their age, types of specialisation, valuation of job flexibility and independence significantly associated with changes in public sector hours between 2010 and 2015. Being divorced, not Portuguese, of younger age, and working a high number of hours per week, were found to increase the probability of physicians considering migration, the same as having a poor opinion of recent government health policies. On the other hand, enjoying their current working environment, not wanting to disrupt provision of service, and leisure time were found to protect against scaling down public sector hours or considering migration. Our work on Portuguese physicians contributes to the debate on health workers' resilience, showing the value of understanding the influence of personal characteristics and opinions on their adaptation to changing circumstances, before designing policies to improve their working conditions and retention.

  20. Temporal v P/ v S variation characteristics in different zones of China's Capital Circle area before and after Wen'an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Ying; Guo, Yong-Xia; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    On July 4, 2006, an earthquake of M S5.1 took place in Wen’an, Hebei Province, just at the south center of China’s Capital Circle area digital seismograph network. It is the strongest event recorded ever since the network went into operation in 2002. We processed the vast amounts of phase data yielded by the 107 digital seismic stations between 2002˜2007 using Wadati method. In order to improve the precision and stability of shear and compressional wave velocities ( v P/ v S) calculation, we impose a number of restrictions on the computation environment and condition, e.g., the earthquakes are densely concentrated, selected stations are limited in range, the number of stations involved in the computation is larger than 5 and linear fitting features high precision and small error. Under these restrictions, the study shows that v P/ v S in and around Wen’an and Tangshan underwent a normal-low-normal process one year before Wen’an earthquake, v P/ v S became obviously low and the low ratio lasted for about one year, meanwhile, little variation of v P/ v S was seen in Xingtai, northwest of Beijing, southwest of Beijing, Beijing-Tianjin and Beijing; after the quake, the v P/ v S returned normal in Wen’an and Tangshan. Error and stability analysis of the calculated result for v P/ v S shows it is convincible that anomaly appeared in and around Wen’an and Tangshan before Wen’an earthquake.

  1. The Fission-Based  99Mo Production Process ROMOL-99 and Its Application to PINSTECH Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Muenze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative process for fission based 99Mo production has been developed under Isotope Technologies Dresden (ITD GmbH (former Hans Wälischmiller GmbH (HWM, Branch Office Dresden, and its functionality has been tested and proved at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH, Islamabad. Targets made from uranium aluminum alloy clad with aluminum were irradiated in the core of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1. In the mean time more than 50 batches of fission molybdenum-99 (99Mo have been produced meeting the international purity/pharmacopoeia specifications using this ROMOL-99 process. The process is based on alkaline dissolution of the neutron irradiated targets in presence of NaNO3, chemically extracting the 99Mo from various fission products and purifying the product by column chromatography. This ROMOL-99 process will be described in some detail.

  2. Dental anxiety among children of age between 5 to 10 years visiting a teaching dental hospital Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, G.H.; Malik, F.S.; Attaullah, M.; Bashir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The assessment of dental anxiety among children will aid in dealing with management issues related to dental treatment. There is no study available from Pakistan on dental anxiety in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety in children attending a teaching dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 252 children aged between 5-10 years attending a dental clinic in a dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental anxiety was assessed by using the Faces Version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale. This scale uses faces as pictograms to indicate the levels of dental anxiety making it easier for children to answer the questionnaire. Results: A total of 252 children were observed for assessment of dental anxiety having mean age of 7.88±1.55 years with 123 (48.8 percentage) males and 129 (51.2 percentage) females. Out of these children 150 (59.5 percentage) had previously visited a dentist and 102 (40.5 percentage) had no experience with a dentist before; 38 percentage (95/252) of children had moderate and severe dental anxiety. Dental anxiety decreased significantly with age (p=0.0003). The difference in anxiety levels was not statistically significant between males and females and in different socio-economic status. Conclusion: This study has highlighted dental anxiety as a potential public health concern regarding children in Pakistan. Assessment of dental anxiety is a useful way to identify anxious dental patients. (author)

  3. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  4. International working capital practices of Ghanaian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  5. Triads of capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....

  6. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  7. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  8. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  9. Food insecurity is associated with social capital, perceived personal disparity, and partnership status among older and senior adults in a largely rural area of central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association of compositional measures of collective social functioning, composed of community and familial social capital and perceived personal disparity, with food security among older (aged 50-59 y) and senior (aged ≥ 60 y) adult residents of the largely rural Brazos Valley in Central Texas using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment (analytic N = 1059, 74% response rate). Among older adults and seniors, 18.6% reported food insecurity (5.5% often and 13.1% sometimes), defined as running out of food and not having money to buy more. Low community social capital was reported by 22.4% of participants, and 30.8% indicated they were single, widowed, or divorced, an indicator of limited familial social capital. A robust multinomial regression model found the odds of reporting greater food insecurity increased for individuals who were women, African American, residents of a household with a low or poverty-level income, individuals who perceived themselves to be worse off than others within their community, and those who had low social capital. The odds of being food insecure decreased for older respondents, partnered respondents and persons with more education (pseudo r(2) = 0.27, p < 0.0000). Compositional level measures of collective social functioning are important associates of food insecurity among older adults and seniors, regardless of severity.

  10. Determination of trace element concentration in infant head hair of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area using INAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Gill, K.P.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in infant head hair was determined. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in head hair of infants of low- and medium-income group subjects. The statistical results show that there are significant correlations between some elements such as: Ca-Zn, Ca-Fe, Mg-Ca, Mg-Mn and Mg-Fe. The results obtained have been compared with the data reported in the literature. Our data show compatibility of elemental contents of infant head hair with those from some of the other geological regions but also deviate in some cases. (orig.)

  11. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  12. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  13. Social Capital and Technological Literacy in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technologica...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and CTX-M β-lactamase producing clinical isolates from burn patients in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Hussain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients using phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Methods: During 2015–2016, a total of 126 samples were collected at a tertiary care hospital, Islamabad. Antibiotic sensitivity and ESBL prevalence were evaluated according to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute, and molecular analysis of the CTX-M type ESBL gene was performed in 225 bacterial isolates from these samples. Results: The most prevalent bacterial species were Escherichia coli (28.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.3%. Of the 225 bacterial isolates, 89 (39.5% were found to be ESBL producers. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem (88% and imipenem (84%, followed by the aminoglycoside amikacin (81%. Molecular epidemiology of the ESBL isolates indicated 19% prevalence of CTX-M. Resistance to antibiotics was exhibited by 28% isolates. Conclusions: In the present study, bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and E. coli isolated from burn patients exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics and produced large amounts of ESBL. Further studies are needed to investigate the virulence and epidemiology of CTX-M type ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients.

  15. Patients' experiences and satisfaction about care provided by male nurses in medical surgical units in Islamabad, Pakistan: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Ahtisham; Sundus, Amara

    2018-01-01

    Nursing is predominantly a female profession and caring has been considered an attribute of female nurses, which could imply a noncaring image of male nurses. To determine patients' experiences and satisfaction from care provided by male nurses in a private hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study included a purposive sample of 50 patients admitted to medical surgical units for at least 2 days and who had at least three professional interactions with a male nurse. The Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The total score for experience and satisfaction was 81 and 51, respectively. A statistically significant difference existed between experience and satisfaction scores of male and female participants, indicating that males were more pleased and satisfied with their experience of receiving care from male nurses compared to the female participants. The male nurses were concerned for their patients, they were knowledgeable about the patients' condition and care, and provided them with clear explanations of the medical and nursing procedures. However, they seem to lack interpersonal relationship with patients and did not take initiative in understanding their patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of eating disorders in 16-20 year old female students--perspective from Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kayani, Ayesha

    2014-03-01

    There are no studies on eating disorders in Pakistani adolescent girls. This study was conducted to determine the opinions, and behaviours pertaining to dieting and body size among 16 to 20 year old female school and college students in Islamabad, Pakistan. This was done through a five-item questionnaire to determine the SCOFF score. The SCOFF acronym has been derived from 'S' from the word "sick" in question number 1.'C' from the word "control" in question number 2. The 'O' comes from the word 'one' in the original question number 3; this original question number 3 of the SCOFF asks about having lost more than 'one' stone weight in the past three months. This question was rephrased to read as whether more than 15 pounds or 6 kilogrammes have been lost. The two 'F's come from questions number 4 and 5 denoting words "fat" and "food", respectively. A total of 1,134 female students participated in the study and 736 (64.9%) respondents scored two or higher on the SCOFF scale; 461 (66.5%) out of 693 were aged 16 to 18, while 275 (62.4%) out of 441 were aged 19 to 20. Results indicated a need for developing clinical practice guidelines for general practitioners and paediatricians to proactively identify and treat potential eating disorders in young Pakistani women.

  17. Features of human capital in urban territories | Mingaleva | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The calculations of human capital of agglomerated areas in general and of centers of agglomerated areas are carried out. The article contains conclusions on the relationship of human capital as a tangible asset of a big city with the development of specific social capital of the city, aimed at active policy of urbanization.

  18. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  19. Social capital and technological literacy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technological literacy. Age, gender, education, income, web access, and social capital were included as independent variables. The results show that age, gender, education, web access, and social capital were good predictors of technological literacy. It is concluded that social capital is helpful in coping with rapid technological change. Theoretical and empirical implications and future research are discussed.

  20. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  1. "Who am I? Where am I?" Experiences of married young women in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Saima; Johansson, Eva; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2009-07-28

    In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15-19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy) among adolescent women. Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.

  2. "Who am I? Where am I?" Experiences of married young women in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.

  3. Prevalence of multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the clinical samples from Tertiary Care Hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahzeera; Hasan, Fariha; Hussain, Shagufta; Ali Shah, Aamer

    2013-09-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii can cause a wide range of infections, including bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, peritonitis, etc. This organism is becoming resistant to a large group of antibiotics, especially β-lactam antibiotics. The reason for multi-drug resistance may be the production of extended- spectrum β-lactamses (ESBLs), carbapenemases/metallo β-lactamases or AmpC β-lactamases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the patients in Surgical Intensive Care Units (SICUs) of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total of 91 A. baumanni isolates were collected from PIMS during the period from February 2011 to December 2011. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by standard disc diffusion method as recommended by CLSI. Combination disc method, Modified Hodge test, EDTA disc synergy test and AmpC disc test were performed for detection of ESBLs, carbapenemases, metallo β-lactamases, and AmpC β-lactamases, respectively. The prevalence of MDRs was reported 100% among A. baumannii. The antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that minocycline and tigecycline were the most effective drugs against A. baumannii. Almost all of A. baumannii isolates were carbapenemase and metallo β-lactamase producers. AmpC prevalence was observed in 41.76%, while none of the isolates was ESBL producer. Antibiogram and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) indicated tetracycline is relatively effective against A. baumanii. Increased frequency of multi-drug resistance supports the need for continuous surveillance to determine prevalence and evolution of these enzymes in Pakistan.

  4. Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO

    OpenAIRE

    Oluduro, Francis Oladele; Duru, Longinus; Al Jaafar, Mofid

    2008-01-01

    Date: 2008-06-05 Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration EF0703, 15 ECTS Credits. Authors: Longinus Duru (Stockholm), Francis O.Oluduro (Västerås) and Mofid Al Jaafar (Västerås) Title: Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO Problem Area: Undertaking an investment by FEMYSO involves weighing up the risk against the returns but still capital investment decision are still one of the most undertaken decisions by organization managers because it involves commitment of huge amount of mo...

  5. Tales of two cities: political capitals and economic centres in the world city network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of major cities in the world city network are capital cities. Between primacy and political specialization there are examples of countries where the capital city and a second city remain as major rival cities in contemporary globalization. In this paper we focus upon situations where the capital city is less important in global economic capacity: Rome and Milan, Berlin and Frankfurt, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, Delhi and Mumbai, Islamabad and Karachi. This is an exercise in double comparisons: between cities in each pairing and between the pairings. Despite the massive differences – economic, cultural and political – amongst our chosen pairs of cities we have found communalities relating to the specific circumstance we are investigating. First, there is some evidence that economic centres are more global and less local than their capital cities. Second, more particularly, we have shown that in terms of global economic connections there is a very consistent pattern: economic centres have a much more coherent and telling integration into the world city network.

  6. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  7. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  8. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  9. Gendered Patterns of Social Capital among Farmers in Guruve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is common knowledge that social capital contributes to poverty reduction and development, especially in rural areas. Despite this fact, there has been little interest throughout the world regarding gender within the social capital debate. This study sought to establish the extent of differences in social capital endowments of ...

  10. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  11. Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk: Evidence from a longitudinal demographic surveillance area in rural-KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardington, Cally; Menendez, Alicia; Mutevedzi, Tinofa

    2014-01-01

    Using a rich longitudinal dataset, we examine the relationship between teen fertility and both subsequent educational outcomes and HIV related mortality risk in rural South Africa. Human capital deficits among teen mothers are large and significant, with earlier births associated with greater deficits. In contrast to many other studies from developed countries, we find no clear evidence of selectivity into teen childbearing in either schooling trajectories or pre-fertility household characteristics. Enrolment rates among teen mothers only begin to drop in the period immediately preceding the birth and future teen mothers are not behind in their schooling relative to other girls. Older teen mothers and those further ahead in school for their age pre-birth are more likely to continue schooling after the birth. In addition to adolescents’ higher biological vulnerability to HIV infection, pregnancy also appears to increase the risk of contracting HIV. Following women over an extended period, we document a higher HIV related mortality risk for teen mothers that cannot be explained by household characteristics in early adulthood. Controlling for age at sexual debut, we find that teen mothers report lower condom use and older partners than other sexually active adolescents. PMID:26028690

  12. Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons in Human Capital Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr., Stuart W; Nash, William L

    2006-01-01

    ...) Human Capital Management, (2) Contracting, and (3) Program and Project Management. In each subject area, SIGIR gathers information through research and interviews, collating and distilling the results into a white paper...

  13. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role ... SPDC's main areas of research are poverty, inequality, governance, provincial ... and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  14. Elemental characterisation of strawberry grown in Islamabad by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry and its dietary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Wasim; Nasir Khalid; Mohammad Arif; Jamshed Hussain Zaidi

    2012-01-01

    Mineral contents of strawberry, collected from different farms of Islamabad were analysed by semi-absolute k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were irradiated at two research reactors located in Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The analytical methodologies were validated by analysing reference materials, IAEA-336 (lichen) and IAEA-V-10 (hay powder). In all the samples, a total of 26 elements were quantified, among them 16 elements (Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Ru, Sc, Sr and Zn) were found in all the samples. The determined elemental concentrations in strawberry were compared with the reported values from other countries. In comparison with the mineral contents of other fruits, strawberry stands best source of Mn and the second most important source of K after banana. Intake of trace metals through this source was calculated and it was found that strawberry provides Mn (1.95-3.68 mg/kg), Cr (19.2-46.3 x 10 -3 mg/kg), Fe (3.45-8.72 mg/kg), K (1,520-1,670 mg/kg) and Mg (100-220 mg/kg), which forms 26, 19, 14, 7 and 7% of the recommended dietary allowances for the respective metals. The daily intake of Cd and Pb were compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. (author)

  15. Traumatic injuries of the permanent maxillory incisors at dental department, pakistan institute of medical sciences islamabad: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Maxood, A.; Khan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to ascertain the prevalence of traumatic dental injures of the maxillary permanent incisors at Dental Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science Islamabad during the years 2003-2005. Information concerning age, sex, cause, type of tooth number of injured teeth and patterns of tooth injury were recorded retrospectively from 33 patients aged between 8-40 years, comprising 498 traumatized teeth. The dental record of all the patients presenting with dental trauma were examined for collection of data relating to age, sex, cause, number of injured teeth, type of tooth and type of tooth trauma. Type of tooth trauma was recorded according to the Andreason classification. The data was subsequently processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software programme. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. Of the 336 patients, 227 were males (67.6%) and 109 were female (32.4%). The gender difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). The patients had a total of 498 traumatized teeth. A large number of dental trauma occurred in patients aged between 9-11 years. Most injuries involved one tooth in 227 patients (67.6%). However two teeth in 90 patients (26.7%), three teeth in 11 patients (3.2%) and only in 8 patients (2.3%) four teeth were involved. Fractures in enamel only occurred in 74 teeth (14.6%). Uncomplicated crown fractures in 208 teeth (41.9%) were the most commonly encountered dental trauma. 137 teeth (27.6%) suffered complicated crown fractures, 44 teeth (8.9%) uncomplicated crown-root fractures, 19 teeth (3.8%) complicated crown-root fractures and avulsion in 16 teeth (3.2%) only. The main causes were falls in 225 patients (66.9%), collision with objects in 40 patients (11.9%), road traffic accident in 31 patients (9.2%) violence in 31 patients (6.2%), and sports in 19 patients (5.6%). The maxillary central incisor was traumatized in 384 teeth showing a high percentage of 77%. Raising public dental awareness regarding the

  16. HPLC-DAD analysis, antioxidant potential and anti-urease activity of Asparagus gracilis collected from District Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sattar, Saadia; Ahmad, Bushra; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-09-23

    Asparagus gracilis subspecie of Asparagus capitatus Baker, is described as food and medicine for various ailments. In this study we investigated, its phenolic constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against various free radicals and anti-urease potential. Asparagus gracilis aerial parts collected from District Islamabad, Pakistan were extracted with crude methanol which was further fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated for extract and all the derived fractions. Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential. Antiurease activity of methanol extract and its derived fractions was also investigated. HPLC-DAD analysis of crude methanol extract was performed by using different phenolic standards. Ethyl acetate fraction expressed maximum content of flavonoids (240.6 ± 6.1 mg RE/g dry sample), phenolics (615 ± 13 mg GAE/g dry sample) and best antioxidant potential among different fractions of crude methanol extract. Hydrogen peroxide assay and hydroxyl, supeoxide, nitric oxide free radicals antioxidant assays as well as beta carotene assay showed significant correlation with flavonoid content while hydrogen peroxide, ABTS and lipid peroxidation assay displayed significant correlation with phenolic content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of important phenolics i.e. catechin (4.04 ± 0.02 μg/mg sample), caffeic acid (0.89 ± 0.003 μg/mg sample), rutin (24.58 ± 0.1 μg/mg sample), myricetin (1.13 ± 0.07 μg/mg sample) and quercetin (14.91 ± 0.09 μg/mg sample). Ethyl acetate fraction expressed lowest IC50 in antiurease activity. Correlation analysis of antiurease activity expressed significant correlation with flavonoids (P < 0.004) and phenolics (P < 0.02) proposing multipotent activity of

  17. Distribution, correlation and risk assessment of selected metals in urban soils from Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Javed; Shah, Munir H.

    2011-01-01

    it was higher in winter. Present metal levels were also compared with those reported from other areas around the world.

  18. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  19. Roman capitals from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maver Andreja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article brings a detailed formal analysis of the Roman capitals from Sirmium, in the light of the stone analysis conducted on the material at the Museum of Srem and elsewhere in Sremska Mitrovica. The capitals dot the historical development of the town from the first half of the 2nd century until the 4th century. First made of regional limestone, they were later joined by those of limestone and marbles of distant source, whereby different stones in capitals coexisted almost throughout the town’s development. This was certainly the situation during the flourishing times of the late 3rd and the 4th century, when Sirmium, as one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire, stood within several formal circles of capitals. The plain-leaved capitals tie it to the rest of Pannonia, the Corinthianizing capitals to the provinces to the east and south, while part of the Asiatic capitals, the largest group, tie it to the wider area of the Mediterranean.

  20. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...

  1. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....

  2. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  3. ACCOUNT INSTRUMENT CAPITAL BORROWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  4. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  5. Piketty’s Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...

  6. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  7. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  8. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  9. Venture capital and internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, A.G.; Tykvova, T.

    Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture

  10. La escritura capital cursiva

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell Boria, María José

    1989-01-01

    Estado de la cuestión de los trabajos sobre la Capital Cursiva. Análisis de la misma y muestras de su existencia y uso en la cultura occidental, incluida España. The matter of the study of Italic Capital letters. Its analysis, samples, and use in Western cultur, including Spain.

  11. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...

  12. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...

  13. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  14. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  15. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  16. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: A CRITICAL APPROACH ON DEFINITIONS AND CATEGORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has become the leading resource for creating economic value and there are an important number of publications focused on this area of research. In spite of the interest for this area of research, the existence of different terms regarding intellectual capital makes the process of definition and classification difficult. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concepts related to intellectual capital by establishing the connections and correlations between the terms in order to make the term of intellectual capital fully understandable and also to explain how the components of intellectual capital can be structured. The analysis of intellectual capital definitions is significant because it is a first step in intangible factors understanding, having implications on the company pattern of knowledge evaluation. Of all the terms analyzed, intangible assets allows a clear definition of its meaning, its components and thus provides insight into ways of assessing the knowledge of an entity.

  17. The Genesis of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    2004-01-01

     This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...

  18. Unsustainable growth, unsustainable capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....

  19. Prioritization of Capital Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaVielle, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Public works capital projects in the U,S, naval forces are not prioritized and funded in a way that best uses limited operations resources and maintenance dollars, This thesis develops a linear model...

  20. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  1. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  2. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  3. Capital taxation : principles , properties and optimal taxation issues

    OpenAIRE

    Antonin, Céline; Touze, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capital taxation relying on three levels of analysis. The first level deals with the multiple ways to tax capital (income or value, proportional or progressive taxation, and the temporality of the taxation) and presents some of France's particular features within a heterogeneous European context. The second area of investigation focuses on the main dynamic properties generated by capital taxation: the principle of equivalence with a tax on consu...

  4. The Internationalization of Venture Capital: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gstraunthaler; Galina Sagieva

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize and systematize the landscape of the global venture capital industry. It presents major basic business models and investment strategies, assesses the contribution of venture capital (VC) to economic growth, and the incentives and constraints for VC’s development, and it identifies research gaps in this area. Venture capital is often regarded as the only source of support for start-ups, particularly for those in high-tech innovative sectors. The authors explore...

  5. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  6. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  7. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  8. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  9. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  10. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  11. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  12. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital..., 2013, a document adopting a final rule that revises its risk-based and leverage capital requirements... risk-based and leverage capital requirements for banking organizations. An allowance for additional...

  13. Capital effectiveness in a capital intensive project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarossi, M.E. (IPA Institute, The Hague (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    The technical difficulty of incorporating new technology in capital intensive projects has been underestimated. Bio-refineries projects are no exemption. These projects in many occasions have assigned inadequate project resources, such as lean project teams and overly optimistic contingencies. Furthermore, project developers have set unrealistic expectations; for example: aggressive schedule duration, low cost targets and optimistic operability targets. These project drivers set before project's authorization compromise the project's outcome. In many cases, this translates into lower return on investment, higher costs, and lower operability. In order to counteract these outcomes, it is critical for capital intensive projects, like bio-refineries, to have a well define project which will enable to increase its chance of success. IPA's research has shown that bio-refineries projects have poor project performance due to poor project practices, lack of owner project controls and inadequate change management. An adequate risk analysis during definition is a critical component of a project's success, especially when there is new technology, like biomass conversion. It is of outmost importance to asses this technology and set realistic expectations. parallel to this, there is a need to have a well established execution strategy, which should be maintained throughout the execution of the project. In conclusion, IPA's research has indicated that bio-refineries, as any other capital intensive project, need to assign adequate resources at an early state of project development, by making sure there is and adequate team in place, reasonable schedule, technical difficulties evaluation, and keeping control during execution. Although these elements might be seen as common practices that should be taken into account when developing a project, many projects being their execution without having a proper foundation, and thus affecting the project

  14. Pobreza, capital humano, capital social e familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, Giancarlo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Porreca, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo investiga a pobreza partindo de uma análise dos recursos que os pobres dispõem em sua realidade, analisando os temas do capital humano, social e familiar, procurando estabelecer conexões e elucidar fatores da realidade pouco considerados em estudos e  projetos de combate à pobreza e à exclusão social. O presente artigo, em seu conjunto, procura compreender porque, em condições semelhantes de pobreza, algumas pessoas conseguem elaborar um projeto de vida enquanto outras se es...

  15. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  16. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  17. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  18. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  19. Thinking strategically about capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P

    1997-05-01

    All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.

  20. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  1. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening of ‘‘high......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening...

  2. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  3. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  4. Analysis of pattern of mortality in Medicine and Allied Departments at a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad: A losing battle against sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Saad; Zahoor, Sidra; Janjua, Jamal; Majeed, Azer; Hussain, Syed Waqar

    2017-01-01

    To identify the pattern of mortality in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised medical records of people who died during hospital stay between December 2013 and November 2014.SPSS 11 was used for data analysis. Of the 3,228 admissions, 105(3.25%) patients expired. Of them, 41(39.04%) were men with a mean age of 55±13.48 years (range: 17-88 years) and 64±11.76 (60.9%) were women with a mean age of 61±15.5 years (range: 23-91 years). The mean length of time between admission and death was 6.58±3.7 days (range: 1-33 days). The causes of death were categorised as infectious in 37(35.23%) patients, cancer-related in 20(19.045%), pulmonary in 19(18.09%), cardiovascular in 18(17.14%), gastrointestinal and neurological in 13(12.38%) each, nephrology in 10(9.52%), autoimmune disorders in 6(5.71%) and miscellaneous in 9(8.57%). Complications of sepsis were the most common cause of death in 38(36.19%) cases. Sepsis, primarily from pneumonia, was the major cause of mortality.

  5. Prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in tarlai, urban slum of islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M.; Adil, M.M.; Alam, A.Y.; Qureshi, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities during their previous pregnancy was carried out in April 2004. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and processed and analyzed by using SPPS 10.0. Use of supplements was found high in women attending antenatal care. Realization of the importance of taking a healthy diet during pregnancy was significantly higher among women utilizing antenatal care. In most of the women's the diet remain unchanged. 56% women attended the antenatal care clinics. Those not taking food supplements, 39% were non affording, 21% had no concept of their benefits, 36% did not like to take and 4% felt nausea and vomiting. Just over 50% women received antenatal care. Utilization of antenatal care showed a positive impact on awareness of taking food supplements during pregnancy and lactation. (author)

  6. Prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in tarlai, urban slum of islamabad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, M; Adil, M M; Alam, A Y; Qureshi, A A [Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities during their previous pregnancy was carried out in April 2004. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and processed and analyzed by using SPPS 10.0. Use of supplements was found high in women attending antenatal care. Realization of the importance of taking a healthy diet during pregnancy was significantly higher among women utilizing antenatal care. In most of the women's the diet remain unchanged. 56% women attended the antenatal care clinics. Those not taking food supplements, 39% were non affording, 21% had no concept of their benefits, 36% did not like to take and 4% felt nausea and vomiting. Just over 50% women received antenatal care. Utilization of antenatal care showed a positive impact on awareness of taking food supplements during pregnancy and lactation. (author)

  7. Quality assurance of Vari-source high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy- remote after loader and cost effectiveness of Vari-source HDR- brachytherapy: NORI, Islamabad experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Mahmood, H.; Jafri, S.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A quality control of Vari-Source high dose rate (HDR) remote after loading brachytherapy machine was carried out and the cost effectiveness of HDR brachytherapy machine was also evaluated considering the cost of ten Iridium-192 wire sources at Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total number of 253 intracavitary insertions were done in 98 patients from October 1996 to May 2001. The results of the quality control tests performed during 1996 to 2001 were within the acceptable limits. The cost effectiveness of Vari-Source HDR brachytherapy machine was also evaluated. The average cost per patient was calculated as US$ 491. Small number of patients was treated as the machine was used for gynecologic malignancies only. The objective was to assess the quality control status of HDR brachytherapy machine on patient treatment day, source exchange day and periodic day (monthly basis). It was found that the cost per patient can be minimized if other type of cancer patients are also treated on Vari-Source HDR machine. (author)

  8. Deradiating the former uranium capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, B.

    1987-01-01

    The city that once proclaimed itself The Uranium Capital of America is in the process of divorcing itself from the radioactive element - literally as well as symbolically. The last vestiges of uranium are being shoveled from the community. The removal is part of the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Remedial Action program. It was established in 1972 to clean up areas of the country in which radiation exposure in excess of normal background levels could be attributed to wastes from DOE-operated uranium processing plants. Grand Junction was the first area to qualify. A good portion of the city is built on radioactive tailings - by-products of a uranium-processing industry. The DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency established guidelines for action levels of radiation. The standards were extrapolated from data from studies of lung cancer incidence in uranium miners in Europe and the US

  9. From political capitalism to clientelist capitalism? The case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Cvijanovic; Denis Redzepagic

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of instituti...

  10. Green Capital: Student Capital student-led evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Runkle, Q.; Haines, T.; Piper, K.; Leach, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess and evaluate the impact of the Green Capital: Student Capital project, the partnership (the University of the West of England, the University of Bristol, the Students’ Union at UWE, and Bristol Students’ Union) worked with NUS to train a team of students from both universities to lead an evaluation process. There were two key aims for the evaluation: \\ud \\ud • To verify the quantitative outputs of the Green Capital: Student Capital project; \\ud • And to make a qualitative assessment...

  11. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  12. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  13. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  14. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2012-01-01

    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...

  15. Governing Global Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...

  16. Reporting on intellectual capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Zijlstra, Siebren M.

    2001-01-01

    In today’s knowledge-based economy intellectual capital (IC) is becoming a major part of companies’ value. Being able to manage and control IC requires that companies can identify, measure and report internally on IC. As financial accounting rules ban full disclosure of IC in the annual report the

  17. Capital projects coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.

  18. Reggio Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the…

  19. Reproduction and Fixed Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat­ ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of

  20. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  1. Is capitalism possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    1998-01-01

    In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new

  2. Social Capital in Organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oteman

    2008-01-01

    In my belief the effectiveness of organizations has more to do with managing people in a more ethical, sustainable and effective way than what is common these days. For example employees values like trust, respect and commitment are rarely considered as values that can contribute to social capital

  3. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  4. Capital Structure and Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes a firm's capital structure choice when assets have outside value. Valuable assets implicitly provide a collateral and increase tax shield exploitation. The key feature in this paper is asset value uncertainty, implying that it is unknown ex ante whether the equity holders ex p...

  5. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....

  6. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2008-01-01

    a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...

  7. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using

  8. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital

  9. Operationalization of social capital in small societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen Lolle, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    , and the inequalities between cities and rural areas are getting more pronounced. If Denmark is to keep its social capital and strengthen the regional development, we need to examine the condition of the social capital and find ways to maintain or maybe even strengthen its stock. However, it is difficult to measure...... by educational institutions as platforms for offering educations on different locations in the periphery. How do these new possibilities affect the social capital of small communities and thus the regional development? Does it enhance the sense of community cohesion, or is this just another way of communicating......? This article will examine these questions through three case studies covering the educational (schools) and cultural (museums) sector in different settings in rural Denmark....

  10. How venture capital works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.

  11. Capitalism: A System of Conspiracy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2010-01-01

    There are some myths about American capitalism. Some of them are (1) Capitalism made America the richest nation, (2) Capitalism is based on self interest, and (3) America has democracy. We show that the survival of capitalism is based on several powerful conspiracy theories. We briefly describe these conspiracies. Our analysis is based on the following principles: (a) Laws of conservation, (b) System theoretic concepts, and (c) The global space time (GST) environment. Using these princip...

  12. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  13. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  14. Does Venture Capital Spur Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Kortum; Josh Lerner

    1998-01-01

    While policymakers often assume venture capital has a profound impact on innovation, that premise has not been evaluated systematically. We address this omission by examining the influence of venture capital on patented inventions in the United States across twenty industries over three decades. We address concerns about causality in several ways, including exploiting a 1979 policy shift that spurred venture capital fundraising. We find that the amount of venture capital activity in an indust...

  15. Toxoplasma gondii infection: relationship between seroprevalence and risk factors among primary schoolchildren in the capital areas of Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chia-Kwung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of Toxoplasma gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP, West Africa, remains unknown to date. Methods A serologic survey and risk factors associated T. gondii infection among PSC in the DRSTP was assessed by the latex agglutination (LA test and a questionnaire interview including parents’ occupation, various uncomfortable symptoms, histories of eating raw or undercooked food, drinking unboiled water, and raising pets, was conducted in October 2010. Schoolchildren from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas were selected, in total 255 serum samples were obtained by venipuncture, of which 123 serum samples were obtained from boys (9.8 ± 1.4 yrs and 132 serum samples were obtained from girls (9.7 ± 1.3 yrs. Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 63.1% (161/255. No significant gender difference in seroprevalence was found between boys (62.6%, 77/123 and girls (63.6%, 84/132 (p = 0.9. The older age group of 10 years had insignificantly higher seroprevalence (69.9%, 58/83 than that of the younger age group of 8 year olds (67.7%, 21/31 (p = 0.8. It was noteworthy that the majority of seropositive PSC (75.8%, 122/161 had high LA titers of ≥1: 1024, indirectly indicating acute or repeated Toxoplasma infection. Parents whose jobs were non-skilled workers (73.1% showed significantly higher seroprevalence than that of semiskilled- (53.9% or skilled workers (48.8% (p p  Children who claimed to have had recent ocular manifestation or headache, i.e. within 1 month, seemed to have insignificantly higher seroprevalence than those who did not (p > 0.05. Conclusions Parents’ educational level and cats kept indoors seemed to be the high risk factors for PSC in acquisition of T. gondii infection. While, ocular manifestation and/or headache of PSC should be checked for the possibility of being

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection: relationship between seroprevalence and risk factors among primary schoolchildren in the capital areas of Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chia-Kwung; Lee, Lin-Wen; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Chang, Yu-Tai; da Costa, Ângela dos Santos Ramos José; Gil, Vilfrido; Chi, Li-Hsing; Nara, Takeshi; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian

    2012-07-13

    The status of Toxoplasma gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC) of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP), West Africa, remains unknown to date. A serologic survey and risk factors associated T. gondii infection among PSC in the DRSTP was assessed by the latex agglutination (LA) test and a questionnaire interview including parents' occupation, various uncomfortable symptoms, histories of eating raw or undercooked food, drinking unboiled water, and raising pets, was conducted in October 2010. Schoolchildren from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas were selected, in total 255 serum samples were obtained by venipuncture, of which 123 serum samples were obtained from boys (9.8 ± 1.4 yrs) and 132 serum samples were obtained from girls (9.7 ± 1.3 yrs). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 63.1% (161/255). No significant gender difference in seroprevalence was found between boys (62.6%, 77/123) and girls (63.6%, 84/132) (p = 0.9). The older age group of 10 years had insignificantly higher seroprevalence (69.9%, 58/83) than that of the younger age group of 8 year olds (67.7%, 21/31) (p = 0.8). It was noteworthy that the majority of seropositive PSC (75.8%, 122/161) had high LA titers of ≥1: 1024, indirectly indicating acute or repeated Toxoplasma infection. Parents whose jobs were non-skilled workers (73.1%) showed significantly higher seroprevalence than that of semiskilled- (53.9%) or skilled workers (48.8%) (p raising cats also showed significantly higher seroprevalence than those who did not (p 0.05). Parents' educational level and cats kept indoors seemed to be the high risk factors for PSC in acquisition of T. gondii infection. While, ocular manifestation and/or headache of PSC should be checked for the possibility of being T. gondii elicited. Measures such as improving environmental hygiene and intensive educational intervention to both PSC and their parents should be performed immediately so as to

  17. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  18. comparison of lipoproteins as coronary risk factors in postmenopausal women with and without hormonal replacement therapy in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.; Ghayur, S.; Sattar, A.; Hashim, R.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum concentration of Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) between post menopausal women on HRT and without HRT. Study Design: Comparative, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from 2006 to 2007. Materials and methods: Postmenopausal women with no co-morbidities and on any type of HRT for at least one year were selected as cases and healthy postmenopausal women not taking any type of HRT were taken as controls. All these cases were selected randomly. After clinical history and physical examination, blood sampling was carried out for lipid profile including Lp(a) in fasting state. Results: A total of 50 postmenopausal women on HRT and their age matched healthy controls (postmenopausal women without HRT) were studied. The mean age of HRT treated group was 56.7 +- 0 (mean +- ) years. The mean age of menopause of study group was 50.4 +- 10.6 0 year and the mean years since menopause were 8.4 +- 4.6 years. There was no statistically significant difference in age, age at menopause and years since menopause between study and control groups. The frequencies for the type of HRT were calculated. Thirty two of the women were using combination therapy i.e.; estrogen plus progesterone while 18 of them were using estrogen therapy alone. None of them were using other types of HRT like SERMs or tibolone. The mean values of TC, LDL-C and Lp (a) were lower than the control group. The mean value of HDL-C and TG was higher in study group as compared to control group. On comparative analysis of the lipid profile of the two groups employing unpaired t-test, statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of LDL-C, HDL-C and Lp(a). However TC and TG levels were not significantly different in women belonging to either group. Conclusions: HRT has beneficial effects on lipoprotein levels in postmenopausal women. (author)

  19. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  20. Bank capital management : International evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.

    We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management

  1. Working Paper on Social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Hanan, Anne

    This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...

  2. Social Capital and Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Safferling, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We use data from an online game economy and econometric matching methods to test whether social capital of players has an impact on game success. Membership in a 'clan', a voluntary organization of players, positively impacts game success. Hence, social capital has a positive effect on outcomes. Yet, top performers do not gain from access to this social capital.

  3. Cultural Capital: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provides funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies.

  5. Venture capital and innovation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provide funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company's choice of innovation strategies.

  6. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly

  7. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended

  8. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... countercyclical capital buffer was designed to take into account the macro-financial environment in which large... ability to raise capital to meet the increased minimum requirements in the current environment and upon...

  9. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  10. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scheel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  11. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  12. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and...

  13. Outside Entrepreneurial Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Cosh; Douglas Cumming; Alan Hughes

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the internal versus external financing decisions among 1900 early stage privately held UK firms in 1996-1997. We study the factors that affect rejection rates in applications for outside finance among the different types of investors, taking into account the non-randomness in a firm’s decision to seek outside finance. The data support the traditional pecking order theory; firms with greater capital expenditures / profits are more likely to seek finance and apply for mo...

  14. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  15. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  16. Sources of Regional Banks Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to

  17. HIV stigma and social capital in women living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. PMID:27697368

  18. Human Capital as a Challenge for Economics Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wyrzykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of human capital is increasingly attracting the attention of both theorists and practitioners, because at present human resources play a decisive role in the creation of competitive economies and business entities. Human capital and knowledge are becoming key factors in the area of entity competitiveness. Consequently, human capital is currently being analysed in a multi-faceted way in the context of numerous economic theories. The aim of this study is to summarize, analyse, and synthesise the information published on the subject of the theory of human capital and to present new theories and scientific paradigms. The theories presented in this study show that employees constitute the basic capital of modern organizations. One of the contemporary paradigms of modern management is the concept of knowledge-based economy and the paradigm of information technology. This article is based on literature studies and theoretical reflections of the author.

  19. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...

  20. Rethinking the economics of capital mobility and capital controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Palley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reexamines the issue of international financial capital mobility, which is today's economic orthodoxy. Discussion is often framed in terms of the impossible trinity. That framing distorts discussion by representing capital mobility as having equal significance with sovereign monetary policy and control over exchange rates. It also distorts discussion by ignoring possibilities for coordinated monetary policy and exchange rates, and for managed capital flows. The case for capital mobility rests on neo-classical economic efficiency arguments and neo-liberal political arguments. The case against capital mobility is based on Keynesian macroeconomic inefficiency arguments, neo-Walrasian market failure arguments, and neo-Marxian arguments regarding distortion of the social structure of accumulation. Close examination shows the case for capital mobility to be extremely flimsy, pointing to the ideological dimension behind today's policy orthodoxy.

  1. A Typology of Social Capital and Associated Network Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.

    2017-01-01

    I provide a typology of social capital, breaking it down into seven more fundamental forms of capital: information capital, brokerage capital, coordination and leadership capital, bridging capital, favor capital, reputation capital, and community capital. I discuss how most of these forms of social capital can be identified using different network-based measures.

  2. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  3. Representation of critical natural capital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Liwei; Zeng, Yuan; Fu, Bojie; Whitham, Charlotte; Liu, Shuguang; Wu, Bingfang

    2017-08-01

    Traditional means of assessing representativeness of conservation value in protected areas depend on measures of structural biodiversity. The effectiveness of priority conservation areas at representing critical natural capital (CNC) (i.e., an essential and renewable subset of natural capital) remains largely unknown. We analyzed the representativeness of CNC-conservation priority areas in national nature reserves (i.e., nature reserves under jurisdiction of the central government with large spatial distribution across the provinces) in China with a new biophysical-based composite indicator approach. With this approach, we integrated the net primary production of vegetation, topography, soil, and climate variables to map and rank terrestrial ecosystems capacities to generate CNC. National nature reserves accounted for 6.7% of CNC-conservation priority areas across China. Considerable gaps (35.2%) existed between overall (or potential) CNC representativeness nationally and CNC representation in national reserves, and there was significant spatial heterogeneity of representativeness in CNC-conservation priority areas at the regional and provincial levels. For example, the best and worst representations were, respectively, 13.0% and 1.6% regionally and 28.9% and 0.0% provincially. Policy in China is transitioning toward the goal of an ecologically sustainable civilization. We identified CNC-conservation priority areas and conservation gaps and thus contribute to the policy goals of optimization of the national nature reserve network and the demarcation of areas critical to improving the representativeness and conservation of highly functioning areas of natural capital. Moreover, our method for assessing representation of CNC can be easily adapted to other large-scale networks of conservation areas because few data are needed, and our model is relatively simple. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Investigating the effects of intellectual capital on organizational performance measurement through organizational learning capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi ollah Nejatizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on intellectual capital due to industrial changes on the market. Thus, identifying different ways to create, manage, and evaluate the impact of intellectual capital has remained an open area of research. One of the most important organizational capabilities, which could help organizations create and share knowledge is to effectively use knowledge to create competitive advantage. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of intellectual capital on other components and their impacts on organizational learning capability. The statistical population includes 500 employees of an Iranian organization. The study uses a sample size including 273 people using Morgan statistical table and Cronbach's alpha is calculated as 0.838. The results of this survey indicate that human capital, relational capital and learning capabilities have positive impact on organizational performance. In addition, relational capital positively impacts learning capability and human capital influences positively on relational capital.

  5. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...... $450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive...

  6. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... of a number of other variables and supplementing the sample with slightly older data from non-European countries. The evidence of the reverse causal direction is weak. I suggest that it is possible to build social capiatl through investing in education, interest in society and some level of income...

  7. Contratos de capital humano

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri

    2005-01-01

    Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.

  8. CAPITAL HUMANO: DOS ENFOQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pueyo Roy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un resumen de la teoría existente sobre capital humano, considerando dos proposiciones que se complementan: la Teoría Neoclásica -educación como formación laboral o señalización al mercado de trabajo- y la Teoría Institucional o de mercados internos de trabajo. Se presenta el desarrollo de ambas teorías, los problemas que presentan y la complementariedad entre las mismas.

  9. Determinants of capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Ozcan, Y A

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzes the determinants of hospital capital structure in a new market setting that are created by the financial pressures of prospective payment and the intense price competition among hospitals. Using California data, the study found hospital system affiliation, bed size, growth rate in revenues, operating risk, and asset structure affected both short- and long-term debt borrowings. In addition, percentage of uncompensated care, profitability, and payer mix influenced short-term borrowings while market conditions and ownership affected long-term borrowings. Most significant of all is the finding that smaller hospitals tend to borrow more, possibly because they cannot generate funds internally.

  10. Management, marketing concept and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work describes the strong influence the development of the management theory to the complex nature of modern marketing concept and intellectual capital. Often, in the contemporary conversation we hear the word organizational behavior that is closely related to the concept of modern business philosophy and importance of human capital. Sudden development of human thought in the beginning of the twentieth century has a great impact on all areas of social life, and specially on the promotion of all areas of business and the impact of the application of marketing, its development and implementation as a basis for achieving global competitiveness. Changes caused by the development of management in the business have led to the interactive relationship between organizations and consumers, but also to the development of relations within the organization between employees. .

  11. Spatio-Temporal Extension and Spatial Analyses of Dengue from Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Swat during 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Fareed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and Land-Use Land-Cover change (LULC has significantly displaced the local rainfall patterns and weather conditions in Pakistan. This has resulted in a different climate-related problem, particularly vector borne diseases. Dengue transmission has emerged as one of the most devastating and life threatening disease in Pakistan, causing hundreds of deaths since its first outbreak. This study is designed to understand and analyze the disease patterns across two distinct study regions, using Geographic Information System (GIS, Satellite Remote Sensing (RS along with climate and socio-economic and demographics datasets. The datasets have been analyzed by using GIS statistical analysis techniques. As a result, maps, tables and graphs have been plotted to estimate the most significant parameters. These parameters have been assigned a contribution weight value to prepare a model and Threat Index Map (TIM for the study areas. Finally, the model has been tested and verified against existing datasets for both study areas. This model can be used as a disease Early Warning System (EWS.

  12. Social Capital in Rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....

  13. Social capital and trust in providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (pSocial capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  14. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Henorel Niţu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  15. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Niţu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  16. Banks’ Capital and Liquidity Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Roman; Seidler, Jakub; Weill, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between banks’ capital and liquidity creation. This issue is of interest to determine the potential impact of higher capital requirements for banks on their liquidity creation, which may have particular importance with new Basel III reform demanding from banks higher capital. We perform Granger-causality tests in a dynamic GMM panel estimator framework on an exhaustive dataset of Czech banks from 2000 to 2010.

  17. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  18. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  19. Association Between Community Social Capital and Hospital Readmission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Amanda L; Lee, Suhna; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2018-05-31

    Hospital readmissions remain frequent, and are partly attributable to patients' social needs. The authors sought to examine whether local community levels of social capital are associated with hospital readmission rates. Social capital refers to the connections among members of a society that foster norms of reciprocity and trust, which may influence the availability of support for postdischarge recovery after hospitalization. Associations between hospital-wide, risk-stratified readmission rates for hospitals in the United States (n = 4298) and levels of social capital in the hospitals' service areas were examined. Social capital was measured by an index of participation in associational activities and civic affairs. A multivariate linear regression model was used to adjust for hospital and community factors such as hospital financial performance, race, income, and availability of heath care services. Results showed that higher social capital was significantly associated with lower readmission rates (P social capital in its region, but in areas of low social capital, it may be possible for public or philanthropic sectors to buttress the types of institutions that address nonmedical causes of readmission.

  20. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  1. Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em Adventistas do Sétimo Dia da capital e do interior paulista Prevalence of arterial hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists of the São Paulo state capital and inner area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Bagno Eleutério da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Sabe-se que hábitos de vida inadequados favorecem a hipertensão, e os adventistas preconizam hábitos saudáveis. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da hipertensão nos adventistas do sétimo dia na capital e no interior paulistas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 264 adventistas (41,17 ± 15,27 anos, 59,8% mulheres, com alto nível de religiosidade avaliada pela escala Duke-DUREL. A medida da pressão arterial foi realizada com aparelho automático validado. Nível de significância adotado foi p BACKGROUND: Inadequate life habits are known to favor hypertension, and Adventists recommend healthy life habits. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists from the inner São Paulo state and São Paulo state capital. METHODS: This study assessed 264 Adventists (mean age, 41.17 ± 15.27 years; women, 59.8% with a high religiosity level assessed by use of the Duke University Religion Index. Blood pressure was measured with a validated automatic device. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. RESULTS: The total prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% (27.4% in the inner state and 15% in the capital. The Adventists from the capital differed from those of inner state as follows (p < 0.05, respectively: higher education (62% vs 36.6%; employed by a third party (44% vs self-employed (40.9%; family income (8.39 ± 6.20 vs 4.59 ± 4.75 minimum wages; individual income (4.54 ± 5.34 vs 6.35 ± 48; couple responsible for family income (35% vs 39.6%; vegetarianism (11% vs 3%; blood pressure (115.38 ± 16.52/68.74 ± 8.94 vs 123.66 ± 19.62/74.88 ± 11.85 mmHg; white ethnicity (65% vs 81.1%; married (53% vs 68.9%; lower tangible support in the social aspect (15.7 ± 5.41 vs 16.9 ± 4.32; and recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (65% vs 48.8%. On multivariate analysis, hypertension associated with the following: 1 vegetarianism (OR 0.051; 95% CI: 0.004-0.681; 2 educational level (OR 5.317; 95% CI: 1

  2. Exploring the social capital grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....

  3. THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF VENTURE CAPITAL FIRMS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Buchari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital (VC is an important fund source for small and medium enterprises (SMEs and start up, particularly to deliver its main product of equity participation. Therefore, capital structure and factors that affect it are very crucial. This study aims to analyze the capital structure of VC firms in Indonesia using econometric model of panel data regression. This study utilizes secondary data of six years period (2009-2014 monthly financial statements of 27 samples out of 58 VC firms to form 1,944 observations. The study reveals that capital structure of VC firms in Indonesia is dominated by debt/loan rather than capital with DER on average is 136.95%. In addition, the research confirms that VC firms’ capital structure is affected simultaneously by financial aspects which are asset size, profitability, liquidity, asset/investment quality, and earning asset structure. The attentions to financial aspects that affect the VC firms’ capital structure as well as other initiatives related to capital increases are necessary so that the VC firms could carry out its role effectively.

  4. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  5. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the capital...

  6. Prevalance of premenstrual syndrome and knowledge assessment regarding it's prevention among medical students of a private medical college of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsoom, U.; Sultana, A.; Bairam, S.

    2018-01-01

    To assess prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in medical students and to determine their knowledge regarding its prevention. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad,from Jun to Aug 2017. Material and Methods: A purposive sample of 359 female medical students was taken after applying selection criteria. After ethical approval and consent of respondents, data was collected through self-administered structured questionnaire on demographic variables, prevalence of PMS, physical, psychological and behavioral changes, knowledge regarding its prevention etc. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Frequencies were computed and descriptive statistics applied. Cross tabulation between knowledge regarding prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and prevention of premenstrual syndrome was done. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to see the association between these two variables. Cochran test of conditional independence was applied to see conditional association between these variables at p-value <0.05. Result: PMS was found in 280 (80%) students. Out of them, 266 (95%) experienced physical changes and breast tenderness was the most common 159 (60%). While 210 (75%) had psychological changes and depression was found in 76 (36%). Behavioral changes were present in 120 (43%) and most prevalent was effect on academic performance which was 88 (76%). About 250 (71.5%) were ignorant about its prevention while only 100 (28.5%) knew about its prevention. Statistically significant association was found between knowledge regarding prevention of premenstrual syndrome and presence of premenstrual syndrome, as p-value 0.00 of Pearson Chi- Square 35 at df1 was less than 0.05. On application of Cochran test of conditional independence, significant conditional association was found between these variables as p-value of 0.00 was <0.05. Conclusion: Premenstrual Syndrome was found in

  7. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  8. Veja a Carta Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Iuan, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo consiste numa análise das estratégias ideológicas e discursivas em reportagens das revistas Veja e Carta Capital, publicadas em maio de 2009, sobre a revelação do câncer da então ministra-chefe da Casa Civil do Brasil, Dilma Rousseff. O objetivo é investigar como a comunicação, por meio das estratégias discursivas e ideológicas utilizadas em ambos os veículos informativos, emite determinadas descrições da conjuntura política e eleitoral da época. Para isto, são realizados ...

  9. A successful capital treadmill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohun, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A summary of the operating economics of the Winter Cummings Sand Pool, a horizontal well development project with a sustained rate of development, was presented. A total of 58 horizontal wells have been drilled over a time span of seven years. The production performance of the first pilot wells indicated that development of the pool by horizontal wells could be economically viable. Since its inception the Winter field development was considered to have become a capital treadmill with an incremental rate of return on the incremental investment of 240 percent (a 24 million dollar net operating cash flow for a 10 million dollar investment). Current development status and production forecasts were also discussed. 21 figs

  10. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  11. International venture capital perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The emerging fuel cell industry is characterized by global cooperation and partnerships in commercial, technical, and financial aspects. In this talk, we would like to provide observations about international venture capital focused on fuel cells globally. The talk will refer to experiences Conduit Ventures has had with its portfolio companies and other investors in various countries. We discuss our approach to working with portfolio companies who are geographically remote from our main office in London. We also discuss the process of making investment decisions on possible investments in various countries. The talk will conclude with insights and 'lessons learned' which may be of interest to fellow members of Fuel Cells Canada. (author)

  12. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton

  13. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  14. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  15. Capital intelectual no varejo brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Edelweiss, Danila Lorens

    2010-01-01

    Através de uma pesquisa realizada com empresas rio setor de varejo, é realizada uma análise do conjunto de indicadores de capital intelectual com o objetivo de buscar evidências que empresas que apresentam melhores indicadores de capital intelectual, também apresentam melhores resultados financeiros.

  16. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the

  17. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  18. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight

  19. Avascular Necrosis of the Capitate

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma.

  20. Avascular Necrosis of the Capitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma. PMID:22470799

  1. A Phenomenology of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a questão da metodologia que Marx utilizou em O Capital. A hipótese é que Marx utiliza a Fenomenologia do Espírito de Hegel como paradigma, em vez da Ciência da Lógica, como se acredita. O argumento discerne a fenomenologia do século 19 a partir da compreensão atual, moldada por Husserl. Além disso, eu remeto a ideia de uma fenomenologia em economia de volta ao círculo dos jovens hegelianos em torno de Proudhon. No entanto, o argumento é conclusivo apenas por um olhar mais atento ao uso que Hegel e Marx fazem dos níveis distintos de abstração dentro de suas respectivas exposições. O artigo demonstra especialmente os paralelos no início de ambos os livros e a forma como os seus autores avançam de um nível para o outro. Em contraste com as abordagens atuais que empregam a Ciência da Lógica como paradigma, eu saliento a especificidade que os objetos de investigação exibem em seus níveis particulares de abstração. Exemplos são a diferença de valores e preços de mercado e a discriminação entre capitais em geral e capital como um de muitos capitais em competição.

  2. An empirical investigation of intellectual capital components on each others and organizational learning capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi ollah Nejatizadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on intellectual capital due to industrial changes on the market. Thus, identifying different ways to create, manage, and evaluate the impact of intellectual capital has remained an open area of research. One of the most important organizational capabilities, which could help organizations create and share knowledge is to effectively use knowledge to create competitive advantage. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of intellectual capital on other components and their impacts on organizational learning capability using structural equation modeling. The statistical population includes 500 employees of an Iranian organization. The study uses a sample size including 273 people using Morgan statistical table. In our survey, human capital influences positively (0.330 on structural capital, human capital influences positively on relational capital (0.47 and relational capital influences positively on structural capital (0.455. In addition human capital influences positively on learning capabilities (0.06, structural capital impacts learning capabilities (0.355 and relational capital on learning capabilities (0.545.

  3. Social capital and localised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark

    2007-01-01

      This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...... capital is formed at spatial scales lower than the national or international, because the density of matrices of social relations increases with proximity. The paper also offers a discussion of how national and regional policies may be suited for promoting social capital....

  4. Measuring social capital: further insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi

    Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  6. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through......Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...

  7. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  8. Financial potential of migrants’ capital in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Krupka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, labor migration is an important source of remittances and other transfers of migrants to their homeland, which expands the country’s capacity for the development of the national economy and financial markets in particular. Due to the transformational changes in the domestic economy in the 1990th many citizens became migrant workers and their remittances now exceed foreign direct investment in the country. Until 2013 remittances in Ukraine were mainly coming through the banking system, but recently the dominant role is being played by international payment systems, as well as quite a significant amount is incoming by informal channels. In order to increase the role of formal financial market infrastructure in providing capital inflows of migrants first of all the cost of transfer must be reduced.Unfortunately, the capital of Ukrainian migrant workers is directed primarily at the consumer market, real estate market, as well as the shadow economy. The investment focus has actually only investments in real estate and private business (own entrepreneurship. Migrant workers invest in those areas of the economy that are the least compliant to investment and bank lending standards. At the same time, migrants almost do not use capital to purchase shares and bonds, but use it actively to invest in such financial market tool as deposits. Regardless of significant efforts by the Government of Ukraine to attract funds in the state budget by selling different variations of bonds a notable success in modern conditions was not achieved. Nowadays remittances have enabled us to soften financial instability, balance of payments deficit; to strengthen the exchange rate of the national currency and they also have the positive impact on international credit ratings of Ukraine. However, the effectiveness of government policy to direct remittances into investment is very low, and it actualizes the search of effective tools to realize

  9. Sand in the Wheels of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bersem, Mario; Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    We present a positive theory of capital market frictions that raise the cost of capital for new firms and lower the cost of capital for incumbent firms. Capital market frictions arise from a political conflict across voters who differ in two dimensions: (i) a fraction of voters owns capital......, the rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a free capital market, and old workers, who favor restricted capital mobility. We show that capital market...... frictions do not naturally arise in a static framework, or even in a dynamic framework if capital market frictions are reversible. But if capital market frictions can be made to p ersist over time, we show that young workers favor capital market frictions as a way to smo oth income, especially if wealth...

  10. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 16421. The

  11. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    ... unlevel playing field between banking organizations and other financial services providers. For example, a... for banking organizations. The final rule consolidates three separate notices of proposed rulemaking... minimum capital requirement, a higher minimum tier 1 capital requirement, and, for banking organizations...

  12. National Capital Planning Commission Meeting Transcripts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — Transcripts of the monthly (with the exception of August) National Capital Planning Commission meeting transcripts are provided for research to confirm actions taken...

  13. ROLE OF TRUST IN BUILDING SOCIAL CAPITAL AND RURALDEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Baranyai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of social capital in rural development of the Centraland Eastern European Countries. As agriculture is one of the main economicactivities in the rural area of these countries, special focus is put on the ability ofdifferent forms of social capital to foster or hamper the viability andcompetitiveness of rural. The paper is structured as follows: the first part gives aliterature overview about the concept of social capital and its components. Thesecond part shows measuring methods. The third partsummarizes the results of aHungarian case study. The closing part of paper shows that the underdevelopmentof social capital is one of the common features ofCentral and Eastern EuropeanCountries, which explains their deficit in productivity and competitiveness.

  14. Development of the Social Capital Questionnaire in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, George; Koutis, Antonis D; Alegakis, Athanassios K; Philalithis, Anastas E

    2008-06-01

    The Greek version of the social capital questionnaire (SCQ-G) was evaluated in a sample of 521 adults drawn from three different urban areas in Greece. Exploratory factor analysis followed by multi-trait scaling yielded six factors: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Family/Friends Connections, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity, and Work Connections. The factor solution is similar to the patterns identified originally in Australia and the US. Variations suggest that social capital does not share the same structure in different countries. The SCQ-G is a useful scale to measure individual-level social capital in Greece. Social capital measurement tools should be validated in each cultural or national setting in which they are used.

  15. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  16. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  17. Social capital in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shane

    A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with

  18. From political capitalism to clientelist capitalism? The case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Redžepagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of institutional changes which have to a great extent, apart from the war of course, influenced the evolution of capitalism. The paper finds that the transition generated a number of costs, mainly generated by the state (fall in employment, manufacturing and social capital. The claim that the manufacturing industry has inherited low competitiveness neglects the necessary discussion on the role of the state in the formation of industrial policy and market actions. It is also an ex post argument for the claim that restructuring should have been implemented prior to privatisation as this would reduce negative impacts. Institutional changes led to a drastic reduction of the role of the manufacturing sector in the economy. The main finding in this paper is that the change in the interaction between the financial and the real sectors of the economy, the educational system and industrial relations system exposed the vulnerability of the current institutional environment. Despite similarities, institutional advantages of political capitalism are lost in the new type of Croatian capitalism, due to the complexity of the double transition process and the institutional or socio-economic particularities.

  19. Capital market efficiency III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to the American economists, Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert Shiller. The monetarists, Fama and Hansen, from the University of Chicago, and the Neo- Keynesian, Shiller, from the Yale University, according to the Swedish Royal Academy, won this prestigious prize for their research providing mathematical and economic models to determine (irregularities in the stock value trends at the stock exchanges. With his colleagues, in the 1960s Fama established that, in the short term, it is extremely difficult to forecast stock prices, given that new information gets embedded in the prices rather quickly. Shiller, however, determined that, although it is almost impossible to predict the stock prices for a period of few days, this is not true for a period of several years. He discovered that the stock prices fluctuate much more substantially than corporation dividents, and that the relationship between prices and dividends tends to decline when high, and to grow when low. This pattern does not apply only to stocks, but also to bonds and other forms of capital.

  20. PENGARUH INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Andriana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of intellectual capital and its components, represented by physical capital (capital employed, human capital, and structural capital,on financial performance of mining and manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia – BEI period of 2010 – 2012. Total population observed during this research shows 169 mining and manufacturing companies.The sample was determined by purposive sampling method and found a total of 70 samples as the research subjects. The analytical technique for the quantitaive data uses a statistical tool, i.e. multiple regression. Intellectual capital and its components were measured by Pulic Model, while financial performance uses Return on Equty (ROE ratio. The results show that intellectual capital and human capital have negative influence, yet insignificant, impacton companies financial performance. While physical capital (capital employed and structural capital do have positive influence but not significanton companies financial performance.

  1. Threat of an earthquake right under the capital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, T.

    1990-01-01

    Tokyo, Japan's capital, has been enjoying a seismically quiet period following the 1923 Kanto earthquake of magnitude 7.9 that killed more than 140,000 people. Such a quiet period seems likely to be a repetition of the 80-year quiescence after the great 1703 Genroku earthquake of magntidue 8.2 that occurred in an epicentral area adjacent to that of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. In 1784, seismic activity immediately under the capital area revived with occasional occurrence of magnitude 6 to 7 shocks. Earthquakes of this class tended to occur more frequently as time went on and they eventually culminated in the 1923 Kanto earthquake. As more than 60 years have passed since the Kanto earthquake, we may well expect another revival of activity immediately under the capital area

  2. Does lower lifetime fluoridation exposure explain why people outside capital cities have poor clinical oral health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, L A; Brennan, D S; Slade, G D

    2015-03-26

    Australians outside state capital cities have greater caries experience than their counterparts in capital cities. We hypothesized that differing water fluoridation exposures was associated with this disparity. Data were the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Examiners measured participant decayed, missing and filled teeth and DMFT Index and lifetime fluoridation exposure was quantified. Multivariable linear regression models estimated differences in caries experience between capital city residents and others, with and without adjustment for fluoridation exposure. There was greater mean lifetime fluoridation exposure in state capital cities (59.1%, 95% confidence interval=56.9,61.4) than outside capital cities (42.3, confidence interval=36.9,47.6). People located outside capital city areas had differing socio-demographic characteristics and dental visiting patterns, and a higher mean DMFT (Capital cities=12.9, Non-capital cities=14.3, p=0.02), than people from capital cities. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and dental visits, DMFT of people living in capital cities was less than non-capital city residents (Regression coefficient=0.8, p=0.01). The disparity was no longer statistically significant (Regression coefficient=0.6, p=0.09) after additional adjustment for fluoridation exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing domains in human capital measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox

    2014-09-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and describe changing domains within human capital management to be managed and measured. Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of changing measurement domains to aid practitioners to manage and measure the contribution of the human resource function and employees, in order to unlock and add value and ultimately contribute to the success of an organisation. Research design, approach and method: Unstructured, in-depth interview data of purposively selected cases from a selected panel of human resource practitioners specialising in human capital measurement was thematically analysed in this exploratory-descriptive investigation. Main findings: Findings suggested that seven domains should be managed and measured. These domains highlight new areas of impact and levels of management. In addition, crossdomain relationships in measurement allow for an understanding of the impact and potential value on which to capitalise. Practical/managerial implications: New domains to manage and measure focus the attention of practitioners beyond the transactional performance management paradigm to a transformational approach to influence the business strategy. Higher education institutions need to develop students’ cognitive skills to facilitate systems thinking. Contribution: This study suggests a new approach to managing and measuring the human capital function and the workforce.

  4. Sobre o conceito de "capital humano" On the concept of "human capital"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanilda Paiva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a retomada do conceito de capital humano nas últimas décadas no contexto da hegemonia de organismos multilaterais mais diretamente vinculados ao pensamento e aos interesses norte-americanos na área educacional, e de demandas que resultam da reestruturação produtiva e sociocultural na Nova Era Capitalista. Ressalta a amplitude das noções metafóricas dele derivadas (Bourdieu e outros e indica o trecho dos Grundrisse em que Marx refere-se ao homem como sendo o próprio capital fixo criado pelo desenvolvimento de suas capacidades no tempo livre.The article treats the retaking of the concept of human capital in recent decades in the context of the hegemony of the multilateral organizations more directly linked to the North American thinking and interests in the educational area and the demands which have resulted from the productive, social and cultural restructuring of the New Age of Capitalism. It highlights the breadth of the metaphorical notions derived from it (Bourdieu and others and cites the excerpt from the Grundrisse in which Marx refers to humans as fixed assets created by the development of their abilities in their free time.

  5. [Capital accumulation patterns: capital and services in the current transformations of the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andreazzi, Maria de Fátima Siliansky; Kornis, George Edward Machado

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce elements of the capitalist society economic reproduction to the discussion around the current dynamics of health accumulation. It identifies the direction and significance of capital accumulation in the health area as well as the characteristics of the economic environment where the competition currently takes place. The hypothetic hypertrophy of the financial sphere is seen as a means for structuring the capitalist economy since the late twentieth century. The former delimitations between industrial production and service delivery are blurred and weakened; the competition process shows new features and the contradictions - internally between the different elements of the health industry and externally with other sectors - are changing. This article aggregates elements for a contemporary analysis of the "medical-industrial complex" on the basis of a theoretical-historical-conceptual approach. We identify changes in the capital dynamics of this complex at international and national level and stress the increasing role of the health services as a forefront of capital accumulation. The new approach is based on the economic thinking of Marx in addition to the current discussions about the theory of financial capital accumulation and the new productive configurations of the large corporations.

  6. Effects of Living Alone on Social Capital and Health Among Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The Impact of Capital Structure on Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Porteous, Bruce; Tapadar, Pradip

    2008-01-01

    The impact that capital structure and capital asset allocation have on financial services firm economic capital and risk adjusted performance is considered. A stochastic modelling approach is used in conjunction with banking and insurance examples. It is demonstrated that gearing up Tier 1 capital with Tier 2 capital can be in the interests of bank Tier 1 capital providers, but may not always be so for insurance Tier 1 capital providers. It is also shown that, by allocating a bank or insuranc...

  8. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    assessment of the arguments made, including those made in the studies we have been involved in ourselves (the study of cultural capital and social exclusion in the UK, and the study of the Danish city Aalborg). Secondly, the paper looks into the different claims that are made in empirical studies after...... - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...

  9. Corporate governance and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.

  10. Organizational Capital of the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the main theoretical questions of the organizational capital of the enterprise are considered. The concept of «organizational capital of the enterprise» as a system consisting of three subsystems (organization of production, labour organization and management is introduced. It is shown that the organizational capital forms the labour relations system at the enterprise consisting of the cooperation, technological, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of workers’ responsibility. The model of cyclic evolution of crisis at the enterprise caused by shortcomings of the organizational capital is revealed. It is shown that the organizational capital is a basis for the realization of the human capital, which creates value added. A considerable attention is paid to the experience of the creation and functioning of the organizational capital at the enterprises of the Japanese corporation «Toyota». The Russian economic literature on crisis management quite often considers only the financial aspects of diagnostics, proposing the optimization of cash flows, elimination of excess stocks, transition to the medium-term budgeting and others. However, the deep reasons of crisis need to be found not only in financial streams, but also in the system of the work relationships. The shortcomings in the development of technological, cooperation, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of responsibility directly reflects the shortcomings in the development of the elements of the organizational capital as they «are adjusted» by these elements. In turn, organizational problems affect the product quality leading to the customer attrition and decrease in the enterprise’s financial performance. The lack of financial resources cause the need to save costs (first of all, on personnel, that was brightly shown by the economic crisis of 2009 that even more weakens the enterprise and system of labour relations. Finally, the

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA ANGHEL-ENESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.

  12. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  13. ORGANIZATIONAL CAPITAL IN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill G. Skripkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to the description of organizational capital in enterprise architecture. This approach is focused on internal consistency of organizational mechanisms and their fit to the requirements of technologies in use and key employees. The description rests on Henry Mintzberg organizational design theory. The value of this description is demonstrated for the case of influence of Ministry of Education and Science policy on the organizational capital of the Russian university.

  14. Social capital and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo

    2017-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.

  15. Financial capital appraisal in the system of industrial enterprise development management

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtyamov M.K.; Gonchar E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper studies an objective appraisal of financial capital value in industrial enterprise development management. The authors draw attention to a limited scope of work in the area of financial management under application of a traditional approach to appraisal of enterprise financial capital value and describe a new advanced approach to this problem solving. The paper focuses on reformation of balance sheet statement, in which economic benefit and reserves of financial capital are included...

  16. Bridges in social capital: a review of the definitions and the social capital of social capital researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Akcomak, S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...

  17. RETROSPECTIVE OF FINANCIAL REPORTING ON CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Muresan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the evolution offinancial reporting on capital market. Due to the worlwide changes, the role of financial reportingin capital market is constantly growing. Financial reporting analyzed through market perspective isstrongly correlated with issues like: capital allocation, financial statements, internationalaccounting standards and informational valences. Capital market research emphasizes the need forqualitative and transparent...

  18. 12 CFR 567.4 - Capital directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement, the leverage ratio requirement, the tangible capital requirement, or individual minimum capital... capital directive, it may become effective immediately. A capital directive shall remain in effect and... plan shall continue in full force and effect. (b) Relation to other administrative actions. The Office...

  19. Access to health care and community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael S; Ahern, Melissa M; Lovrich, Nicholas P; McCurdy, Arthur H

    2002-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that variation in reported access to health care is positively related to the level of social capital present in a community. The 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 22 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States (n = 19,672). Additional data for the 22 communities are from a 1996 multicity broadcast media marketing database, including key social capital indicators, the 1997 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey, and Interstudy, American Hospital Association, and American Medical Association sources. The design is cross-sectional. Self-reported access to care problems is the dependent variable. Independent variables include individual sociodemographic variables, community-level health sector variables, and social capital variables. Data are merged from the various sources and weighted to be population representative and are analyzed using hierarchical categorical modeling. Persons who live in metropolitan statistical areas featuring higher levels of social capital report fewer problems accessing health care. A higher HMO penetration rate in a metropolitan statistical area was also associated with fewer access problems. Other health sector variables were not related to health care access. The results observed for 22 major U.S. cities are consistent with the hypothesis that community social capital enables better access to care, perhaps through improving community accountability mechanisms.

  20. Levels of Social Capital in Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... be attributed to individuals, affecting their relationship with the external environment. Secondly, social capital is an inherent property of networks, into which smaller firms and entrepreneurs are embedded. Thirdly, social capital exists at the macro level, where its characteristics and availability varies...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....

  1. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND CIVIC PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike ERDOGAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has a long intellectual history in the fie ld of social sciences. In recent years, interest of scholars from sociology, po litical science, economics and public administration is rapidly increasing. The reason for this increasing interest is that it has been aware of the importance of social capital in communities’ administrative, social, economic and political development. In this sense, the concept of social ca pital is an issue to be discussed with solution of current problems of public administration, subjects of governance, civil society, and participation. Social capital has a lot of definitions which are completely different from each other. Common point of these different definitions is that social capital is a resource at both individual and community level. We will use Robert Putnam’s defi nition about social cap ital in this paper. Putnam (1993 defines social capital as “features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated action”. In his book; Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, Putnam describes declining social capital in America. He analyzes relationship between social capital and civic participation and assumes that there is a positive relationship between social capital and civic participation. The paper aims to reveal how there is a relationshi p between social capital and civic participation in Central Florida. We will use “The Central Florida Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey that is made by The Survey Research Labora tory in the Ins titute for Social and Behavior Sciences at the University of Central Florida among central Florida residents. We use notion of civic participation not only as voting but also as concern of politics, volunteering, attending a political meeting, participating in any demonstrations, protests or boycotts, cooperating to solve problems and

  2. Population levels of wellbeing and the association with social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Kelly, G; Dal Grande, E; Kelly, D; Marin, T; Hey, N; Burke, K J; Licinio, J

    2017-07-03

    This research investigates wellbeing at the population level across demographic, social and health indicators and assesses the association between wellbeing and social capital. Data from a South Australian monthly chronic disease/risk factor surveillance system of randomly selected adults (mean age 48.7 years; range 16-99) from 2014/5 (n = 5551) were used. Univariable analyses compared wellbeing/social capital indicators, socio-demographic, risk factors and chronic conditions. Multi-nominal logistic regression modelling, adjusting for multiple covariates was used to simultaneously estimate odds ratios for good wellbeing (reference category) versus neither good nor poor, and good wellbeing versus poor wellbeing. 48.6% were male, mean age 48.7 (sd 18.3), 54.3% scored well on all four of the wellbeing indicators, and positive social capital indicators ranged from 93.1% for safety to 50.8% for control over decisions. The higher level of social capital corresponded with the good wellbeing category. Modeling showed higher odds ratios for all social capital variables for the lowest level of wellbeing. These higher odds ratios remained after adjusting for confounders. The relationship between wellbeing, resilience and social capital highlights areas for increased policy focus.

  3. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  4. 12 CFR 1229.5 - Capital distributions for adequately capitalized Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalized Banks. 1229.5 Section 1229.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.5 Capital... classification of adequately capitalized. A Bank may not make a capital distribution if such distribution would...

  5. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  6. Capital District Transportation Committee Albany, New York : planning the congestion management process in the context of metropolitan transportation planning goals and objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Capital District Transportation Committee (CDTC) uses a broad and integrated approach for transportation planning in the Albany-Schenectady-Troy (New York) metropolitan area. This approach encompasses issues critical to the future of the Capital ...

  7. Intangible Capital, Corporate Valuation and Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Danthine, Jean-Pierre; Jin, Xiangrong

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have found unmeasured intangible capital to be large and important. In this paper we observe that by nature intangible capital is also very different from physical capital. We find it plausible to argue that the accumulation process for intangible capital differs significantly from the process by which physical capital accumulates. We study the implications of this hypothesis for rational firm valuation and asset pricing using a two-sector general equilibrium model. Our main fi...

  8. Migration, income redistribution, and international capital mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Meckl, Jürgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies income-redistribution effects from labor migration in a small open economy under alternative assumptions on the international mobility of capital. Our principal result is that induced international capital flows dampen or may even reverse redistribution effects. However, as long as the location of capital is unaffected by migration redistribntion effects may be greater if some of the capital is foreign owned, depending on whether labor and capital are friends or enemies. On...

  9. Epochality, Global Capitalism and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hope

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available What type of capitalism do we live in today? My answer to this question draws upon two interrelated lines of argument. Firstly, I will argue that we inhabit an epoch of global capitalism. The precursors of this kind of capitalism originated from the late nineteenth century when the development of telegraph networks, modern transport systems and world time zones provided a global template for industrialisation and Western imperialism. From about 1980 a confluence of global events and processes bought a fully-fledged global capitalism into being. These included the collapse of Fordist Keynesianism, national Keynesianism and Soviet Communism along with First, Second and Third World demarcations; the international proliferation of neo-liberal policy regimes; the growth of transnational corporations in all economic sectors; the predominance of financialisation and the reconstitution of global workforces. Secondly, I will argue that the shift from organic surface energy to underground fossil energy intertwined the time of the earth with the time of human history as nature was being instrumentalised as a resource for humanity. Understanding the capitalist relations of power involved here requires that we rethink the emergence of industrial capitalism in the historical context of a world system built upon unequal socio-ecological exchange between core and periphery. Today, global capitalism has intensified the anthropogenic feedback loops associated with CO2 emissions and climate change and universalised the organisational frameworks of profit extraction and socio-ecological destruction. I refer here to the transnational systems of fossil fuel capitalism along with their interlinkages with financialisation and advertising/commodity fetishism. From the preceding lines of argument I will briefly outline the intra-capitalist and planetary-ecological crises out of which transnational coalitions of opposition might emerge.

  10. Financial capital and intellectual capital in physician practice management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1998-01-01

    Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous capital in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual capital of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.

  11. Limited Capital Market Participation and Human Capital Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Berk; Johan Walden

    2010-01-01

    The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in l...

  12. Consumption as investment: The theory of human capital and human capital as ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Javier López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dilution of the conceptual border between “consumption” and “investment.” We argue that it is a key element for the understanding of capitalism in its current stage and the values guiding contemporary society. Some concepts created by Human Capital Theory – an economic theory from the 1960s – are widely viewed today as values that guide the behavior of individuals. This yields to a conceptual–axiological shift from consumption to investment that allows unusual forms of “delaying satisfaction by consuming now.” The diffuse area that is created between “consumption” and “investment” helps to understand how the Protestant work ethic is recreated as an “ethic of entrepreneurial work,” that is, of work understood in terms of “individual enterprise”.

  13. Corporate Culture and Employee Mentality Capital Agree with Influencing Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In the enterprise development process, many companies put on the corporate culture and employee knowledge of psychological capital to stay in their respective functional areas, and can not really establish a humanistic ideas, nor will it recognize employees of psychological capital in the building of enterprise culture in the transmission and…

  14. Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human Capital? Staff Report No. 401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human capital present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with local stocks of human capital,…

  15. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  16. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Znakovaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  17. CAPITALISM IN ILLUSION AND DELUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current crisis seems to shake the foundations of contemporary society as a whole and generated increasingly more opinions that show the capitalist society has begun and continues to lose ground. This is because capitalism has changed something inside so deeply that eternal truths of capitalism – economic growth, full employment, financial stability – seem to have crashed like the New York twin towers. Beyond all the shortcomings, quite a lot in numbers, known and recognized, the world and those who analyze it agree that , at least so far, has not been invented a better mechanism to obstruct and retain tyranny and so it is possible to consider the evolution of capitalism only in and through democracy.

  18. The measurement of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group - such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action - as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides) of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. CSR, SMEs and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murillo, David; Vallentin, Steen

    2012-01-01

    capital are interrelated, turning social capital into a powerful instrument to better explain what academic literature has called silent CSR practices. The analysis that follows questions some of the basic tenets that underpin the branch of business ethics that deals with the nature of SMEs' approach...... this type of action d) Any study of this kind of practice requires a dual approach: a) normative when using tools developed by CSR; and b) descriptive and instrumental using the notion of social capital....... in the automotive sector, took the distinctive approach of trying to understand the nature of CSR-like activities developed not by best-in-class CSR-driven companies but by purely competitiveness-driven firms. The case studies provide explicit evidence that the CSR activities of SMEs and the notion of social...

  20. LINGUISTIC CAPITAL AND PERMANENT EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Europe of Knowledge means shifting to a new stage of identifying, redefining and satisfying the exigencies related to human capital. Among the basic competencies, the language ones shall play a more important role for all age groups, and all categories of jobs and professions in the economic, social and cultural fields due to the emergence of the virtual society and economy. Market internationalisation, as well as the strong outspread of English in all fields led to the emergence of the “working language” making it “strict requirement” from the perspective of the qualitative attributes of human capital. At the same time, from the viewpoint of the human capital, “English is not enough” for sustainable development at regional and international level.

  1. Capital financing in prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszustowicz, R J; Dreachslin, J L

    1984-03-01

    In the era of prospective payment, arranging financing for hospital capital projects is expected to become even more complicated than under cost-based reimbursement systems. This article outlines the information needed for a bond issue in the prospective payment environment, defines the roles and duties of several external persons and organizations involved with planning a major capital financing, and provides an overview of the entire process. This article assumes for illustrative purposes that a tax-exempt bond issue is going to be used to finance a facility expansion. This method was chosen since over 70% of all major capital financing for hospitals use the tax-exempt bond as the principal vehicle for attracting the necessary debt to finance a major construction project. The tax-exempt bond issue also requires the most detail in documentation and legal provisions.

  2. The measurement of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Villalonga-Olives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.

  3. Transnational Investments in Informational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States......) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....

  4. The Pro-Cyclical Impact of Basel III Regulatory Capital on Bank Capital Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the...

  5. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  6. Taxes and Venture Capital Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we set up a model of start-up finance under double moral hazard.Entrepreneurs lack own resources and business experience to develop their ideas.Venture capitalists can provide start-up finance and commercial support. The effortput forth by either agent contributes to the firm......-set may paradoxically contribute to higher quality of venturecapital finance and welfare. Subsidies to physical investment in VC-backed startupsare detrimental in our framework.Keywords: Venture capital, capital gains taxation, double moral hazard.JEL-Classification: D82, G24, H24, H25...

  7. ¿Necesitamos capital social? Sí, pero socializando el capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Salej Higgins

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de O Capital S ocia! está na moda: aná!isepara sua reconstruido teórica (Salej: 2003, ofrecemos una sinopsis sobre la arquitectura teórica de uno de los conceptos más utilizados en las ciencias sociales durante la última década. En el nivel de la discusión sobre las transformaciones de las democracias del primer mundo (putnam: 2001, cuestionamos la tesis básica de que la merma del asociativismo cívico es el resultado de la modernización tecnológica y su concomitante cultura individualista. Por el contrario y en la misma linea de Rothstein (2001, construimos la hipótesis de que la disminución del capital social, denunciada por Putnam (1995, es correlativa al desmantelamiento de las políticas de asistencia social, con la consecuente caída en los indicadores de equidad. De modo prospectivo se presentan las preguntas- clave y las hipótesis para un programa de investigación alternativo y plausible sobre el capital social. Palabras clave: capital social, asociativismo cívico, integración social, equidad.

  8. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  9. Social Capital and the Educational Expectations of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the determinants of the educational expectations of young people in disadvantaged urban areas in three large cities in Sweden. In addition to the conventional predictors such as parental resources (economic and cultural capital) and demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, immigration background), this…

  10. Human Capital Formation And Poverty Reduction Strategies In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study articulates the development thrust of the Nigerian government, (1999 – 2003), in the area of human capital information and poverty reduction. The policies to achieve its objectives and the gains of such policies to the common man in Nigeria. To achieve its objectives, the government emphasized, macroeconomic ...

  11. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.

  12. HIV stigma and social capital in women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total so...

  13. The Concept of Capital within the Framework of Basel II

    OpenAIRE

    Georg von Pföstl

    2007-01-01

    The new Basel II Capital Accord has been one of the financial sector’s most fiercely discussed topics in the recent past. After many years’ debate, the regulations formally took effect on January 1, 2007, and the advanced measurement approaches are scheduled to become fully operational on January 1, 2008. The new regulations will cause a number of changes in the area of credit risk. The calculation of risk-weighted assets, and thus of regulatory capital, will henceforth be based on borrowers’...

  14. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...

  15. Cannibals and Animals of Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Magnus Møller

    2018-01-01

    In this working paper, I provide an alternative to William Clare Roberts's argument (in "Marx's Inferno", 2017) that Marx structured "Capital" based on Dante's "Inferno". In stead I argue that the "socialist infernalism" which Roberts identifies in Marx has its roots in Moses Hess's Feuerbachian ...

  16. TOWARDS THE CAPITAL MARKET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PANAIT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.

  17. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  18. Measurement of individual social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, Martin Pieter Johannes van der

    2005-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen the idea of social capital blossoming as a popular and promising new look at phenomena in the social sciences. Essentially a theory that explains how and why relational networks are important for the production of outcomes at the individual and collective level,

  19. Varieties of capitalism in crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...

  20. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...

  1. School Cheating and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  2. Qatar - large capital investment planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    1996-01-01

    Large capital investments are planned throughout Qatar's energy industry over the next five years totalling $25 billion. This article describes the successful commissioning of Qatar's first liquefied natural gas (LNG) project on time and within budget. The second LNG plant is well underway and plans for a third are under negotiation. (UK)

  3. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  4. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  5. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...

  6. Building Social Capital for Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.

  7. Social Capital, Institutions and Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a

  8. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TITTENBRUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  9. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    TITTENBRUN Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  10. Organizational networks and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    , as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...

  11. Successful Strategies for Capital Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stuart R.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, few community or technical colleges considered launching capital campaigns. They lacked community standing, professional fundraising staff, and the related institutional foundation structure to manage charitable efforts. Gradually, as public funding eroded, bond issues became harder to pass, and colleges recognized the need…

  12. Productivity spillovers of organization capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wen; Inklaar, Robert

    Investments in organization capital increase productivity of not just the investing firm but could also spillover to other firms-similar to investments in research and development. Recent evidence at the industry and economy level suggests such spillovers could be important. In this paper, we fail

  13. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C). This calculation will be effective as of the due... to rely on tentative fourth quarter financial statements in developing its capital plan and suggested... rule applies only to bank holding companies with $50 billion or more of total consolidated assets...

  14. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  15. Liquidity coinsurance and bank capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglionesi, F.; Feriozzi, F.; Lóránth, G.; Pelizzon, L.

    Banks can deal with their liquidity risk by holding liquid assets (self-insurance), by participating in interbank markets (coinsurance), or by using flexible financing instruments, such as bank capital (risk sharing). We use a simple model to show that undiversifiable liquidity risk, that is, the

  16. Human Capital and Career Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    and Waldman and Lazear. Our analysis allows for both internal promotion and external recruitment as means to achieve top management appointments, and yields additional findings: the breath of human capital is more important in mature firms, as predicted by the theory; and the concept of firm-specific human...

  17. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  18. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed.

  19. THE SUCCESS OF EMERGING CAPITAL MARKETS IN DETERMINING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POHOAŢĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capital markets are regarded as “the barometer” of economic activity at the national level, but among emerging markets, the position of this segment in the economy is far from ideal. The answers that we try to offer are concerning the contribution of capital markets to the economic welfare of nations in transition from Central and Eastern Europe, using Granger causality tests. Our findings highlight that in this geographical area, the relation between capital markets and economic growth is a bidirectional one. However, although both the establishment of stock exchanges and their liberalization represented governments’ strategy of economic development, their objective was not fully achieved. Institutional transformations are required in order to attract foreign investors.

  20. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  1. National Capital Planning Commission Library contents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — The National Capital Planning Commission library catalog is a compilation of titles, authors, years of publication and topics of books, reports and NCPC publications.

  2. Spare Parts Management of Aging Capital Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSpare parts are critical for operations of capital products such as aircraft, refineries, trucks, etc/, which require maintenance regularly. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) bear the responsibility of undisrupted maintenance service and spare parts flow for their capital products.

  3. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT: A STRATEGY FOR MOVING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy” but also “Knowledge economy” via human capital development. She has not been serious with her ... economy, Human capital, Strategy. Introduction. The world is now controlled by the revolution of Information and Communication.

  4. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  5. Staged Financing in Venture capital market.

    OpenAIRE

    Damania, Priti

    2009-01-01

    The report shows the venture capital decision making in staged financing from a real option perspective. The report also describes entrepreneur-venture capital relationship from a prisoner's dilemma approach.

  6. Employee Capital:Resource or Reoccurring Nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2005-01-01

    Employee capital need not be a reoccurring nightmare for bar owners if they create a system for managing their employee capital which deals with recruitment, placement, training and development for all hospitality staff members.

  7. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  8. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New variables for detecting transport disadvantages. The role of social capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the potential role of social capital variables on the transport mode choice. Traditionally travel behavior model included social capital as empowerment factor (i.e. social capital as substitute of financial capital) or as social network influence on travel choice. Only recently constraints of social capital are considered as factors influencing travel behavior (Swanen et al, 2015, Di Ciommo & Martens, 2015).This article will show both aspects of empowerments and constraints of social capital in a dynamic way stressing two dynamic aspects of social capital: the building up social capital and use of social capital. Both aspects are related with the value of time: when you are doing something for others ( i.e. Voluntary actions, pick up all family members, etc) you are loosing your time, and your mode choice will be oriented to saving time, therefore a private mode will be chosen, while when you are using your social capital benefit (somebody else is helping you), you will easily choose the less flexible and more time consuming public transport. After defining social capital notion in both aspects of empowerments and constraints, a set of social capital variables is defined. Then two of these variables are tested through a smartphone short panel survey, where 100 individuals living or working in one surrounding southern area of Madrid have participated in entering their travel data for an entire working week. The estimated mixed-logit model that incorporated two “social capital variables: participation in voluntary activities and receiving help for various tasks (i.e. child care) show how people who have less social capital, but that are trying to build it up choose more private than public modes: building social capital stock has a cost in term of time that push people to use more flexible transport mode (i.e. private car), while people who have already a stock of social capital and can use it (i.e. helped people) receive time from others and

  10. Capital Structure of Internet Companies: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miglo, Anton; Liang, Shuting; Lee, Zhenting

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the financing decisions and capital structure of internet companies and relate observed findings to the common capital structure theories. Large internet companies usually have low debt and small internet companies have high debt. We find that the trade-off theory of capital structure, pecking order theory, market timing theory and other theories cannot individually explain a firm’s capital structure. However, they can compliment each other in describing some patterns of observed b...

  11. 75 FR 4635 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Capital Maintenance: Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... phase-in would unfairly penalize banking organizations given their already established businesses..., will aid banking organizations with capital planning as they implement FAS 166 and FAS 167 and adjust... assets a banking organization consolidates as a result of changes to U.S. generally accepted accounting...

  12. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  13. Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)

  14. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism or Four?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis

    1991-01-01

    This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.

  15. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  16. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  17. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  18. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  19. INSURANCE AND THE CORPORATE COST OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.

  20. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided...

  1. Heterogeneity of Human Capital and the Return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2015-01-01

    Human capital is an important growth factor for developing and developed countries and measuring the return to education is essential in evaluating the growth impact from human capital. Most studies use the length of education measured by the years of schooling as an indicator of human capital...

  2. Venture Capital Initiative: Ohio's School Improvement Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.

    In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…

  3. Meting, waardering en sturing van human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Human capital wordt door diverse auteurs gezien als een ‘value driver’. Er is echter weinig bekend over de wijze waarop ondernemingen human capital meten en sturen en hoe beleggers op de kapitaalmarkt reageren op human capital informatie die door ondernemingen wordt verstrekt. In dit artikel wordt

  4. Regulatory capital requirements and bail in mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks,

  5. 78 FR 1991 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 611 Major Capital Investment Projects; Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts... Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... capital investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs...

  6. 75 FR 31383 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... current approach to evaluating and rating major capital investment projects (``New Starts'' and ``Small...'' to address identified transportation needs in the corridor without a major capital investment in new...

  7. Social capital in involuntary displacement and resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, A.; Vaart, van der W.

    2013-01-01

    Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital among poor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital concept and its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used in evaluating the adaptation and integration of

  8. HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN A KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based ... Relational Capital (customer capital): represents all the .... measure the economy's human capital by the rates of enrolment in .... skill or ability, a personal characteristic, or a cluster of two or more ..... satisfied with the moral motivation (not financial) of the.

  9. Tiempo y capital financiero en El Capital de Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Salazar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sugiere que la metamorfosis de las deudas en derivados y títulos financieros, y de estos en deudas, genera redes de activos y obligaciones, que inducen la emergencia de distintos tiempos del capital, articulados en un sistema complejo, cuya dinámica hace posible sincronizarlos en forma de crisis de carácter global. La crisis se trata como un cambio de estado en un sistema complejo, precipitada por la conectividad generada por el apalancamiento creciente. Es un desarrollo de las teorías de la crisis y de la socialización de la deuda planteadas por Marx en El Capital.

  10. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  11. KONTRIBUSI HUMAN CAPITAL dan CUSTOMER CAPITAL DALAM MENGGAPAI KINERJA CAFÉ dan RESTO di SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendut Sukarno

    2016-11-01

    Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data diketemukan bahwa 1 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap customer capital. 2 Customer capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya, 3 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya.

  12. The effect of human capital, social capital, and perceptual values on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...

  13. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  14. Access to capital and capital structure of the firm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shamshur, Anastasiya

    -, č. 429 (2010), s. 1-36 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595; GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : capital structure * financing decisions * credit constraints * Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp429.pdf

  15. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  16. Natural Capital - putting a value on geological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lesley

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital is a mechanism through which a value can be placed on nature allowing it to be considered alongside other assets. When the Government of the United Kingdom produced a Natural Environment White Paper (The Natural Choice: securing the value of nature) in 2012 there was no direct mention of geosites, geoheritage or geodiversity. One ambition of the Natural Environment White Paper was to stop environmental degradation and to rebuild natural capital and to value it. Whilst landscapes are mentioned in the paper geodiversity is not directly and this has been problematic for funding and recognition within the UK. Natural Capital is being used as the basis for many of the environmental reviews therefore it is essential that geodiversity can be included within this. The Natural Capital Committee defines natural capital as 'those elements of the natural environment which provide valuable goods and services to people'. In the main, these goods and services are related to ecology/biodiversity rather than to the full range of natural capital. Specifically, the values associated with abiotic nature (geodiversity) are frequently undervalued or ignored. The English Geodiversity Forum have been producing case studies as to how this might be done for different locations and this paper will present the work of this and how a value can be attributed to geodiversity. For example links to tourism and recreation within areas such as the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the Black Country proposed Geopark are easy to place a value on but it is more difficult with educational, scientific sites. Using an ecosystems services and biodiversity analogies this paper presents a framework that can be adopted for evaluation of geological sites. Defra (2015) The state of natural capital: protecting and improving natural capital for prosperity and wellbeing. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, 73 pages https://www

  17. A different capitalism? : Guanxi-capitalism and the importance of family in modern China

    OpenAIRE

    Rühle, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of Capitalism is said to always lead to extreme changes in the structure of a society. This view implies that Capitalism is a universal and unique concept that needs an explicit institutional framework and should not discriminate between a German or US Capitalism. In contrast, this work argues that the ‘ideal type’ of Capitalism in a Weberian sense does not exist. It will be demonstrated that Capitalism is not a concept that shapes a uniform institutional framework within every ...

  18. Impact of family capital & social capital on youth entrepreneurship – a study of Uttarakhand state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    The research paper intends to interpret how the three forms of family capital viz. family's financial capital, family's man power capital and family's human capital influences the career choice intention of students of HEI's of Uttarakhand, India. Additionally the study also evaluates the impact of student's individual social capital on his career intent. This is a quantitative study conducted at Uttarakhand state of India on a large sample of students studying in various professional courses...

  19. How to choose the right capitalization option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J; Wise, J

    1996-12-01

    Physician group practices and networks must have ready access to capital to finance their working capital needs, capital equipment acquisitions, and real estate purchases, as well as to fund the acquisition of additional practices. At least three options for capitalization are available to group practices and networks: debt financing, equity financing, or a combination of the two. The best option for physician group practices and networks depends on the costs of capital and the impact the strategy will have on decision making and governance.

  20. Human Capital and Organizational Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Julieta Josan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the increased acting globally competition. Currently, companies that succeed are the ones that integrate in their business strategy, an important component of development and valuation human capital. The paper aims to analyze and highlight the importance of human capital in the new organizational strategies, focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and excellence.

  1. Ethics, Intellectual Capital & Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Saíz Álvarez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Resultado del proceso de globalización económica actual, unido al inicio de la denominada «Primera Crisis Global (PCG, cada vez es mayor la importancia del capital intelectual en las organizaciones, tanto por las ventajas competitivas que genera para la organización, como por permitir que la empresa pueda lograr posiciones de liderazgo sostenible en el tiempo. Dicho capital intelectual se inserta dentro de las organizaciones siguiendo una doble perspectiva basada en la ética y en la gestión del conocimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuáles son las bases que, desde una gestión del conocimiento basado en la ética aplicada a la empresa, permiten construir organizaciones líderes en el mercado global.

  2. Share capitalism and worker wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P

    2016-10-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.

  3. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations.

  4. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  5. Human capital in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development [ru

  6. From Finance Capitalism to Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I interpret 150 years of financial history with a focus on shifts in the role of finance in society. I argue that over time the role of finance has shifted twice from that of servant to that of master of society, and that this process has been driven by sense making through...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900......–1931 and of financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...

  7. Ciemat Relational Capital: Institutional Presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; González Pineda, L. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The resources in any organization for its activity development can be divided into two main groups: tangible assets and intangible assets. In recent decades there has been a recognition of the importance of the intangible assets as value generators for the development and growth of organizations. And the so called Relational Capital is among them Relational Capital arises from the relationship processes that an organization maintains with external agents. Thus, in the case of a public research institution, such as CIEMAT, it includes the relations with projects financing organizations, with partners and with customers (both public and private entities which are serviced), as well as the institutional presence understood as the participation in discussion and coordination forums (foundations, associations, committees…). This report presents a study of CIEMAT institutional presence in the year 2015.

  8. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  9. Capital Markets Union for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market....

  10. Essays on Corporate Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Albul, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies capital structure decisions of levered and unlevered firms using the modeling framework of Leland (1994). The first chapter, Cash Holdings and Financial Constraints, focuses on optimal management of cash holdings by equity holders of a levered, financially constrained firm. I add financial constraints as a market friction to the traditional model. A financially constrained firm is not able to issue new equity to subsidize net operating losses and is subject to pre...

  11. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...

  12. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt ratio dynamics (long-term debt issuing activity being most capital structurerelevant), corporate issuing motives remain largely a mystery. When stock...

  13. Loja musical capital of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to find the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This first approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical field, to be considered its capital? This first delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a field of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and specific competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.

  14. Spiritual Capital: Novelty and Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bosch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the most relevant versions of spiritual capital, the aspects they share, and the way in which some of them are linked to religion while others are not. It describes the multidimensional nature of the notion, which leads to a theory of profound motivation that is strongly rooted in the person. This intrinsic dimensión of motivation proves to be decisive for ethical theories of virtue inspired in Aristotle, which emphasize the internal aspect of behavior.

  15. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a NMVC... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies...

  16. The Opportunity Cost of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Chit PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.

  17. Limits to productive capital investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1984-07-01

    The rise in the specific capital costs of nuclear power plants has caused concern in all industrialized countries in the past few years. Although the amount of this rise differed and at least did not jeopardize the cost edge of nuclear power in Europe, it did result in cost advantages of coal over nuclear power in a number of Federal States in the USA. The cost development in nuclear power plant construction up to the present level of capital costs was due chiefly to intolerable extensions of construction periods as a consequence of dragging licensing procedures, most of them entailing additional conditions which were partly a matter of dispute. There is broad agreement on the need to not detract from the nuclear safety level now attained, but also on the inability to increase it further by any significant margin. It has become evident in the past that, from a certain level onward, additional measures may in fact reduce the level of safety. In this contribution an attempt is made to delineate the framework of reasonable capital expenditure. From this point of departure, realistic considerations of safety and environmental protection can be made for future orientation. (orig.)

  18. The Opportunity Cost of Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D. PMID:25933615

  19. Numerical climate modeling and verification of selected areas for heat waves of Pakistan using ensemble prediction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amna, S; Samreen, N; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Depending upon the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. Heat waves are the Weather-related events, having significant impact on the humans, including all socioeconomic activities and health issues as well which changes according to the climatic conditions of the area. The forecasting climate is of prime importance for being aware of future climatic changes, in order to mitigate them. The study used the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) for the purpose of modeling seasonal weather hind-cast of three selected areas i.e., Islamabad, Jhelum and Muzaffarabad. This research was purposely carried out in order to suggest the most suitable climate model for Pakistan. Real time and simulated data of five General Circulation Models i.e., ECMWF, ERA-40, MPI, Meteo France and UKMO for selected areas was acquired from Pakistan Meteorological Department. Data incorporated constituted the statistical temperature records of 32 years for the months of June, July and August. This study was based on EPS to calculate probabilistic forecasts produced by single ensembles. Verification was done out to assess the quality of the forecast t by using standard probabilistic measures of Brier Score, Brier Skill Score, Cross Validation and Relative Operating Characteristic curve. The results showed ECMWF the most suitable model for Islamabad and Jhelum; and Meteo France for Muzaffarabad. Other models have significant results by omitting particular initial conditions.

  20. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  2. O capital agroindustrial catarinense e o Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Pertile

    2011-07-01

    ère que ces transitions résultent dans la participation à leurs exigences et à leurs objectifs. Néanmoins, pour qu’il s’arrive au stage actuel d’engagement économique, se fait nécessaire analyser le processus de formation et la consolidation des entreprises agro-agroindustrielles de viandes de l’Ouest catarinense et considérer les divers changements promus dans la base économique régionale, en résultant d’investissements de différents supports institutionnels et financiers. Pour cet article, se développe une analyse critique et explicative sur base de l’argument dont l’État, de telle façon dans contexte national combien de l’état, il disposait de ressources et de joints avec les agro-industries pour diriger les investissements convoités par ce capital industriel et a commencé à intervenir dans l’économie avec l’intention de faciliter son processus d’accumulation. En étant ainsi, l’État se présente comme le support pour le développement du capital privé, dans le cas analysé le capital agro-industriel. Abstract THE RECENT DYNAMIC OF THE SEGMENT OF THE URBAN NETWORK IN TOCANTINS: THE IMPLICATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF PALMAS TO PORTO NACIONAL In the Tocantins State, the recent dynamic of the urban network reviles significant changes, reflex of the political, economic, social and cultural transformation, for it has passing this area, especially after the political device of the Tocantins State and the Goiás State and the insertion of Eastern Amazon in 1989. In this context, of the research objective to show the occurrence of the processes between Porto Nacional and Palmas towns, or, to understand the implications of the construction of Palmas, the projected capital, to Porto Nacional, one of the main centre of the antique of the north of the Goiás State, today Tocantins, considering the urban-regional role and the processes of re-hierarquization

  3. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Capital intelectual: verdades e mitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thereza Pompa Antunes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Muito se tem comentado que os relatórios fornecidos pela Contabilidade Financeira não retratam certas realidades das empresas atualmente, tendo em vista o fato de o valor contábil das ações estar muitas vezes abaixo do seu valor de mercado. Esse contraste entre os dois valores vem sendo identificado como Capital Intelectual e apresentado como um novo conceito de administração de empresas que conduz à necessidade de aplicação de novas estratégias, de nova filosofia de gestão e novas formas de avaliação do valor da empresa. Este trabalho evidencia a verdadeira relação existente entre a Contabilidade e o Capital Intelectual. Desmistifica-se a novidade do conceito, pois comprova-se que o capital Intelectual é parte integrante do Goodwill, conceito secularmente conhecido e estudado pela Contabilidade. Os elementos intangíveis sempre foram abordados pela Contabilidade e, da mesma forma, como nunca se desprezou a sua importância, nunca se subestimou a sua complexidade. Portanto, a Contabilidade não é falha na divulgação das informações por ela registradas. Deve-se entender a finalidade de cada uma das Demonstrações Contábeis, bem como os Princípios subjacentes a elas. A falta de conhecimento, por vezes, conduz a conclusões precipitadas e errôneas. Por outro lado, qualquer que seja o rótulo atribuído aos elementos intangíveis, que sempre fizeram parte das organizações, entende-se e aceita-se que hoje, cada vez mais, o conhecimento e o gerenciamento desses elementos são relevantes para a gestão das empresas, pois o momento atual é caracterizado pela ampla aplicação do recurso do conhecimento pelo homem, que se materializa em novas tecnologias, sistemas e serviços (entendidos como ativos intangíveis que agregam valor às organizações.It has been said many times that the statements provided by Financial Accounting do not give a picture of certain realities of companies nowadays, considering the fact that, often

  5. Platform capitalism: The intermediation and capitalization of digital economic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Langley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new form of digital economic circulation has emerged, wherein ideas, knowledge, labour and use rights for otherwise idle assets move between geographically distributed but connected and interactive online communities. Such circulation is apparent across a number of digital economic ecologies, including social media, online marketplaces, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding and other manifestations of the so-called ‘sharing economy’. Prevailing accounts deploy concepts such as ‘co-production’, ‘prosumption’ and ‘peer-to-peer’ to explain digital economic circulation as networked exchange relations characterised by their disintermediated, collaborative and democratising qualities. Building from the neologism of platform capitalism, we place ‘the platform’ – understood as a distinct mode of socio-technical intermediary and business arrangement that is incorporated into wider processes of capitalisation – at the centre of the critical analysis of digital economic circulation. To create multi-sided markets and coordinate network effects, platforms enrol users through a participatory economic culture and mobilise code and data analytics to compose immanent infrastructures. Platform intermediation is also nested in the ex-post construction of a replicable business model. Prioritising rapid up-scaling and extracting revenues from circulations and associated data trails, the model performs the structure of venture capital investment which capitalises on the potential of platforms to realise monopoly rents.

  6. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Martyanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  7. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  8. Capital psicológico

    OpenAIRE

    Salessi, Solana

    2013-01-01

    El término “capital”, originalmente utilizado en el campo de la economía y las finanzas, constituye un vocablo ampliamente difundido para representar diversos dominios. En este sentido, por ejemplo, la expresión “capital psicológico” es utilizada por los psicólogos organizacionales para designar los recursos psíquicos individuales que representan la valoración positiva de las circunstancias y la probabilidad de éxito basada en el esfuerzo y la perseverancia. En el marco de la psicología organ...

  9. Capital planning for clinical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauman, Daniel M; Neff, Gerald; Johnson, Molly Martha

    2011-04-01

    When assessing the financial implications of a physician alignment and clinical integration initiative, a hospital should measure the initiative's potential ROI, perhaps best using a combination of net present value and payback period. The hospital should compare its own historical and projected performance with rating agency median benchmarks for key financial indicators of profitability, debt service, capital and cash flow, and liquidity. The hospital should also consider potential indirect benefits, such as retained outpatient/ancillary revenue, increased inpatient revenue, improved cost control, and improved quality and reporting transparency.

  10. Venture Capital and Industrial ''Innovation''

    OpenAIRE

    Hirukawa, Masayuki; Ueda, Masako

    2008-01-01

    For the sample period of 1965-1992, Kortum and Lerner (2000) find that venture capital (VC) investments have a positive impact on patent count at industry level, and this impact is larger than that of R&D expenditures. We confirm that this positive impact continued to be present and became even stronger in late 90s during which VC industry experienced an unprecedented growth. We then proceed to study if this positive impact of VC is also present on productivity growth, which is a measure of i...

  11. Human Capital and Romania’s Perspective in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of improving people life standard depends, alongsideother factors, on efforts oriented towards education, research, andknowledge enrichment. It is also related to development and disseminationof high performance technology, with knowledge development, skills andabilities, professional training able to realize, disseminate, and useinnovation. However, these investments in human capital will lead to goodresults by extending the active life of skilled workers, by improving thegeneral health status of the population, by preserving the environment, byimproving food products quality. All these are the more valid for Romania’seconomy, the more it needs to be integrated in the Western European area,which is a highly competitive area. Or, relative sub-investment inautochthonous human capital might force our country to developcomparative advantages in border fields from the point of view ofproductivity, to specialize in fields that intensively use raw materials, to turninto a low paid labour market.

  12. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  13. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  14. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Graham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE CAPITAL MARKET IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Buljat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 in the USA turned into a global economic crisis in a short time. As such, it had a big impact on the financial stability of Croatia, primarily on capital market. Capital market includes securities trading, primarily stocks and bonds, whose market value is influenced by the market capitalization of capital market and vice versa. Macro economically, market capitalization had an influence on the fall in the value of the entire capital market, and micro economically, it had an influence on the fall of the prices of stocks, bonds and other financial instruments of companies. The volume of trade decreased, but there was an increase in the number of transactions. In other words, people traded more and in smaller quantities. Therefore, the risk increased, and investors became more cautious.

  16. Global capital markets: An updated profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades after the beginning of the financial revolution globalization of capital flows still attracts considerable attention, from both practitioners and academics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of some aspects of the global capital scene, as well as to emphasize certain developments which might illustrate its changing profile. Several fundamental perspectives profile the global capital market. A quantitative review provides a sense of sheer volumes, trends, origins and destinations of capital flows; an assessment of the global capital market’s degree of integration follows. The emergence of new (types of actors is another important aspect of the global processes, while illustrations of new market products and emerging segments may add new perspectives on the profile of the global capital market. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief overview of digitalization of the financial supply chain.

  17. An Economic Viewpoint on Capitalism Bashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Sorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been clearly delineated. Not any more: globalization has rendered the picture dangerously fuzzy. It is now hard to ascertain whether someone who will harangue about the ostensible evils of globalization is also a declared anti-capitalist. The blend of capitalism and globalization seems to be pure dynamite.

  18. Foreign Venture Capital Firm - Skye in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, XiaoRui

    2007-01-01

    The reasons of why Tom Skype paid more attention to Venture Capital management have received more and more attentions from academic researchers in many current business studies. Based upon one case study in the Skype, this research has analyzed the significant of the Venture Capital. This research listed some differences of the situations in for the Skype and how it set up the Venture Capital strategic in China, then gave the author's own opinions to the research question.

  19. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye

    2017-01-01

    We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...

  20. Trading Fees and Slow-Moving Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Adrian; Dumas, Bernard J

    2015-01-01

    In some situations, investment capital seems to move slowly towards profitable trades. We develop a model of a financial market in which capital moves slowly simply because there is a proportional cost to moving capital. We incorporate trading fees in an infinite-horizon dynamic general-equilibrium model in which investors optimally and endogenously decide when and how much to trade. We determine the steady-state equilibrium no-trade zone, study the dynamics of equilibrium trades and prices a...