Isentropic Compression of Iron with the Z Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asay, J.R.; Bernard, M.A.; Hall, C.A.; Hayes, D.B.; Holland, K.G.; McDaniel, D.H.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.
1999-01-01
Development of isentropic loading techniques is a long standing goal of the shock physics community. The authors have used the Sandia Z Accelerator to produce smoothly increasing pressure loading on planar iron specimens over time durations of 100 ns and for pressures to 300 Mbar. Free surface velocity measurements on the rear surface of the continuously loaded specimens were made on specimens 0.5-mm and 0.8-mm thick and clearly show the effects of wave evolution into the well known two-wave structure resulting from the α-var e psilon phase transition beginning at 125 kbar. The resulting wave profiles are analyzed with a rate-dependent, phase transition model to extract information on phase transformation kinetics for isentropic compression of iron. Comparison of the experiments and calculations demonstrate the value of isentropic loading for studying phase transition kinetics
Gurovich, V.; Virozub, A.; Rososhek, A.; Bland, S.; Spielman, R. B.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2018-05-01
A major experimental research area in material equation-of-state today involves the use of off-Hugoniot measurements rather than shock experiments that give only Hugoniot data. There is a wide range of applications using quasi-isentropic compression of matter including the direct measurement of the complete isentrope of materials in a single experiment and minimizing the heating of flyer plates for high-velocity shock measurements. We propose a novel approach to generating quasi-isentropic compression of matter. Using analytical modeling and hydrodynamic simulations, we show that a working fluid composed of compressed water, generated by an underwater electrical explosion of a planar wire array, might be used to efficiently drive the quasi-isentropic compression of a copper target to pressures ˜2 × 1011 Pa without any complex target designs.
Isentropic Compression of Argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.
1997-01-01
We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal
Isentropic compression with the SPHINX machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'almeida, T; Lasalle, F.; Morell, A.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.
2013-01-01
The SPHINX machine is a generator of pulsed high power (Class 6 MA, 1 μs) that can be used in the framework of inertial fusion for achieving isentropic compression experiments. The magnetic field created by the current impulse generates a quasi-isentropic compression of a metallic liner. In order to optimize this mode of operation, the current impulse is shaped through a device called DLCM (Dynamic Load Current Multiplier). The DLCM device allows both the increase of the amplitude of the current injected into the liner and its shaping. Some preliminary results concerning an aluminium liner are reported. The measurement of the speed of the internal surface of the liner during its implosion and over a quite long trajectory has been possible by interferometry and the results agree well with simulations based on the experimental value of the current delivered to the liner
Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Excess molar volume; binary liquid mixtures; isentropic compressibility; intermolecular interactions. ... mixtures are essential for fluid flow, mass flow and heat transfer processes in chemical ... Experimentally determined values of density(ρ).
Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents the estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state and entropy balance method. The methods were applied to Ar, N2, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Data obtained revealed that isentropic exponent method provides useful results ...
Generating Quasi-Isentropic Loading to Targets via Flier-Plate Technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Qiang; Su Xiaopeng; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng; Hua Jinsong; Tan Hua
2008-01-01
The quasi-isentropic loading technique allows investigation of material properties in a high-pressure, low-temperature regime that is inaccessible by conventional shock wave experiments. In the present paper, the layered flier-plate and graded density flier-plate, which have different variations in the density gradient along the thickness direction but the same density range, were designed and fabricated. Impact experiments were then performed on a two-stage light gas gun. VISAR-measured results show that wave profiles with an initial jump followed by a slowly-rising front to the peak velocity amplitude are generated by using both types of the flier-plate, indicating that quasi-isentropic loading to the targets have been successfully realized. The process of quasi-isentropic loading can be seen as the successive overlap of a series of small shock waves by the transient layers in the flier-plate. It is obvious that the graded density flier-plate creates a more smoothly rising front, and the compression effect must be closer to isentropic loading than that of the layered flier-plate with the same density range
Isentropic compression studies using the NHMFL single turn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rickel, Dwight [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-10-19
Magnetic isentropic compression experiments (ICE) provide the most accurate shock free compression data for materials at megabar stresses. Recent ICE experiments performed on the Sandia Z-machine (Asay, 1999) and at the Los Alamos High Explosive Pulsed Power facility (Tasker, 2006) are providing our nation with data on material properties in extreme dynamic high stress environments. The LANL National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) can offer a less complex ICE experiment at high stresses (up to {approx}1Mbar) with a high sample throughput and relatively low cost. This is not to say that the NHMFL technique will replace the other methods but rather complement them. For example, NHMFL-ICE is ideal for the development of advanced diagnostics, e.g., to detect phase changes. We will discuss the physics of the NHMFL-ICE experiments and present data from the first proof-of-principle experiments that were performed in September 2010.
Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...
The VELOCE pulsed power generator for isentropic compression experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ao, Tommy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Asay, James Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Chantrenne, Sophie J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Hickman, Randall John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Willis, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Shay, Andrew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Grine-Jones, Suzi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Hall, Clint Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Baer, Melvin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center
2007-12-01
Veloce is a medium-voltage, high-current, compact pulsed power generator developed for isentropic and shock compression experiments. Because of its increased availability and ease of operation, Veloce is well suited for studying isentropic compression experiments (ICE) in much greater detail than previously allowed with larger pulsed power machines such as the Z accelerator. Since the compact pulsed power technology used for dynamic material experiments has not been previously used, it is necessary to examine several key issues to ensure that accurate results are obtained. In the present experiments, issues such as panel and sample preparation, uniformity of loading, and edge effects were extensively examined. In addition, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the ALEGRA code were performed to interpret the experimental results and to design improved sample/panel configurations. Examples of recent ICE studies on aluminum are presented.
Isentropic compressibilities of (amide + water) mixtures: A comparative study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papamatthaiakis, Dimitris; Aroni, Fryni; Havredaki, Vasiliki
2008-01-01
The density and ultrasonic velocity of aqueous solutions of formamide (FA), N-methylformamide (NMF), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), pyrrolidin-2-one (PYR), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and their pure phases have been measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Densities and ultrasonic velocities in pure amides have been also measured at the temperature range 288.15 K to 308.15 K for the computation of their thermal expansivities. Isentropic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relative association, apparent molar compressibility, as well as the excess quantities, ultrasonic velocity, isentropic compressibility, intermolecular free length, have been evaluated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister type equation. The deviation from ideal mixing law in ultrasonic velocity is positive while the deviations in isentropic compressibility and intermolecular free length are negative for all (amide + water) mixtures. This behavior reveals the nature and the magnitude of intermolecular interactions between the amide-water molecules. The sequence of superimposed curves of various ultrasonic parameters vs. the amide mole fraction is related to the strength of interactions between the unlike molecules and the role of -CH 3 substitution in amides. The comparison of ultrasonic to volumetric properties reveals differences on the position of the extrema and their relation with the degree of substitution while the interpretation of these differences is discussed. Two different approaches on the computation of excess functions, applied in this work, brought out a difference in the magnitude of deviations and a partial reversion to the sequence of amides curves suggesting a different estimation in terms of deviations from ideal mixing law and therefore of the relative molecular interactions
Direct Laser-Driven Quasi-Isentropic Compression on HEAVEN-I Laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Pin-Liang; Tang Xiu-Zhang; Li Ye-Jun; Wang Zhao; Tian Bao-Xian; Yin Qian; Lu Ze; Xiang Yi-Huai; Gao Zhi-Xing; Li Jing; Hu Feng-Ming; Gong Zi-Zheng
2015-01-01
The HEAVEN-I laser is used for direct drive quasi-isentropic compression up to ∼18 GPa in samples of aluminum without being temporal pulse shaped. The monotonically increasing loading is with a rise time over 17 ns. The compression history is well reproduced by the 1D radiation hydrodynamics simulation. We find that a small shock precursor where the backward integration method cannot process is formed at the beginning of illumination. We compare the loading process of HEAVEN-I with the typical profile (concave down, prefect pulse shape), the results show that a typical profile can obtain more slowly rising and higher pressure, and the shock precursor has significant effects on temperature and entropy production. However, it is demonstrated that the HEAVEN-I is an excellent optical source for direct laser-driven quasi-isentropic compression, even if it produces more temperature rise and entropy than the typical profile. (paper)
Thin Foil Acceleration Method for Measuring the Unloading Isentropes of Shock-Compressed Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asay, J.R.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Fortov, V.E.; Kanel, G.I.; Khishchenko, K.V.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mehlhorn, T.; Razorenov, S.V.; Utkin, A.V.
1999-01-01
This work has been performed as part of the search for possible ways to utilize the capabilities of laser and particle beams techniques in shock wave and equation of state physics. The peculiarity of these techniques is that we have to deal with micron-thick targets and not well reproducible incident shock wave parameters, so all measurements should be of a high resolution and be done in one shot. Besides the Hugoniots, the experimental basis for creating the equations of state includes isentropes corresponding to unloading of shock-compressed matter. Experimental isentrope data are most important in the region of vaporization. With guns or explosive facilities, the unloading isentrope is recovered from a series of experiments where the shock wave parameters in plates of standard low-impedance materials placed behind the sample are measured [1,2]. The specific internal energy and specific volume are calculated from the measured p(u) release curve which corresponds to the Riemann integral. This way is not quite suitable for experiments with beam techniques where the incident shock waves are not well reproducible. The thick foil method [3] provides a few experimental points on the isentrope in one shot. When a higher shock impedance foil is placed on the surface of the material studied, the release phase occurs by steps, whose durations correspond to that for the shock wave to go back and forth in the foil. The velocity during the different steps, connected with the knowledge of the Hugoniot of the foil, allows us to determine a few points on the isentropic unloading curve. However, the method becomes insensitive when the low pressure range of vaporization is reached in the course of the unloading. The isentrope in this region can be measured by recording the smooth acceleration of a thin witness plate foil. With the mass of the foil known, measurements of the foil acceleration will give us the vapor pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zinszner Jean-Luc
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Ceramic materials are commonly used as protective materials particularly due to their very high hardness and compressive strength. However, the microstructure of a ceramic has a great influence on its compressive strength and on its ballistic efficiency. To study the influence of microstructural parameters on the dynamic compressive behaviour of silicon carbides, isentropic compression experiments have been performed on two silicon carbide grades using a high pulsed power generator called GEPI. Contrary to plate impact experiments, the use of the GEPI device and of the lagrangian analysis allows determining the whole loading path. The two SiC grades studied present different Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL due to their different microstructures. For these materials, the experimental technique allowed evaluating the evolution of the equivalent stress during the dynamic compression. It has been observed that these two grades present a work hardening more or less pronounced after the HEL. The densification of the material seems to have more influence on the HEL than the grain size.
Ramanaiah, S.; Rao, C. Narasimha; Nagaraja, P.; Venkateswarlu, P.
2015-11-01
Exces volumes, VE, and excess isentropic compressibilities, κSE, have been reported as a function of composition for binary liquid mixtures of trichloroethylene with ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate, and n-butyl acetate at 303.15 K. Isentropic compressibilities are calculated using measured sound speeds and density data for pure components and for binary mixtures. Excess volumes and excess isentropic compressibilities are found to be negative for the three systems studied over the entire composition range at 303.15 K, whereas these values become more negative with an increase of carbon chain length. The results are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions between unlike molecules.
A study of binder materials subjected to isentropic compression loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, Clint Allen; Orler, E. Bruce; Sheffield, Steve A.; Gustavsen, Rick L.; Sutherland, Gerrit; Baer, Melvin R.; Hooks, D.E.
2005-01-01
Binders such as Estane, Teflon, Kel F and HTPB are typically used in heterogeneous explosives to bond polycrystalline constituents together as an energetic composite. Combined theoretical and experimental studies are underway to unravel the mechanical response of these materials when subjected to isentropic compression loading. Key to this effort is the determination of appropriate constitutive and EOS property data at extremely high stress-strain states as required for detailed mesoscale modeling. The Sandia Z accelerator and associated diagnostics provides new insights into mechanical response of these nonreactive constituents via isentropic ramp-wave compression loading. Several thicknesses of samples, varied from 0.3 to 1.2 mm, were subjected to a ramp load of ∼42 Kbar over 500 ns duration using the Sandia Z-machine. Profiles of transmitted ramp waves were measured at window interfaces using conventional VISAR. Shock physics analysis is then used to determine the nonlinear material response of the binder materials. In this presentation we discuss experimental and modeling details of the ramp wave loading ICE experiments designed specifically for binder materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Rahmat; Ziamajidi, Fatemeh
2007-01-01
The apparent specific volumes and isentropic compressibilities have been determined for polyvinylpyrrolidone in aqueous solutions of sodium citrate by density and sound velocity measurements at T = (283.15 to 308.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The results show a positive transfer volume of PVP from an aqueous solution to an aqueous sodium citrate solution. For low concentrations of PVP, the apparent specific volumes of PVP in water increased along with an increase in the polymer mass fraction, while in aqueous sodium citrate solutions decreased along with an increase in the polymer mass fraction. For high concentrations of PVP, the apparent specific volumes of PVP in water and in aqueous sodium citrate solutions were independent of the polymer mass fraction. The apparent specific isentropic compressibility of PVP is negative at T = (283.15 and 288.15) K, which imply that the water molecules around the PVP molecules are less compressible than the water molecules in the bulk solutions. The positive values of apparent specific isentropic compressibility at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K imply that the water molecules around the PVP molecules are more compressible than the water molecules in the bulk solutions. Finally, it was found that the apparent specific isentropic compressibility of PVP increases as the concentration of sodium citrate increases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sibiya, P.N.; Deenadayalu, N.
2008-01-01
This paper reports measurements of densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The IL is trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [OMA] + [Tf 2 N] - and the alkanols are methanol, or ethanol, or 1-propanol. The speed of sound at T = 298.15 K for the same binary systems was also measured. The excess molar volumes and the isentropic compressibilities for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental densities and the speed of sound, respectively. Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial equation was used to fit the excess molar volume and the deviation in isentropic compressibility data. The partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volumes have both negative and positive values, while the deviations in isentropic compressibility are negative over the entire composition range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, Nicolás; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Structural effects of the cations on surrounding water molecules are discussed. • Alkyl-chain geometry determines the hydration of Bu 4 N + isomers. • The “compactness” in the hydration shells varies significantly among the isomers. - Abstract: Values of apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetric and asymmetric isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide, namely tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, tetra-iso-butylammonium bromide, tetra-sec-butylammonium bromide, di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide and di-n-butyl-di-sec-butylammonium bromide, in aqueous solution were determined from density and speed of sound measurements. These properties were obtained as a function of molal concentration within the range of 0.01 < m/mol · kg −1 < 0.1 covering temperatures from 278.15 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 293.15. The partial molar volumes and the apparent isentropic molar compressibility at infinite dilution were calculated and their dependence on temperature examined. The results show that cations with sec-butyl chains have larger structural volumes compared to those with iso-butyl chains. In addition, cations with sec-butyl chains induce smaller structural changes in their hydration shell than the others
Unified solver for fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics in isentropic gas flows
Pont, Arnau; Codina, Ramon; Baiges, Joan; Guasch, Oriol
2018-06-01
The high computational cost of solving numerically the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the poor performance of most numerical formulations for compressible flow in the low Mach number regime, has led to the necessity for more affordable numerical models for Computational Aeroacoustics. For low Mach number subsonic flows with neither shocks nor thermal coupling, both flow dynamics and wave propagation can be considered isentropic. Therefore, a joint isentropic formulation for flow and aeroacoustics can be devised which avoids the need for segregating flow and acoustic scales. Under these assumptions density and pressure fluctuations are directly proportional, and a two field velocity-pressure compressible formulation can be derived as an extension of an incompressible solver. Moreover, the linear system of equations which arises from the proposed isentropic formulation is better conditioned than the homologous incompressible one due to the presence of a pressure time derivative. Similarly to other compressible formulations the prescription of boundary conditions will have to deal with the backscattering of acoustic waves. In this sense, a separated imposition of boundary conditions for flow and acoustic scales which allows the evacuation of waves through Dirichlet boundaries without using any tailored damping model will be presented.
The plastic response of Tantalum in Quasi-Isentropic Compression Ramp and Release
Moore, Alexander; Brown, Justin; Lim, Hojun; Lane, J. Matthew D.
2017-06-01
The mechanical response of various forms of tantalum under extreme pressures and strain rates is studied using dynamic quasi-isentropic compression loading conditions in atomistic simulations. Ramp compression in bcc metals under these conditions tend to show a significant strengthening effect with increasing pressure; however, due to limitations of experimental methods in such regimes, the underlying physics for this phenomenon is not well understood. Molecular dynamics simulations provide important information about the plasticity mechanisms and can be used to investigate this strengthening. MD simulations are performed on nanocrystalline Ta and single crystal defective Ta with dislocations and point defects to uncover how the material responds and the underlying plasticity mechanisms. The different systems of solid Ta are seen to plastically deform through different mechanisms. Fundamental understanding of tantalum plasticity in these high pressure and strain rate regimes is needed to model and fully understand experimental results. Sandia National Labs is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernal, P.J.; Van Hook, W.A.
1986-01-01
The molar volumes, isobaric expansion coefficients, and isentropic compressibilities of solutions of a number of carbohydrates and their deuterated isomers were determined in H 2 O and D 2 O between 288.15 and 328.15 K and over a wide range of solute-to-solvent mole ratios. The results are discussed in terms of the specific hydration model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedwig, Gavin R.; Jameson, Geoffrey B.; Hoiland, Harald
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Solution densities and sound speeds were measured for aqueous solutions of thymidine. → Partial molar volumetric properties at infinite dilution and T = 298.15 K were derived. → The partial molar isentropic and isothermal compressions are of opposite signs. → The partial molar heat capacity for thymidine at infinite dilution was determined. - Abstract: Solution densities have been determined for aqueous solutions of thymidine at T = (288.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution, V 2 0 , obtained from the density data were used to derive the partial molar isobaric expansion at infinite dilution for thymidine at T = 298.15 K, E 2 0 {E 2 0 =(∂V 2 0 /∂T) p }. The partial molar heat capacity at infinite dilution for thymidine, C p,2 0 , at T = 298.15 K has also been determined. Sound speeds have been measured for aqueous solutions of thymidine at T = 298.15 K. The partial molar isentropic compression at infinite dilution, K S,2 0 , and the partial molar isothermal compression at infinite dilution, K T,2 0 {K T,2 0 =-(∂V 2 0 /∂P) T }, have been derived from the sound speed data. The V 2 0 , E 2 0 , C p,2 0 , and K S,2 0 results for thymidine are critically compared with those available from the literature.
Quasi-isentropic Compression of Iron and Magnesium Oxide to 3 Mbar at the Omega Laser Facility
Wang, J.; Smith, R. F.; Coppari, F.; Eggert, J. H.; Boehly, T.; Collins, G.; Duffy, T. S.
2011-12-01
Developing a high-pressure, modest temperature ramp compression drive permits exploration of new regions of thermodynamic space, inaccessible through traditional methods of shock or static compression, and of particular relevance to material conditions found in planetary interiors both within and outside our solar system. Ramp compression is a developing technique that allows materials to be compressed along a quasi-isentropic path and provides the ability to study materials in the solid state to higher pressures than can be achieved with diamond anvil cell or shock wave methods. Iron and magnesium oxide are geologically important materials each representative of one of the two major interior regions (core and mantle) of terrestrial planets. An experimental platform for ramp loading of iron (Fe) and magnesium oxide (MgO), has been established and tested in experiments at the Omega Laser Facility, University of Rochester. Omega is a 60-beam ultraviolet (352 nm) neodymium glass laser which is capable of delivery kilojoules of energy in ~10 ns pulses onto targets of a few mm in dimension. In the current experiments, we used a composite ramped laser pulse involving typically 15 beams with total energy of 2.6-3.3 kJ. The laser beams were used to launch spatially planar ramp compression waves into Fe and MgO targets. Each target had four steps that were approximately 5-7 μm thick. Detection of the ramp wave arrival and its velocity at the free surface of each step was made using a VISAR velocity interferometer. Through the use of Lagrangian analysis on the measured wave profiles, stress-density states in iron and magnesium oxide have been determined to pressures of 291 GPa and 260 GPa respectively. For Fe, the α-ɛ transition of iron is overdriven by an initial shock pulse of ~90.1 GPa followed by ramp compression to the peak pressure. The results will be compared with shock compression and diamond anvil cell data for both materials. We acknowledge the Omega staff at
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maddox, B.R., E-mail: maddox3@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Park, H.-S., E-mail: park1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lu, C.-H., E-mail: chiahuilu@gmail.com [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Remington, B.A., E-mail: remington2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Prisbrey, S., E-mail: prisbrey1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kad, B., E-mail: bkad@ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Luo, R., E-mail: luorwga@gmail.com [General Atomics, 3483 Dunhill Street, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Meyers, M.A., E-mail: mameyers@eng.ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)
2013-08-20
Abstarct: A new method of subjecting samples to high-amplitude laser pulses with durations in the ns range and recovering them for characterization is presented. It is applied to tantalum monocrystals and nanocrystals that are subjected to controlled and prescribed ramp loading configurations, creating a quasi-isentropic loading in the front that is retained up to 40 μm into the specimen. This is enabled by the use of a reservoir into which six laser beams impinge simultaneously, thereby creating plasma in a reservoir, from which the pulse is launched into the metal. This technique enables, with proper wave trapping devices, the recovery of the specimens for subsequent characterization. Successful experiments conducted in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, U. of Rochester, generated pressure pulses with initial amplitudes ranging from 15 to 110 GPa and initial durations of ∼3 ns. The quasi-isotropic loading minimizes thermal effects at the front surface. The compression history of the recovered samples is measured using velocity interferometry from an Al-coated LiF witness target on the same shot driven by a separate, but equivalent set of laser beams. These experimental measurements are compared with computations using a radiation hydrodynamics code. Recovered samples are investigated using optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The laser damage to the surface is characterized.
Dynamic response of single crystalline copper subjected to quasi-isentropic, gas-gun driven loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarmakani, H.; McNaney, J.M.; Kad, B.; Orlikowski, D.; Nguyen, J.H.; Meyers, M.A.
2007-01-01
A transmission electron microscopy study of quasi-isentropic gas-gun loading (peak pressures between 18 and 52 GPa) of [0 0 1] monocrystalline copper was carried out. The defect substructures at these different pressures were analyzed. Current experimental evidence suggests a deformation substructure that transitions from slip to twinning, where twinning occurs at the higher pressures (∼52 GPa), and heavily dislocated laths and dislocation cells take place at the intermediate and lower pressures. Evidence of stacking faults at the intermediate pressures was also found. Dislocation cell sizes decreased with increasing pressure and increased with distance away from the surface of impact. The results from the quasi-isentropic experiments are compared with those for flyer-plate and laser shock experiments reported in the literature. The Preston-Tonks-Wallace constitutive description is used to model both quasi-isentropic and shock compression experiments and predict the pressure at which the slip-twinning transition occurs in both cases. The model predicts a higher twinning transition pressure for isentropic than for shock experiments, and that twinning should not take place in the quasi-isentropic compression experiments given the loading paths investigated
Isentropic expansion and related thermodynamic properties of non-ionic amphiphile-water mixtures.
Reis, João Carlos R; Douhéret, Gérard; Davis, Michael I; Fjellanger, Inger Johanne; Høiland, Harald
2008-01-28
A concise thermodynamic formalism is developed for the molar isentropic thermal expansion, ES,m = ( partial differential Vm/ partial differential T)(Sm,x), and the ideal and excess quantities for the molar, apparent molar and partial molar isentropic expansions of binary liquid mixtures. Ultrasound speeds were determined by means of the pulse-echo-overlap method in aqueous mixtures of 2-methylpropan-2-ol at 298.15 K over the entire composition range. These data complement selected extensive literature data on density, isobaric heat capacity and ultrasound speed for 9 amphiphile (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol)-water binary systems, which form the basis of tables listing molar and excess molar isobaric expansions and heat capacities, and molar and excess molar isentropic compressions and expansions at 298.15 K and at 65 fixed mole fractions spanning the entire composition range and fine-grained in the water-rich region. The dependence on composition of these 9 systems is graphically depicted for the excess molar isobaric and isentropic expansions and for the excess partial molar isobaric and isentropic expansions of the amphiphile. The analysis shows that isentropic thermal expansion properties give a much stronger response to amphiphile-water molecular interactions than do their isobaric counterparts. Depending on the pair property-system, the maximum excess molar isentropic value is generally twenty- to a hundred-fold greater than the corresponding maximum isobaric value, and occurs at a lower mole fraction of the amphiphile. Values at infinite dilution of the 9 amphiphiles in water are given for the excess partial molar isobaric heat capacity, isentropic compression, isobaric expansion and isentropic expansion. These values are interpreted in terms of the changes occurring when amphiphile molecules cluster into an oligomeric form. Present results are discussed
Final Report 02-ERD-033: Rapid Resolidification of Metals using Dynamic Compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Streitz, F H; Nguyen, J H; Orlikowski, D; Minich, R; Moriarty, J A; Holmes, N C
2005-01-01
The purpose of this project is to develop a greater understanding of the kinetics involved during a liquid-solid phase transition occurring at high pressure and temperature. Kinetic limitations are known to play a large role in the dynamics of solidification at low temperatures, determining, e.g., whether a material crystallizes upon freezing or becomes an amorphous solid. The role of kinetics is not at all understood in transitions at high temperature when extreme pressures are involved. In order to investigate time scales during a dynamic compression experiment we needed to create an ability to alter the length of time spent by the sample in the transition region. Traditionally, the extreme high-pressure phase diagram is studied through a few static and dynamic techniques: static compression involving diamond anvil cells (DAC) [1], shock compression [2, 3], and quasi-isentropic compression [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Static DAC experiments explore equilibrium material properties along an isotherm or an isobar [1]. Dynamic material properties can be explored with shock compression [2, 3], probing single states on the Hugoniot, or with quasi-isentropic compression [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In the case of shocks, pressures variation typically occurs on a sub-nanosecond time scale or faster [11]. Previous quasi-isentropic techniques have yielded pressure ramps on the 10-100 nanosecond time-scale for samples that are several hundred microns thick [4, 5, 6, 7]. In order to understand kinetic effects at high temperatures and high pressures, we need to span a large dynamic range (strain rates, relaxation times, etc.) as well as control the thermodynamic path that the material experiences. Compression rates, for instance, need to bridge those of static experiments (seconds to hours) and those of the Z-accelerator (10 6 s -1 ) [4] or even laser ablation techniques (10 6 s -1 to 10 8 s -1 ) [7]. Here, we present a new technique that both extends the compression time to several
The isentropic relation in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burm, K T A L
2004-01-01
The isentropic relation from gas dynamics relates pressure, density and temperature. The use of this relation may ease the hydrodynamic modelling effort. Characteristic for the isentropic relation is the constant isentropic exponent. The isentropic exponent is also in the case of plasmas a constant as long as the ionization degree is between 5 and 80%. This constant is lower due to the extra degree of freedom which comes with ionization in plasmas. The occurrence of ionization means that plasmas are never isentropic. The isentropic relation itself is therefore adapted here to include plasmas within its concept. From the plasma isentropic relation a further extension is to include viscosity and heating. It is found that all extra non-isentropic inclusions further lower the (quasi-) isentropic exponent in the adapted isentropic relation
Isentropic Analysis of a Simulated Hurricane
Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Pauluis, Olivier; Zhang, Fuqing
2016-01-01
Hurricanes, like many other atmospheric flows, are associated with turbulent motions over a wide range of scales. Here the authors adapt a new technique based on the isentropic analysis of convective motions to study the thermodynamic structure of the overturning circulation in hurricane simulations. This approach separates the vertical mass transport in terms of the equivalent potential temperature of air parcels. In doing so, one separates the rising air parcels at high entropy from the subsiding air at low entropy. This technique filters out oscillatory motions associated with gravity waves and separates convective overturning from the secondary circulation. This approach is applied here to study the flow of an idealized hurricane simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. The isentropic circulation for a hurricane exhibits similar characteristics to that of moist convection, with a maximum mass transport near the surface associated with a shallow convection and entrainment. There are also important differences. For instance, ascent in the eyewall can be readily identified in the isentropic analysis as an upward mass flux of air with unusually high equivalent potential temperature. The isentropic circulation is further compared here to the Eulerian secondary circulation of the simulated hurricane to show that the mass transport in the isentropic circulation is much larger than the one in secondary circulation. This difference can be directly attributed to the mass transport by convection in the outer rainband and confirms that, even for a strongly organized flow like a hurricane, most of the atmospheric overturning is tied to the smaller scales.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waisman, E. M.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Haill, T. A.; Davis, J.-P.; Brown, J. L.; Seagle, C. T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Spielman, R. B. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83201 (United States)
2016-06-15
The Thor pulsed power generator is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The design consists of up to 288 decoupled and transit time isolated capacitor-switch units, called “bricks,” that can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of pulse tailoring for magnetically driven isentropic compression experiments (ICE) [D. B. Reisman et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.–Accel. Beams 18, 090401 (2015)]. The connecting transmission lines are impedance matched to the bricks, allowing the capacitor energy to be efficiently delivered to an ICE strip-line load with peak pressures of over 100 GPa. Thor will drive experiments to explore equation of state, material strength, and phase transition properties of a wide variety of materials. We present an optimization process for producing tailored current pulses, a requirement for many material studies, on the Thor generator. This technique, which is unique to the novel “current-adder” architecture used by Thor, entirely avoids the iterative use of complex circuit models to converge to the desired electrical pulse. We begin with magnetohydrodynamic simulations for a given material to determine its time dependent pressure and thus the desired strip-line load current and voltage. Because the bricks are connected to a central power flow section through transit-time isolated coaxial cables of constant impedance, the brick forward-going pulses are independent of each other. We observe that the desired equivalent forward-going current driving the pulse must be equal to the sum of the individual brick forward-going currents. We find a set of optimal brick delay times by requiring that the L{sub 2} norm of the difference between the brick-sum current and the desired forward-going current be a minimum. We describe the optimization procedure for the Thor design and show results for various materials of interest.
Isentropic and non-isentropic sel-similar implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, Manuel; Linan, Amable.
1978-01-01
The self-similar motion of an implosive shock at the instant close to the reflection time at the center of the sphere (or cylinder), before and after that reflection occurs, is described. The material is considered to be a perfect gas. A detailed analysis is given of the ordinary differential equations that describe the velocity, density and pressure distributions, obtaining the numerical solution for several values of sigma. Asymptotic solutions are given for small values of 1/sigma and (sigma - 1). Also, the self-similar process of the isentropic compression of a sphere (or cylinder), with initial conditions of uniform density and zero velocity, is given. An asimptotic solution, valid for large values of the maximum density ratio, is obtained. As a part of the solution, it is obtained the pressure-time dependence needed at the outer surface to get the self-similar solution. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, Huihui
2015-01-01
In this paper we establish the global existence of smooth solutions to vacuum free boundary problems of the one-dimensional compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations for which the smoothness extends all the way to the boundaries. The results obtained in this work include the physical vacuum for which the sound speed is C 1/2 -Hölder continuous near the vacuum boundaries when 1 < γ < 3. The novelty of this result is its global-in-time regularity which is in contrast to the previous main results of global weak solutions in the literature. Moreover, in previous studies of the one-dimensional free boundary problems of compressible Navier–Stokes equations, the Lagrangian mass coordinates method has often been used, but in the present work the particle path (flow trajectory) method is adopted, which has the advantage that the particle paths and, in particular, the free boundaries can be traced. (paper)
Isentropic Gas Flow for the Compressible Euler Equation in a Nozzle
Tsuge, Naoki
2013-08-01
We study the motion of isentropic gas in a nozzle. Nozzles are used to increase the thrust of engines or to accelerate a flow from subsonic to supersonic. Nozzles are essential parts for jet engines, rocket engines and supersonicwind tunnels. In the present paper, we consider unsteady flow, which is governed by the compressible Euler equation, and prove the existence of global solutions for the Cauchy problem. For this problem, the existence theorem has already been obtained for initial data away from the sonic state, (Liu in Commun Math Phys 68:141-172, 1979). Here, we are interested in the transonic flow, which is essential for engineering and physics. Although the transonic flow has recently been studied (Tsuge in J Math Kyoto Univ 46:457-524, 2006; Lu in Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl 12:2802-2810, 2011), these papers assume monotonicity of the cross section area. Here, we consider the transonic flow in a nozzle with a general cross section area. When we prove global existence, the most difficult point is obtaining a bounded estimate for approximate solutions. To overcome this, we employ a new invariant region that depends on the space variable. Moreover, we introduce a modified Godunov scheme. The corresponding approximate solutions consist of piecewise steady-state solutions of an auxiliary equation, which yield a desired bounded estimate. In order to prove their convergence, we use the compensated compactness framework.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mochalov, M. A., E-mail: postmaster@ifv.vniief.ru; Il’kaev, R. I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A. L.; Blikov, A. O.; Ogorodnikov, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Iosilevskii, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
We report on the experimental results on the quasi-isentropic compressibility of a strongly nonideal deuterium plasma that have been obtained on setups of cylindrical and spherical geometries in the pressure range of up to P ≈ 5500 GPa. We describe the characteristics of experimental setups, as well as the methods for the diagnostics and interpretation of the experimental results. The trajectory of metal shells that compress the deuterium plasma was detected using powerful pulsed X-ray sources with a maximal electron energy of up to 60 MeV. The values of the plasma density, which varied from ρ ≈ 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} to ρ ≈ 6 g/cm{sup 3}, which corresponds to pressure P ≈ 5500 GPa (55 Mbar), were determined from the measured value of the shell radius at the instant that it was stopped. The pressure of the compressed plasma was determined using gasdynamic calculations taking into account the actual characteristics of the experimental setups. We have obtained a strongly compressed deuterium plasma in which electron degeneracy effects under the conditions of strong interparticle interaction are significant. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical models of a strongly nonideal partly degenerate plasma. We have obtained experimental confirmation of the plasma phase transition in the pressure range near 150 GPa (1.5 Mbar), which is in keeping with the conclusion concerning anomaly in the compressibility of the deuterium plasma drawn in [1].
Non-uniqueness of admissible weak solutions to the Riemann problem for isentropic Euler equations
Chiodaroli, Elisabetta; Kreml, Ondřej
2018-04-01
We study the Riemann problem for multidimensional compressible isentropic Euler equations. Using the framework developed in Chiodaroli et al (2015 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 68 1157–90), and based on the techniques of De Lellis and Székelyhidi (2010 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 195 225–60), we extend the results of Chiodaroli and Kreml (2014 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 214 1019–49) and prove that it is possible to characterize a set of Riemann data, giving rise to a self-similar solution consisting of one admissible shock and one rarefaction wave, for which the problem also admits infinitely many admissible weak solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saini, Neeti; Jangra, Sunil K.; Yadav, J.S.; Sharma, Dimple; Sharma, V.K.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Densities, ρ and speeds of sound, u of tetrahydropyran (i) + pyridine or α-, β- or γ-picoline (j) binary mixtures at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K and excess molar enthalpies, H E of the same set of mixtures at 308.15 K have been measured as a function of composition. → The observed densities and speeds of sound values have been employed to determine excess molar volumes, V E and excess isentropic compressibilities, κ S E . → Topology of the constituents of mixtures has been utilized (Graph theory) successfully to predict V E , H E and κ S E data of the investigated mixtures. → Thermodynamic data of the various mixtures have also been analyzed in terms of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. - Abstract: Densities, ρ and speeds of sound, u of tetrahydropyran (i) + pyridine or α-, β- or γ- picoline (j) binary mixtures at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K and excess molar enthalpies, H E of the same set of mixtures at 308.15 K have been measured as a function of composition using an anton Parr vibrating-tube digital density and sound analyzer (model DSA 5000) and 2-drop micro-calorimeter, respectively. The resulting density and speed of sound data of the investigated mixtures have been utilized to predict excess molar volumes, V E and excess isentropic compressibilities, κ S E . The observed data have been analyzed in terms of (i) Graph theory; (ii) Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory. It has been observed that V E , H E and κ S E data predicted by Graph theory compare well with their experimental values.
Introduction to compressible fluid flow
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices
Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of wet compression process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohan, Abhay; Kim, Heuy Dong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chidambaram, Palani Kumar [FMTRC, Daejoo Machinery Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suryan, Abhilash [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala (India)
2016-12-15
Wet compression systems increase the useful power output of a gas turbine by reducing the compressor work through the reduction of air temperature inside the compressor. The actual wet compression process differs from the conventional single phase compression process due to the presence of latent heat component being absorbed by the evaporating water droplets. Thus the wet compression process cannot be assumed isentropic. In the current investigation, the gas-liquid two phase has been modeled as air containing dispersed water droplets inside a simple cylinder-piston system. The piston moves in the axial direction inside the cylinder to achieve wet compression. Effects on the thermodynamic properties such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity are investigated in detail for different parameters such as compression speeds and overspray. An analytical model is derived and the requisite thermodynamic curves are generated. The deviations of generated thermodynamic curves from the dry isentropic curves (PV{sup γ} = constant) are analyzed.
Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of wet compression process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, Abhay; Kim, Heuy Dong; Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Suryan, Abhilash
2016-01-01
Wet compression systems increase the useful power output of a gas turbine by reducing the compressor work through the reduction of air temperature inside the compressor. The actual wet compression process differs from the conventional single phase compression process due to the presence of latent heat component being absorbed by the evaporating water droplets. Thus the wet compression process cannot be assumed isentropic. In the current investigation, the gas-liquid two phase has been modeled as air containing dispersed water droplets inside a simple cylinder-piston system. The piston moves in the axial direction inside the cylinder to achieve wet compression. Effects on the thermodynamic properties such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity are investigated in detail for different parameters such as compression speeds and overspray. An analytical model is derived and the requisite thermodynamic curves are generated. The deviations of generated thermodynamic curves from the dry isentropic curves (PV γ = constant) are analyzed
Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zainab Ibrahim Abood
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S, composite wavelet technique (W and composite multi-wavelet technique (M. For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En and compression ratio (CR and least values of bit per pixel (bpp, time (T and rate distortion R(D. Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: faruso@usc.es; Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
2005-12-15
Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M.; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Felix
2005-01-01
Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature
Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasan, M R; Ibrahimy, M I; Motakabber, S M A; Ferdaus, M M; Khan, M N H
2013-01-01
Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms
Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of electrolytes and ions in γ-butyrolactone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowiak, Joanna; Wawer, Jarosław; Farmas, Aleksander
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Density and speed of sound for salts solutions in γ-butyrolactone were measured. ► The apparent molar volumes and compressibilities have been determined. ► The limiting molar quantities are split into independent ionic contributions. ► These data are used to describe ion–solvent interactions. - Abstract: The densities of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide, sodium tetraphenylborate, lithium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and lithium bromide in γ-butyrolactone at (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K and speed of sound at 298.15 K have been measured. From these data apparent molar volumes V Φ at (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K and the apparent molar isentropic compressibility K S,Φ , at T = 298.15 K of the salts have been determined. The apparent molar volumes and the apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were fitted to the Redlich, Rosenfeld and Mayer equation as well as to the Pitzer and Masson equations yielding infinite dilution data. The obtained limiting values have been used to estimate the ionic data of the standard partial molar volume and the standard partial isentropic compressibility in γ-butyrolactone solutions.
Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors
Bonny, Mohamed Talal
2010-09-01
The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures
Grundland, A. M.; Lalague, L.
1996-04-01
This paper presents a new method of constructing, certain classes of solutions of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) describing the non-stationary and isentropic flow for an ideal compressible fluid. A generalization of the symmetry reduction method to the case of partially-invariant solutions (PISs) has been formulated. We present a new algorithm for constructing PISs and discuss in detail the necessary conditions for the existence of non-reducible PISs. All these solutions have the defect structure 0305-4470/29/8/019/img1 and are computed from four-dimensional symmetric subalgebras. These theoretical considerations are illustrated by several examples. Finally, some new classes of invariant solutions obtained by the symmetry reduction method are included. These solutions represent central, conical, rational, spherical, cylindrical and non-scattering double waves.
Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of selected electrolytes in dimethylsulfoxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warminska, Dorota; Grzybkowski, Waclaw
2010-01-01
Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and sound velocities at T = 298.15 K of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide, sodium tetraphenylborate, sodium bromide, and sodium perchlorate in dimethylsulfoxide have been measured over the composition range from (0 to 0.3) mol . kg -1 . From these data, apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The results have been discussed in terms of employing tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate as a reference electrolyte in splitting the limiting apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities into ionic contributions.
Temperature anomalies of shock and isentropic waves of quark-hadron phase transition
Konyukhov, A. V.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Levashov, P. R.; Likhachev, A. P.
2018-01-01
In this work, we consider a phenomenological equation of state, which combinesstatistical description for hadron gas and a bag-model-based approach for the quark-gluon plasma. The equation of state is based on the excluded volume method in its thermodynamically consistent variant from Satarov et al [2009 Phys. At. Nucl. 72 1390]. The characteristic shape of the Taub adiabats and isentropes in the phase diagram is affected by the anomalous pressure-temperature dependence along the curve of phase equilibrium. The adiabats have kink points at the boundary of the two-phase region, inside which the temperature decreases with compression. Thermodynamic properties of matter observed in the quark-hadron phase transition region lead to hydrodynamic anomalies (in particular, to the appearance of composite compression and rarefaction waves). On the basis of relativistic hydrodynamics equations we investigate and discuss the structure and anomalous temperature behavior in these waves.
Experimental investigation of dynamic compression and spallation of Cerium at pressures up to 6 GPa
Zubareva, A. N.; Kolesnikov, S. A.; Utkin, A. V.
2014-05-01
In this study the experiments on one-dimensional dynamic compression of Cerium (Ce) samples to pressures of 0.5 to 6 GPa using various types of explosively driven generators were conducted. VISAR laser velocimeter was used to obtain Ce free surface velocity profiles. The isentropic compression wave was registered for γ-phase of Ce at pressures lower than 0.76 GPa that corresponds to γ-α phase transition pressure in Ce. Shock rarefaction waves were also registered in several experiments. Both observations were the result of the anomalous compressibility of γ-phase of Ce. On the basis of our experimental results the compression isentrope of Ce γ-phase was constructed. Its comparison with volumetric compression curves allowed to estimate the magnitude of shear stress at dynamic compression conditions for Ce. Spall strength measurements were also conducted for several samples. They showed a strong dependence of the spall strength of Ce on the strain rate.
Experimental investigation of dynamic compression and spallation of cerium at pressures up to 6 GPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubareva, A N; Kolesnikov, S A; Utkin, A V
2014-01-01
In this study the experiments on one-dimensional dynamic compression of Cerium (Ce) samples to pressures of 0.5 to 6 GPa using various types of explosively driven generators were conducted. VISAR laser velocimeter was used to obtain Ce free surface velocity profiles. The isentropic compression wave was registered for γ-phase of Ce at pressures lower than 0.76 GPa that corresponds to γ-α phase transition pressure in Ce. Shock rarefaction waves were also registered in several experiments. Both observations were the result of the anomalous compressibility of γ-phase of Ce. On the basis of our experimental results the compression isentrope of Ce γ-phase was constructed. Its comparison with volumetric compression curves allowed to estimate the magnitude of shear stress at dynamic compression conditions for Ce. Spall strength measurements were also conducted for several samples. They showed a strong dependence of the spall strength of Ce on the strain rate.
ENTROPIES AND FLUX-SPLITTINGS FOR THE ISENTROPIC EULER EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The authors establish the existence of a large class of mathematical entropies (the so-called weak entropies) associated with the Euler equations for an isentropic, compressible fluid governed by a general pressure law. A mild assumption on the behavior of the pressure law near the vacuum is solely required. The analysis is based on an asymptotic expansion of the fundamental solution (called here the entropy kernel) of a highly singular Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. The entropy kernel is only H lder continuous and its regularity is carefully investigated. Relying on a notion introduced earlier by the authors, it is also proven that, for the Euler equations, the set of entropy flux-splittings coincides with the set of entropies-entropy fluxes. These results imply the existence of a flux-splitting consistent with all of the entropy inequalities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeMuth, S.F.; Watson, J.S.
1985-01-01
A model of compressible flow through an orifice, in the region of transition from free molecular to isentropic expansion flow, has been developed and tested for accuracy. The transitional or slip regime is defined as the conditions where molecular interactions are too many for free molecular flow modeling, yet not great enough for isentropic expansion flow modeling. Due to a lack of literature establishing a well-accepted model for predicting transitional flow, it was felt such work would be beneficial. The model is nonlinear and cannot be satisfactorily linearized for a linear regression analysis. Consequently, a computer routine was developed which minimized the sum of the squares of the residual flow for the nonlinear model. The results indicate an average accuracy within 15% of the measured flow throughout the range of test conditions. Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis indicate that the transitional regime lies between Knudsen numbers of approximately 2 and 45. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duman, Osman; Ayranci, Erol
2009-01-01
Densities and ultrasound speeds of benzyltrialkylammonium chlorides (BTAACls) were measured accurately in aqueous solutions at five temperatures (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. The data were utilized in determining apparent molar volumes, V Φ , and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities, K SΦ . Infinite dilution values of these apparent molar quantities, V Φ 0 andK SΦ 0 , were determined by extrapolation procedures. Contribution of CH 2 groups, along the alkyl groups of BTAACls, to V Φ 0 andK SΦ 0 values were derived from plots of these quantities as a function of number of additional CH 2 groups in going from benzyltrimethylammonium chloride to benzyltributylammonium chloride. The temperature dependencies of V Φ 0 andK SΦ 0 values were examined on the basis of isobaric expansivity. Apparent molar isobaric expansivities at infinite dilution, E Φ 0 , were obtained from the slopes of V Φ 0 versus temperature data. Concentration dependencies of V Φ and K SΦ were examined. A fair correlation was observed between V Φ 0 andK SΦ 0 values of the three BTAACls.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, W.C.
1985-01-01
Quasi-isentropic (QI) compression can be achieved by loading a specimen with a low strain rate, long rise time uniaxial strain wave. Recent experimental data show that the quasi-isentrope of 6061-T6 aluminum lies a few percent above the principal Hugoniot, that is, at a given specific volume, the QI stress exceeds the principal Hugoniot stress. It has been suggested that this effect is due to material strength. Using Hugoniot data, shock-reshock, and shock-unload data for beryllium and 6061-T6 aluminum, we have constructed the quasi-isentropes as functions of specific volume. Our results show that the QI stress exceeds the principal Hugoniot stress above a Hugoniot stress of 8.4 GPa in beryllium, and between Hugoniot stresses of 3.8 and 21.4 GPa in aluminum. The effect is due to strength and implies that the QI yield strength can be large. Our calculations show that the QI yield strength is 0.9 GPa in aluminum at a QI stress of 9 GPa, and 5.2 GPa in beryllium at a QI stress of 35 GPa
Evaluation of a new image compression technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algra, P.R.; Kroon, H.M.; Noordveld, R.B.; DeValk, J.P.J.; Seeley, G.W.; Westerink, P.H.
1988-01-01
The authors present the evaluation of a new image compression technique, subband coding using vector quantization, on 44 CT examinations of the upper abdomen. Three independent radiologists reviewed the original images and compressed versions. The compression ratios used were 16:1 and 20:1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed no difference in the diagnostic contents between originals and their compressed versions. Subjective visibility of anatomic structures was equal. Except for a few 20:1 compressed images, the observers could not distinguish compressed versions from original images. They conclude that subband coding using vector quantization is a valuable method for data compression in CT scans of the abdomen
Specifically Prescribed Dynamic Thermodynamic Paths and Resolidification Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, J; Orlikowski, D; Streitz, F; Holmes, N; Moriarty, J
2003-11-01
We describe here a series of dynamic compression experiments using impactors with specifically prescribed density profiles. Building upon previous impactor designs, we compose our functionally graded density impactors of materials whose densities vary from about 0.1 g/cc to more than 15 g/cc. These impactors, whose density profiles are not restricted to be monotonic, can be used to generate prescribed thermodynamic paths in the targets. These paths include quasi-isentropes as well as combinations of shock, rarefraction, and quasi-isentropic compression waves. The time-scale of these experiments ranges from nanoseconds to several microseconds. Strain-rates in the quasi-isentropic compression experiments vary from approximately 10 4 s -1 to 10 6 s -1 . We applied this quasi-isentropic compression technique to resolidify water where ice is at a higher temperature than the initial water sample. The particle velocity of quasi-isentropically compressed water exhibits a two-wave structure and sample thickness scales consistently with water-ice phase transition time. Experiments on resolidification of molten bismuth are also promising
Techniques for data compression in experimental nuclear physics problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byalko, A.A.; Volkov, N.G.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.
1984-01-01
Techniques and ways for data compression during physical experiments are estimated. Data compression algorithms are divided into three groups: the first one includes the algorithms based on coding and which posses only average indexes by data files, the second group includes algorithms with data processing elements, the third one - algorithms for converted data storage. The greatest promise for the techniques connected with data conversion is concluded. The techniques possess high indexes for compression efficiency and for fast response, permit to store information close to the source one
Free Piston Problem for Isentropic Gas Dynamics
Takeno, Shigeharu
1995-01-01
We consider the existence of the generalized solution for a free piston problem for isentropic gas dynamics. By the compensated compactness theory, we can show that an approximate solution converges to a generalized solution.
Liu, Shun; Xu, Jinglei; Yu, Kaikai
2017-06-01
This paper proposes an improved approach for extraction of pressure fields from velocity data, such as obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV), especially for steady compressible flows with strong shocks. The principle of this approach is derived from Navier-Stokes equations, assuming adiabatic condition and neglecting viscosity of flow field boundaries measured by PIV. The computing method is based on MacCormack's technique in computational fluid dynamics. Thus, this approach is called the MacCormack method. Moreover, the MacCormack method is compared with several approaches proposed in previous literature, including the isentropic method, the spatial integration and the Poisson method. The effects of velocity error level and PIV spatial resolution on these approaches are also quantified by using artificial velocity data containing shock waves. The results demonstrate that the MacCormack method has higher reconstruction accuracy than other approaches, and its advantages become more remarkable with shock strengthening. Furthermore, the performance of the MacCormack method is also validated by using synthetic PIV images with an oblique shock wave, confirming the feasibility and advantage of this approach in real PIV experiments. This work is highly significant for the studies on aerospace engineering, especially the outer flow fields of supersonic aircraft and the internal flow fields of ramjets.
Release isentrope measurements with the LLNL electric gun
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gathers, G.R.; Osher, J.E.; Chau, H.H.; Weingart, R.C.; Lee, C.G.; Diaz, E.
1987-06-01
The liquid-vapor coexistence boundary is not well known for most metals because the extreme conditions near the critical point create severe experimental difficulties. The isentropes passing through the liquid-vapor region typically begin from rather large pressures on the Hugoniot. We are attempting to use the high velocities achievable with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) electric gun to obtain these extreme states in aluminum and measure the release isentropes by releasing into a series of calibrated standards with known Hugoniots. To achieve large pressure drops needed to explore the liquid-vapor region, we use argon gas for which Hugoniots have been calculated using the ACTEX code, as one of the release materials.
Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd; Ali, Mushtaq
2016-04-01
In teleradiology, image contents may be altered due to noisy communication channels and hacker manipulation. Medical image data is very sensitive and can not tolerate any illegal change. Illegally changed image-based analysis could result in wrong medical decision. Digital watermarking technique can be used to authenticate images and detect as well as recover illegal changes made to teleradiology images. Watermarking of medical images with heavy payload watermarks causes image perceptual degradation. The image perceptual degradation directly affects medical diagnosis. To maintain the image perceptual and diagnostic qualities standard during watermarking, the watermark should be lossless compressed. This paper focuses on watermarking of ultrasound medical images with Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless-compressed watermarks. The watermark lossless compression reduces watermark payload without data loss. In this research work, watermark is the combination of defined region of interest (ROI) and image watermarking secret key. The performance of the LZW compression technique was compared with other conventional compression methods based on compression ratio. LZW was found better and used for watermark lossless compression in ultrasound medical images watermarking. Tabulated results show the watermark bits reduction, image watermarking with effective tamper detection and lossless recovery.
Hugoniot and refractive indices of bromoform under shock compression
Liu, Q. C.; Zeng, X. L.; Zhou, X. M.; Luo, S. N.
2018-01-01
We investigate physical properties of bromoform (liquid CHBr3) including compressibility and refractive index under dynamic extreme conditions of shock compression. Planar shock experiments are conducted along with high-speed laser interferometry. Our experiments and previous results establish a linear shock velocity-particle velocity relation for particle velocities below 1.77 km/s, as well as the Hugoniot and isentropic compression curves up to ˜21 GPa. Shock-state refractive indices of CHBr3 up to 2.3 GPa or ˜26% compression, as a function of density, can be described with a linear relation and follows the Gladstone-Dale relation. The velocity corrections for laser interferometry measurements at 1550 nm are also obtained.
Hugoniot and refractive indices of bromoform under shock compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. C. Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate physical properties of bromoform (liquid CHBr3 including compressibility and refractive index under dynamic extreme conditions of shock compression. Planar shock experiments are conducted along with high-speed laser interferometry. Our experiments and previous results establish a linear shock velocity−particle velocity relation for particle velocities below 1.77 km/s, as well as the Hugoniot and isentropic compression curves up to ∼21 GPa. Shock-state refractive indices of CHBr3 up to 2.3 GPa or ∼26% compression, as a function of density, can be described with a linear relation and follows the Gladstone-Dale relation. The velocity corrections for laser interferometry measurements at 1550 nm are also obtained.
Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douaa Younis Abbaas
2018-04-01
Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blake, B.; Zumbrun, K.; Lafitte, O.
2010-01-01
For the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations of isentropic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with γ-law gas equation of state, γ≥1, and infinite electrical resistivity, we carry out a global analysis categorizing all possible viscous shock profiles. Precisely, we show that the phase portrait of the Crave ling-wave ODE generically consists of either two rest points connected by a viscous Lax profile, or else four rest points, two saddles and two nodes. In the latter configuration, which rest points are connected by profiles depends on the ratio of viscosities, and can involve Lax, over-compressive, or under-compressive shock profiles. Considered as three-dimensional solutions, under-compressive shocks are Lax-type (Alfven) waves. For the monatomic and diatomic cases γ=5/3 and γ=7/5, with standard viscosity ratio for a nonmagnetic gas, we find numerically that the the nodes are connected by a family of over-compressive profiles bounded by Lax profiles connecting saddles to nodes, with no under-compressive shocks occurring. We carry out a systematic numerical Evans function analysis indicating that all of these two-dimensional shock profiles are linearly and nonlinearly stable, both with respect to two- and three-dimensional perturbations. For the same gas constants, but different viscosity ratios, we investigate also cases for which under-compressive shocks appear; these are seen numerically to be stable as well, both with respect to two-dimensional and (in the neutral sense of convergence to nearby Riemann solutions) three-dimensional perturbations. (authors)
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOUNTAIN RIDGE USING SIMPLE ISENTROPIC MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siswanto Siswanto
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Model sederhana isentropis telah diaplikasikan untuk mengidentifikasi perilaku aliran masa udara melewati topografi sebuah gunung. Dalam model isentropis, temperature potensial θ digunakan sebagai koordinat vertikal dalam rezim aliran adiabatis. Medan angin dalam arah vertikal dihilangkan dalam koordinat isentropis sehingga mereduksi sistim tiga dimensi menjadi sistim dua dimensi lapisan θ. Skema komputasi beda hingga tengah telah digunakan untuk memformulasikan model adveksi. Paper ini membahas aplikasi sederhana dari model isentropis untuk mempelajari gelombang gravitasi dan fenomena angin gunung dengan desain komputasi periodik dan kondisi batas lateral serta simulasi dengan topografi yang berbeda. The aim of this work is to study turbulent flow over two-dimensional hill using a simple isentropic model. The isentropic model is represented by applying the potential temperature θ, as the vertical coordinate and is conversed in adiabatic flow regimes. This implies a vanishing vertical wind in isentropic coordinates which reduces the three dimensional system to a stack of two dimensional θ–layers. The equations for each isentropic layer are formally identical with the shallow water equation. A computational scheme of centered finite differences is used to formulate an advective model. This work reviews a simple isentropic model application to investigate gravity wave and mountain wave phenomena regard to different experimental design of computation and topographic height.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Kuldip
2014-01-01
In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Zγ, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter θ(= T e /T h ) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1 atm, 10 atm, and 100 atm in the temperature range from 6000 K to 60 000 K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Zγ with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter
Low-Complexity Lossless and Near-Lossless Data Compression Technique for Multispectral Imagery
Xie, Hua; Klimesh, Matthew A.
2009-01-01
This work extends the lossless data compression technique described in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral- Image Data, (NPO-42517) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), page 26. The original technique was extended to include a near-lossless compression option, allowing substantially smaller compressed file sizes when a small amount of distortion can be tolerated. Near-lossless compression is obtained by including a quantization step prior to encoding of prediction residuals. The original technique uses lossless predictive compression and is designed for use on multispectral imagery. A lossless predictive data compression algorithm compresses a digitized signal one sample at a time as follows: First, a sample value is predicted from previously encoded samples. The difference between the actual sample value and the prediction is called the prediction residual. The prediction residual is encoded into the compressed file. The decompressor can form the same predicted sample and can decode the prediction residual from the compressed file, and so can reconstruct the original sample. A lossless predictive compression algorithm can generally be converted to a near-lossless compression algorithm by quantizing the prediction residuals prior to encoding them. In this case, since the reconstructed sample values will not be identical to the original sample values, the encoder must determine the values that will be reconstructed and use these values for predicting later sample values. The technique described here uses this method, starting with the original technique, to allow near-lossless compression. The extension to allow near-lossless compression adds the ability to achieve much more compression when small amounts of distortion are tolerable, while retaining the low complexity and good overall compression effectiveness of the original algorithm.
Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques
Guha, Shyamal
2011-03-01
General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.
Compressive and Shear Wave Velocity Profiles using Seismic Refraction Technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aziman, M; Hazreek, Z A M; Azhar, A T S; Haimi, D S
2016-01-01
Seismic refraction measurement is one of the geophysics exploration techniques to determine soil profile. Meanwhile, the borehole technique is an established way to identify the changes of soil layer based on number of blows penetrating the soil. Both techniques are commonly adopted for subsurface investigation. The seismic refraction test is a non-destructive and relatively fast assessment compared to borehole technique. The soil velocities of compressive wave and shear wave derived from the seismic refraction measurements can be directly utilised to calculate soil parameters such as soil modulus and Poisson’s ratio. This study investigates the seismic refraction techniques to obtain compressive and shear wave velocity profile. Using the vertical and horizontal geophones as well as vertical and horizontal strike directions of the transient seismic source, the propagation of compressive wave and shear wave can be examined, respectively. The study was conducted at Sejagung Sri Medan. The seismic velocity profile was obtained at a depth of 20 m. The velocity of the shear wave is about half of the velocity of the compression wave. The soil profiles of compressive and shear wave velocities were verified using the borehole data and showed good agreement with the borehole data. (paper)
A Review On Segmentation Based Image Compression Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.Thayammal
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract -The storage and transmission of imagery become more challenging task in the current scenario of multimedia applications. Hence, an efficient compression scheme is highly essential for imagery, which reduces the requirement of storage medium and transmission bandwidth. Not only improvement in performance and also the compression techniques must converge quickly in order to apply them for real time applications. There are various algorithms have been done in image compression, but everyone has its own pros and cons. Here, an extensive analysis between existing methods is performed. Also, the use of existing works is highlighted, for developing the novel techniques which face the challenging task of image storage and transmission in multimedia applications.
Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage plant configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, Niklas; Vöhringer, O.; Kruck, C.; Eltrop, L.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We modeled several configurations of an adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) plant. ► We analyzed changes in efficiency of these configurations under varying operating conditions. ► The efficiency of the adiabatic CAES plant can reach about 70% for the isentropic configuration. ► In the polytropic case, the efficiency is about 10% lower (at about 60%) than in the isentropic configuration. ► The efficiency is highest for a two-stage CAES configuration and highly dependent on the cooling and heating demand. - Abstract: In this paper, the efficiency of one full charging and discharging cycle of several adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) configurations are analyzed with the help of an energy balance. In the second step main driving factors for the efficiency of the CAES configurations are examined with the help of sensitivity analysis. The results show that the efficiency of the polytropic configuration is about 60%, which is considerable lower than literature values of an adiabatic CAES of about 70%. The high value of 70% is only reached for the isentropic (ideal) configuration. Key element to improve the efficiency is to develop high temperature thermal storages (>600 °C) and temperature resistant materials for compressors. The highest efficiency is delivered by the two-stage adiabatic CAES configuration. In this case the efficiency varies between 52% and 62%, depending on the cooling and heating demand. If the cooling is achieved by natural sources (such as a river), a realistic estimation of the efficiency of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storages (without any greenhouse gas emissions due to fuel consumption) is about 60%.
Interactive computer graphics applications for compressible aerodynamics
Benson, Thomas J.
1994-01-01
Three computer applications have been developed to solve inviscid compressible fluids problems using interactive computer graphics. The first application is a compressible flow calculator which solves for isentropic flow, normal shocks, and oblique shocks or centered expansions produced by two dimensional ramps. The second application couples the solutions generated by the first application to a more graphical presentation of the results to produce a desk top simulator of three compressible flow problems: 1) flow past a single compression ramp; 2) flow past two ramps in series; and 3) flow past two opposed ramps. The third application extends the results of the second to produce a design tool which solves for the flow through supersonic external or mixed compression inlets. The applications were originally developed to run on SGI or IBM workstations running GL graphics. They are currently being extended to solve additional types of flow problems and modified to operate on any X-based workstation.
Real-time lossless data compression techniques for long-pulse operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, J.; Ruiz, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Barrera, E.
2007-01-01
Data logging and data distribution will be two main tasks connected with data handling in ITER. Data logging refers to the recovery and ultimate storage of all data, independent of the data source. Data distribution is related, on the one hand, to the on-line data broadcasting for immediate data availability and, on the other hand, to the off-line data access. Due to the large data volume expected, data compression is a useful candidate to prevent the waste of resources in communication and storage systems. On-line data distribution in a long-pulse environment requires the use of a deterministic approach to be able to ensure a proper response time for data availability. However, an essential feature for all the above purposes is to apply lossless compression techniques. This article reviews different lossless data compression techniques based on delta compression. In addition, the concept of cyclic delta transformation is introduced. Furthermore, comparative results concerning compression rates on different databases (TJ-II and JET) and computation times for compression/decompression are shown. Finally, the validity and implementation of these techniques for long-pulse operation and real-time requirements is also discussed
Real-time lossless data compression techniques for long-pulse operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Ruiz, M. [Dpto. de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, UPM, Campus Sur. Ctra., Valencia km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barrera, E. [Dpto. de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, UPM, Campus Sur. Ctra., Valencia km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain)
2007-10-15
Data logging and data distribution will be two main tasks connected with data handling in ITER. Data logging refers to the recovery and ultimate storage of all data, independent of the data source. Data distribution is related, on the one hand, to the on-line data broadcasting for immediate data availability and, on the other hand, to the off-line data access. Due to the large data volume expected, data compression is a useful candidate to prevent the waste of resources in communication and storage systems. On-line data distribution in a long-pulse environment requires the use of a deterministic approach to be able to ensure a proper response time for data availability. However, an essential feature for all the above purposes is to apply lossless compression techniques. This article reviews different lossless data compression techniques based on delta compression. In addition, the concept of cyclic delta transformation is introduced. Furthermore, comparative results concerning compression rates on different databases (TJ-II and JET) and computation times for compression/decompression are shown. Finally, the validity and implementation of these techniques for long-pulse operation and real-time requirements is also discussed.
Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors
Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Henkel, Jö rg
2010-01-01
% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures, namely ARM and MIPS. © 2010 ACM.
Data compression techniques and the ACR-NEMA digital interface communications standard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zielonka, J.S.; Blume, H.; Hill, D.; Horil, S.C.; Lodwick, G.S.; Moore, J.; Murphy, L.L.; Wake, R.; Wallace, G.
1987-01-01
Data compression offers the possibility of achieving high, effective information transfer rates between devices and of efficient utilization of digital storge devices in meeting department-wide archiving needs. Accordingly, the ARC-NEMA Digital Imaging and Communications Standards Committee established a Working Group to develop a means to incorporate the optimal use of a wide variety of current compression techniques while remaining compatible with the standard. This proposed method allows the use of public domain techniques, predetermined methods between devices already aware of the selected algorithm, and the ability for the originating device to specify algorithms and parameters prior to transmitting compressed data. Because of the latter capability, the technique has the potential for supporting many compression algorithms not yet developed or in common use. Both lossless and lossy methods can be implemented. In addition to description of the overall structure of this proposal, several examples using current compression algorithms are given
Edge compression techniques for visualization of dense directed graphs.
Dwyer, Tim; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Marriott, Kim; Mears, Christopher
2013-12-01
We explore the effectiveness of visualizing dense directed graphs by replacing individual edges with edges connected to 'modules'-or groups of nodes-such that the new edges imply aggregate connectivity. We only consider techniques that offer a lossless compression: that is, where the entire graph can still be read from the compressed version. The techniques considered are: a simple grouping of nodes with identical neighbor sets; Modular Decomposition which permits internal structure in modules and allows them to be nested; and Power Graph Analysis which further allows edges to cross module boundaries. These techniques all have the same goal--to compress the set of edges that need to be rendered to fully convey connectivity--but each successive relaxation of the module definition permits fewer edges to be drawn in the rendered graph. Each successive technique also, we hypothesize, requires a higher degree of mental effort to interpret. We test this hypothetical trade-off with two studies involving human participants. For Power Graph Analysis we propose a novel optimal technique based on constraint programming. This enables us to explore the parameter space for the technique more precisely than could be achieved with a heuristic. Although applicable to many domains, we are motivated by--and discuss in particular--the application to software dependency analysis.
Real-time lossless data compression techniques for long-pulse operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jesus Vega, J.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Ruiz, M.
2006-01-01
Data logging and data distribution will be two main tasks connected with data handling in ITER. Data logging refers to the recovery and ultimate storage of all data, independent on the data source. Control data and physics data distribution is related, on the one hand, to the on-line data broadcasting for immediate data availability for both data analysis and data visualization. On the other hand, delayed analyses require off-line data access. Due to the large data volume expected, data compression will be mandatory in order to save storage and bandwidth. On-line data distribution in a long pulse environment requires the use of a deterministic approach to be able to ensure a proper response time for data availability. However, an essential feature for all the above purposes is to apply compression techniques that ensure the recovery of the initial signals without spectral distortion when compacted data are expanded (lossless techniques). Delta compression methods are independent on the analogue characteristics of waveforms and there exist a variety of implementations that have been applied to the databases of several fusion devices such as Alcator, JET and TJ-II among others. Delta compression techniques are carried out in a two step algorithm. The first step consists of a delta calculation, i.e. the computation of the differences between the digital codes of adjacent signal samples. The resultant deltas are then encoded according to constant- or variable-length bit allocation. Several encoding forms can be considered for the second step and they have to satisfy a prefix code property. However, and in order to meet the requirement of on-line data distribution, the encoding forms have to be defined prior to data capture. This article reviews different lossless data compression techniques based on delta compression. In addition, the concept of cyclic delta transformation is introduced. Furthermore, comparative results concerning compression rates on different
Compression-RSA technique: A more efficient encryption-decryption procedure
Mandangan, Arif; Mei, Loh Chai; Hung, Chang Ee; Che Hussin, Che Haziqah
2014-06-01
The efficiency of encryption-decryption procedures has become a major problem in asymmetric cryptography. Compression-RSA technique is developed to overcome the efficiency problem by compressing the numbers of kplaintext, where k∈Z+ and k > 2, becoming only 2 plaintext. That means, no matter how large the numbers of plaintext, they will be compressed to only 2 plaintext. The encryption-decryption procedures are expected to be more efficient since these procedures only receive 2 inputs to be processed instead of kinputs. However, it is observed that as the numbers of original plaintext are increasing, the size of the new plaintext becomes bigger. As a consequence, it will probably affect the efficiency of encryption-decryption procedures, especially for RSA cryptosystem since both of its encryption-decryption procedures involve exponential operations. In this paper, we evaluated the relationship between the numbers of original plaintext and the size of the new plaintext. In addition, we conducted several experiments to show that the RSA cryptosystem with embedded Compression-RSA technique is more efficient than the ordinary RSA cryptosystem.
Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastassopoulos, G.; Lymberopoulos, D.; Panayiotakis, G.; Bezerianos, A.
1994-01-01
Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors)
Optimal control of compressible Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, K.; Ravindran, S.S.
1994-01-01
Optimal control for the viscous incompressible flows, which are governed by incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, has been the subject of extensive study in recent years, see, e.g., [AT], [GHS], [IR], and [S]. In this paper we consider the optimal control of compressible isentropic Navier-Stokes equations. We develop the weak variational formulation and discuss the existence and necessary optimality condition characterizing the optimal control. A numerical method based on the mixed-finite element method is also discussed to compute the control and numerical results are presented
Weinhold'length in an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas
Santoro, Manuel
2004-01-01
In this paper we study thermodynamic length of an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas using Weinhold metric in a two-dimensional state space. We give explicit relation between length at constant entropy and work.
Weinhold length in an isentropic ideal and quasi-ideal gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santoro, Manuel
2005-01-01
In this paper, we study thermodynamic length of an isentropic ideal and quasi-ideal gas using Weinhold metric in a two-dimensional state space. We give explicit relation between length at constant entropy and work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiou, D.P.; Milidonis, K.F.; Georgiou, E.N.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of a solar driven power plant running on the Braysson cycle. • Isothermal compression is implemented by the use of multistage intercooled compression stages. • The plant’s thermal efficiency is investigated and compared against other cycles. - Abstract: The present study develops the thermodynamic analysis for the cycle of a solar-driven, Braysson cycle based plant in the ideal limit and in the presence of process irreversibilities. The plant cycle differs from the conventional idealized Braysson cycle in that the implementation of the final isothermal compression process is substituted by a multistep intercooled compression. The cycle’s efficiency is analytically formulated after taking into account several loss (irreversibility) sources such as the non-isentropic behavior of the main compressor, the power turbine and the intercooled compressor stages as well as the actual heat transferred through countercurrent heat exchangers. All pressure losses associated with heat exchangers are related to the actual heat transfer load within each exchanger. The analysis develops a parametric evaluation for the effectiveness of the main cycle free variables on the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Such free variables include the working fluid maximum temperature, the compressor pressure ratio and the operating temperature limits of the intercooled compression stages, in addition to the polytropic coefficients of the compressor and power turbine (quasi-) isentropic processes. The results indicate that such a plant may reach efficiency levels above 30%, i.e. exceeding the efficiencies of the conventional Photovoltaic plants by a wide margin
Perturbational blowup solutions to the compressible Euler equations with damping.
Cheung, Ka Luen
2016-01-01
The N-dimensional isentropic compressible Euler system with a damping term is one of the most fundamental equations in fluid dynamics. Since it does not have a general solution in a closed form for arbitrary well-posed initial value problems. Constructing exact solutions to the system is a useful way to obtain important information on the properties of its solutions. In this article, we construct two families of exact solutions for the one-dimensional isentropic compressible Euler equations with damping by the perturbational method. The two families of exact solutions found include the cases [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the adiabatic constant. With analysis of the key ordinary differential equation, we show that the classes of solutions include both blowup type and global existence type when the parameters are suitably chosen. Moreover, in the blowup cases, we show that the singularities are of essential type in the sense that they cannot be smoothed by redefining values at the odd points. The two families of exact solutions obtained in this paper can be useful to study of related numerical methods and algorithms such as the finite difference method, the finite element method and the finite volume method that are applied by scientists to simulate the fluids for applications.
Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.
Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J
2006-11-01
Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.
Contact discontinuities in multi-dimensional isentropic Euler equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Březina, J.; Chiodaroli, E.; Kreml, Ondřej
2018-01-01
Roč. 2018 (2018), č. článku 94. ISSN 1072-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-01694Y Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : isentropic Euler equations * non-uniqueness * Riemann problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2016 https://ejde.math.txstate.edu/Volumes/2018/94/abstr.html
Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anastassopoulos, G; Lymberopoulos, D [Wire Communications Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Patras, Greece (Greece); Panayiotakis, G; Bezerianos, A [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Greece (Greece)
1994-12-31
Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors). 12 refs, 4 figs.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dragoescu, D.; Gheorghe, D.; Bendová, Magdalena; Wagner, Zdeněk
2015-01-01
Roč. 385, JAN 15 (2015), s. 105-109 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : speeds of sound * isentropic comprehenssibilities * refractive indices Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015
Nasir, Ehson Fawad
2016-07-16
A temperature sensor based on the intrapulse absorption spectroscopy technique has been developed to measure in situ temperature time-histories in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Two quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting near 4.55μm and 4.89μm were operated in pulsed mode, causing a frequency "down-chirp" across two ro-vibrational transitions of carbon monoxide. The down-chirp phenomenon resulted in large spectral tuning (δν ∼2.8cm-1) within a single pulse of each laser at a high pulse repetition frequency (100kHz). The wide tuning range allowed the application of the two-line thermometry technique, thus making the sensor quantitative and calibration-free. The sensor was first tested in non-reactive CO-N2 gas mixtures in the RCM and then applied to cases of n-pentane oxidation. Experiments were carried out for end of compression (EOC) pressures and temperatures ranging 9.21-15.32bar and 745-827K, respectively. Measured EOC temperatures agreed with isentropic calculations within 5%. Temperature rise measured during the first-stage ignition of n-pentane is over-predicted by zero-dimensional kinetic simulations. This work presents, for the first time, highly time-resolved temperature measurements in reactive and non-reactive rapid compression machine experiments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukatsu, Hiroshi
2007-01-01
This paper describes assessment of the lossless compression of a new efficient compression technique (JIS system) using neural network that the author and co-workers have recently developed. At first, theory is explained for encoding and decoding the data. Assessment is done on 55 images each of chest digital roentgenography, digital mammography, 64-row multi-slice CT, 1.5 Tesla MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) and digital subtraction angiography, which are lossless-compressed by the present JIS system to see the compression rate and loss. For comparison, those data are also JPEG lossless-compressed. Personal computer (PC) is an Apple MacBook Pro with configuration of Boot Camp for Windows environment. The present JIS system is found to have a more than 4 times higher efficiency than the usual compressions which compressing the file volume to only 1/11 in average, and thus to be importantly responsible to the increasing medical imaging data. (R.T.)
Three-Dimensional Inverse Transport Solver Based on Compressive Sensing Technique
Cheng, Yuxiong; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi
2013-09-01
According to the direct exposure measurements from flash radiographic image, a compressive sensing-based method for three-dimensional inverse transport problem is presented. The linear absorption coefficients and interface locations of objects are reconstructed directly at the same time. It is always very expensive to obtain enough measurements. With limited measurements, compressive sensing sparse reconstruction technique orthogonal matching pursuit is applied to obtain the sparse coefficients by solving an optimization problem. A three-dimensional inverse transport solver is developed based on a compressive sensing-based technique. There are three features in this solver: (1) AutoCAD is employed as a geometry preprocessor due to its powerful capacity in graphic. (2) The forward projection matrix rather than Gauss matrix is constructed by the visualization tool generator. (3) Fourier transform and Daubechies wavelet transform are adopted to convert an underdetermined system to a well-posed system in the algorithm. Simulations are performed and numerical results in pseudo-sine absorption problem, two-cube problem and two-cylinder problem when using compressive sensing-based solver agree well with the reference value.
Uma Vetri Selvi, G; Nadarajan, R
2015-12-01
Compression techniques are vital for efficient storage and fast transfer of medical image data. The existing compression techniques take significant amount of time for performing encoding and decoding and hence the purpose of compression is not fully satisfied. In this paper a rapid 4-D lossy compression method constructed using data rearrangement, wavelet-based contourlet transformation and a modified binary array technique has been proposed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images. In the proposed method, the image slices of fMRI data are rearranged so that the redundant slices form a sequence. The image sequence is then divided into slices and transformed using wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT). In WBCT, the high frequency sub-band obtained from wavelet transform is further decomposed into multiple directional sub-bands by directional filter bank to obtain more directional information. The relationship between the coefficients has been changed in WBCT as it has more directions. The differences in parent–child relationships are handled by a repositioning algorithm. The repositioned coefficients are then subjected to quantization. The quantized coefficients are further compressed by modified binary array technique where the most frequently occurring value of a sequence is coded only once. The proposed method has been experimented with fMRI images the results indicated that the processing time of the proposed method is less compared to existing wavelet-based set partitioning in hierarchical trees and set partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) compression schemes [1]. The proposed method could also yield a better compression performance compared to wavelet-based SPECK coder. The objective results showed that the proposed method could gain good compression ratio in maintaining a peak signal noise ratio value of above 70 for all the experimented sequences. The SSIM value is equal to 1 and the value of CC is greater than 0.9 for all
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bykov, A.I.; Boriskov, G.V.; Dolotenko, M.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)] [and others
1996-12-31
This report continues the series of work devoted to experimental study of a high-dense condensed argon state. Remember that according to work of Kwon et. al., hexagonal close-packed structure is profitable in terms of energy rather than face-centered argon structure (stable with zero pressure). What is most interesting and intriguing here is the issue of possible argon metallization, when it is compressed up to the densities more than 9.17 g/cm{sup 3}. In the experiment of 1995 (the arrangement and data are described in a cited reference) the authors recorded appearance of conductivity in argon, which is non-conductive in the initial state, when it is compressed more than a factor of four. The peak value of argon specific conductivity recorded in this experiment did not exceed 10 (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. This value of conductivity is characteristic of semiconductors, but not metals, which have 10{sup 4} (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. At this stage of the work the main attention is paid to recording of argon conductive state and studying the possibilities of multiframed radiography of the sample in the compressed state.
P. W. Bridgman's contributions to the foundations of shock compression of condensed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nellis, W J, E-mail: nellis@physics.harvard.ed [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)
2010-03-01
Based on his 50-year career in static high-pressure research, P. W. Bridgman (PWB) is the father of modern high-pressure physics. What is not generally recognized is that Bridgman was also intimately connected with establishing shock compression as a scientific tool and he predicted major events in shock research that occurred up to 40 years after his death. In 1956 the first phase transition under shock compression was reported in Fe at 13 GPa (130 kbar). PWB said a phase transition could not occur in a {approx}microsec, thus setting off a controversy. The scientific legitimacy of shock compression resulted 5 years later when static high-pressure researchers confirmed with x-ray diffraction the existence of epsilon-Fe. Once PWB accepted the fact that shock waves generated with chemical explosives were a valid scientific tool, he immediately realized that substantially higher pressures would be achieved with nuclear explosives. He included his ideas for achieving higher pressures in articles published a few years after his death. L. V. Altshuler eventually read Bridgman's articles and pursued the idea of using nuclear explosives to generate super high pressures, which subsequently morphed today into giant lasers. PWB also anticipated combining static and shock methods, which today is done with pre-compression of a soft sample in a diamond anvil cell followed by laser-driven shock compression. One variation of that method is the reverberating-shock technique, in which the first shock pre-compresses a soft sample and subsequent reverberations isentropically compress the first-shocked state.
Intelligent transportation systems data compression using wavelet decomposition technique.
2009-12-01
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) generates massive amounts of traffic data, which posts : challenges for data storage, transmission and retrieval. Data compression and reconstruction technique plays an : important role in ITS data procession....
Low Power LDPC Code Decoder Architecture Based on Intermediate Message Compression Technique
Shimizu, Kazunori; Togawa, Nozomu; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi
Reducing the power dissipation for LDPC code decoder is a major challenging task to apply it to the practical digital communication systems. In this paper, we propose a low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on an intermediate message-compression technique which features as follows: (i) An intermediate message compression technique enables the decoder to reduce the required memory capacity and write power dissipation. (ii) A clock gated shift register based intermediate message memory architecture enables the decoder to decompress the compressed messages in a single clock cycle while reducing the read power dissipation. The combination of the above two techniques enables the decoder to reduce the power dissipation while keeping the decoding throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture improves the power efficiency up to 52% and 18% compared to that of the decoder based on the overlapped schedule and the rapid convergence schedule without the proposed techniques respectively.
Cosmography of KNdS black holes and isentropic phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McInerney, James; Satishchandran, Gautam; Traschen, Jennie
2016-01-01
We present a new analysis of Kerr–Newman–deSitter black holes in terms of thermodynamic quantities that are defined in the observable portion of the Universe; between the black hole and cosmological horizons. In particular, we replace the mass m with a new ‘area product’ parameter X . The physical region of parameter space is found analytically and thermodynamic quantities are given by simple algebraic functions of these parameters. We find that different geometrical properties of the black holes are usefully distinguished by the sum of the black hole and cosmological entropies. The physical parameter space breaks into a region in which the total entropy, together with Λ, a and q uniquely specifies the black hole, and a region in which there is a two-fold degeneracy. In this latter region, there are isentropic pairs of black holes, having the same Λ, a , and q , but different X . The thermodynamic volumes and masses differ in such that there are high and low density branches. The partner spacetimes are related by a simple inversion of X , which has a fixed point at the state of maximal total entropy. We compute the compressibility at fixed total entropy and find that it diverges at the maximal entropy point. Hence a picture emerges of high and low density phases merging at this critical point. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baudisch, H.
1968-03-15
The tables presented in this report contain the thermodynamic values of isentropic change of state for water in the two-phase region starting from the saturation line down to 0.01 at. The variables have been computed in the pressure range from 5-100 at. in equal pressure intervals of 5 at. and in the range from 100-170 at. in intervals of 10 at. Assuming a one-dimensional flow and a known saturation pressure, the dimensions of a discharge nozzle may be determined by interpolation of the calculated values for an isentropic discharge. 4 figs., 29 tabs., 23 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Živić Marija
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Energy and exergy analysis of a Brayton cycle with an ideal gas is given. The irreversibility of the adiabatic processes in turbine and compressor is taken into account through their isentropic efficiencies. The net work per cycle, the thermal efficiency and the two exergy efficiencies are expressed as functions of the four dimensionless variables: the isentropic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, the pressure ratio, and the temperature ratio. It is shown that the maximal values of the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiency are achieved when the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio are as high as possible, while the different values of pressure ratio that maximize the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiencies exist. These pressure ratios increase with the increase of the temperature ratio and the isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine. The increase of the turbine isentropic efficiency has a greater impact on the increase of the net work per cycle and the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle than the same increase of compressor isentropic efficiency. Finally, two goal functions are proposed for thermodynamic optimization of a Brayton cycle for given values of the temperature ratio and the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies. The first maximizes the sum of the net work per cycle and thermal efficiency while the second the net work per cycle and exergy efficiency. In both cases the optimal pressure ratio is closer to the pressure ratio that maximizes the net work per cycle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Clint Allen; Furnish, Michael David; Podsednik, Jason W.; Reinhart, William Dodd; Trott, Wayne Merle; Mason, Joshua
2003-10-01
Of special promise for providing dynamic mesoscale response data is the line-imaging VISAR, an instrument for providing spatially resolved velocity histories in dynamic experiments. We have prepared two line-imaging VISAR systems capable of spatial resolution in the 10-20 micron range, at the Z and STAR facilities. We have applied this instrument to selected experiments on a compressed gas gun, chosen to provide initial data for several problems of interest, including: (1) pore-collapse in copper (two variations: 70 micron diameter hole in single-crystal copper) and (2) response of a welded joint in dissimilar materials (Ta, Nb) to ramp loading relative to that of a compression joint. The instrument is capable of resolving details such as the volume and collapse history of a collapsing isolated pore.
Evaluation of onboard hyperspectral-image compression techniques for a parallel push-broom sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briles, S.
1996-04-01
A single hyperspectral imaging sensor can produce frames with spatially-continuous rows of differing, but adjacent, spectral wavelength. If the frame sample-rate of the sensor is such that subsequent hyperspectral frames are spatially shifted by one row, then the sensor can be thought of as a parallel (in wavelength) push-broom sensor. An examination of data compression techniques for such a sensor is presented. The compression techniques are intended to be implemented onboard a space-based platform and to have implementation speeds that match the date rate of the sensor. Data partitions examined extend from individually operating on a single hyperspectral frame to operating on a data cube comprising the two spatial axes and the spectral axis. Compression algorithms investigated utilize JPEG-based image compression, wavelet-based compression and differential pulse code modulation. Algorithm performance is quantitatively presented in terms of root-mean-squared error and root-mean-squared correlation coefficient error. Implementation issues are considered in algorithm development.
Korkmaz, Ahmet; Duyuler, Serkan; Kalayci, Süleyman; Türker, Pinar; Sahan, Ekrem; Maden, Orhan; Selçuk, Mehmet Timur
2013-06-01
latrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysm is a well-known vascular access site complication. Many invasive and noninvasive techniques have been proposed for the management of this relatively common complication. In this study, we aimed to evaluate efficiency and safety of stethoscope-guided compression as a novel noninvasive technique in the femoral pseudoaneurysm treatment. We prospectively included 29 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of femoral pseudoaneurysm who underwent coronary angiography. Patients with a clinical suspicion of femoral pseudoaneurysm were referred to colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation. The adult (large) side of the stethoscope was used to determine the location where the bruit was best heard. Then compression with the paediatric (small) side of the stethoscope was applied until the bruit could no longer be heard and compression was maintained for at least two sessions. Once the bruit disappeared, a 12-hour bed rest with external elastic compression was advised to the patients, in order to prevent disintegration of newly formed thrombosis. Mean pseudoaneurysm size was 1.7 +/- 0.4 cmx 3.0 +/- 0.9 cm and the mean duration of compression was 36.2 +/- 8.5 minutes.Twenty-six (89.6%) of these 29 patients were successfully treated with stethoscope-guided compression. In 18 patients (62%), the pseuodoaneurysms were successfully closed after 2 sessions of 15-minute compression. No severe complication was observed. Stethoscope-guided compression of femoral pseudoaneurysms is a safe and effective novel technique which requires less equipment and expertise than other contemporary methods.
VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION THROUGH ADDER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE AT DCT STRUCTURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.R. Divya
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Data compression plays a vital role in multimedia devices to present the information in a succinct frame. Initially, the DCT structure is used for Image compression, which has lesser complexity and area efficient. Similarly, 2D DCT also has provided reasonable data compression, but implementation concern, it calls more multipliers and adders thus its lead to acquire more area and high power consumption. To contain an account of all, this paper has been dealt with VLSI architecture for image compression using Rom free DA based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform structure. This technique provides high-throughput and most suitable for real-time implementation. In order to achieve this image matrix is subdivided into odd and even terms then the multiplication functions are removed by shift and add approach. Kogge_Stone_Adder techniques are proposed for obtaining a bit-wise image quality which determines the new trade-off levels as compared to the previous techniques. Overall the proposed architecture produces reduced memory, low power consumption and high throughput. MATLAB is used as a funding tool for receiving an input pixel and obtaining output image. Verilog HDL is used for implementing the design, Model Sim for simulation, Quatres II is used to synthesize and obtain details about power and area.
Owodunni, Damilola S.
2014-04-01
In this paper, compressed sensing techniques are proposed to linearize commercial power amplifiers driven by orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals. The nonlinear distortion is considered as a sparse phenomenon in the time-domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional compressed sensing approach, while the second incorporates a priori information about the distortions to enhance the estimation. Finally, the third technique involves an iterative data-aided algorithm that does not require any pilot carriers and hence allows the system to work at maximum bandwidth efficiency. The performances of all the proposed techniques are evaluated on a commercial power amplifier and compared. The error vector magnitude and symbol error rate results show the ability of compressed sensing to compensate for the amplifier\\'s nonlinear distortions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies.
Allen, Douglas R.; Nakamura, Noboru
2003-01-01
Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a numerical synthesis of a PV-like tracer from a long-term integration of the advection-diffusion equation on isentropic surfaces. It is found that the tracer equivalent latitude (TrEL) behaves much like the traditional PV equivalent latitude (PVEL) despite the simplified governing physics; this is evidenced by examining the kinematics of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex. Yet in some cases TrEL performs markedly better as a coordinate for long-lived trace species such as ozone. These instances include analysis of lower stratospheric ozone during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and three-dimensional reconstruction of total column ozone during November-December 1999 from fitted ozone-equivalent latitude relationship. It is argued that the improvement is due to the tracer being free from the diagnostic errors and certain diabatic processes that affect PV. The sensitivity of TrEL to spatial and temporal resolution, advection scheme, and driving winds is also examined.
Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.
Direct numerical simulations of premixed autoignition in compressible uniformly-sheared turbulence
Towery, Colin; Darragh, Ryan; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter
2017-11-01
High-speed combustion systems, such as scramjet engines, operate at high temperatures and pressures, extremely short combustor residence times, very high rates of shear stress, and intense turbulent mixing. As a result, the reacting flow can be premixed and have highly-compressible turbulence fluctuations. We investigate the effects of compressible turbulence on the ignition delay time, heat-release-rate (HRR) intermittency, and mode of autoignition of premixed Hydrogen-air fuel in uniformly-sheared turbulence using new three-dimensional direct numerical simulations with a multi-step chemistry mechanism. We analyze autoignition in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames at eight different turbulence Mach numbers, Mat , spanning the quasi-isentropic, linear thermodynamic, and nonlinear compressibility regimes, with eddy shocklets appearing in the nonlinear regime. Results are compared to our previous study of premixed autoignition in isotropic turbulence at the same Mat and with a single-step reaction mechanism. This previous study found large decreases in delay times and large increases in HRR intermittency between the linear and nonlinear compressibility regimes and that detonation waves could form in both regimes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgess, T.J.; Hawke, R.S.
1978-01-01
Theoretical studies predict that molecular hydrogen can be converted to the metallic phase at very high density and pressure. These conditions were achieved by subjecting liquid hydrogen to isentropic compression in a magnetic-flux compression device. Hydrogen became electrically conducting at a density of about 1.06 g/cm 3 and a calculated pressure of about 2 Mbar. In the experimental device, a cylindrical liner, on implosion by high explosive, compresses a magnetic flux which in turn isentropically compresses a hydrogen sample; coaxial conical anvils prevent escape of the sample during compression. One anvil contains a coaxial cable that uses alumina ceramic as an insulator; this probe allows continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity of the hydrogen. A flash x-ray radiograph exposed during the experiment records the location of the sample-tube boundaries and permits calculation of the sample density. The theoretical underpinnings of the metallic transition of hydrogen are briefly summarized, and the experimental apparatus and technique, analytical methods, and results are described. 9 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Baojun
2016-01-01
Highlights: • COP of proposed system improves up to 17.2% compared with vapor injection cycle. • Discharge temperature of proposed system is largely decreased. • Proposed system is beneficial for refrigerant with high compression heat. • Proposed system has potential for applications in cold climate heat pump. - Abstract: In order to improve the performance of air source heat pump in cold climate region, a combined oil flooded compression with regenerator and vapor injection cycle system is suggested in this paper, which integrates oil flooded compression with regenerator into a conventional vapor injection cycle. A mathematical model is developed and parametric studies on this cycle are conducted to evaluate the benefits of the novel system. The performances of the novel system using R410A and R32 are compared with those of vapor injection cycle system. The improvement of coefficient of performance (COP) can reach up to nearly 9% based on the same isentropic efficiency, while 17.2% based on assumption that there is a 10% rise in isentropic efficiency brought by oil flooded compression cycle. The heating capacity is reduced by 8–18% based on the same volumetric efficiency, while could be less than 10% in a practical system. The discharge temperature is largely decreased and can be below 100 °C at −40 °C T_e and 50 °C T_c condition for R32. The theoretical results demonstrate this novel heat pump has a high potential for improving the performance of air source heat pump in cold climate region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhigang Liang; Xiangying Du; Jiabin Liu; Yanhui Yang; Dongdong Rong; Xinyu Y ao; Kuncheng Li
2008-01-01
Background: The JPEG 2000 compression technique has recently been introduced into the medical imaging field. It is critical to understand the effects of this technique on the detection of breast masses on digitized images by human observers. Purpose: To evaluate whether lossless and lossy techniques affect the diagnostic results of malignant and benign breast masses on digitized mammograms. Material and Methods: A total of 90 screen-film mammograms including craniocaudal and lateral views obtained from 45 patients were selected by two non-observing radiologists. Of these, 22 cases were benign lesions and 23 cases were malignant. The mammographic films were digitized by a laser film digitizer, and compressed to three levels (lossless and lossy 20:1 and 40:1) using the JPEG 2000 wavelet-based image compression algorithm. Four radiologists with 10-12 years' experience in mammography interpreted the original and compressed images. The time interval was 3 weeks for each reading session. A five-point malignancy scale was used, with a score of 1 corresponding to definitely not a malignant mass, a score of 2 referring to not a malignant mass, a score of 3 meaning possibly a malignant mass, a score of 4 being probably a malignant mass, and a score of 5 interpreted as definitely a malignant mass. The radiologists' performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: The average Az values for all radiologists decreased from 0.8933 for the original uncompressed images to 0.8299 for the images compressed at 40:1. This difference was not statistically significant. The detection accuracy of the original images was better than that of the compressed images, and the Az values decreased with increasing compression ratio. Conclusion: Digitized mammograms compressed at 40:1 could be used to substitute original images in the diagnosis of breast cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli; Manzurola, Emanuel
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures sound velocities were measured in aqueous solutions of citric acid. • Compressibility properties of citric acid solutions are thermodynamically characterized. • Changes in the structure of water when citric acid is dissolved are discussed. -- Abstract: Sound velocities in aqueous solutions of citric acid were measured from 15 °C to 50 °C in 5 °C intervals, within the 0.1 mol · kg −1 to 5.0 mol · kg −1 concentration range. These sound velocities served to evaluate the isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, the apparent molar compressibilities, the isochoric thermal pressure coefficients, changes of the cubic expansion coefficients with pressure at constant temperature, the changes of heat capacities with volume and hydration numbers of citric acid in aqueous solutions
Patterns Formation in a Self-Gravitating Isentropic Gas
Humi, Mayer
2018-03-01
In this paper we consider a hydrodynamic model for the matter density distribution in a self gravitating, isentropic 2-d disk of gas where the isentropy coefficient is allowed to be a function of position. For this model we prove analytically the existence of steady state and time dependent solutions in which the matter density in the disk is oscillatory and pattern forming. This research is motivated in part by recent astronomical observations and Laplace conjecture (made in 1796) that planetary systems evolve from a family of isolated rings that are formed within a primitive interstellar gas cloud.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negadi, Latifa; Feddal-Benabed, Badra; Bahadur, Indra; Saab, Joseph; Zaoui-Djelloul-Daouadji, Manel; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Negadi, Amina
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Densities (ρ) and sound velocities (u) for glycerol, +water, +methanol, or +ethanol systems were measured. • The derived properties (excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility and deviation in isentropic compressibility) were calculated. • The Redlich–Kister polynomial was used to fit the experimental results. - Abstract: Densities and sound velocities of three binary systems containing glycerol + (water, methanol, or ethanol) have been measured over the entire composition range at temperatures ranging from (283.15 to 313.15) K in 10 K intervals, at atmospheric pressure. A vibrating u-tube densimeter and sound velocity analyzer (Anton Paar DSA 5000M) was used for the measurements. Thermodynamic properties were derived from the measured data, viz. excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility, and deviation in isentropic compressibility. The property data were correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial. In all cases, the excess molar volumes and deviation in isentropic compressibility are negative over the entire composition range for all binary mixtures studied and become increasingly negative with an increase in the temperature. These properties provide important information about different interactions that take place between like-like, like-unlike and unlike-unlike molecules in the mixtures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijaya Krishna, T.; Madhu Mohan, T.; Madhusudana Rao, P.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Nature of interactions in the binary mixture of [Emim][BF 4 ] + aniline are studied. • Excess properties are calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. • Temperature dependence of the calculated thermophysical propertiesis discussed. - Abstract: Density and speed of sound values are measured for the binary mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and aniline over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K under atmospheric pressure. Using the basic experimental results for the molar volume, isentropic compressibility, molar isentropic compressibility, inter molecular free length, excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess molar isentropic compressibility and excess intermolecular free length, these values are calculated. The partial molar volumes and partial molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilutions have also been calculated. The trends of variation of the properties have been interpreted in light of the solute–solvent interactions occurring in the system. The excess values are fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary coefficients and standard deviation between the experimental and calculated values. Further, the molecular interactions in the binary mixture system are analysed using the experimental FT-IR spectrum recorded at room temperature.
Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Gong, Cuiling
2017-07-01
The compressive line sensing imaging system adopts distributed compressive sensing (CS) to acquire data and reconstruct images. Dynamic CS uses Bayesian inference to capture the correlated nature of the adjacent lines. An image reconstruction technique that incorporates dynamic CS in the distributed CS framework was developed to improve the quality of reconstructed images. The effectiveness of the technique was validated using experimental data acquired in an underwater imaging test facility. Results that demonstrate contrast and resolution improvements will be presented. The improved efficiency is desirable for unmanned aerial vehicles conducting long-duration missions.
Modeling the Isentropic Head Value of Centrifugal Gas Compressor using Genetic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Safiyullah Ferozkhan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Gas compressor performance is vital in oil and gas industry because of the equipment criticality which requires continuous operations. Plant operators often face difficulties in predicting appropriate time for maintenance and would usually rely on time based predictive maintenance intervals as recommended by original equipment manufacturer (OEM. The objective of this work is to develop the computational model to find the isentropic head value using genetic programming. The isentropic head value is calculated from the OEM performance chart. Inlet mass flow rate and speed of the compressor are taken as the input value. The obtained results from the GP computational models show good agreement with experimental and target data with the average prediction error of 1.318%. The genetic programming computational model will assist machinery engineers to quantify performance deterioration of gas compressor and the results from this study will be then utilized to estimate future maintenance requirements based on the historical data. In general, this genetic programming modelling provides a powerful solution for gas compressor operators to realize predictive maintenance approach in their operations.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cilliers, Jacques E
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In [1] the authors introduced a technique for generating mismatched pulse compression filters for linear frequency chirp signals. The technique minimizes the sum of the pulse compression sidelobes in a p L –norm sense. It was shown that extremely...
Distributed Source Coding Techniques for Lossless Compression of Hyperspectral Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barni Mauro
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of distributed source coding (DSC theory to remote sensing image compression. Although DSC exhibits a significant potential in many application fields, up till now the results obtained on real signals fall short of the theoretical bounds, and often impose additional system-level constraints. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of DSC for lossless image compression carried out onboard a remote platform. We first provide a brief overview of DSC of correlated information sources. We then focus on onboard lossless image compression, and apply DSC techniques in order to reduce the complexity of the onboard encoder, at the expense of the decoder's, by exploiting the correlation of different bands of a hyperspectral dataset. Specifically, we propose two different compression schemes, one based on powerful binary error-correcting codes employed as source codes, and one based on simpler multilevel coset codes. The performance of both schemes is evaluated on a few AVIRIS scenes, and is compared with other state-of-the-art 2D and 3D coders. Both schemes turn out to achieve competitive compression performance, and one of them also has reduced complexity. Based on these results, we highlight the main issues that are still to be solved to further improve the performance of DSC-based remote sensing systems.
Jing, P.; Cunnold, D. M.; Yang, E.-S.; Wang, H.-J.
2005-01-01
The isentropic cross-tropopause ozone transport has been estimated in both hemispheres in 1999 based on the potential vorticity mapping of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 ozone measurements and contour advection calculations using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global and Modeling Assimilation Office analysis. The estimated net isentropic stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux is approx.118 +/- 61 x 10(exp9)kg/yr globally within the layer between 330 and 370 K in 1999; 60% of it is found in the Northern Hemisphere, and 40% is found in the Southern Hemisphere. The monthly average ozone fluxes are strongest in summer and weakest in winter in both hemispheres. The seasonal variations of ozone in the lower stratosphere (LS) and upper troposphere (UT) have been analyzed using ozonesonde observations from ozonesonde stations in the extratropics and subtropics, respectively. It is shown that observed ozone levels increase in the UT over subtropical ozonesonde stations and decrease in the LS over extratropical stations in late spring/early summer and that the ozone increases in the summertime subtropical UT are unlikely to be explained by photochemical ozone production and diabatic transport alone. We conclude that isentropic transport is a significant contributor to ozone levels in the subtropical upper troposphere, especially in summer.
Exploring compression techniques for ROOT IO
Zhang, Z.; Bockelman, B.
2017-10-01
ROOT provides an flexible format used throughout the HEP community. The number of use cases - from an archival data format to end-stage analysis - has required a number of tradeoffs to be exposed to the user. For example, a high “compression level” in the traditional DEFLATE algorithm will result in a smaller file (saving disk space) at the cost of slower decompression (costing CPU time when read). At the scale of the LHC experiment, poor design choices can result in terabytes of wasted space or wasted CPU time. We explore and attempt to quantify some of these tradeoffs. Specifically, we explore: the use of alternate compressing algorithms to optimize for read performance; an alternate method of compressing individual events to allow efficient random access; and a new approach to whole-file compression. Quantitative results are given, as well as guidance on how to make compression decisions for different use cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warmińska, Dorota; Wawer, Jarosław
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Sequence of volumes and compressibilities of Ln 3+ ions in DMSO is: La 3+ > Gd 3+ 3+ . ► Sequence of the partial molar volumes do not change with temperature. ► These results are the consequence of nature of the ion–solvent bonding. - Abstract: Temperature dependencies of the densities of dimethylsulfoxide solutions of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates have been determined over a wide range of concentrations. The apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes of the salts at infinite dilution, as well as the expansibilities of the salts, have been calculated from density data. Additionally, the apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates have been calculated from sound velocity data at 298.15 K. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of ion−solvent interactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.
2005-10-01
While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.
Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines
Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.
Stability of the isentropic Riemann solutions of the full multidimensional Euler system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej; Vasseur, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 2416-2425 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Euler system * isentropic solutions * Riemann problem * rarefaction wave Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2015 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/140999827
Melcher, Kevin J.
2006-01-01
This report provides a user guide for the Compressible Flow Toolbox, a collection of algorithms that solve almost 300 linear and nonlinear classical compressible flow relations. The algorithms, implemented in the popular MATLAB programming language, are useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or shock discontinuities. The solutions do not include any gas dissociative effects. The toolbox also contains functions for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in the open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are: isentropic-flow equations, Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section.), normal-shock equations, oblique-shock equations, and Prandtl-Meyer expansion equations. At the time this report was published, the Compressible Flow Toolbox was available without cost from the NASA Software Repository.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warminska, Dorota; Wawer, Jaroslaw; Grzybkowski, Waclaw
2010-01-01
Temperature dependencies of density of magnesium (II), calcium (II), strontium (II), barium (II) perchlorates as well as beryllium (II), and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonates in methanol and dimethylsulfoxide have been determined over the composition range studied. From density data the apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes of the salts at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of alkaline earth metal perchlorates and beryllium (II) and sodium triflates in methanol and DMSO have been calculated from sound speed data obtained at T = 298.15 K.
Pulse Compression Techniques for Laser Generated Ultrasound
Anastasi, R. F.; Madaras, E. I.
1999-01-01
Laser generated ultrasound for nondestructive evaluation has an optical power density limit due to rapid high heating that causes material damage. This damage threshold limits the generated ultrasound amplitude, which impacts nondestructive evaluation inspection capability. To increase ultrasound signal levels and improve the ultrasound signal-to-noise ratio without exceeding laser power limitations, it is possible to use pulse compression techniques. The approach illustrated here uses a 150mW laser-diode modulated with a pseudo-random sequence and signal correlation. Results demonstrate the successful generation of ultrasonic bulk waves in aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials using a modulated low-power laser diode and illustrate ultrasound bandwidth control.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Manju Rani; Suman Gahlyan; Ankur Gaur; Sanjeev Maken
2015-01-01
Ultrasonic speeds have been measured at 298.15 K and 308.15 K for mixtures of formamide+1-propanol or 2-propanol. For an equimolar mixture, excess molar compressibility follows the sequence of 1-propanol N 2-propanol. The ultrasonic speed data are correlated by various correlations such as Nomoto's relation, van Dael's mixing relation and impedance dependence relation, and analyzed in terms of Jacobson's free length theory and Schaaff's collision factor theory. Excess isentropic compressibility is calculated from ex-perimental ultrasonic speed data and previously reported excess volume data. The excess molar ultrasonic speed and isentropic compressibility values are fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Other proper-ties such as molecular association, avallable volume, free volume, and intermolecular free length are also calculated. The excess isentropic compressibility data are also interpreted in terms of graph theoretical ap-proach. The calculated isentropic compressibility values are well consistent with the experimental data. It is found that the interaction between formamide and propanol increases when hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom has more–CH3 groups.
Radiological Image Compression
Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict
The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savaroglu, Gokhan; Genc, Lütfi
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: Value of critical micelle concentration (CMC) were detected by speed of sound and determined by an analytical method based on the Phillips definition of the CMC. Highlights: ► The aim of this study was to investigate the aggregation behaviour of KT. ► Influence of KT concentration and temperature upon volumetric properties was studied. ► CMC of KT aqueous solution was determined by using speeds of sound measurements. - Abstract: Density and speed of sound of ketorolac tromethamine in aqueous solutions have been measured as a function of concentration at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15 K. Apparent molar volumes, apparent isentropic compressibility and isentropic compressibility values have also been calculated from the experimental density and speed of sound data. Partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compressibility are obtained from fitting procedures the data on apparent molar volume, V φ , and apparent isentropic compressibility, K φ(S) . Partial molar volume, V φ 0 , and partial molar isentropic compressibility, k φ(S) 0 , are informative thermodynamic characteristics that reflect solute hydration. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined from speed of sound data by an analytical method based on the Phillips definition of the CMC. Using these results, it was possible to establish the solvent–drug interactions.
Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques for the Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palika Chopra
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A comparative analysis for the prediction of compressive strength of concrete at the ages of 28, 56, and 91 days has been carried out using machine learning techniques via “R” software environment. R is digging out a strong foothold in the statistical realm and is becoming an indispensable tool for researchers. The dataset has been generated under controlled laboratory conditions. Using R miner, the most widely used data mining techniques decision tree (DT model, random forest (RF model, and neural network (NN model have been used and compared with the help of coefficient of determination (R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE, and it is inferred that the NN model predicts with high accuracy for compressive strength of concrete.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorebski, Edward; Lubowiecka-Kostka, Beata
2009-01-01
Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for (1,2-ethanediol + 1-nonanol) over the temperature range from (298.15 to 313.15) K. The speeds of sound in those mixtures within the temperature range from (293.15 to 313.15) K have been measured as well. Using the measurement results, the molar volumes, isentropic compressibility coefficients, molar isentropic compressibilities, and the corresponding excess and deviation values (excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibility coefficients, excess molar isentropic compressibilities, differently defined deviations of the speed of sound, and dynamic viscosity deviations) were calculated. The excess Gibbs free energies estimated by the use of the UNIQUAC model are also reported. The excess molar volumes and Gibbs free energies are positive, whereas the compressibility excesses are s-shaped. The excess and deviation values are expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomials and discussed in terms of variations of the structure of the system caused by the participation of two different alcohol molecules in the dynamic intermolecular association process through hydrogen bonding. The effect of temperature is discussed. The predictive abilities of the McAllister equation for viscosities of the mixtures under test have also been examined
Introduction of small velocity and pressure variation into a stationary compressible fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trancong, Ton [Defence Science and Technology Organisation Australia, Fishermens Bend (Australia). Aeronautical Research Lab.
1992-06-01
This work formulates the aerodynamic time-dependent Coulomb and Biot-Savart laws with inherent transmission retardation. It generalizes the theory by Baskin et al. (for only the isentropic propagation of small vortex disturbances) to deal with the propagation of small disturbances caused by a distributed system of both vortices and variation in specific entropy of a thermodynamically simple compressible fluid. The proof here uses an alternative, more appealing derivation with the help of a novel wave-cone transformation (which changes Kirchhoff's retarded potentials into Newtonian potentials). The results suggest the possibility of using a focused laser spot to simulate the effect of a source in a compressible fluid; the source may even move at a supersonic speed to create a shock wave. They also suggest a time-dependent, three-dimensional formula for lifts caused by small disturbances that is in agreement with Blasius' formula for two-dimensional, time-independent, inviscid flows. (orig.).
Detection of rebars in concrete using advanced ultrasonic pulse compression techniques.
Laureti, S; Ricci, M; Mohamed, M N I B; Senni, L; Davis, L A J; Hutchins, D A
2018-04-01
A pulse compression technique has been developed for the non-destructive testing of concrete samples. Scattering of signals from aggregate has historically been a problem in such measurements. Here, it is shown that a combination of piezocomposite transducers, pulse compression and post processing can lead to good images of a reinforcement bar at a cover depth of 55 mm. This has been achieved using a combination of wide bandwidth operation over the 150-450 kHz range, and processing based on measuring the cumulative energy scattered back to the receiver. Results are presented in the form of images of a 20 mm rebar embedded within a sample containing 10 mm aggregate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Compression for radiological images
Wilson, Dennis L.
1992-07-01
The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Seong Kuk; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Jung, Won Jung
2001-01-01
To determine whether the compression technique is a valuable additional method for differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses. The ultrasonographic findings of 95 benign and 53 malignant masses, all pathologically proven, were prospectively analyzed with regard to five diagnostic criteria: shape (regular/irregular), retrotumoral acoustic phenomena (posterior enhancement/posterior attenuation), internal echo pattern (homogeneous/inhomogeneous), compression effect on shape (distortion/no change), and compression effect on internal echo pattern (more homogeneous/no change). The number of cases of benign and malignant masses, respectively, was as follows: regular/irregular shape: 84/11, 9/44; posterior acoustic enhancement/posterior attenuation: 82/13, 16/37; homogeneous/inhomogeneous internal echo pattern: 78/17, 14/39; distortion/no change in shape: 76/19, 5/48; and more homogeneous/no change in internal echo pattern: 71/24, 3/50. For all diagnostic criteria for the differentiation of benign and malignant masses, the differences were statistically significant (p<.05). Ultrasonography is helpful for differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses. The compression technique is a valuable additional diagnostic method
Markfelder, Simon; Klingenberg, Christian
2018-03-01
In this paper we consider the isentropic compressible Euler equations in two space dimensions together with particular initial data. This data consists of two constant states, where one state lies in the lower and the other state in the upper half plane. The aim is to investigate whether there exists a unique entropy solution or if the convex integration method produces infinitely many entropy solutions. For some initial states this question has been answered by Feireisl and Kreml (J Hyperbolic Differ Equ 12(3):489-499, 2015), and also Chen and Chen (J Hyperbolic Differ Equ 4(1):105-122, 2007), where there exists a unique entropy solution. For other initial states Chiodaroli and Kreml (Arch Ration Mech Anal 214(3):1019-1049, 2014) and Chiodaroli et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 68(7):1157-1190, 2015), showed that there are infinitely many entropy solutions. For still other initial states the question on uniqueness remained open and this will be the content of this paper. This paper can be seen as a completion of the aforementioned papers by showing that the solution is non-unique in all cases (except if the solution is smooth).
Simulation techniques for spatially evolving instabilities in compressible flow over a flat plate
Wasistho, B.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.
1997-01-01
In this paper we present numerical techniques suitable for a direct numerical simulation in the spatial setting. We demonstrate the application to the simulation of compressible flat plate flow instabilities. We compare second and fourth order accurate spatial discretization schemes in combination
Braga, V. M.; Deschamps, C. J.
2017-08-01
Leakage is a major source of inefficiency in low-capacity reciprocating compressors. Not only does it lower the mass flow rate provided by the compressor, reducing its volumetric efficiency, but also gives rise to outflux of energy that decreases the isentropic efficiency. Leakage in the piston-cylinder clearance of reciprocating compressors is driven by the piston motion and pressure difference between the compression chamber and the shell internal environment. In compressors adopted for domestic refrigeration, such a clearance is usually filled by a mixture of refrigerant and lubricating oil. Besides its lubricating function, the oil also acts as sealing element for the piston-cylinder clearance, and hence leakage is expected to be more detrimental to oil-free compressors. This paper presents a model based on the Reynolds equation for compressible fluid flow to predict leakage in oil-free reciprocating compressors. The model is solved throughout the compression cycle so as to assess the effect of the clearance geometry and piston velocity on leakage and compressor efficiency. The results show that compressible fluid flow formulation must be considered for predictions of gas leakage in the cylinder-piston clearance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorebski, Edward; Geppert-Rybczynska, Monika
2010-01-01
Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for (1-butanol + 1,4-butanediol) over the temperature range from (298.15 to 318.15) K. The speeds of sound within the temperature range from (293.15 to 318.15) K have been measured as well. Using these results and literature values of isobaric heat capacities, the molar volumes, isentropic and isothermal compressibility coefficients, molar isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, isochoric heat capacities as well as internal pressures were calculated. Also the corresponding excess and deviation values (excess molar volumes, excess isentropic and isothermal compressibility coefficients, excess molar isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, different defined deviation speed of sound and dynamic viscosity deviations) were calculated. The excess values are negative over the whole concentration and temperature range. The excess and deviation values are expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomials and discussed in terms of the variations of the structure of the system caused by the participation of the two different alcohol molecules in the dynamic intermolecular association process through hydrogen bonding at various temperatures. The predictive abilities of Grunberg-Nissan and McAllister equations for viscosities of mixtures have also been examined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Senthilnathan V
2018-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diagnosing appendicitis by Graded Compression Ultrasonogram is a difficult task because of limiting factors such as operator– dependent technique, retrocaecal location of the appendix and patient obesity. Posterior manual compression technique visualizes the appendix better in the Grey-scale Ultrasonogram. The Aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of ultrasound in detecting or excluding acute appendicitis and to evaluate the usefulness of the adjuvant use of posterior manual compression technique in visualization of the appendix and in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study involved a total of 240 patients in all age groups and both sexes. All these patients underwent USG for suspected appendicitis. Ultrasonography was performed with transverse and longitudinal graded compression sonography. If the appendix is not visualized on graded compression sonography, posterior manual compression technique was used to further improve the detection of appendix. RESULTS The vermiform appendix was visualized in 185 patients (77.1% out of 240 patients with graded compression alone. 55 out of 240 patients whose appendix could not be visualized by graded compression alone were subjected to both graded followed by posterior manual compression technique among that Appendix was visualized in 43 patients on posterior manual compression technique amounting to 78.2% of cases, Appendix could not be visualized in the remaining 12 patients (21.8% out of 55. CONCLUSION Combined method of graded compression with posterior manual compression technique is better than the graded compression technique alone in diagnostic accuracy and detection rate of the vermiform appendix.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shekarchi, Sayedali; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hallam, John
2015-01-01
A head-related transfer function (HRTF) model employing Legendre polynomials (LPs) is evaluated as an HRTF spatial complexity indicator and interpolation technique in the azimuth plane. LPs are a set of orthogonal functions derived on the sphere which can be used to compress an HRTF dataset...
Cosmological Particle Data Compression in Practice
Zeyen, M.; Ahrens, J.; Hagen, H.; Heitmann, K.; Habib, S.
2017-12-01
In cosmological simulations trillions of particles are handled and several terabytes of unstructured particle data are generated in each time step. Transferring this data directly from memory to disk in an uncompressed way results in a massive load on I/O and storage systems. Hence, one goal of domain scientists is to compress the data before storing it to disk while minimizing the loss of information. To prevent reading back uncompressed data from disk, this can be done in an in-situ process. Since the simulation continuously generates data, the available time for the compression of one time step is limited. Therefore, the evaluation of compression techniques has shifted from only focusing on compression rates to include run-times and scalability.In recent years several compression techniques for cosmological data have become available. These techniques can be either lossy or lossless, depending on the technique. For both cases, this study aims to evaluate and compare the state of the art compression techniques for unstructured particle data. This study focuses on the techniques available in the Blosc framework with its multi-threading support, the XZ Utils toolkit with the LZMA algorithm that achieves high compression rates, and the widespread FPZIP and ZFP methods for lossy compressions.For the investigated compression techniques, quantitative performance indicators such as compression rates, run-time/throughput, and reconstruction errors are measured. Based on these factors, this study offers a comprehensive analysis of the individual techniques and discusses their applicability for in-situ compression. In addition, domain specific measures are evaluated on the reconstructed data sets, and the relative error rates and statistical properties are analyzed and compared. Based on this study future challenges and directions in the compression of unstructured cosmological particle data were identified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Chang Ho; Kim, Bohyoung; Gu, Bon Seung; Lee, Jong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, South Korea and Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, South Korea and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Ki [Medical Information Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
Purpose: To modify the preprocessing technique, which was previously proposed, improving compressibility of computed tomography (CT) images to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts and to evaluate the robustness of the technique in terms of segmentation correctness and increase in reversible compression ratio (CR) for various CT examinations.Methods: This study had institutional review board approval with waiver of informed patient consent. A preprocessing technique was previously proposed to improve the compressibility of CT images by replacing pixel values outside the body region with a constant value resulting in maximizing data redundancy. Since the technique was developed aiming at only chest CT images, the authors modified the segmentation method to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts. The modified version was evaluated as follows. In randomly selected 368 CT examinations (352 787 images), each image was preprocessed by using the modified preprocessing technique. Radiologists visually confirmed whether the segmented region covers the body region or not. The images with and without the preprocessing were reversibly compressed using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), JPEG2000 two-dimensional (2D), and JPEG2000 three-dimensional (3D) compressions. The percentage increase in CR per examination (CR{sub I}) was measured.Results: The rate of correct segmentation was 100.0% (95% CI: 99.9%, 100.0%) for all the examinations. The median of CR{sub I} were 26.1% (95% CI: 24.9%, 27.1%), 40.2% (38.5%, 41.1%), and 34.5% (32.7%, 36.2%) in JPEG, JPEG2000 2D, and JPEG2000 3D, respectively.Conclusions: In various CT examinations, the modified preprocessing technique can increase in the CR by 25% or more without concerning about degradation of diagnostic information.
Compression of Probabilistic XML Documents
Veldman, Irma; de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice
Database techniques to store, query and manipulate data that contains uncertainty receives increasing research interest. Such UDBMSs can be classified according to their underlying data model: relational, XML, or RDF. We focus on uncertain XML DBMS with as representative example the Probabilistic XML model (PXML) of [10,9]. The size of a PXML document is obviously a factor in performance. There are PXML-specific techniques to reduce the size, such as a push down mechanism, that produces equivalent but more compact PXML documents. It can only be applied, however, where possibilities are dependent. For normal XML documents there also exist several techniques for compressing a document. Since Probabilistic XML is (a special form of) normal XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In this paper, we show that existing compression mechanisms can be combined with PXML-specific compression techniques. We also show that best compression rates are obtained with a combination of PXML-specific technique with a rather simple generic DAG-compression technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Rahmat; Mahdavi, Adibeh
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► VLE and volumetry of binary and ternary [C 6 mim][Cl], MPM and EPM aqueous solutions. ► Constant a w lines show small negative deviation from the linear isopiestic relation. ► Solute–water interactions follow the order: EPM > MPM > [C 6 mim][Cl]. ► MPM and EPM have a very weak salting-out effect on [C 6 mim][Cl] aqueous solutions. - Abstract: (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium data (water activity, vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, and activity coefficient) of binary aqueous solutions of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C 6 mim][Cl]), methyl potassium malonate, and ethyl potassium malonate and ternary {[C 6 mim][Cl] + methyl potassium malonate} and {[C 6 mim][Cl] + ethyl potassium malonate} aqueous solutions were obtained through the isopiestic method at T = 298.15 K. These results reveal that the ionic liquid behaves as surfactant-like and aggregates in aqueous solutions at molality about 0.4 mol · kg −1 . The constant water activity lines of all the ternary systems investigated show small negative deviations from the linear isopiestic relation (Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson rule) derived using the semi-ideal hydration model. The density and speed of sound measurements were carried out on solutions of methyl potassium malonate and ethyl potassium malonate in water and of [C 6 mim][Cl] in aqueous solutions of 0.25 mol · kg −1 methyl potassium malonate and ethyl potassium malonate at T = (288.15 to 308.15) K at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental density and speed of sound data, the values of the apparent molar volume, apparent molar isentropic compressibility and excess molar volume were evaluated and from which the infinite dilution apparent molar volume and infinite dilution apparent molar isentropic compressibility were calculated at each temperature. Although, there are no clear differences between the values of the apparent molar volume of [C 6 mim][Cl] in pure water and in methyl potassium malonate or ethyl
Development of High Speed Imaging and Analysis Techniques Compressible Dynamics Stall
Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, L. W.; Wilder, M. C.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Dynamic stall has limited the flight envelope of helicopters for many years. The problem has been studied in the laboratory as well as in flight, but most research, even in the laboratory, has been restricted to surface measurement techniques such as pressure transducers or skin friction gauges, except at low speed. From this research, it became apparent that flow visualization tests performed at Mach numbers representing actual flight conditions were needed if the complex physics associated with dynamic stall was to be properly understood. However, visualization of the flow field during compressible conditions required carefully aligned and meticulously reconstructed holographic interferometry. As part of a long-range effort focused on exposing of the physics of compressible dynamic stall, a research wind tunnel was developed at NASA Ames Research Center which permits visual access to the full flow field surrounding an oscillating airfoil during compressible dynamic stall. Initially, a stroboscopic schlieren technique was used for visualization of the stall process, but the primary research tool has been point diffraction interferometry(PDI), a technique carefully optimized for use in th is project. A review of the process of development of PDI will be presented in the full paper. One of the most valuable aspects of PDI is the fact that interferograms are produced in real time on a continuous basis. The use of a rapidly-pulsed laser makes this practical; a discussion of this approach will be presented in the full paper. This rapid pulsing(up to 40,000 pulses/sec) produces interferograms of the rapidly developing dynamic stall field in sufficient resolution(both in space and time) that the fluid physics of the compressible dynamic stall flowfield can be quantitatively determined, including the gradients of pressure in space and time. This permits analysis of the influence of the effect of pitch rate, Mach number, Reynolds number, amplitude of oscillation, and other
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rani, Ruman; Bhatia, Subhash C.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The values of densities and speeds of sound were measured for the binary mixtures at 298.15 and 308.15 K. ► Maximum deviations in excess functions were observed for binary mixtures of 1-nonanol with p-xylene. ► Calculated excess and deviation functions were fitted to the Redlich–Kister polynomial. ► The results analysed in terms of molecular interactions and structural effects. -- Abstract: Densities, ρ, and speeds of sound, u, of binary liquid mixtures of 1-nonanol with o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene and mesitylene have been measured over the entire range of composition at T = (298.15 and 308.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. Using these results, the values of the excess molar volume, V E , isentropic compressibility, κ S , molar isentropic compressibility, K S,m , excess molar isentropic compressibility, K S,m E , deviations of the speed of sound, u D , and excess partial molar volume, V ¯ m,i E,0 , and excess partial molar isentropic compressibility, K ¯ m,i E,0 at infinite dilution, have been calculated. The calculated excess and deviation functions have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister polynomial equations and the results analysed in terms of molecular interactions
Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer
2011-12-15
Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.
Owodunni, Damilola S.; Ali, Anum Z.; Quadeer, Ahmed Abdul; Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.; Hammi, Oualid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2014-01-01
-domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, Puneet Kumar; Pandey, Vrijesh Kumar; Awasthi, Anjali; Nain, Anil Kumar; Awasthi, Aashees
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: The densities and ultrasonic speeds of the binary mixtures over the entire composition range were measured at various temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, isentropic compressibilities, and molar isentropic compressions have been calculated. The variations of these parameters with composition and temperature are discussed. The IR spectra were recorded they further supported the conclusion drawn from excess parameters, which indicates the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the oxygen atom of DMAE molecules and hydrogen atom of methanol and ethanol molecules in these mixtures.. - Highlights: • The study reports density and ultrasonic velocity data of 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol + methanol/ethanol mixtures. • To elucidate the interactions in 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol + methanol/ethanol binary mixtures. • Provides information on nature and relative strength of interactions in these mixtures. • Correlates physicochemical properties with interactions in these mixtures. - Abstract: The densities, ρ and ultrasonic speeds, u of the binary mixtures of 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol (DMAE) with methanol/ethanol, including those of pure liquids, over the entire composition range were measured at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. From the experimental data, the excess molar volumes, V m E and excess isentropic compressibilities, κ s E have been calculated. The excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m,1 E and V ¯ m,2 E and excess partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 E and K ¯ s,m,2 E over the whole composition range; and partial molar volumes, V ¯ m,1 ° and V ¯ m,2 ° , partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 ° and K ¯ s,m,2 ° , excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m,1 °E and V ¯ m,2 °E , and excess partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 °E and K ¯ s,m,2 °E at infinite dilution have also been calculated. The variations of these parameters with composition and temperature are
Noélia Calvar; Emilio J. González; Ángeles Domínguez; Eugénia A. Macedo
2012-01-01
In this paper, densities and speeds of sound for five binary systems {alcohol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide} were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure. From these experimental data, apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression have been calculated and fitted to a Redlich-Meyer type equation. This fit was also used to calculate the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression at infinite dilution for the studied binar...
Noélia Calvar; Emilio J. González; Dominguez, A; Maria Eugénia Macedo
2012-01-01
In this paper, densities and speeds of sound for five binary systems {alcohol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide} were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure. From these experimental data, apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression have been calculated and fitted to a Redlich-Meyer type equation. This fit was also used to calculate the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression at infinite dilution for the studied binar...
Application of digital compression techniques to optical surveillance systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, C.S.
1991-01-01
There are many benefits to handling video images electronically, however, the amount of digital data in a normal video image is a major obstacle. The solution is to remove the high frequency and redundant information in a process that is referred to as compression. Compression allows the number of digital bits required for a given image to be reduced for more efficient storage or transmission of images. The next question is how much compression can be done without impairing the image quality beyond its usefulness for a given application. This paper discusses image compression that might be applied to provide useful images in unattended nuclear facility surveillance applications
Future pulsed magnetic field applications in dynamic high pressure research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Hawke, R.S.; Burgess, T.J.
1977-01-01
The generation of large pressures by magnetic fields to obtain equation of state information is of fairly recent origin. Magnetic fields used in compression experiments produce an almost isentropic sample compression. Axial magnetic field compression is discussed together with a few results chosen to show both advantages and limitations of the method. Magnetic compression with azimuthal fields is then considered. Although there are several potential pitfalls, the possibilities are encouraging for obtaining very large pressures. Next, improved diagnostic techniques are considered. An x-ray ''streaking camera'' is proposed for volume measurements and a more detailed discussion is given on the use of the shift of the ruby fluorescence lines for pressure measurements. Finally, some additional flux compression magnetic field sources are discussed briefly. 5 figures, 2 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhondge, Sudhakar S.; Pandhurnekar, Chandrashekhar P.; Parwate, Dilip V.
2009-01-01
Experimental results of density (ρ), speed of sound (u), and refractive index (n D ) have been obtained for aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGMME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGMEE), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGMME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGMEE) over the entire concentration range at T = 298.15 K. From these measurements, the derived parameters, apparent molar volume of solute (φ V ), excess molar volume (V E ), isentropic compressibility of solution (β S ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility of solute (φ KS ), deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δβ S ), molar refraction [R] 1,2 and deviation in refractive index of solution (Δn D ) have been calculated. The Redlich-Kister equation has been fitted to the calculated values of V E , Δβ S and Δn D for the solution. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding and various interactions among solute and solvent molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubey, Gyan Prakash, E-mail: gyan.dubey@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Kumar, Krishan [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)
2011-09-20
Highlights: {yields} Thermodynamic study of diethylenetriamine + 2-methyl-1-propanol, +2-propanol or +1-butanol have been made. {yields} Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility were determined. {yields} Types of interactions were discussed based on derived properties. - Abstract: Densities, {rho}, viscosities, {eta}, and speeds of sound, u, were measured for the binary liquid mixtures containing diethylenetriamine with 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. From density and speed of sound data, excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} and deviations in isentropic compressibility, {Delta}{kappa}{sub s}, and speed of sound, {Delta}u have been evaluated. Viscosity data were used to compute deviations in viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow {Delta}G*{sup E} at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. A Redlich-Kister type equation was applied to fit the excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility, speed of sound and viscosity data. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Tamura-Kurata, Heric-Brewer and of Hind et al. All the binary systems of the present study have negative values of excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility over whole composition range and at all temperatures which indicates strong interactions between the components of binary mixtures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubey, Gyan Prakash; Kumar, Krishan
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Thermodynamic study of diethylenetriamine + 2-methyl-1-propanol, +2-propanol or +1-butanol have been made. → Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility were determined. → Types of interactions were discussed based on derived properties. - Abstract: Densities, ρ, viscosities, η, and speeds of sound, u, were measured for the binary liquid mixtures containing diethylenetriamine with 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. From density and speed of sound data, excess molar volumes, V m E and deviations in isentropic compressibility, Δκ s , and speed of sound, Δu have been evaluated. Viscosity data were used to compute deviations in viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow ΔG* E at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. A Redlich-Kister type equation was applied to fit the excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility, speed of sound and viscosity data. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Tamura-Kurata, Heric-Brewer and of Hind et al. All the binary systems of the present study have negative values of excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility over whole composition range and at all temperatures which indicates strong interactions between the components of binary mixtures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, Noelia; Gomez, Elena; Gonzalez, Begona; Dominguez, Angeles
2009-01-01
Densities, speeds of sound, and refractive indices of 12 binary systems of alkanes (hexane, heptane, octane, and nonane) with aromatics (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene) at T = 313.15 K and at atmospheric pressure were determined over the whole composition range, and are presented in this paper. From the experimental results, the derived and excess properties (isentropic compressibility, excess molar volumes, and excess molar isentropic compressibility) at T = 313.15 K were calculated and satisfactorily fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation.
Study and analysis of wavelet based image compression techniques
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is a recently developed compression ... serve emerging areas of mobile multimedia and internet communication, ..... In global thresholding the best trade-off between PSNR and compression is provided by.
Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena
2017-01-01
Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.
Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Schindler
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.
Al-Shammary, Dhiah; Khalil, Ibrahim
2010-01-01
Most organizations exchange, collect, store and process data over the Internet. Many hospital networks deploy Web services to send and receive patient information. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the most usable communication protocol for Web services. XML is the standard encoding language of SOAP messages. However, the major drawback of XML messages is the high network traffic caused by large overheads. In this paper, two XML-aware compressors are suggested to compress patient messages stemming from any data transactions between Web clients and servers. The proposed compression techniques are based on the XML structure concepts and use both fixed-length and Huffman encoding methods for translating the XML message tree. Experiments show that they outperform all the conventional compression methods and can save tremendous amount of network bandwidth.
Efficient access of compressed data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggers, S.J.; Shoshani, A.
1980-06-01
A compression technique is presented that allows a high degree of compression but requires only logarithmic access time. The technique is a constant suppression scheme, and is most applicable to stable databases whose distribution of constants is fairly clustered. Furthermore, the repeated use of the technique permits the suppression of a multiple number of different constants. Of particular interest is the application of the constant suppression technique to databases the composite key of which is made up of an incomplete cross product of several attribute domains. The scheme for compressing the full cross product composite key is well known. This paper, however, also handles the general, incomplete case by applying the constant suppression technique in conjunction with a composite key suppression scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warmińska, Dorota; Fuchs, Anna; Lundberg, Daniel
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► In DMF the sequence values of both volumes and compressibilities of Ln 3+ ions are: La 3+ ≈ Gd 3+ > Lu 3+ . ► In DMA the ionic volumes of lanthanoid(III) metal ions are, within error limits, identical. ► Obtained results are the consequence of an ion–solvent bonding nature. -- Abstract: The concentration and temperature dependencies of density of lanthanum, gadolinium, lutetium and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonates in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) have been determined. From density data the apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes of the salts at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of lanthanum, gadolinium, lutetium and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonates in DMF and DMA have been calculated from sound velocity data obtained at 298.15 K. The results have been discussed in terms of ion–solvent interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Harsh; Singla, Meenu; Mittal, Heena
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Densities, speeds of sound, viscosities of phosphate salts in aqueous N-acetyl glycine. • Large values of partial molar volume for dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. • Partial molar volume of transfer are positive for phosphate salts. • Positive B-coefficient values indicate ion–solvent interactions. - Abstract: Densities, speeds of sound and viscosities of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (DPHP) and disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) in aqueous solutions of N-acetyl glycine (AcGly) are reported at different temperatures. Densities and speeds of sound have been used to calculate apparent molar volume, apparent molar isentropic compression, partial molar volume, partial molar isentropic compression, partial molar volume of transfer, partial molar isentropic compression of transfer and partial molar expansivity. Pair and triplet interaction coefficients have also been calculated. Experimental viscosities have been used to determine B-coefficients. Further pair and triplet interaction coefficients have also been calculated. The results are discussed in terms of solute–solvent interactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R.; Nora, R.; Christopherson, A. R. [Fusion Science Center and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States)
2015-02-15
Pressure, by definition, characterizes the conditions within an isobaric implosion core at peak compression [Gus'kov et al., Nucl. Fusion 16, 957 (1976); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5257 (2001)] and is a key parameter in quantifying its near-ignition performance [Lawson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B 70, 6 (1957); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010); Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014); and Glenzer et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056318 (2012)]. At high spectral energy, where the x-ray emission from an imploded hydrogen core is optically thin, the emissivity profile can be inferred from the spatially resolved core emission. This emissivity, which can be modeled accurately under hot-core conditions, is dependent almost entirely on the pressure when measured within a restricted spectral range matched to the temperature range anticipated for the emitting volume. In this way, the hot core pressure at the time of peak emission can be inferred from the measured free-free emissivity profile. The pressure and temperature dependences of the x-ray emissivity and the neutron-production rate explain a simple scaling of the total filtered x-ray emission as a constant power of the total neutron yield for implosions of targets of similar design over a broad range of shell implosion isentropes. This scaling behavior has been seen in implosion simulations and is confirmed by measurements of high-isentrope implosions [Sangster et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056317 (2013)] on the OMEGA laser system [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Attributing the excess emission from less-stable, low-isentrope implosions, above the level expected from this neutron-yield scaling, to the higher emissivity of shell carbon mixed into the implosion's central hot spot, the hot-spot “fuel–shell” mix mass can be inferred.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J.; Betti, R.; Nora, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J.
2015-01-01
Pressure, by definition, characterizes the conditions within an isobaric implosion core at peak compression [Gus'kov et al., Nucl. Fusion 16, 957 (1976); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5257 (2001)] and is a key parameter in quantifying its near-ignition performance [Lawson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B 70, 6 (1957); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010); Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014); and Glenzer et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056318 (2012)]. At high spectral energy, where the x-ray emission from an imploded hydrogen core is optically thin, the emissivity profile can be inferred from the spatially resolved core emission. This emissivity, which can be modeled accurately under hot-core conditions, is dependent almost entirely on the pressure when measured within a restricted spectral range matched to the temperature range anticipated for the emitting volume. In this way, the hot core pressure at the time of peak emission can be inferred from the measured free-free emissivity profile. The pressure and temperature dependences of the x-ray emissivity and the neutron-production rate explain a simple scaling of the total filtered x-ray emission as a constant power of the total neutron yield for implosions of targets of similar design over a broad range of shell implosion isentropes. This scaling behavior has been seen in implosion simulations and is confirmed by measurements of high-isentrope implosions [Sangster et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056317 (2013)] on the OMEGA laser system [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Attributing the excess emission from less-stable, low-isentrope implosions, above the level expected from this neutron-yield scaling, to the higher emissivity of shell carbon mixed into the implosion's central hot spot, the hot-spot “fuel–shell” mix mass can be inferred
Wind energy: an application of Bernoulli's theorem generalized to isentropic flow of ideal gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Luca, R; Desideri, P
2013-01-01
By considering the extension of Bernoulli's theorem to the case of the isentropic flow of ideal gases we conceive a small-scale wind–energy system able to work in the presence of low wind velocities in any direction. The flow of air inside a hyperbolically shaped pipe is studied using elementary physics concepts. The results obtained show that wind velocity in the system increases for decreasing cross-sectional areas, allowing a lower cut-in wind speed and an increase in the annual energy production of the device. (paper)
Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine
Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Damtie
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Damtie
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.
Monte Carlo calculations of thermodynamic properties of deuterium under high pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levashov, P R; Filinov, V S; BoTan, A; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M
2008-01-01
Two different numerical approaches have been applied for calculations of shock Hugoniots and compression isentrope of deuterium: direct path integral Monte Carlo and reactive Monte Carlo. The results show good agreement between two methods at intermediate pressure which is an indication of correct accounting of dissociation effects in the direct path integral Monte Carlo method. Experimental data on both shock and quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium are well described by calculations. Thus dissociation of deuterium molecules in these experiments together with interparticle interaction play significant role
Mammography image compression using Wavelet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azuhar Ripin; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Md Isa
2004-01-01
Image compression plays an important role in many applications like medical imaging, televideo conferencing, remote sensing, document and facsimile transmission, which depend on the efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, gray scale, or color images. In Medical imaging application such Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACs), the image size or image stream size is too large and requires a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication. Image compression techniques are divided into two categories namely lossy and lossless data compression. Wavelet method used in this project is a lossless compression method. In this method, the exact original mammography image data can be recovered. In this project, mammography images are digitized by using Vider Sierra Plus digitizer. The digitized images are compressed by using this wavelet image compression technique. Interactive Data Language (IDLs) numerical and visualization software is used to perform all of the calculations, to generate and display all of the compressed images. Results of this project are presented in this paper. (Author)
Al-Salihi, Hayder Qahtan Kshash; Nakhai, Mohammad Reza
2017-01-01
Efficient and highly accurate channel state information (CSI) at the base station (BS) is essential to achieve the potential benefits of massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. However, the achievable accuracy that is attainable is limited in practice due to the problem of pilot contamination. It has recently been shown that compressed sensing (CS) techniques can address the pilot contamination problem. However, CS-based channel estimation requires prior knowledge of channel sp...
Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stander M.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.
Kılınçer, Abidin; Akpınar, Erhan; Erbil, Bülent; Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Kaynaroğlu, Volkan; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa
2017-08-01
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. • Normal appendix diameter is significantly smaller in compression CT. • Compression could force contrast material to flow through the appendiceal lumen. • Compression CT may be a CT counterpart of graded compression US.
A Schur complement method for compressible two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao, Thu-Huyen; Ndjinga, Michael; Magoules, Frederic
2014-01-01
In this paper, we will report our recent efforts to apply a Schur complement method for nonlinear hyperbolic problems. We use the finite volume method and an implicit version of the Roe approximate Riemann solver. With the interface variable introduced in [4] in the context of single phase flows, we are able to simulate two-fluid models ([12]) with various schemes such as upwind, centered or Rusanov. Moreover, we introduce a scaling strategy to improve the condition number of both the interface system and the local systems. Numerical results for the isentropic two-fluid model and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in various 2D and 3D configurations and various schemes show that our method is robust and efficient. The scaling strategy considerably reduces the number of GMRES iterations in both interface system and local system resolutions. Comparisons of performances with classical distributed computing with up to 218 processors are also reported. (authors)
A Posteriori Restoration of Block Transform-Compressed Data
Brown, R.; Boden, A. F.
1995-01-01
The Galileo spacecraft will use lossy data compression for the transmission of its science imagery over the low-bandwidth communication system. The technique chosen for image compression is a block transform technique based on the Integer Cosine Transform, a derivative of the JPEG image compression standard. Considered here are two known a posteriori enhancement techniques, which are adapted.
Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)
2017-03-01
Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.
Application specific compression : final report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.
2008-12-01
With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.
Concurrent data compression and protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saeed, M.
2009-01-01
Data compression techniques involve transforming data of a given format, called source message, to data of a smaller sized format, called codeword. The primary objective of data encryption is to ensure security of data if it is intercepted by an eavesdropper. It transforms data of a given format, called plaintext, to another format, called ciphertext, using an encryption key or keys. Thus, combining the processes of compression and encryption together must be done in this order, that is, compression followed by encryption because all compression techniques heavily rely on the redundancies which are inherently a part of a regular text or speech. The aim of this research is to combine two processes of compression (using an existing scheme) with a new encryption scheme which should be compatible with encoding scheme embedded in encoder. The novel technique proposed by the authors is new, unique and is highly secured. The deployment of sentinel marker' enhances the security of the proposed TR-One algorithm from 2/sup 44/ ciphertexts to 2/sup 44/ +2/sub 20/ ciphertexts thus imposing extra challenges to the intruders. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okur, Melih; Akmandor, Ibrahim Sinan
2011-01-01
Hinged rolling piston compressor of a new thermodynamic cycle Pars engine promises high performance figures such as single stage high compression levels and higher volume flow discharge with competitively low input power and torque. The pumping characteristic of the present engine compressor unit has been increased by the implementation of a spring less vane configuration. The reciprocating vane which is usually operated by spring compression in air conditioning and refrigeration unit has been replaced by a hinge vane mechanism. At high speeds, the conventional spring loaded vane which is forced against the eccentrically moving rotor periphery does disconnect and starts rocking. With the new configuration, this mishap has been eliminated and subsequently resulting compressor pressure leaks have been avoided. Compressor experiments have been carried out at predetermined rotor speeds and compressed volume flow amounts and required shaft powers have been measured and derived accordingly. Experimentally determined pressure-volume relations have been compared with isentropic, isothermal, isochoric compressions as well as isobaric process. It is seen that at lower speeds, hinged vane compression is half way between isentropic and isochoric compressions whereas at high speed the compression process approaches further isochoric compression behavior. The isentropic compression efficiency of the hinged vane compressor is around 85% for pressures reaching 9 atm. - Research highlights: → Volume flow rate of rotary vane compressor unit has been increased by a hinged vane mechanism. → Hinged compressor pressure output is almost twice the performance of a spring loaded compressor. → The slipping and rocking of the spring loaded vane against the rolling piston have been eliminated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Yifan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.
Transition from isentropic to isothermal expansion in laser produced plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrero, A; Santartin, J R
1980-07-01
The transition that the expansion flow of laser-produced plasmas experiences when ones moves from long, low intensity pulses (temperature vanishing at the Isentropic plasma-vacuum front, lying at finite distance) to short, intense ones (non-zero, uni- form temperature at the plasma-vacuum front, lying at infinity) is studied. For planar geometry and large Ion number Z{sub j} the transition occurs for d {phi} / d t {approx_equal} 0.14(27/8)k{sup 7}/2 Z{sub j}{sup 3}/2/m{sub j}{sup 3}/2 K; {phi}, k, m{sub j}, and K are laser intensity, Boltzmann s constant, ion mass, and Spitzer s heat conduction coefficient. This result remains valid for finite Z{sub j} though the numerical factor in d{phi} / d t is different. In spherical geometry a similar transition occurs even in steady conditions. Shorter wavelength lasers and higher Z{sub j} plasmas allow faster rising pulses below transition. (Author) 13 refs.
Microbunching and RF Compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.
2010-01-01
Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilincer, Abidin; Akpinar, Erhan; Uenal, Emre; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Oezmen, Mustafa [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Erbil, Buelent [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kaynaroglu, Volkan [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara (Turkey)
2017-08-15
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P < 0.01) in patients without appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilincer, Abidin; Akpinar, Erhan; Uenal, Emre; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Oezmen, Mustafa; Erbil, Buelent; Kaynaroglu, Volkan
2017-01-01
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P < 0.01) in patients without appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. (orig.)
Vellinga, T P van Rees; Sterk, W; de Boer, A G E M; van der Beek, A J; Verhoeven, A C; van Dijk, F J H
2008-01-01
The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth. As a result the work time was not sufficient. The saturation diving technique was developed and permitted longer work time at great depth. Thirty-one divers were involved in this project. Twenty-three divers were examined using Doppler ultrasound. Data analysis addressed 52 exposures to Trimix at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge using the bounce technique and 354 exposures to Trimix at 4.0-6.9 bar gauge on saturation excursions. No decompression incidents occurred with either technique during the described phase of the project. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the bubble loads assessed in both techniques were generally low. We find out, that despite longer working hours, shorter decompression times and larger physical workloads, the saturation-excursion technique was associated with significant lower bubble grades than in the bounce technique using Doppler Ultrasound. We conclude that the saturation-excursion technique with Trimix is a good option for deep and long exposures in caisson work. The Doppler technique proved valuable, and it should be incorporated in future compressed-air work.
When is the Anelastic Approximation a Valid Model for Compressible Convection?
Alboussiere, T.; Curbelo, J.; Labrosse, S.; Ricard, Y. R.; Dubuffet, F.
2017-12-01
Compressible convection is ubiquitous in large natural systems such Planetary atmospheres, stellar and planetary interiors. Its modelling is notoriously more difficult than the case when the Boussinesq approximation applies. One reason for that difficulty has been put forward by Ogura and Phillips (1961): the compressible equations generate sound waves with very short time scales which need to be resolved. This is why they introduced an anelastic model, based on an expansion of the solution around an isentropic hydrostatic profile. How accurate is that anelastic model? What are the conditions for its validity? To answer these questions, we have developed a numerical model for the full set of compressible equations and compared its solutions with those of the corresponding anelastic model. We considered a simple rectangular 2D Rayleigh-Bénard configuration and decided to restrict the analysis to infinite Prandtl numbers. This choice is valid for convection in the mantles of rocky planets, but more importantly lead to a zero Mach number. So we got rid of the question of the interference of acoustic waves with convection. In that simplified context, we used the entropy balances (that of the full set of equations and that of the anelastic model) to investigate the differences between exact and anelastic solutions. We found that the validity of the anelastic model is dictated by two conditions: first, the superadiabatic temperature difference must be small compared with the adiabatic temperature difference (as expected) ɛ = Δ TSA / delta Ta << 1, and secondly that the product of ɛ with the Nusselt number must be small.
Kawase, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Mana; Kobayashi, Mito; Tanaka, Takaaki; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa
2015-05-01
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was developed as an advanced form of platelet-rich plasma to eliminate xenofactors, such as bovine thrombin, and it is mainly used as a source of growth factor for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, although a minor application, PRF in a compressed membrane-like form has also been used as a substitute for commercially available barrier membranes in guided-tissue regeneration (GTR) treatment. However, the PRF membrane is resorbed within 2 weeks or less at implantation sites; therefore, it can barely maintain sufficient space for bone regeneration. In this study, we developed and optimized a heat-compression technique and tested the feasibility of the resulting PRF membrane. Freshly prepared human PRF was first compressed with dry gauze and subsequently with a hot iron. Biodegradability was microscopically examined in vitro by treatment with plasmin at 37°C or in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Compared with the control gauze-compressed PRF, the heat-compressed PRF appeared plasmin-resistant and remained stable for longer than 10 days in vitro. Additionally, in animal implantation studies, the heat-compressed PRF was observed at least for 3 weeks postimplantation in vivo whereas the control PRF was completely resorbed within 2 weeks. Therefore, these findings suggest that the heat-compression technique reduces the rate of biodegradation of the PRF membrane without sacrificing its biocompatibility and that the heat-compressed PRF membrane easily could be prepared at chair-side and applied as a barrier membrane in the GTR treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Image splitting and remapping method for radiological image compression
Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Shen, Ellen L.; Mun, Seong K.
1990-07-01
A new decomposition method using image splitting and gray-level remapping has been proposed for image compression, particularly for images with high contrast resolution. The effects of this method are especially evident in our radiological image compression study. In our experiments, we tested the impact of this decomposition method on image compression by employing it with two coding techniques on a set of clinically used CT images and several laser film digitized chest radiographs. One of the compression techniques used was full-frame bit-allocation in the discrete cosine transform domain, which has been proven to be an effective technique for radiological image compression. The other compression technique used was vector quantization with pruned tree-structured encoding, which through recent research has also been found to produce a low mean-square-error and a high compression ratio. The parameters we used in this study were mean-square-error and the bit rate required for the compressed file. In addition to these parameters, the difference between the original and reconstructed images will be presented so that the specific artifacts generated by both techniques can be discerned by visual perception.
Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, Jesper
We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....
Experimental Compressibility of Molten Hedenbergite at High Pressure
Agee, C. B.; Barnett, R. G.; Guo, X.; Lange, R. A.; Waller, C.; Asimow, P. D.
2010-12-01
Experiments using the sink/float method have bracketed the density of molten hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) at high pressures and temperatures. The experiments are the first of their kind to determine the compressibility of molten hedenbergite at high pressure and are part of a collaborative effort to establish a new database for an array of silicate melt compositions, which will contribute to the development of an empirically based predictive model that will allow calculation of silicate liquid density and compressibility over a wide range of P-T-X conditions where melting could occur in the Earth. Each melt composition will be measured using: (i) double-bob Archimedean method for melt density and thermal expansion at ambient pressure, (ii) sound speed measurements on liquids to constrain melt compressibility at ambient pressure, (iii) sink/float technique to measure melt density to 15 GPa, and (iv) shock wave measurements of P-V-E equation of state and temperature between 10 and 150 GPa. Companion abstracts on molten fayalite (Waller et al., 2010) and liquid mixes of hedenbergite-diopside and anorthite-hedenbergite-diopside (Guo and Lange, 2010) are also presented at this meeting. In the present study, the hedenbergite starting material was synthesized at the Experimental Petrology Lab, University of Michigan, where melt density, thermal expansion, and sound speed measurements were also carried out. The starting material has also been loaded into targets at the Caltech Shockwave Lab, and experiments there are currently underway. We report here preliminary results from static compression measurement performed at the Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, and the High Pressure Lab, Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. Experiments were carried out in Quick Press piston-cylinder devices and a Walker-style multi-anvil device. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100), San Carlos olivine (Fo90), and
Stability of periodic steady-state solutions to a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system
Liu, Cunming; Peng, Yue-Jun
2017-06-01
We study the stability of periodic smooth solutions near non-constant steady-states for a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system without temperature damping term. The system arises in the theory of semiconductors for which the doping profile is a given smooth function. In this stability problem, there are no special restrictions on the size of the doping profile, but only on the size of the perturbation. We prove that small perturbations of periodic steady-states are exponentially stable for large time. For this purpose, we introduce new variables and choose a non-diagonal symmetrizer of the full Euler equations to recover dissipation estimates. This also allows to make the proof of the stability result very simple and concise.
All rights reserved and www.bioline.org.br/ja Estimation of exit ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases. 1 ..... other thermodynamic properties can be calculated within the framework of ... of negative compressibility) has no physical significance.
Ali, A.; Bidhuri, P.; Uzair, S.
2014-07-01
Ultrasonic speed u, densities ρ and viscosities η of xylitol in water and in 0.001 m aqueous l-tyrosine (Tyr) and l-phenylalanine (Phe) have been measured at different temperatures. From the density and ultrasonic speed measurements apparent molar isentropic compression κ_{φ}, apparent molar isentropic compressions at infinite dilution κ_{{S,φ}}0 , experimental slope S K , hydration number n H , transfer partial molar isentropic compressibility Δ_{tr} κ_{{S,φ}}0 of xylitol from water to aqueous Tyr and Phe have been obtained. From the viscosity data, B-coefficient and B-coefficient of transfer Δ tr B of xylitol from water to aqueous Phe and Tyr at different temperatures have also been estimated. Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of solvent Δ μ 1 0# and per mole of solute Δ μ 2 0# have been calculated by using Feakins transition state theory for the studied systems. The calculated parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and hydration behavior of xylitol.
Separation of acoustic waves in isentropic flow perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henke, Christian
2015-01-01
The present contribution investigates the mechanisms of sound generation and propagation in the case of highly-unsteady flows. Based on the linearisation of the isentropic Navier–Stokes equation around a new pathline-averaged base flow, it is demonstrated for the first time that flow perturbations of a non-uniform flow can be split into acoustic and vorticity modes, with the acoustic modes being independent of the vorticity modes. Therefore, we can propose this acoustic perturbation as a general definition of sound. As a consequence of the splitting result, we conclude that the present acoustic perturbation is propagated by the convective wave equation and fulfils Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Moreover, we can define the deviations of the Navier–Stokes equation from the convective wave equation as “true” sound sources. In contrast to other authors, no assumptions on a slowly varying or irrotational flow are necessary. Using a symmetry argument for the conservation laws, an energy conservation result and a generalisation of the sound intensity are provided. - Highlights: • First splitting of non-uniform flows in acoustic and non-acoustic components. • These result leads to a generalisation of sound which is compatible with Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. • A closed equation for the generation and propagation of sound is given
Image acquisition system using on sensor compressed sampling technique
Gupta, Pravir Singh; Choi, Gwan Seong
2018-01-01
Advances in CMOS technology have made high-resolution image sensors possible. These image sensors pose significant challenges in terms of the amount of raw data generated, energy efficiency, and frame rate. This paper presents a design methodology for an imaging system and a simplified image sensor pixel design to be used in the system so that the compressed sensing (CS) technique can be implemented easily at the sensor level. This results in significant energy savings as it not only cuts the raw data rate but also reduces transistor count per pixel; decreases pixel size; increases fill factor; simplifies analog-to-digital converter, JPEG encoder, and JPEG decoder design; decreases wiring; and reduces the decoder size by half. Thus, CS has the potential to increase the resolution of image sensors for a given technology and die size while significantly decreasing the power consumption and design complexity. We show that it has potential to reduce power consumption by about 23% to 65%.
On-Chip Neural Data Compression Based On Compressed Sensing With Sparse Sensing Matrices.
Zhao, Wenfeng; Sun, Biao; Wu, Tong; Yang, Zhi
2018-02-01
On-chip neural data compression is an enabling technique for wireless neural interfaces that suffer from insufficient bandwidth and power budgets to transmit the raw data. The data compression algorithm and its implementation should be power and area efficient and functionally reliable over different datasets. Compressed sensing is an emerging technique that has been applied to compress various neurophysiological data. However, the state-of-the-art compressed sensing (CS) encoders leverage random but dense binary measurement matrices, which incur substantial implementation costs on both power and area that could offset the benefits from the reduced wireless data rate. In this paper, we propose two CS encoder designs based on sparse measurement matrices that could lead to efficient hardware implementation. Specifically, two different approaches for the construction of sparse measurement matrices, i.e., the deterministic quasi-cyclic array code (QCAC) matrix and -sparse random binary matrix [-SRBM] are exploited. We demonstrate that the proposed CS encoders lead to comparable recovery performance. And efficient VLSI architecture designs are proposed for QCAC-CS and -SRBM encoders with reduced area and total power consumption.
Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Akorede
The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is an integral part of video and image compression ... solution for the optimum trade-off by applying rate-distortion theory has been ..... Int. J. the computer, the internet and management,.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Rahmat; Gholamireza, Afsaneh
2011-01-01
The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg -1 di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {(NH 4 ) 2 HCit} and those of (NH 4 ) 2 HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH 4 ) 2 HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {glycine + (NH 4 ) 2 HCit}, {alanine + (NH 4 ) 2 HCit}, and {serine + (NH 4 ) 2 HCit} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essers, J.A.
1987-01-01
A sophisticated computer code for the calculation of plane or spherical pressure waves and their reflection on a simplified rigid or flexible obstacle has been constructed. Different options: choice of explicit or implicit scheme, use of eulerian, isentropic or acoustic flow models, introduction of different artificial viscosities, use of uniform or non-uniform adaptive grids have been made available and validated by simple shock waves computations. The results from different numerical experiments are presented. They have been used to evaluate the values of artificial viscosity coefficients leading to acceptable pressure pulses. In particular, the following important conclusions have been confirmed: - the linear acoustic model leads to important errors except for extremely weak overpressures; - an excellent accuracy can be obtained with the non-linear isentropic model in a wide overpressure range; - as opposed to the eulerian and to the non-linear isentropic models, the acoustic model is completely uncapable of predicting the shock-up phenomenon, and can therefore lead to important errors in the prediction of the pulse shape even for very weak overpressures
Splenorenal shunt via magnetic compression technique: a feasibility study in canine and cadaver.
Xue, Fei; Li, Jianpeng; Lu, Jianwen; Zhu, Haoyang; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Hongke; Yang, Huan; Guo, Hongchang; Lv, Yi
2016-12-01
The concept of magnetic compression technique (MCT) has been accepted by surgeons to solve a variety of surgical problems. In this study, we attempted to explore the feasibility of a splenorenal shunt using MCT in canine and cadaver. The diameters of the splenic vein (SV), the left renal vein (LRV), and the vertical interval between them, were measured in computer tomography (CT) images obtained from 30 patients with portal hypertension and in 20 adult cadavers. The magnetic devices used for the splenorenal shunt were then manufactured based on the anatomic parameters measured above. The observation of the anatomical structure showed there were no special structural tissues or any important organs between SV and LRV. Then the magnetic compression splenorenal shunt procedure was performed in three dogs and five cadavers. Seven days later, the necrotic tissue between the two magnets was shed and the magnets were removed with the anchor wire. The feasibility of splenorenal shunt via MCT was successfully shown in both canine and cadaver, thus providing a theoretical support for future clinical application.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Thermodynamics of interaction of amino acids with trimethy N-oxide (TMAO) studied. → Partial molar properties in aqueous osmolyte provide interaction details. → Volumes, compressibilites, enthalpies indicate predominant hydrophobic interactions. → TMAO exerts its effect both by preferential hydration and hydrophobic interactions. → Results suggest hydrophobic interactions lead to destabilization of the protein. - Abstract: The values of apparent molar volume V 2,φ and apparent molar compressibility K S,2,φ of glycine, L-alanine, DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, L-valine, and L-leucine have been determined in the aqueous solution of 1 mol . kg -1 and 2 mol . kg -1 trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) solutions by density and sound velocity measurements. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been employed to determine the values of heats of dilution q of the aqueous solutions of these amino acids in TMAO at temperatures from T = 288.15 K to T = 308.15 K. These data have been used to calculate values of the infinite dilution standard partial molar volume (V 2,m 0 ), standard partial molar isentropic compressibility (K S,2,m 0 ) and limiting enthalpy of dilution (Δ dil H o ) of the amino acids in aqueous TMAO solutions. The standard partial molar volumes of transfer (Δ tr V 2,m 0 ), isentropic compressibility of transfer (Δ tr K S,2,m 0 ), and enthalpy of dilution of transfer (Δ tr Δ dil H o ) of amino acids from water to aqueous TMAO solutions have been calculated from the measured quantities for these thermodynamic quantities. The linear correlation of V 2,m 0 for a homologous series of amino acids has been utilized to calculate the contribution of the charged end groups (NH 3 + , COO - ), CH 2 groups, and the other alkyl chains of the amino acids to V 2,m 0 . The results for the partial molar properties of transfer from water to aqueous TMAO solutions have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion, ion-polar, hydrophilic-hydrophobic, and hydrophobic
Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression
Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.
2001-12-01
Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.
Efficient predictive algorithms for image compression
Rosário Lucas, Luís Filipe; Maciel de Faria, Sérgio Manuel; Morais Rodrigues, Nuno Miguel; Liberal Pagliari, Carla
2017-01-01
This book discusses efficient prediction techniques for the current state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, focusing on the compression of a wide range of video signals, such as 3D video, Light Fields and natural images. The authors begin with a review of the state-of-the-art predictive coding methods and compression technologies for both 2D and 3D multimedia contents, which provides a good starting point for new researchers in the field of image and video compression. New prediction techniques that go beyond the standardized compression technologies are then presented and discussed. In the context of 3D video, the authors describe a new predictive algorithm for the compression of depth maps, which combines intra-directional prediction, with flexible block partitioning and linear residue fitting. New approaches are described for the compression of Light Field and still images, which enforce sparsity constraints on linear models. The Locally Linear Embedding-based prediction method is in...
Application of content-based image compression to telepathology
Varga, Margaret J.; Ducksbury, Paul G.; Callagy, Grace
2002-05-01
Telepathology is a means of practicing pathology at a distance, viewing images on a computer display rather than directly through a microscope. Without compression, images take too long to transmit to a remote location and are very expensive to store for future examination. However, to date the use of compressed images in pathology remains controversial. This is because commercial image compression algorithms such as JPEG achieve data compression without knowledge of the diagnostic content. Often images are lossily compressed at the expense of corrupting informative content. None of the currently available lossy compression techniques are concerned with what information has been preserved and what data has been discarded. Their sole objective is to compress and transmit the images as fast as possible. By contrast, this paper presents a novel image compression technique, which exploits knowledge of the slide diagnostic content. This 'content based' approach combines visually lossless and lossy compression techniques, judiciously applying each in the appropriate context across an image so as to maintain 'diagnostic' information while still maximising the possible compression. Standard compression algorithms, e.g. wavelets, can still be used, but their use in a context sensitive manner can offer high compression ratios and preservation of diagnostically important information. When compared with lossless compression the novel content-based approach can potentially provide the same degree of information with a smaller amount of data. When compared with lossy compression it can provide more information for a given amount of compression. The precise gain in the compression performance depends on the application (e.g. database archive or second opinion consultation) and the diagnostic content of the images.
A review on compressed pattern matching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surya Prakash Mishra
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Compressed pattern matching (CPM refers to the task of locating all the occurrences of a pattern (or set of patterns inside the body of compressed text. In this type of matching, pattern may or may not be compressed. CPM is very useful in handling large volume of data especially over the network. It has many applications in computational biology, where it is useful in finding similar trends in DNA sequences; intrusion detection over the networks, big data analytics etc. Various solutions have been provided by researchers where pattern is matched directly over the uncompressed text. Such solution requires lot of space and consumes lot of time when handling the big data. Various researchers have proposed the efficient solutions for compression but very few exist for pattern matching over the compressed text. Considering the future trend where data size is increasing exponentially day-by-day, CPM has become a desirable task. This paper presents a critical review on the recent techniques on the compressed pattern matching. The covered techniques includes: Word based Huffman codes, Word Based Tagged Codes; Wavelet Tree Based Indexing. We have presented a comparative analysis of all the techniques mentioned above and highlighted their advantages and disadvantages.
Grid deformation strategies for CFD analysis of screw compressors
Rane, S.; Kovacevic, A.; Stosic, N.; Kethidi, M.
2013-01-01
Customized grid generation of twin screw machines for CFD analysis is widely used by the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry today, but is currently not suitable for topologies such as those of single screw, variable pitch or tri screw rotors. This paper investigates a technique called key-frame re-meshing that supplies pre-generated unstructured grids to the CFD solver at different time steps. To evaluate its accuracy, the results of an isentropic compression-expansion process in a r...
Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.
1998-01-01
We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... cannot be expected to code losslessly at a rate of 125 Mbit/s. We investigate the rate and quality effects of quantization using standard JPEG-LS quantization and two new techniques: visual quantization and trellis quantization. Visual quantization is not part of baseline JPEG-LS, but is applicable...... in the framework of JPEG-LS. Visual tests show that this quantization technique gives much better quality than standard JPEG-LS quantization. Trellis quantization is a process by which the original image is altered in such a way as to make lossless JPEG-LS encoding more effective. For JPEG-LS and visual...
Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuri Álvarez López
2017-01-01
Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voigt, Thomas; Malonn, Tim; Shah, Surendra P.
2006-01-01
Knowledge about the early age compressive strength development of cementitious materials is an important factor for the progress and safety of many construction projects. This paper uses cylindrical mortar specimens produced with a ram extruder to investigate the transition of the mortar from plastic and deformable to hardened state. In addition, wave transmission and reflection measurements with P- and S-waves were conducted to obtain further information about the microstructural changes during the setting and hardening process. The experiments have shown that uniaxial compression tests conducted on extruded mortar cylinders are a useful tool to evaluate the green strength as well as the initiation and further development of the compressive strength of the tested material. The propagation of P-waves was found to be indicative of the internal structure of the tested mortars as influenced, for example, by the addition of fine clay particles. S-waves used in transmission and reflection mode proved to be sensitive to the inter-particle bonding caused by the cement hydration and expressed by an increase in compressive strength
Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J
2006-11-01
Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes ( 18G, 20G, 21 G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed. Présentement, aucune technique normalisée ne permet de vérifier les pressions d'injection pendant les blocages nerveux périphériques. Nous voulions vérifier si une technique d'injection d'air comprimé, utilisant un modèle in vitro fondé sur la loi de Boyle et du matériel propre à l'anesthésie régionale, pouvait maintenir avec régularité les
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, Noelia; González, Emilio J.; Domínguez, Ángeles; Macedo, Eugénia A.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Physical and osmotic properties of binary mixtures {alcohol + [BMim][dca]} were measured. ► From experimental data, apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were calculated. ► The apparent properties were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. ► The osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer and the MNRTL models. - Abstract: In this paper, densities and speeds of sound for five binary systems {alcohol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide} were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure. From these experimental data, apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression have been calculated and fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. This fit was also used to calculate the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression at infinite dilution for the studied binary mixtures. Moreover, the osmotic and activity coefficients and vapor pressures of these binary mixtures were also determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The experimental osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer model of Archer. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained in the correlation.
Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blair, S.C.
1994-12-01
Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.
Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets
Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.
2004-01-01
In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.
Subband Coding Methods for Seismic Data Compression
Kiely, A.; Pollara, F.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The compression technique described could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Rahmat; Parhizkar, Hana
2008-01-01
The apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compressibility of solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ) in (1-propanol + water) mixed-solvent media with alcohol mass fractions of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 are reported over the range of temperature (283.15 to 303.15) K at 5 K intervals. The results were fitted to a Redlich-Mayer type equation from which the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compressibility of the solutions at the infinite dilution were also calculated at the working temperature. The results show a positive transfer volume of NaH 2 PO 4 from an aqueous solution to an aqueous 1-propanol solution. The apparent molar isentropic compressibility of NaH 2 PO 4 in aqueous 1-propanol solutions is negative and it increases with increasing the concentration of NaH 2 PO 4 , 1-propanol, and temperature. Electrical conductivity and refractive index of the solutions are also studied at T = 298.15 K. The effects of the electrolyte concentration and relative permittivity of the medium on the molar conductivity were also investigated
Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization
H. B. Kekre; Tanuja K. Sarode
2008-01-01
Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table s...
CEPRAM: Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM
González Alberquilla, Rodrigo; Castro Rodríguez, Fernando; Piñuel Moreno, Luis; Tirado Fernández, Francisco
2017-01-01
We deal with the endurance problem of Phase Change Memories (PCM) by proposing Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM (CEPRAM), a technique to elongate the lifespan of PCM-based main memory through compression. We introduce a total of three compression schemes based on already existent schemes, but targeting compression for PCM-based systems. We do a two-level evaluation. First, we quantify the performance of the compression, in terms of compressed size, bit-flips and how they are affected by e...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valenzise G
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In the past few years, a large amount of techniques have been proposed to identify whether a multimedia content has been illegally tampered or not. Nevertheless, very few efforts have been devoted to identifying which kind of attack has been carried out, especially due to the large data required for this task. We propose a novel hashing scheme which exploits the paradigms of compressive sensing and distributed source coding to generate a compact hash signature, and we apply it to the case of audio content protection. The audio content provider produces a small hash signature by computing a limited number of random projections of a perceptual, time-frequency representation of the original audio stream; the audio hash is given by the syndrome bits of an LDPC code applied to the projections. At the content user side, the hash is decoded using distributed source coding tools. If the tampering is sparsifiable or compressible in some orthonormal basis or redundant dictionary, it is possible to identify the time-frequency position of the attack, with a hash size as small as 200 bits/second; the bit saving obtained by introducing distributed source coding ranges between 20% to 70%.
CFD simulations of compressed air two stage rotary Wankel expander – Parametric analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadiq, Ghada A.; Tozer, Gavin; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad
2017-01-01
Highlights: • CFD ANSYS-Fluent 3D simulation of Wankel expander is developed. • Single and two-stage expander’s performance is compared. • Inlet and outlet ports shape and configurations are investigated. • Isentropic efficiency of two stage Wankel expander of 91% is achieved. - Abstract: A small scale volumetric Wankel expander is a powerful device for small-scale power generation in compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems and Organic Rankine cycles powered by different heat sources such as, biomass, low temperature geothermal, solar and waste heat leading to significant reduction in CO_2 emissions. Wankel expanders outperform other types of expander due to their ability to produce two power pulses per revolution per chamber additional to higher compactness, lower noise and vibration and lower cost. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using ANSYS 16.2 to simulate the flow dynamics for a single and two stage Wankel expanders and to investigate the effect of port configurations, including size and spacing, on the expander’s power output and isentropic efficiency. Also, single-stage and two-stage expanders were analysed with different operating conditions. Single-stage 3D CFD results were compared to published work showing close agreement. The CFD modelling was used to investigate the performance of the rotary device using air as an ideal gas with various port diameters ranging from 15 mm to 50 mm; port spacing varying from 28 mm to 66 mm; different Wankel expander sizes (r = 48, e = 6.6, b = 32) mm and (r = 58, e = 8, b = 40) mm both as single-stage and as two-stage expanders with different configurations and various operating conditions. Results showed that the best Wankel expander design for a single-stage was (r = 48, e = 6.6, b = 32) mm, with the port diameters 20 mm and port spacing equal to 50 mm. Moreover, combining two Wankel expanders horizontally, with a larger one at front, produced 8.52 kW compared
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamireza, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg{sup -1} di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {l_brace}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} and those of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {l_brace}glycine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, {l_brace}alanine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, and {l_brace}serine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.
Bit-wise arithmetic coding for data compression
Kiely, A. B.
1994-01-01
This article examines the problem of compressing a uniformly quantized independent and identically distributed (IID) source. We present a new compression technique, bit-wise arithmetic coding, that assigns fixed-length codewords to the quantizer output and uses arithmetic coding to compress the codewords, treating the codeword bits as independent. We examine the performance of this method and evaluate the overhead required when used block-adaptively. Simulation results are presented for Gaussian and Laplacian sources. This new technique could be used as the entropy coder in a transform or subband coding system.
Compressing Data Cube in Parallel OLAP Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Dehne
2007-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient algorithm to compress the cubes in the progress of the parallel data cube generation. This low overhead compression mechanism provides block-by-block and record-by-record compression by using tuple difference coding techniques, thereby maximizing the compression ratio and minimizing the decompression penalty at run-time. The experimental results demonstrate that the typical compression ratio is about 30:1 without sacrificing running time. This paper also demonstrates that the compression method is suitable for Hilbert Space Filling Curve, a mechanism widely used in multi-dimensional indexing.
Phase Transitions in Aluminum Under Shockless Compression at the Z Machine
Davis, Jean-Paul; Brown, Justin; Shulenburger, Luke; Knudson, Marcus
2017-06-01
Aluminum 6061 alloy has been used extensively as an electrode material in shockless ramp-wave experiments at the Z Machine. Previous theoretical work suggests that the principal quasi-isentrope in aluminum should pass through two phase transitions at multi-megabar pressures, first from the ambient fcc phase to hcp at around 200 GPa, then to bcc at around 320 GPa. Previous static measurements in a diamond-anvil cell have detected the hcp phase above 200 GPa along the room-temperature isentherm. Recent laser-based dynamic compression experiments have observed both the hcp and bcc phases using X-ray diffraction. Here we present high-accuracy velocity waveform data taken on pure and alloy aluminum materials at the Z Machine under shockless compression with 200-ns rise-time to 400 GPa using copper electrodes and lithium-fluoride windows. These are compared to recent EOS tables developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to our own results from diffusion quantum Monte-Carlo calculations, and to multi-phase EOS models with phase-transition kinetics. We find clear evidence of a fast transition around 200 GPa as expected, and a possible suggestion of a slower transition at higher pressure. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE AC04-94AL85000.
FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.
Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf
2013-01-01
In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, A.J.
1975-01-01
The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ALI，A.; IBRAHIM.M; 等
2003-01-01
Densities and ultrasonic speeds have been measured in binary mixtures of benzene with 1-pentanol,1-heptanol and 1-octanol,and in the pure components,as a function of compostion at 35℃.The isentropic compressibility,intermolecular free length,relative association,acoustic impedance,isothermal compressibility,thermal expansion coefficient,deviations in isentropic compressibility,excess freee length,excess volume,deviations in ultrasonic speed,excess acoustic impedance,apparent molar compressibility,apparent molar volume,partial molar volume of 1-alkanol in benzene have been calculated from the experimental data of densities and ultrasonic speeds.The variation of these parameters with composition indicates weak interaction between the component molecules and this interaction decreases in the order:1-pentanol>1-heptanol>1-octanol.Further,theoretical values of ultrasonic speeds were evaluated using free length theory,collision factor theory,Nomoto's relation and Van Dael-Vangeel ideal mixing relation.The relative merits of these theories and relations were discussed for these systems.
Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.
Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J
2008-01-01
High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuha A. S. Alwan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Images with subband coding and threshold wavelet compression are transmitted over a Rayleigh communication channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, after quantization and 16-QAM modulation. A comparison is made between these two types of compression using both mean square error (MSE and structural similarity (SSIM image quality assessment (IQA criteria applied to the reconstructed image at the receiver. The two methods yielded comparable SSIM but different MSE measures. In this work, we justify our results which support previous findings in the literature that the MSE between two images is not indicative of structural similarity or the visibility of errors. It is found that it is difficult to reduce the pointwise errors in subband-compressed images (higher MSE. However, the compressed images provide comparable SSIM or perceived quality for both types of compression provided that the retained energy after compression is the same.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Luo Shengnian; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.; Kalantar, Daniel; Remington, Bruce A.; Peralta, Pedro; Loomis, Eric
2005-01-01
During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. These relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser-induced ablation can be particularly convenient: this technique has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from ∼1 to 200 GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including line imaging surface velocimetry, surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response from the polycrystalline microstructure. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1 TPa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iloukhani, Hossein [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: iloukhani@basu.ac.ir; Samiey, Babak [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lorestan, Khoramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2007-02-15
Densities ({rho}), viscosities ({eta}), and speeds of sound (u) of the ternary mixture (1-heptanol+trichloroethylene+methylcyclohexane) and the involved binary mixtures (1-heptanol+trichloroethylene) (1-heptanol+methylcyclohexane), and (trichloroethylene+methylcyclohexane) at 298.15K were measured over the whole composition range. The data obtained are used to calculate excess molar volumes (V{sup E}), excess isobaric thermal expansivity ({alpha}{sup E}), viscosity deviations ({delta}{eta}), excess Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow ({delta}G{sup *E}), and excess isentropic compressibilities ({kappa}{sub S}{sup E}) of the binary and ternary mixtures. The data of the binary systems were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation while the best correlation method for the ternary system was found using the Nagata equation. Viscosities, speeds of sound and isentropic compressibilities of the binary and ternary mixtures have been correlated by means of several empirical and semi-empirical equations. The best correlation method for viscosities of binary systems is found using the Iulan et al. equation and for the ternary system using the McAllister equation. The best correlation method for speeds of sound and isentropic compressibilities of the binary systems is found using the IMR and for the ternary system using the IMR and JR.
Word aligned bitmap compression method, data structure, and apparatus
Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Otoo, Ekow
2004-12-14
The Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression method and data structure is a relatively efficient method for searching and performing logical, counting, and pattern location operations upon large datasets. The technique is comprised of a data structure and methods that are optimized for computational efficiency by using the WAH compression method, which typically takes advantage of the target computing system's native word length. WAH is particularly apropos to infrequently varying databases, including those found in the on-line analytical processing (OLAP) industry, due to the increased computational efficiency of the WAH compressed bitmap index. Some commercial database products already include some version of a bitmap index, which could possibly be replaced by the WAH bitmap compression techniques for potentially increased operation speed, as well as increased efficiencies in constructing compressed bitmaps. Combined together, this technique may be particularly useful for real-time business intelligence. Additional WAH applications may include scientific modeling, such as climate and combustion simulations, to minimize search time for analysis and subsequent data visualization.
Structure and Properties of Silica Glass Densified in Cold Compression and Hot Compression
Guerette, Michael; Ackerson, Michael R.; Thomas, Jay; Yuan, Fenglin; Bruce Watson, E.; Walker, David; Huang, Liping
2015-10-01
Silica glass has been shown in numerous studies to possess significant capacity for permanent densification under pressure at different temperatures to form high density amorphous (HDA) silica. However, it is unknown to what extent the processes leading to irreversible densification of silica glass in cold-compression at room temperature and in hot-compression (e.g., near glass transition temperature) are common in nature. In this work, a hot-compression technique was used to quench silica glass from high temperature (1100 °C) and high pressure (up to 8 GPa) conditions, which leads to density increase of ~25% and Young’s modulus increase of ~71% relative to that of pristine silica glass at ambient conditions. Our experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide solid evidences that the intermediate-range order of the hot-compressed HDA silica is distinct from that of the counterpart cold-compressed at room temperature. This explains the much higher thermal and mechanical stability of the former than the latter upon heating and compression as revealed in our in-situ Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiments. Our studies demonstrate the limitation of the resulting density as a structural indicator of polyamorphism, and point out the importance of temperature during compression in order to fundamentally understand HDA silica.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Thakker
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents work carried out to predict the behavior of a 0.6 m impulse turbine with fixed guide vanes as compared with that of a 0.6 hub-to-tip ratio turbine under real sea conditions. In order to predict the true performance of the actual oscillating water column (OWC, the numerical technique was fine-tuned by incorporating the compressibility effect. Water surface elevation versus time history was used as the input data for this purpose. The effect of compressibility inside the air chamber and the turbine's performance under unsteady and irregular flow conditions were analyzed numerically. Considering the quasi-steady assumptions, the unidirectional steady-flow experimental data was used to simulate the turbines characteristics under irregular unsteady flow conditions. The results showed that the performance of this type of turbine is quite stable and that the efficiency of the air chamber and the mean conversion efficiency are reduced by around 8% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the compressibility inside the air chamber. The mean efficiencies of the OWC device and the impulse turbine were predicted for 1 month, based on the Irish wave climate, and it was found that the total time period of wave data used is one of the important factors in the simulation technique.
Release path temperatures of shock-compressed tin from dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Holtkamp, D. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Iverson, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)
2013-08-14
Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R{sub 0} are <2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are <5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of <2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.
Word aligned bitmap compression method, data structure, and apparatus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Otoo, Ekow
2004-12-14
The Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression method and data structure is a relatively efficient method for searching and performing logical, counting, and pattern location operations upon large datasets. The technique is comprised of a data structure and methods that are optimized for computational efficiency by using the WAH compression method, which typically takes advantage of the target computing system's native word length. WAH is particularly apropos to infrequently varying databases, including those found in the on-line analytical processing (OLAP) industry, due to the increased computational efficiency of the WAH compressed bitmap index. Some commercial database products already include some version of a bitmap index, which could possibly be replaced by the WAH bitmap compression techniques for potentially increased operation speed, as well as increased efficiencies in constructing compressed bitmaps. Combined together, this technique may be particularly useful for real-time business intelligence. Additional WAH applications may include scientific modeling, such as climate and combustion simulations, to minimize search time for analysis and subsequent data visualization.
DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-22
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.
High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries
Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.
2011-01-01
The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Carmen M.; Rodríguez, Diana M.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Esteso, Miguel A.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Apparent volumes, apparent compressibilities, viscosities of DL-2-aminobutyric acid. • Effect of temperature on the values for these properties. • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions and the effect of sodium chloride. - Abstract: Density, sound velocity and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been measured at temperatures of (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K. The experimental results were used to determine the apparent molar volume and the apparent molar compressibility as a function of composition at these temperatures. The limiting values of both the partial molar volume and the partial molar adiabatic compressibility at infinite dilution of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions were determined at each temperature. The experimental viscosity values were adjusted by a least-squares method to a second order equation as proposed by Tsangaris-Martin to obtain the viscosity B coefficient which depends on the size, shape and charge of the solute molecule. The influence of the temperature on the behaviour of the selected properties is discussed in terms of both the solute hydration and the balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the acids and water, and the effect of the sodium chloride concentration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, B.; Dominguez, A.; Tojo, J. E-mail: jtojo@uvigo.es
2004-04-01
The dynamic viscosities, densities, and speed of sound for the binary mixtures (2-butanol with octane, or decane, or dodecane) at several temperatures T=(293.15, 298.15, 303.15) K have been measured over the whole composition range and atmospheric pressure along with the properties of the pure components. Excess molar volumes, isentropic compressibility, deviations in isentropic compressibility, and viscosity deviation for the binary systems at the above-mentioned temperatures were calculated and fitted to Redlich-Kister equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root-mean-square deviations. UNIQUAC equation were used to correlate the experimental viscosity data. UNIFAC-VISCO method and ASOG-VISCO method, based on contribution groups, were used to predict the dynamic viscosities of the binary mixtures.
Microwave and X-Ray emission during a isentropic expansion and its application to solar bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piazza, L.R.
1983-01-01
The gyro-synchrotron emission in microwaves and the free-free emission in X-rays of a plasma enclosed in a cylinder coincident with a magnetic force tube were calculated for an isentropic self-similar expansion, with plane and cylindrical symmetries. This expansion model was applied to a region of the low solar corona, and the results were compared to the emission observed in some simple solar events of low intensity. The calculations show satisfactory coincidence with the events in X-rays for energies around 10 29 ergs. The solar events analyzed in microwaves, which are not the same that were studied in X-rays, in general do not fit the theoretical results. The origin of the discrepancy is probably the formulation of the processes of emission applied to the expansion. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismael, M A; Heikal, M R; Baharom, M B
2013-01-01
An experimental study was performed to investigate the compressed natural gas jet characteristics and jet-wall impingement using the Schlieren imaging technique and image processing. An injector driver was used to drive the natural gas injector and synchronized with camera triggering. A constant-volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet macroscopic characteristics and jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures and injectors-wall distances. Measurement of the jet tip penetration and cone angle at different conditions are presented in this paper together with temporal presentation of the jet radial travel along the wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yang; Figueiredo, Eduardo J.P.; Santos, Mário J.; Santos, Jaime B.; Talavera-Prieto, Nieves M.C.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ferreira, Abel G.M.; Mattedi, Silvana
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Density and speed of sound for aqueous mixtures of m2HEAB and m2HEAP were measured. • Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were calculated. • Excess properties were correlated using Redlich–Kister and rational functions. • The molar compressibility the aqueous mixtures was calculated from the Wadás model. • Appreciable interactions between water and ionic liquid were found. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the protic ionic liquids (PILs) N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate (m2HEAB) and N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium pentanoate (m2HEAP) was measured at atmospheric pressure, and over the range of temperatures T = (293.15 to 343.15) K. The speed of sound and density of aqueous mixtures of the ionic liquid were also determined throughout the entire concentration range, within the (298.15 to 333.15) K temperature range and at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess speed of sound, apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compressibility were calculated from the experimental density and speed of sound values. Furthermore, all the properties were correlated with selected analytical functions. The apparent molar volume of aqueous PILs was analysed by Pitzer–Simonson theory. The speed of sound of the PILs was predicted with the Wu et al. model and the molar compressibility of the same PILs and their aqueous mixtures were calculated from Wadás model. The results demonstrate that the molar compressibility calculated from Wadás model is almost a linear function of mole fraction and can be considered as temperature independent for a fixed mole fraction over the whole composition range. The results were analysed and discussed from the structural changes point of view in aqueous medium.
Mammography parameters: compression, dose, and discomfort
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanco, S.; Di Risio, C.; Andisco, D.; Rojas, R.R.; Rojas, R.M.
2017-01-01
Objective: To confirm the importance of compression in mammography and relate it to the discomfort expressed by the patients. Materials and methods: Two samples of 402 and 268 mammographies were obtained from two diagnostic centres that use the same mammographic equipment, but different compression techniques. The patient age range was from 21 to 50 years old. (authors) [es
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2013-01-01
Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...
Development of Ultrasonic Pulse Compression Using Golay Codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Young H.; Kim, Young Gil; Jeong, Peter
1994-01-01
Conventional ultrasonic flaw detection system uses a large amplitude narrow pulse to excite a transducer. However, these systems are limited in pulse energy. An excessively large amplitude causes a dielectric breakage of the transducer, and an excessively long pulse causes decrease of the resolution. Using the pulse compression, a long pulse of pseudorandom signal can be used without sacrificing resolution by signal correlation. In the present work, the pulse compression technique was implemented into an ultrasonic system. Golay code was used as a pseudorandom signal in this system, since pair sum of autocorrelations has no sidelobe. The equivalent input pulse of the Golay code was derived to analyze the pulse compression system. Throughout the experiment, the pulse compression technique has demonstrated for its improved SNR(signal to noise ratio) by reducing the system's white noise. And the experimental data also indicated that the SNR enhancement was proportional to the square root of the code length used. The technique seems to perform particularly well with highly energy-absorbent materials such as polymers, plastics and rubbers
Recent Advances in High-Pressure Equation-of-State Capabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ASAY, James R.; HALL, CLINT A.; KNUDSON, MARCUS D.
2000-01-01
For many scientific and programmatic applications, it is necessary to determine the shock compression response of materials to several tens of Mbar. In addition, a complete EOS is often needed in these applications, which requires that shock data be supplemented with other information, such as temperature measurements or by EOS data off the principal Hugoniot. Recent developments in the use of fast pulsed power techniques for EOS studies have been useful in achieving these goals. In particular, the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, which develops over 20 million amperes of current in 100-200 ns, can be used to produce muM-Mbar shock pressures and to obtain continuous compression data to pressures exceeding 1 Mbar. With this technique, isentropic compression data have been obtained on several materials to pressures of several hundred kbar. The technique has also been used to launch ultra-high velocity flyer plates to a maximum velocity of 14 km/s, which can be used to produce impact pressures of several Mbar in low impedance materials and over 10 Mbar in high impedance materials. The paper will review developments in both of these areas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chawla, T.C.
1978-01-01
It is demonstrated that for a compressible flow model with heat transfer, the introduction of a specific state equation to supplement the continuity, momentum an enthalpy equations, leads to a very specific form of an expression for a speed of wave propagation. Consequently, the numerous expressions obtained for various choices of state equations are not easily identifiable and, therefore, can not be evaluated directly in terms of measurable properties. By use of the various thermodynamic relationships, it has been shown that these expressions are all equivalent and are identifiable as isentropic sonic velocity. As a corollary to this demonstration, expressions have also been obtained in terms of measurable properties for various thermodynamic-state variables occurring in the coefficients of the governing equations. These expressions are required if loss in accuracy owing to noise introduced in the direct numerical differentiation of the derivatives that these state-variables represent is to be avoided. (author)
A Comparison of Compressed Sensing and Sparse Recovery Algorithms Applied to Simulation Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya Ju Fan
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The move toward exascale computing for scientific simulations is placing new demands on compression techniques. It is expected that the I/O system will not be able to support the volume of data that is expected to be written out. To enable quantitative analysis and scientific discovery, we are interested in techniques that compress high-dimensional simulation data and can provide perfect or near-perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we explore the use of compressed sensing (CS techniques to reduce the size of the data before they are written out. Using large-scale simulation data, we investigate how the sufficient sparsity condition and the contrast in the data affect the quality of reconstruction and the degree of compression. We provide suggestions for the practical implementation of CS techniques and compare them with other sparse recovery methods. Our results show that despite longer times for reconstruction, compressed sensing techniques can provide near perfect reconstruction over a range of data with varying sparsity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naseem, Bushra; Iftikhar, Madeeha
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Antibiotics in different alcohols are used to study their interactions in solutions. • Density and sound velocity for antibiotic solutions are measured at different temperatures. • Apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility are used to calculate partial molar quantities. • Acoustical parameters are calculated and discussed in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. - Abstract: The density and sound velocity for pure alcohols (methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol and n-butanol) and molal solutions of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole (MNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) have been measured at different temperatures (293.15–313.15 K). Different volumetric and acoustical parameters like apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), partial molar volume (VÐ›Ñ™ ϕ ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K ϕ ), partial molar isentropic compressibility (KÐ›Ñ™ ϕ ), hydration number (n H ), acoustic impedance (Z) and intermolecular free length (L f ) of antibiotic solutions were calculated from the experimental values of density and sound velocity. The derived values have been used to explore the solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. The V ϕ values are positive and K ϕ values are negative in both antibiotics, indicative of strong solute–solvent interactions and closely packed structure of antibiotics in alcohols. The decreasing trend of L f with increasing antibiotic concentration shows the presence of strong intermolecular interactions in solutions.
A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks
Hussain, Syed Imtiaz
2012-02-01
The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.
Image compression using moving average histogram and RBF network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khowaja, S.; Ismaili, I.A.
2015-01-01
Modernization and Globalization have made the multimedia technology as one of the fastest growing field in recent times but optimal use of bandwidth and storage has been one of the topics which attract the research community to work on. Considering that images have a lion share in multimedia communication, efficient image compression technique has become the basic need for optimal use of bandwidth and space. This paper proposes a novel method for image compression based on fusion of moving average histogram and RBF (Radial Basis Function). Proposed technique employs the concept of reducing color intensity levels using moving average histogram technique followed by the correction of color intensity levels using RBF networks at reconstruction phase. Existing methods have used low resolution images for the testing purpose but the proposed method has been tested on various image resolutions to have a clear assessment of the said technique. The proposed method have been tested on 35 images with varying resolution and have been compared with the existing algorithms in terms of CR (Compression Ratio), MSE (Mean Square Error), PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), computational complexity. The outcome shows that the proposed methodology is a better trade off technique in terms of compression ratio, PSNR which determines the quality of the image and computational complexity. (author)
Two-thumb technique is superior to two-finger technique during lone rescuer infant manikin CPR.
Udassi, Sharda; Udassi, Jai P; Lamb, Melissa A; Theriaque, Douglas W; Shuster, Jonathan J; Zaritsky, Arno L; Haque, Ikram U
2010-06-01
Infant CPR guidelines recommend two-finger chest compression with a lone rescuer and two-thumb with two rescuers. Two-thumb provides better chest compression but is perceived to be associated with increased ventilation hands-off time. We hypothesized that lone rescuer two-thumb CPR is associated with increased ventilation cycle time, decreased ventilation quality and fewer chest compressions compared to two-finger CPR in an infant manikin model. Crossover observational study randomizing 34 healthcare providers to perform 2 min CPR at a compression rate of 100 min(-1) using a 30:2 compression:ventilation ratio comparing two-thumb vs. two-finger techniques. A Laerdal Baby ALS Trainer manikin was modified to digitally record compression rate, compression depth and compression pressure and ventilation cycle time (two mouth-to-mouth breaths). Manikin chest rise with breaths was video recorded and later reviewed by two blinded CPR instructors for percent effective breaths. Data (mean+/-SD) were analyzed using a two-tailed paired t-test. Significance was defined qualitatively as pCPR, but there was no significant difference in percent effective breaths delivered between the two techniques. Two-thumb CPR had 4 fewer delivered compressions per minute, which may be offset by far more effective compression depth and compression pressure compared to two-finger technique. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stanek, Justin; Sullivan, Taylor; Davis, Samantha
2018-02-01
Restricted dorsiflexion (DF) at the ankle joint can cause acute and chronic injuries at the ankle and knee. Myofascial release and instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) techniques have been used to increase range of motion (ROM); however, evidence directly comparing their effectiveness is limited. To compare the effects of a single session of compressive myofascial release (CMR) or IASTM using the Graston Technique (GT) on closed chain ankle-DF ROM. Randomized controlled trial. Laboratory. Participants were 44 physically active people (53 limbs) with less than 30° of DF. Limbs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control, CMR, or GT. Both treatment groups received one 5-minute treatment that included scanning the area and treating specific restrictions. The control group sat for 5 minutes before measurements were retaken. Standing and kneeling ankle DF were measured before and immediately after treatment. Change scores were calculated for both positions, and two 1-way analyses of variance were conducted. A difference between groups was found in the standing ( F 2,52 = 13.78, P = .001) and kneeling ( F 2,52 = 5.85, P = .01) positions. Post hoc testing showed DF improvements in the standing position after CMR compared with the GT and control groups (both P = .001). In the kneeling position, DF improved after CMR compared with the control group ( P = .005). Compressive myofascial release increased ankle DF after a single treatment in participants with DF ROM deficits. Clinicians should consider adding CMR as a treatment intervention for patients with DF deficits.
Compression and channel-coding algorithms for high-definition television signals
Alparone, Luciano; Benelli, Giuliano; Fabbri, A. F.
1990-09-01
In this paper results of investigations about the effects of channel errors in the transmission of images compressed by means of techniques based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DOT) and Vector Quantization (VQ) are presented. Since compressed images are heavily degraded by noise in the transmission channel more seriously for what concern VQ-coded images theoretical studies and simulations are presented in order to define and evaluate this degradation. Some channel coding schemes are proposed in order to protect information during transmission. Hamming codes (7 (15 and (31 have been used for DCT-compressed images more powerful codes such as Golay (23 for VQ-compressed images. Performances attainable with softdecoding techniques are also evaluated better quality images have been obtained than using classical hard decoding techniques. All tests have been carried out to simulate the transmission of a digital image from HDTV signal over an AWGN channel with P5K modulation.
Compression of surface myoelectric signals using MP3 encoding.
Chan, Adrian D C
2011-01-01
The potential of MP3 compression of surface myoelectric signals is explored in this paper. MP3 compression is a perceptual-based encoder scheme, used traditionally to compress audio signals. The ubiquity of MP3 compression (e.g., portable consumer electronics and internet applications) makes it an attractive option for remote monitoring and telemedicine applications. The effects of muscle site and contraction type are examined at different MP3 encoding bitrates. Results demonstrate that MP3 compression is sensitive to the myoelectric signal bandwidth, with larger signal distortion associated with myoelectric signals that have higher bandwidths. Compared to other myoelectric signal compression techniques reported previously (embedded zero-tree wavelet compression and adaptive differential pulse code modulation), MP3 compression demonstrates superior performance (i.e., lower percent residual differences for the same compression ratios).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatia, Subhash C.; Bhatia, Rachna; Dubey, Gyan P.
2010-01-01
Densities and ultrasonic velocities of binary mixtures of decan-1-ol with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene have been measured over the entire range of composition at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. From these results, the excess molar volumes, molar free volumes, excess molar isentropic compressibilities, limiting excess partial molar volumes, and isentropic compressibilities, intermolecular free lengths, and available volumes by three methods, thermal expansion coefficients, parameters related to space-filling ability, intermolecular free lengths, and molecular radii have been calculated. The experimental ultrasonic velocities have been analyzed in terms of the ideal mixture relations of Nomoto and Van Dael, Jacobson's free length, Schaaff's collision factor, Flory's statistical, and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theories and thermoacoustical parameters.
Density and speed of sound of lithium bromide with organic solvents: Measurement and correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zafarani-Moattar, Mohammed Taghi [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: zafarani47@yahoo.com; Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2007-12-15
Densities, {rho}, and speed of sound, u, of the solutions of LiBr with non-aqueous solvents (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, and acetonitrile) having a wide range of dielectric constants were measured at T = 298.15 K. Also, these measurements were made for the system (LiBr + N,N-dimethylacetamide) at T = 323.15 K. For the investigated systems, the limiting values for apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}, and the apparent molar isentropic compressibility, {kappa}{sub {phi}}{sup 0}, were obtained from the Redlich-Mayer and an abbreviated form of the Pitzer equations. The Pitzer and NRTL equations were satisfactorily used for the correlation of apparent molar volumes, V{sub {phi}}, and the apparent molar isentropic compressibility, {kappa}{sub {phi}}, values of the studied systems.
NRGC: a novel referential genome compression algorithm.
Saha, Subrata; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar
2016-11-15
Next-generation sequencing techniques produce millions to billions of short reads. The procedure is not only very cost effective but also can be done in laboratory environment. The state-of-the-art sequence assemblers then construct the whole genomic sequence from these reads. Current cutting edge computing technology makes it possible to build genomic sequences from the billions of reads within a minimal cost and time. As a consequence, we see an explosion of biological sequences in recent times. In turn, the cost of storing the sequences in physical memory or transmitting them over the internet is becoming a major bottleneck for research and future medical applications. Data compression techniques are one of the most important remedies in this context. We are in need of suitable data compression algorithms that can exploit the inherent structure of biological sequences. Although standard data compression algorithms are prevalent, they are not suitable to compress biological sequencing data effectively. In this article, we propose a novel referential genome compression algorithm (NRGC) to effectively and efficiently compress the genomic sequences. We have done rigorous experiments to evaluate NRGC by taking a set of real human genomes. The simulation results show that our algorithm is indeed an effective genome compression algorithm that performs better than the best-known algorithms in most of the cases. Compression and decompression times are also very impressive. The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~rajasek/NRGC.zip CONTACT: rajasek@engr.uconn.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Experiments
Korde-Patel, Asmita; Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh
2016-01-01
Compressive Sensing is an emerging technology for data compression and simultaneous data acquisition. This is an enabling technique for significant reduction in data bandwidth, and transmission power and hence, can greatly benefit spaceflight instruments. We apply this process to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. We experiment with various impact parameters that describe microlensing curves to determine the effectiveness and uncertainty caused by Compressive Sensing. Finally, we describe implications for spaceflight missions.
Compressive sensing based ptychography image encryption
Rawat, Nitin
2015-09-01
A compressive sensing (CS) based ptychography combined with an optical image encryption is proposed. The diffraction pattern is recorded through ptychography technique further compressed by non-uniform sampling via CS framework. The system requires much less encrypted data and provides high security. The diffraction pattern as well as the lesser measurements of the encrypted samples serves as a secret key which make the intruder attacks more difficult. Furthermore, CS shows that the linearly projected few random samples have adequate information for decryption with a dramatic volume reduction. Experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed technique compared with the existing techniques. The retrieved images do not reveal any information with the original information. In addition, the proposed system can be robust even with partial encryption and under brute-force attacks.
Analysis of Compression Algorithm in Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS)
Schmalz, Tyler; Ryan, Jack
2011-01-01
Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS) utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) stored onboard a plane to determine potential recovery maneuvers. Because of the current limitations of computer hardware on military airplanes such as the F-22 and F-35, the DTED must be compressed through a lossy technique called binary-tree tip-tilt. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the compressed data with respect to the original DTED. This study is mainly interested in the magnitude of the error between the two as well as the overall distribution of the errors throughout the DTED. By understanding how the errors of the compression technique are affected by various factors (topography, density of sampling points, sub-sampling techniques, etc.), modifications can be made to the compression technique resulting in better accuracy. This, in turn, would minimize unnecessary activation of A-GCAS during flight as well as maximizing its contribution to fighter safety.
Compression of the digitized X-ray images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terae, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takamura, Akio; Irie, Goro; Inamura, Kiyonari.
1987-01-01
Medical images are using an increased amount of space in the hospitals, while they are not accessed easily. Thus, suitable data filing system and precise data compression will be necessitated. Image quality was evaluated before and after image data compression, using local filing system (MediFile 1000, NEC Co.) and forty-seven modes of compression parameter. For this study X-ray images of 10 plain radiographs and 7 contrast examinations were digitized using a film reader of CCD sensor in MediFile 1000. Those images were compressed into forty-seven kinds of image data to save in an optical disc and then the compressed images were reconstructed. Each reconstructed image was compared with non-compressed images in respect to several regions of our interest by four radiologists. Compression and extension of radiological images were promptly made by employing the local filing system. Image quality was much more affected by the ratio of data compression than by the mode of parameter itself. In another word, the higher compression ratio became, the worse the image quality were. However, image quality was not significantly degraded until the compression ratio was about 15: 1 on plain radiographs and about 8: 1 on contrast studies. Image compression by this technique will be admitted by diagnostic radiology. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
2011-07-15
Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Victor H.; Mattedi, Silvana; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Aznar, Martin; Iglesias, Miguel
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol)} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. → The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. → The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol)} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcinkowski, Łukasz; Kloskowski, Adam; Czub, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Warmińska, Dorota
2015-01-01
Highlights: • In DMSO both volumes and compressibilities of ionic liquids were studied. • Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for all studied ionic liquids. • V Φ of DMSO solutions of [Mor 1,R ][TFSI] decrease with increasing IL concentration. • Results indicate that [Mor 1,R ][TFSI] are structure breakers in dimethylsulfoxide. • Obtained results are the consequence of the cation size of the ionic liquid. - Abstract: The density and sound velocity of the solutions of ionic liquids based on N-alkyl-N-methyl-morpholinium cations, N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N-methyl-N-octyl-morpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and N-decyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide in dimethylsulfoxide were measured at T = (298.15 to 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume and apparent molar compressibility values were evaluated from density and sound velocity values and fitted to the Masson equation from which the partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compressibility of the ILs at infinite dilution were also calculated at working temperatures. By using the density values, the limiting apparent molar expansibilities were estimated. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the ILs and experimental temperature on these thermodynamic properties is discussed. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations were used to interpret the measured properties in terms of interactions of ILs with solvent molecules. Both, volumetric measurements results and molecular dynamics simulations for ionic liquids in dimethylsulfoxide were compared and discussed with results obtained for the same IL in acetonitrile
Selectively Lossy, Lossless, and/or Error Robust Data Compression Method
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lossless compression techniques provide efficient compression of hyperspectral satellite data. The present invention combines the advantages of a clustering with...
DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-01
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923
Optically compressed sensing by under sampling the polar Fourier plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, A; Levi, O; Rivenson, Y
2010-01-01
In a previous work we presented a compressed imaging approach that uses a row of rotating sensors to capture indirectly polar strips of the Fourier transform of the image. Here we present further developments of this technique and present new results. The advantages of our technique, compared to other optically compressed imaging techniques, is that its optical implementation is relatively easy, it does not require complicate calibrations and that it can be implemented in near-real time.
Signal compression in radar using FPGA
Escamilla Hemández, Enrique; Kravchenko, Víctor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr; Duchen Sánchez, Gonzalo; Hernández Sánchez, David
2010-01-01
We present the hardware implementation of radar real time processing procedures using a simple, fast technique based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) architecture. This processing includes different window procedures during pulse compression in synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar signal compression processing is realized using matched filter, and classical and novel window functions, where we focus on better solution for minimum values of sidelobes. The proposed architecture expl...
Self-similar analysis of the spherical implosion process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishiguro, Yukio; Katsuragi, Satoru.
1976-07-01
The implosion processes caused by laser-heating ablation has been studied by self-similarity analysis. Attention is paid to the possibility of existence of the self-similar solution which reproduces the implosion process of high compression. Details of the self-similar analysis are reproduced and conclusions are drawn quantitatively on the gas compression by a single shock. The compression process by a sequence of shocks is discussed in self-similarity. The gas motion followed by a homogeneous isentropic compression is represented by a self-similar motion. (auth.)
Optimisation algorithms for ECG data compression.
Haugland, D; Heber, J G; Husøy, J H
1997-07-01
The use of exact optimisation algorithms for compressing digital electrocardiograms (ECGs) is demonstrated. As opposed to traditional time-domain methods, which use heuristics to select a small subset of representative signal samples, the problem of selecting the subset is formulated in rigorous mathematical terms. This approach makes it possible to derive algorithms guaranteeing the smallest possible reconstruction error when a bounded selection of signal samples is interpolated. The proposed model resembles well-known network models and is solved by a cubic dynamic programming algorithm. When applied to standard test problems, the algorithm produces a compressed representation for which the distortion is about one-half of that obtained by traditional time-domain compression techniques at reasonable compression ratios. This illustrates that, in terms of the accuracy of decoded signals, existing time-domain heuristics for ECG compression may be far from what is theoretically achievable. The paper is an attempt to bridge this gap.
The compressed word problem for groups
Lohrey, Markus
2014-01-01
The Compressed Word Problem for Groups provides a detailed exposition of known results on the compressed word problem, emphasizing efficient algorithms for the compressed word problem in various groups. The author presents the necessary background along with the most recent results on the compressed word problem to create a cohesive self-contained book accessible to computer scientists as well as mathematicians. Readers will quickly reach the frontier of current research which makes the book especially appealing for students looking for a currently active research topic at the intersection of group theory and computer science. The word problem introduced in 1910 by Max Dehn is one of the most important decision problems in group theory. For many groups, highly efficient algorithms for the word problem exist. In recent years, a new technique based on data compression for providing more efficient algorithms for word problems, has been developed, by representing long words over group generators in a compres...
The role of diagnostic radiology in compressive and entrapment neuropathies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spratt, J.D.; Stanley, A.J.; Hide, I.G.; Campbell, R.S.D.; Grainger, A.J.
2002-01-01
Diagnostic imaging is increasingly being utilised to aid the diagnosis of compression and entrapment neuropathies. Cross-sectional imaging, primarily ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, can provide exquisite anatomical detail of peripheral nerves and the changes that may occur as a result of compression. Imaging can provide a useful diagnostic aid to clinicians, which may supplement clinical evaluation, and may eventually provide an alternative to other diagnostic techniques such as nerve conduction studies. This article describes the abnormalities that may be demonstrated by current imaging techniques, and critically analyses the impact of imaging in diagnosis of peripheral compressive neuropathy. (orig.)
The role of diagnostic radiology in compressive and entrapment neuropathies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spratt, J.D.; Stanley, A.J.; Hide, I.G.; Campbell, R.S.D. [Department of Radiology, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, TS4 3BW (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)
2002-09-01
Diagnostic imaging is increasingly being utilised to aid the diagnosis of compression and entrapment neuropathies. Cross-sectional imaging, primarily ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, can provide exquisite anatomical detail of peripheral nerves and the changes that may occur as a result of compression. Imaging can provide a useful diagnostic aid to clinicians, which may supplement clinical evaluation, and may eventually provide an alternative to other diagnostic techniques such as nerve conduction studies. This article describes the abnormalities that may be demonstrated by current imaging techniques, and critically analyses the impact of imaging in diagnosis of peripheral compressive neuropathy. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Amalendu; Gaba, Rekha
2008-01-01
The densities, ρ and the speeds of sound, u, for {2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol (C 6 E 2 ) + methanol, +1-propanol, +1-pentanol, and +1-heptanol} have been measured as a function of composition using an Anton-Paar DSA 5000 densimeter at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The ρ and u values were used to calculate excess molar volumes, V E , and excess molar isentropic compressibility, K S,m E , respectively. Also, thermal expansivity, α, partial molar volume, V-bar i , and partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution, V-bar i 0 , have been calculated. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the mixtures are discussed in terms of molecular interactions
Task-oriented lossy compression of magnetic resonance images
Anderson, Mark C.; Atkins, M. Stella; Vaisey, Jacques
1996-04-01
A new task-oriented image quality metric is used to quantify the effects of distortion introduced into magnetic resonance images by lossy compression. This metric measures the similarity between a radiologist's manual segmentation of pathological features in the original images and the automated segmentations performed on the original and compressed images. The images are compressed using a general wavelet-based lossy image compression technique, embedded zerotree coding, and segmented using a three-dimensional stochastic model-based tissue segmentation algorithm. The performance of the compression system is then enhanced by compressing different regions of the image volume at different bit rates, guided by prior knowledge about the location of important anatomical regions in the image. Application of the new system to magnetic resonance images is shown to produce compression results superior to the conventional methods, both subjectively and with respect to the segmentation similarity metric.
Compressed sensing for distributed systems
Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico
2015-01-01
This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...
Enhancement of Satellite Image Compression Using a Hybrid (DWT-DCT) Algorithm
Shihab, Halah Saadoon; Shafie, Suhaidi; Ramli, Abdul Rahman; Ahmad, Fauzan
2017-12-01
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) image compression techniques have been utilized in most of the earth observation satellites launched during the last few decades. However, these techniques have some issues that should be addressed. The DWT method has proven to be more efficient than DCT for several reasons. Nevertheless, the DCT can be exploited to improve the high-resolution satellite image compression when combined with the DWT technique. Hence, a proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method was developed and implemented in the current work, simulating an image compression system on-board on a small remote sensing satellite, with the aim of achieving a higher compression ratio to decrease the onboard data storage and the downlink bandwidth, while avoiding further complex levels of DWT. This method also succeeded in maintaining the reconstructed satellite image quality through replacing the standard forward DWT thresholding and quantization processes with an alternative process that employed the zero-padding technique, which also helped to reduce the processing time of DWT compression. The DCT, DWT and the proposed hybrid methods were implemented individually, for comparison, on three LANDSAT 8 images, using the MATLAB software package. A comparison was also made between the proposed method and three other previously published hybrid methods. The evaluation of all the objective and subjective results indicated the feasibility of using the proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method to enhance the image compression process on-board satellites.
IMPROVED COMPRESSION OF XML FILES FOR FAST IMAGE TRANSMISSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Manimurugan
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML is a format that is widely used as a tool for data exchange and storage. It is being increasingly used in secure transmission of image data over wireless network and World Wide Web. Verbose in nature, XML files can be tens of megabytes long. Thus, to reduce their size and to allow faster transmission, compression becomes vital. Several general purpose compression tools have been proposed without satisfactory results. This paper proposes a novel technique using modified BWT for compressing XML files in a lossless fashion. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed technique outperforms both general purpose and XML-specific compressors.
Mathematical transforms and image compression: A review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satish K. Singh
2010-07-01
Full Text Available It is well known that images, often used in a variety of computer and other scientific and engineering applications, are difficult to store and transmit due to their sizes. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to use an efficient digital image compression technique where an image is viewed as a matrix and then the operations are performed on the matrix. All the contemporary digital image compression systems use various mathematical transforms for compression. The compression performance is closely related to the performance by these mathematical transforms in terms of energy compaction and spatial frequency isolation by exploiting inter-pixel redundancies present in the image data. Through this paper, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out and the pros and cons of various transform-based image compression models have also been discussed.
Radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux by means of graded abdominal compression
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.
The aim of the study was to ascertain whether abdominal compression by a standardized technique increases the reliability of the radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Eighty-eight patients were examined by means of a manometric reflux test, 24-hour measurements of pH and endoscopy. The radiologic examination was performed with and without graded abdominal compression, the patient at the same time turning from side to side. When abdominal compression was included the result of the radiologic examination was positive in 31 patients. In the absence of abdominal compression reflux was detected in 11 of these patients. In one patient reflux was detected only without compression. All these 31 patients had one more test positive and in 27 at least 2 more tests were positive. Another 21 patients had reflux disease as indicated by at least 2 of the 3 other tests. The compression technique seems to yield no false positive responses, and proved to be significantly more reliable than examinations without compression.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
The Generator Knowledge Report for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment Containment Systems (GK Report) provides information for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment (Pu- ICE) program to support waste management and characterization efforts. Attachment 3-18 presents generator knowledge (GK) information specific to the eighteenth Pu-ICE conducted in August 2015, also known as ‘Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and Pu-ICE Z-2841 (1).’ Shot 18 (Aug 2015) was generated on August 28, 2015 (1). Calculations based on the isotopic content of Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and the measured mass of the containment system demonstrate the post-shot containment system is low-level waste (LLW). Therefore, this containment system will be managed at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico (SNL/NM) as LLW. Attachment 3-18 provides documentation of the TRU concentration and documents the concentration of any hazardous constituents.
Radiologic image compression -- A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, S.; Huang, H.K.; Zaremba, L.; Gooden, D.
1995-01-01
The objective of radiologic image compression is to reduce the data volume of and to achieve a lot bit rate in the digital representation of radiologic images without perceived loss of image quality. However, the demand for transmission bandwidth and storage space in the digital radiology environment, especially picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology, and the proliferating use of various imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed radiography, and digital subtraction angiography, continue to outstrip the capabilities of existing technologies. The availability of lossy coding techniques for clinical diagnoses further implicates many complex legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the recent progress of lossless and lossy radiologic image compression and presents the legal challenges of using lossy compression of medical records. To do so, the authors first describe the fundamental concepts of radiologic imaging and digitization. Then, the authors examine current compression technology in the field of medical imaging and discuss important regulatory policies and legal questions facing the use of compression in this field. The authors conclude with a summary of future challenges and research directions. 170 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.
2003-07-01
The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), aerosol scattering coefficient ({sigma}{sub sp}), aerosol number concentration (NC{sub asl}), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.
2003-01-01
The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), aerosol scattering coefficient (σ sp ), aerosol number concentration (NC asl ), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on atmospheric composition in the Arctic. We
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Lossless Compression of Stereo Disparity Maps for 3D
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren
2012-01-01
Efficient compression of disparity data is important for accurate view synthesis purposes in multi-view communication systems based on the “texture plus depth” format, including the stereo case. In this paper a novel technique for lossless compression of stereo disparity images is presented...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei
2014-01-01
As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate O(1/k 2 ). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques. (paper)
Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei
2014-06-21
As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate [Formula: see text]. In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.
SNR in ultrasonic pluse compression using Golay codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Gil; Jeong, Peter
1994-01-01
The conventional ultrasonic flaw detection system uses a large amplitude narrow pulse to excite a transducer, however, these systems are limited in average transmit power. An excessively large amplitude causes a dielectric breakage of the transducer, and an excessively long pulse cuases decrease of the resolution. Using the pulse compression, a long pulse of psudorandom signal can be used without sacrificing resolution by signal correlation. In the present work, the pulse compression technique was utilized to the ultrasonic system. Golay code was used as a psudorandom signal in this system, since pair sum of auto-correlations has not sidelobe. The equivalent input pulse of the Golay code was proposed to analyze the pulse compression system. In experiment, the material type, material thickness and code length were considered. As results, pulse compression system considerably reduced system's white noise, and approximately 30 dB improvement in SNR was obtained over the conventional ultrasonic system. The technique seems to perform particularly well with highly energy-absorbent materials such as polymers, plastics and rubbers.
Gedalin, Daniel; Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.; Stern, Adrian
2017-04-01
Compressive sensing theory was proposed to deal with the high quantity of measurements demanded by traditional hyperspectral systems. Recently, a compressive spectral imaging technique dubbed compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging (CS-MUSI) was presented. This system uses a voltage controlled liquid crystal device to create multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We evaluate the utility of the data captured using the CS-MUSI system for the task of target detection. Specifically, we compare the performance of the matched filter target detection algorithm in traditional hyperspectral systems and in CS-MUSI multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We found that the target detection algorithm performs similarly in both cases, despite the fact that the CS-MUSI data is up to an order of magnitude less than that in conventional hyperspectral cubes. Moreover, the target detection is approximately an order of magnitude faster in CS-MUSI data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yang; Figueiredo, Eduardo J.P.; Santos, Mário J.S.F.; Santos, Jaime B.; Talavera-Prieto, Nieves M.C.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ferreira, Abel G.M.; Mattedi, Silvana
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Density, and speed of sound for aqueous mixtures of [m2HEA]Pr were measured. • Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were derived. • Excess properties were calculated and correlated using rational functions. • The molar compressibility the aqueous mixtures was calculated from the Wada’s model. • Appreciable interactions between water and [m2HEA] cation were found. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium propionate (m2HEAPr) was measured at atmospheric pressure, and over the range of temperatures T = (293.15 to 343.15) K. The speed of sound and density were also measured for aqueous mixtures of the ionic liquid throughout the entire concentration range at temperatures T = (298.15 to 333.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess speed of sound, apparent molar volume, and isentropic apparent molar compressibility were calculated from the values of the experimental density and speed of sound. The results were analyzed and are discussed from the point of view of structural changes in the aqueous medium. All the above mentioned properties were correlated with selected analytical functions. The Jouyban–Acree model was used to correlate the density of the mixtures studied with the temperature. The model accuracy was evaluated by calculating the absolute average deviation (AAD) for the correlation, which is 0.4%. The speed of sound of the m2HEAPr was predicted with the Wu et al. model with a maximum deviation of 2%. The molar compressibility of m2HEAPr and their aqueous mixtures was calculated from the Wada’s model. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this model is applied to these systems. The results demonstrate that the molar compressibility calculated from Wada’s model is almost a linear function of mole fraction and can be considered as temperature independent for a fixed mole fraction
Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank
2016-01-19
As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.
Lossy image compression for digital medical imaging systems
Wilhelm, Paul S.; Haynor, David R.; Kim, Yongmin; Nelson, Alan C.; Riskin, Eve A.
1990-07-01
Image compression at rates of 10:1 or greater could make PACS much more responsive and economically attractive. This paper describes a protocol for subjective and objective evaluation of the fidelity of compressed/decompressed images to the originals and presents the results ofits application to four representative and promising compression methods. The methods examined are predictive pruned tree-structured vector quantization, fractal compression, the discrete cosine transform with equal weighting of block bit allocation, and the discrete cosine transform with human visual system weighting of block bit allocation. Vector quantization is theoretically capable of producing the best compressed images, but has proven to be difficult to effectively implement. It has the advantage that it can reconstruct images quickly through a simple lookup table. Disadvantages are that codebook training is required, the method is computationally intensive, and achieving the optimum performance would require prohibitively long vector dimensions. Fractal compression is a relatively new compression technique, but has produced satisfactory results while being computationally simple. It is fast at both image compression and image reconstruction. Discrete cosine iransform techniques reproduce images well, but have traditionally been hampered by the need for intensive computing to compress and decompress images. A protocol was developed for side-by-side observer comparison of reconstructed images with originals. Three 1024 X 1024 CR (Computed Radiography) images and two 512 X 512 X-ray CT images were viewed at six bit rates (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 bpp for CR, and 1.0, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, 2.2, 2.5 bpp for X-ray CT) by nine radiologists at the University of Washington Medical Center. The CR images were viewed on a Pixar II Megascan (2560 X 2048) monitor and the CT images on a Sony (1280 X 1024) monitor. The radiologists' subjective evaluations of image fidelity were compared to
On the Feedback Reduction of Relay Multiuser Networks using Compressive Sensing
Elkhalil, Khalil; Eltayeb, Mohammed; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Bahrami, Hamid Reza
2016-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive performance analysis of full-duplex multiuser relay networks employing opportunistic scheduling with noisy and compressive feedback. Specifically, two feedback techniques based on compressive sensing (CS) theory
GALEMA, SA; HOILAND, H
1991-01-01
Density and ultrasound measurements have been performed in aqueous solutions of pentoses, hexoses, methylpyranosides, and disaccharides as a function of molality of carbohydrate (0-0.3 mol kg-1). Partial molar volumes, partial molar isentropic compressibilities, and hydration numbers have been
Medical image compression and its application to TDIS-FILE equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsubura, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Eitaro; Iwai, Shunsuke
1990-01-01
In order to compress medical images for filing and communication, we have developed a compression algorithm which compresses images with remarkable quality using a high-pass filtering method. Hardware for this compression algorithm was also developed and applied to TDIS (total digital imaging system)-FILE equipment. In the future, hardware based on this algorithm will be developed for various types of diagnostic equipment and PACS. This technique has the following characteristics: (1) significant reduction of artifacts; (2) acceptable quality for clinical evaluation at 15:1 to 20:1 compression ratio; and (3) high-speed processing and compact hardware. (author)
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2009-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...
Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.
Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda
2018-05-01
The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.
Total Correlation Function Integrals and Isothermal Compressibilities from Molecular Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wedberg, Rasmus; Peters, Günther H.j.; Abildskov, Jens
2008-01-01
Generation of thermodynamic data, here compressed liquid density and isothermal compressibility data, using molecular dynamics simulations is investigated. Five normal alkane systems are simulated at three different state points. We compare two main approaches to isothermal compressibilities: (1...... in approximately the same amount of time. This suggests that computation of total correlation function integrals is a route to isothermal compressibility, as accurate and fast as well-established benchmark techniques. A crucial step is the integration of the radial distribution function. To obtain sensible results...
Generation new MP3 data set after compression
Atoum, Mohammed Salem; Almahameed, Mohammad
2016-02-01
The success of audio steganography techniques is to ensure imperceptibility of the embedded secret message in stego file and withstand any form of intentional or un-intentional degradation of secret message (robustness). Crucial to that using digital audio file such as MP3 file, which comes in different compression rate, however research studies have shown that performing steganography in MP3 format after compression is the most suitable one. Unfortunately until now the researchers can not test and implement their algorithm because no standard data set in MP3 file after compression is generated. So this paper focuses to generate standard data set with different compression ratio and different Genre to help researchers to implement their algorithms.
MEDICAL IMAGE COMPRESSION USING HYBRID CODER WITH FUZZY EDGE DETECTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Vidhya
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Medical imaging techniques produce prohibitive amounts of digitized clinical data. Compression of medical images is a must due to large memory space required for transmission and storage. This paper presents an effective algorithm to compress and to reconstruct medical images. The proposed algorithm first extracts edge information of medical images by using fuzzy edge detector. The images are decomposed using Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau (CDF wavelet. The hybrid technique utilizes the efficient wavelet based compression algorithms such as JPEG2000 and Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT. The wavelet coefficients in the approximation sub band are encoded using tier 1 part of JPEG2000. The wavelet coefficients in the detailed sub bands are encoded using SPIHT. Consistent quality images are produced by this method at a lower bit rate compared to other standard compression algorithms. Two main approaches to assess image quality are objective testing and subjective testing. The image quality is evaluated by objective quality measures. Objective measures correlate well with the perceived image quality for the proposed compression algorithm.
About a method for compressing x-ray computed microtomography data
Mancini, Lucia; Kourousias, George; Billè, Fulvio; De Carlo, Francesco; Fidler, Aleš
2018-04-01
The management of scientific data is of high importance especially for experimental techniques that produce big data volumes. Such a technique is x-ray computed tomography (CT) and its community has introduced advanced data formats which allow for better management of experimental data. Rather than the organization of the data and the associated meta-data, the main topic on this work is data compression and its applicability to experimental data collected from a synchrotron-based CT beamline at the Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste facility (Italy) and studies images acquired from various types of samples. This study covers parallel beam geometry, but it could be easily extended to a cone-beam one. The reconstruction workflow used is the one currently in operation at the beamline. Contrary to standard image compression studies, this manuscript proposes a systematic framework and workflow for the critical examination of different compression techniques and does so by applying it to experimental data. Beyond the methodology framework, this study presents and examines the use of JPEG-XR in combination with HDF5 and TIFF formats providing insights and strategies on data compression and image quality issues that can be used and implemented at other synchrotron facilities and laboratory systems. In conclusion, projection data compression using JPEG-XR appears as a promising, efficient method to reduce data file size and thus to facilitate data handling and image reconstruction.
Parallel Algorithm for Wireless Data Compression and Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Jiancheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available As the wireless network has limited bandwidth and insecure shared media, the data compression and encryption are very useful for the broadcasting transportation of big data in IoT (Internet of Things. However, the traditional techniques of compression and encryption are neither competent nor efficient. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a combined parallel algorithm named “CZ algorithm” which can compress and encrypt the big data efficiently. CZ algorithm uses a parallel pipeline, mixes the coding of compression and encryption, and supports the data window up to 1 TB (or larger. Moreover, CZ algorithm can encrypt the big data as a chaotic cryptosystem which will not decrease the compression speed. Meanwhile, a shareware named “ComZip” is developed based on CZ algorithm. The experiment results show that ComZip in 64 b system can get better compression ratio than WinRAR and 7-zip, and it can be faster than 7-zip in the big data compression. In addition, ComZip encrypts the big data without extra consumption of computing resources.
Compression and archiving of digital images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H.K.
1988-01-01
This paper describes the application of a full-frame bit-allocation image compression technique to a hierarchical digital image archiving system consisting of magnetic disks, optical disks and an optical disk library. The digital archiving system without the compression has been in clinical operation in the Pediatric Radiology for more than half a year. The database in the system consists of all pediatric inpatients including all images from computed radiography, digitized x-ray films, CT, MR, and US. The rate of image accumulation is approximately 1,900 megabytes per week. The hardware design of the compression module is based on a Motorola 68020 microprocessor, A VME bus, a 16 megabyte image buffer memory board, and three Motorola digital signal processing 56001 chips on a VME board for performing the two-dimensional cosine transform and the quantization. The clinical evaluation of the compression module with the image archiving system is expected to be in February 1988
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panayotounakos D. E.
1996-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a new unique technique in constructing closed-form solutions for several nonlinear partial differential systems appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics. The obtained solutions include fewer arbitrary functions than needed for general solutions, fact that permits us to specify them according to the initial state, or the geometry, of each specific problem under consideration. In order to apply the before mentioned technique we construct closed-form solutions concerning the gas-dynamic equations with constant pressure, the dynamic equations of an ideal gas in isentropic flow, and the two-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flow.
Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...
Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry
Nolting, E.
1984-06-01
The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.
Pizanis, Antonius; Holstein, Jörg H; Vossen, Felix; Burkhardt, Markus; Pohlemann, Tim
2013-08-26
Anterior bone grafts are used as struts to reconstruct the anterior column of the spine in kyphosis or following injury. An incomplete fusion can lead to later correction losses and compromise further healing. Despite the different stabilizing techniques that have evolved, from posterior or anterior fixating implants to combined anterior/posterior instrumentation, graft pseudarthrosis rates remain an important concern. Furthermore, the need for additional anterior implant fixation is still controversial. In this bench-top study, we focused on the graft-bone interface under various conditions, using two simulated spinal injury models and common surgical fixation techniques to investigate the effect of implant-mediated compression and contact on the anterior graft. Calf spines were stabilised with posterior internal fixators. The wooden blocks as substitutes for strut grafts were impacted using a "pressfit" technique and pressure-sensitive films placed at the interface between the vertebral bone and the graft to record the compression force and the contact area with various stabilization techniques. Compression was achieved either with posterior internal fixator alone or with an additional anterior implant. The importance of concomitant ligament damage was also considered using two simulated injury models: pure compression Magerl/AO fracture type A or rotation/translation fracture type C models. In type A injury models, 1 mm-oversized grafts for impaction grafting provided good compression and fair contact areas that were both markedly increased by the use of additional compressing anterior rods or by shortening the posterior fixator construct. Anterior instrumentation by itself had similar effects. For type C injuries, dramatic differences were observed between the techniques, as there was a net decrease in compression and an inadequate contact on the graft occurred in this model. Under these circumstances, both compression and the contact area on graft could only
Grocott, Hilary P; Ambrose, Emma; Moon, Mike
2016-10-01
Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) involving cannulation of either the axillary or innominate artery is a commonly used technique for maintaining cerebral blood flow (CBF) during the use of hypothermic cardiac arrest (HCA) for operations on the aortic arch. Nevertheless, asymmetrical CBF with hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere is a common occurrence during SACP. The purpose of this report is to describe an adjunctive maneuver to improve left hemispheric CBF during SACP by applying extrinsic compression to the left carotid artery. A 77-yr-old male patient with a history of aortic valve replacement presented for emergent surgical repair of an acute type A aortic dissection of a previously known ascending aortic aneurysm. His intraoperative course included cannulation of the right axillary artery, which was used as the aortic inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass and also allowed for subsequent SACP during HCA. After the onset of HCA, the innominate artery was clamped at its origin to allow for SACP. Shortly thereafter, however, the left-sided cerebral oxygen saturation (SrO2) began to decrease. Augmenting the PaO2, PaCO2 and both SACP pressure and flow failed to increase left hemispheric SrO2. Following the use of ultrasound guidance to confirm the absence of atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery, external pressure was applied partially compressing the artery. With the carotid compression, the left cerebral saturation abruptly increased, suggesting pressurization of the left cerebral hemispheric circulation and augmentation of CBF. Direct ultrasound visualization and cautious partial compression of the left carotid artery may address asymmetrical CBF that occurs with SACP during HCA for aortic arch surgery. This strategy may lead to improved symmetry of CBF and corresponding cerebral oximetry measurements during aortic arch surgery.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Livescu, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wieland, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Reckinger, Scott [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)
2018-02-27
The simulations compare, for the first time, three practically important background stratifications under thermal equilibrium and out of equilibrium (isentropic, isopycnic) and show significant differences on the instability growth
A splitting method for the isentropic Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coquel Frédéric
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, we propose a fractional step method for computing approximate solutions of the isentropic Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model. The scheme relies on an operator splitting method corresponding to a separate treatment of fast propagation phenomena due to the acoustic waves on the one hand and slow propagation phenomena due to the fluid motion on the other. The scheme is proved to preserve positive values of the statistical fractions and densities. We also provide two test-cases that assess the convergence of the method. Nous proposons ici une méthode à pas fractionnaires pour le calcul de solutions approchées pour la version isentropique du modèle diphasique de Baer-Nunziato. Le schéma s’appuie sur un splitting de l’opérateur temporel correspondant à la prise en compte différenciée des phéno-mènes de propagation rapide dus aux ondes acoustiques et des phénomènes de propagation lente dus aux ondes matérielles. On prouve que le schéma permet de préserver des valeurs positives pour les taux statistiques de présence des phases ainsi que pour les densités. Deux cas tests numériques permettent d’illustrer la convergence de la méthode.
Volumetric and sound speed study of ammonium-based ionic liquid mixtures with ethanol
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Ângela F.S.; Moita, Maria-Luísa C.J.; Silva, João F.C.C.; Lampreia, Isabel M.S.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Densities and sound speeds were measured at five temperatures in three ammonium-based ionic liquids mixtures with ethanol. • Excess molar and limiting molar and partial molar properties were derived and interpreted. • Specific interactions and packing effects were compared in the three systems. • Reduced variables were used to highlight differences in cation size and solvophilic effects. - Abstract: Thermodynamic studies embracing molecular interactions between ionic liquids (ILs) and molecular solvents are scarce and are required to explore molecular interactions and structural effects with interest in engineering applications. Ammonium-based are interesting ILs since they can be tailored to provide information concerning both chain length and solvophobic/solvophilic effects. In this work from accurately measured density and sound speed data in the systems ethanol + {[N 4111 ]; [N 4441 ] or [choline]}[NTf 2 ] derived quantities such as excess partial molar volumes and isentropic compressions including their limiting values were obtained. The reasoning of the results permitted to conclude that while in the [N 4441 ][NTf 2 ] case packing effects due to the difference in size of the components prevail, in the other two cases specific interaction ethanol–cation explains both the lower minimums in the excess properties and the higher magnitude of the negative limiting excess partial molar, volumes and isentropic compression values in the mixture containing [N 4111 ][NTf 2 ] in relation to [N 4441 ][NTf 2 ] and the negative limiting partial molar isentropic compression in the [choline][NTf 2 ] case in contrast with positive values for the other two ILs.
DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-01
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our ...
Mishin, V. V.; Mishin, V. M.; Karavaev, Yu.; Han, J. P.; Wang, C.
2016-07-01
We report on novel features of the saturation process of the polar cap magnetic flux and Poynting flux into the magnetosphere from the solar wind during three superstorms. In addition to the well-known effect of the interplanetary electric (Esw) and southward magnetic (interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz) fields, we found that the saturation depends also on the solar wind ram pressure Pd. By means of the magnetogram inversion technique and a global MHD numerical model Piecewise Parabolic Method with a Lagrangian Remap, we explore the dependence of the magnetopause standoff distance on ram pressure and the southward IMF. Unlike earlier studies, in the considered superstorms both Pd and Bz achieve extreme values. As a result, we show that the compression rate of the dayside magnetosphere decreases with increasing Pd and the southward Bz, approaching very small values for extreme Pd ≥ 15 nPa and Bz ≤ -40 nT. This dependence suggests that finite compressibility of the magnetosphere controls saturation of superstorms.
Compression of Probabilistic XML documents
Veldman, Irma
2009-01-01
Probabilistic XML (PXML) files resulting from data integration can become extremely large, which is undesired. For XML there are several techniques available to compress the document and since probabilistic XML is in fact (a special form of) XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In
HVS scheme for DICOM image compression: Design and comparative performance evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prabhakar, B. [Biomedical and Engineering Division, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: prabhakarb@iitm.ac.in; Reddy, M. Ramasubba [Biomedical and Engineering Division, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu (India)
2007-07-15
Advanced digital imaging technology in medical domain demands efficient and effective DICOM image compression for progressive image transmission and picture archival. Here a compression system, which incorporates sensitivities of HVS coded with SPIHT quantization, is discussed. The weighting factors derived from luminance CSF are used to transform the wavelet subband coefficients to reflect characteristics of HVS in best possible manner. Mannos et al. and Daly HVS models have been used and results are compared. To evaluate the performance, Eskicioglu chart metric is considered. Experiment is done on both Monochrome and Color Dicom images of MRI, CT, OT, and CR, natural and benchmark images. Reconstructed image through our technique showed improvement in visual quality and Eskicioglu chart metric at same compression ratios. Also the Daly HVS model based compression shows better performance perceptually and quantitatively when compared to Mannos et el. model. Further 'bior4.4' wavelet filter provides better results than 'db9' filter for this compression system. Results give strong evidence that under common boundary conditions; our technique achieves competitive visual quality, compression ratio and coding/decoding time, when compared with jpeg2000 (kakadu)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braunschweig, R.; Kaden, Ingmar; Schwarzer, J.; Sprengel, C.; Klose, K.
2009-01-01
Purpose: Today healthcare policy is based on effectiveness. Diagnostic imaging became a ''pace-setter'' due to amazing technical developments (e.g. multislice CT), extensive data volumes, and especially the well defined workflow-orientated scenarios on a local and (inter)national level. To make centralized networks sufficient, image data compression has been regarded as the key to a simple and secure solution. In February 2008 specialized working groups of the DRG held a consensus conference. They designed recommended data compression techniques and ratios. Material und methoden: The purpose of our paper is an international review of the literature of compression technologies, different imaging procedures (e.g. DR, CT etc.), and targets (abdomen, etc.) and to combine recommendations for compression ratios and techniques with different workflows. The studies were assigned to 4 different levels (0-3) according to the evidence. 51 studies were assigned to the highest level 3. Results: We recommend a compression factor of 1: 8 (excluding cranial scans 1:5). For workflow reasons data compression should be based on the modalities (CT, etc.). PACS-based compression is currently possible but fails to maximize workflow benefits. Only the modality-based scenarios achieve all benefits. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braunschweig, R.; Kaden, Ingmar [Klinik fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionsradiologie, BG-Kliniken Bergmannstrost Halle (Germany); Schwarzer, J.; Sprengel, C. [Dept. of Management Information System and Operations Research, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle Wittenberg (Germany); Klose, K. [Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philips-Univ. Marburg (Germany)
2009-07-15
Purpose: Today healthcare policy is based on effectiveness. Diagnostic imaging became a ''pace-setter'' due to amazing technical developments (e.g. multislice CT), extensive data volumes, and especially the well defined workflow-orientated scenarios on a local and (inter)national level. To make centralized networks sufficient, image data compression has been regarded as the key to a simple and secure solution. In February 2008 specialized working groups of the DRG held a consensus conference. They designed recommended data compression techniques and ratios. Material und methoden: The purpose of our paper is an international review of the literature of compression technologies, different imaging procedures (e.g. DR, CT etc.), and targets (abdomen, etc.) and to combine recommendations for compression ratios and techniques with different workflows. The studies were assigned to 4 different levels (0-3) according to the evidence. 51 studies were assigned to the highest level 3. Results: We recommend a compression factor of 1: 8 (excluding cranial scans 1:5). For workflow reasons data compression should be based on the modalities (CT, etc.). PACS-based compression is currently possible but fails to maximize workflow benefits. Only the modality-based scenarios achieve all benefits. (orig.)
Guo, H X; Heinämäki, J; Yliruusi, J
1999-09-20
Direct compression of riboflavin sodium phosphate tablets was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The technique is non-invasive and generates three-dimensional (3D) images. Tablets of 1% riboflavin sodium phosphate with two grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were individually compressed at compression forces of 1.0 and 26.8 kN. The behaviour and deformation of drug particles on the upper and lower surfaces of the tablets were studied under compression forces. Even at the lower compression force, distinct recrystallized areas in the riboflavin sodium phosphate particles were observed in both Avicel PH-101 and Avicel PH-102 tablets. At the higher compression force, the recrystallization of riboflavin sodium phosphate was more extensive on the upper surface of the Avicel PH-102 tablet than the Avicel PH-101 tablet. The plastic deformation properties of both MCC grades reduced the fragmentation of riboflavin sodium phosphate particles. When compressed with MCC, riboflavin sodium phosphate behaved as a plastic material. The riboflavin sodium phosphate particles were more tightly bound on the upper surface of the tablet than on the lower surface, and this could also be clearly distinguished by CLSM. Drug deformation could not be visualized by other techniques. Confocal laser scanning microscopy provides valuable information on the internal mechanisms of direct compression of tablets.
Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1979-07-01
A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zein A.K. M.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of three soil improvement techniques for the construction of a high earth embankment on thick weak and highly compressible clay soil. The eastern approach embankment of Alhalfaya Bridge on the River Nile linking Khartoum North and Omdurman cities was chosen as a case study and a comprehensive site investigation program was carried out to determine the properties the subsurface soils. The study results showed that unless the subsurface soils have been improved they may fail or undergo excessively large settlements due to the embankment construction. Three ground improvement techniques based on the principles of the “staged construction method, SCM”, “vertical sand drain, VSD” and “sand compaction piles, SCP” of embankment foundation soil treatment are discussed and evaluated. Embankment design options based on applications of the above methods have been proposed for foundation treatment to adequately support embankment loads. A method performance evaluation based on the improvement of soil properties achieved; the time required for construction and compared estimated costs criteria was made to assess the effectiveness and expected overall performance. Adoption of any of the soil improvement techniques considered depends mainly on the most critical and decisive factor governing the embankment design. Based on the overall performance for the embankment case studied, the sand drains is considered as the most appropriate improvement method followed by the sand compaction piles technique whereas the staged construction method showed the poorest overall performance.
Compressed Sensing with Linear Correlation Between Signal and Measurement Noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben
2014-01-01
reconstruction algorithms, but is not known in existing literature. The proposed technique reduces reconstruction error considerably in the case of linearly correlated measurements and noise. Numerical experiments confirm the efficacy of the technique. The technique is demonstrated with application to low......Existing convex relaxation-based approaches to reconstruction in compressed sensing assume that noise in the measurements is independent of the signal of interest. We consider the case of noise being linearly correlated with the signal and introduce a simple technique for improving compressed...... sensing reconstruction from such measurements. The technique is based on a linear model of the correlation of additive noise with the signal. The modification of the reconstruction algorithm based on this model is very simple and has negligible additional computational cost compared to standard...
Venous compressions of the nerves in the lower limbs.
Artico, M; Stevanato, G; Ionta, B; Cesaroni, A; Bianchi, E; Morselli, C; Grippaudo, F R
2012-06-01
The lower limbs are frequently involved in neurovascular compression syndromes, owing to their anatomical, vascular and muscular characteristics and to the orthostatic position. These syndromes were identified by exclusion, using neuroimaging techniques and treated by microsurgical techniques. Eight patients with a neurovascular compression syndrome due to venous vascular lesions in the lower limbs (popliteal fossa, proximal and medial third of the inferior limb, tarsal tunnel) were selected. The symptomatology was characterized by pain, Tinel's sign, hyperalgesia, allodynia, numbness along the nerve course and foot weakness: all were exacerbated by the standing position, thus suggesting a neurovascular compression syndrome. Diagnostic tools comprised Doppler ultrasonography, Electromyography, CT 3D and MRI. Treatment consisted of microsurgery with neurovascular dissection. Following surgical treatment, rapid pain relief and a partial recovery of neurological deficits (including the ability to walk) was observed within 8-10 months. An early diagnosis of NCS using various neuroimaging techniques and prompt treatment may improve the response to surgical therapy. The aim of the case studies described is to improve understanding of these pathologies thus enabling correct clinical decisions.
Adaptable recursive binary entropy coding technique
Kiely, Aaron B.; Klimesh, Matthew A.
2002-07-01
We present a novel data compression technique, called recursive interleaved entropy coding, that is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to variable length binary source codes. A compression module implementing this technique has the same functionality as arithmetic coding and can be used as the engine in various data compression algorithms. The encoder compresses a bit sequence by recursively encoding groups of bits that have similar estimated statistics, ordering the output in a way that is suited to the decoder. As a result, the decoder has low complexity. The encoding process for our technique is adaptable in that each bit to be encoded has an associated probability-of-zero estimate that may depend on previously encoded bits; this adaptability allows more effective compression. Recursive interleaved entropy coding may have advantages over arithmetic coding, including most notably the admission of a simple and fast decoder. Much variation is possible in the choice of component codes and in the interleaving structure, yielding coder designs of varying complexity and compression efficiency; coder designs that achieve arbitrarily small redundancy can be produced. We discuss coder design and performance estimation methods. We present practical encoding and decoding algorithms, as well as measured performance results.
A new formulation of equations of compressible fluids by analogy with Maxwell's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kambe, Tsutomu
2010-01-01
A compressible ideal fluid is governed by Euler's equation of motion and equations of continuity, entropy and vorticity. This system can be reformulated in a form analogous to that of electromagnetism governed by Maxwell's equations with source terms. The vorticity plays the role of magnetic field, while the velocity field plays the part of a vector potential and the enthalpy (of isentropic flows) plays the part of a scalar potential in electromagnetism. The evolution of source terms of fluid Maxwell equations is determined by solving the equations of motion and continuity. The equation of sound waves can be derived from this formulation, where time evolution of the sound source is determined by the equation of motion. The theory of vortex sound of aeroacoustics is included in this formulation. It is remarkable that the forces acting on a point mass moving in a velocity field of an inviscid fluid are analogous in their form to the electric force and Lorentz force in electromagnetism. The significance of the reformulation is interpreted by examples taken from fluid mechanics. This formulation can be extended to viscous fluids without difficulty. The Maxwell-type equations are unchanged by the viscosity effect, although the source terms have additional terms due to viscosities.
Algebraic mesh generation for large scale viscous-compressible aerodynamic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.E.
1984-01-01
Viscous-compressible aerodynamic simulation is the numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and associated boundary conditions. Boundary-fitted coordinate systems are well suited for the application of finite difference techniques to the Navier-Stokes equations. An algebraic approach to boundary-fitted coordinate systems is one where an explicit functional relation describes a mesh on which a solution is obtained. This approach has the advantage of rapid-precise mesh control. The basic mathematical structure of three algebraic mesh generation techniques is described. They are transfinite interpolation, the multi-surface method, and the two-boundary technique. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed to a computational coordinate system where boundary-fitted coordinates can be applied. Large-scale computation implies that there is a large number of mesh points in the coordinate system. Computation of viscous compressible flow using boundary-fitted coordinate systems and the application of this computational philosophy on a vector computer are presented
Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.
2017-12-01
Concurrent pressure drop and cooling of a super-critical or sub-cooled liquid stream can have the same effect as adiabatic expansion even though there is no work extraction. A practical implementation is as straight forward as counter-flow heat exchange with a colder fluid. The concurrent pressure drop need not be continuous with respect to the heat exchange, but may occur in a step-wise manner, in between heat exchange. Two aspects of this effect of pressure drop with heat transfer are examined; a thermodynamic and a practical process equivalent isentropic expansion efficiency. This real fluid phenomenon is useful to understand in applications where work extraction is either not practical or has not been developed. A super-critical helium supply, often around 3 bar and 4.5 K, being ultimately used as a superfluid (usually around 1.8 to 2.1 K) to cool a Niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity or a superconducting magnet is one such particular application. This paper examines the thermodynamic nature of this phenomenon.
Digital cinema video compression
Husak, Walter
2003-05-01
The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.
Inter frame motion estimation and its application to image sequence compression: an introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cremy, C.
1996-01-01
With the constant development of new communication technologies like, digital TV, teleconference, and the development of image analysis applications, there is a growing volume of data to manage. Compression techniques are required for the transmission and storage of these data. Dealing with original images would require the use of expansive high bandwidth communication devices and huge storage media. Image sequence compression can be achieved by means of interframe estimation that consists in retrieving redundant information relative to zones where there is little motion between two frames. This paper is an introduction to some motion estimation techniques like gradient techniques, pel-recursive, block-matching, and its application to image sequence compression. (Author) 17 refs
Monte Carlo analysis of highly compressed fissile assemblies. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raspet, R.; Baird, G.E.
1978-01-01
Laserinduced fission of highly compressed bare fissionable spheres is analyzed using Monte Carlo techniques. The critical mass and critical radius as a function of density are calculated and the fission energy yield is calculated and compared with the input laser energy necessary to achieve compression to criticality. (orig.) [de
Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.
Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J
2003-01-01
To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).
Telemedicine + OCT: toward design of optimized algorithms for high-quality compressed images
Mousavi, Mahta; Lurie, Kristen; Land, Julian; Javidi, Tara; Ellerbee, Audrey K.
2014-03-01
Telemedicine is an emerging technology that aims to provide clinical healthcare at a distance. Among its goals, the transfer of diagnostic images over telecommunication channels has been quite appealing to the medical community. When viewed as an adjunct to biomedical device hardware, one highly important consideration aside from the transfer rate and speed is the accuracy of the reconstructed image at the receiver end. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established imaging technique that is ripe for telemedicine, the effects of OCT data compression, which may be necessary on certain telemedicine platforms, have not received much attention in the literature. We investigate the performance and efficiency of several lossless and lossy compression techniques for OCT data and characterize their effectiveness with respect to achievable compression ratio, compression rate and preservation of image quality. We examine the effects of compression in the interferogram vs. A-scan domain as assessed with various objective and subjective metrics.
Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications
Badwan, Adnan A.; Rashid, Iyad; Al Omari, Mahmoud M.H.; Darras, Fouad H.
2015-01-01
Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC) excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25810109
Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adnan A. Badwan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications.
ERGC: an efficient referential genome compression algorithm.
Saha, Subrata; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar
2015-11-01
Genome sequencing has become faster and more affordable. Consequently, the number of available complete genomic sequences is increasing rapidly. As a result, the cost to store, process, analyze and transmit the data is becoming a bottleneck for research and future medical applications. So, the need for devising efficient data compression and data reduction techniques for biological sequencing data is growing by the day. Although there exists a number of standard data compression algorithms, they are not efficient in compressing biological data. These generic algorithms do not exploit some inherent properties of the sequencing data while compressing. To exploit statistical and information-theoretic properties of genomic sequences, we need specialized compression algorithms. Five different next-generation sequencing data compression problems have been identified and studied in the literature. We propose a novel algorithm for one of these problems known as reference-based genome compression. We have done extensive experiments using five real sequencing datasets. The results on real genomes show that our proposed algorithm is indeed competitive and performs better than the best known algorithms for this problem. It achieves compression ratios that are better than those of the currently best performing algorithms. The time to compress and decompress the whole genome is also very promising. The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from http://engr.uconn.edu/∼rajasek/ERGC.zip. rajasek@engr.uconn.edu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Gain compression and its dependence on output power in quantum dot lasers
Zhukov, A. E.; Maximov, M. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Zubov, F. I.; Korenev, V. V.; Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Provost, J.-G.; Livshits, D. A.
2013-06-01
The gain compression coefficient was evaluated by applying the frequency modulation/amplitude modulation technique in a distributed feedback InAs/InGaAs quantum dot laser. A strong dependence of the gain compression coefficient on the output power was found. Our analysis of the gain compression within the frame of the modified well-barrier hole burning model reveals that the gain compression coefficient decreases beyond the lasing threshold, which is in a good agreement with the experimental observations.
Hardware Implementation of Lossless Adaptive and Scalable Hyperspectral Data Compression for Space
Aranki, Nazeeh; Keymeulen, Didier; Bakhshi, Alireza; Klimesh, Matthew
2009-01-01
On-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces data volume in order to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The technique also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware. A modified form of the algorithm that is better suited for data from pushbroom instruments is generally appropriate for flight implementation. A scalable field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware implementation was developed. The FPGA implementation achieves a throughput performance of 58 Msamples/sec, which can be increased to over 100 Msamples/sec in a parallel implementation that uses twice the hardware resources This paper describes the hardware implementation of the 'Modified Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on an FPGA. The FPGA implementation targets the current state-of-the-art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for space applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, K.T.; Melant, R.M.; Zukoski, C.F.
1996-01-01
The compressive rheological responses of suspensions containing flocculated kaolin, alumina (average particle sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 microm), and hydrous zirconia (average particle sizes of 8, 57, and 139 nm) particles have been measured using three different techniques: pressure filtration, volume fraction profile during centrifugation, and sediment height during centrifugation at multiple spinning speeds. While the volume fraction profile technique appears to be experimentally most robust, equivalent responses are found using the different techniques, indicating that the compressive yield stress is a material property of a given suspension. The compressive yield stress of each suspension increases rapidly with volume fraction but cannot be generally described using simple power-law or exponential fits. The compressive yield stress also increases with the inverse square of particle size. The packing behavior of the suspensions undergoing osmotic consolidation is compared with the mechanical compressive yield response. Some suspensions exhibited the same packing behavior as in the mechanical techniques, while others consistently packed to higher densities during osmotic consolidation. Although equivalent osmotic and mechanical loads do not always result in the same volume fractions, the similar increases in volume fraction with applied driving force suggest that both the osmotic and mechanical techniques are controlled by the force needed to rearrange the particle network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedwig, Gavin R.; Høiland, Harald
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Sound speeds were measured for aqueous solutions of some tripeptides at high pressures. • Partial molar volumes and isothermal compressions were derived for T = 298.15 K and p = (10–120) MPa. • The partial molar volumes for non-polar amino acid side-chains decrease with increasing pressure. • The partial molar volumes for polar side-chains do not change significantly with increasing pressure. - Abstract: Sound speeds have been measured for aqueous solutions of six tripeptides of sequence glycyl-X-glycine, where X is one of the amino acids glycine, alanine, leucine, asparagine, threonine, and tyrosine at T = 298.15 K and at the pressures p = (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120) MPa. Using methods described in previous work, these sound speeds were used to derive the partial molar volumes at infinite dilution, V_2"o, the partial molar isentropic compressions at infinite dilution, K_S_,_2"o, and the partial molar isothermal compressions at infinite dilution, K"o_T_,_2 {K"o_T_,_2 = −(∂V_2"o/∂p)_T}, for the tripeptides in aqueous solution at the elevated pressures. The results were used to calculate the partial molar volumes and partial molar isothermal compressions for the various amino acid side-chains over the pressure range p = (10–120) MPa.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zafarani-Moattar, Mohammed Taghi [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Excellence of Science for New Materials and Clean Chemistry, Daneshgah Street, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, East Azarbyjan 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: zafarani47@yahoo.com; Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Excellence of Science for New Materials and Clean Chemistry, Daneshgah Street, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, East Azarbyjan 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-05-15
Density and speed of sound measurements have been made on the systems containing the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF{sub 6}]) and some organic solvents having a wide range of dielectric constants. Similar studies have been carried out for tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate ([TBA][PF{sub 6}]), which has common anion ([PF{sub 6}]{sup -}) with the studied ionic liquid. For the systems investigated, the apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were determined and fitted to the Redlich-Mayer and the Pitzer equations from which the corresponding limiting values were obtained. These limiting values were used to obtain some information about ion-solvent interactions. Furthermore, using the ionic limiting apparent volume values for [TBA]{sup +} from the literature and limiting apparent molar volume for the ionic liquid and [TBA][PF{sub 6}] obtained in this work, the ionic limiting apparent molar volume values for the cation [BMIM]{sup +} in different organic solvents were also estimated.
Ultrasound-guided compression repair of pseudoaneurysms of brachial and femoral arteries - 2 cases-
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hak Soo; Choi, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myung A; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Jae Min
1994-01-01
Ultrasound-guided compression repair of postcatherization pseudoaneurysm has been reported recently. We successfuly treated two cases of cardiac catherization-related pseudoaneurysms of brachial and femoral arteries with compression repair technique under color Doppler US-guidance. We regard US-guided compression repair as a saft and effective first-line treatment for catherization-related pseudoaneurysm
Study of phase transitions in cerium in shock-wave experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhernokletov M.V.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structure phase transitions. Planar gauges were used in various combinations in experiments for determination of sound velocity dependence on pressure in cerium by the technique of PVDF gauge. The data of time dependence on pressure profiles with use of x(t diagrams and the D(u relation for cerium allowed the definition of the Lagrangian velocity of the unloading wave CLagr and the Eulerian velocity CEul by taking into account the compression σ. These results accords with data obtained by using the technique of VISAR and a manganin-based gauge, and calculated pressure dependence of isentropic sound velocity according to the VNIITF EOS. Metallography analysis of post-experimental samples did not find any changes in a phase composition.
Thermophysical properties for (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) ternary system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosteiro, L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Casas, L.M., E-mail: lmcasas@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Curras, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Mariano, A.B. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Comahue, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Legido, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)
2011-12-15
Highlights: > Thermophysical properties of (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) were measured. > Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities were determined and correlated. > Ternary surface tension deviations were correlated using Cibulka equation. > Intermolecular interactions based on the derived properties trend were discussed. - Abstract: The density and speed of sound of the ternary mixture (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) have been measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Besides, surface tension has been also determined for the same mixture at T = 298.15 K. The experimental measurements have allowed the calculation of the corresponding derived properties: excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations. Excess properties have been correlated using Nagata and Tamura equation and correlation for the surface tension deviation has been done with the Cibulka equation. Good accuracy has been obtained. Based on the variations of the derived properties values with composition, a qualitative discussion about the intermolecular interactions was drawn.
Using Vulcan to Recreate Planetary Cores
Collins, G W; Benedetti, L R; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Cauble, R; Celliers, P M; Danson, C; Da Silva, L B; Gessner, H; Henry, E; Hicks, D G; Huser, G; Jeanloz, R; Koening, M; Lee, K M; Mackinnon, A J; Moon, S J; Neely, D; Notley, M; Pasley, J; Willi, O
2001-01-01
An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, experimental validation has been carried out on at high pressure (>few Mbar), and then only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isentropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the predicted states for water along the isentrope for Neptune is shown in a figure. The cutaway figure on the left is from Hubbard, and the phase diagram on the right is from Cavazzoni et al. Clearly these states lie at quite a bit lower temperature and higher density than single shock Hugoniot states but they are at higher temperature than can be achieved with accurate diamond anvil experiments. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and l...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marconende, s/n Apartado 874, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Dominguez, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marconende, s/n Apartado 874, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Tojo, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marconende, s/n Apartado 874, 36200 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: jtojo@uvigo.es
2006-06-15
In this work, the physical properties, dynamic viscosities, densities, and speed of sound have been measured over the whole composition range and atmospheric pressure for the binary mixtures (methylcyclopentane with acetone, butanone, and 2-pentanone) at several temperatures T = (293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K along with the properties of the pure components. Excess molar volumes, isentropic compressibility, deviations in isentropic compressibility and viscosity deviation for the binary systems at the above-mentioned temperatures were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root-mean-square deviations. The UNIQUAC equation was used to correlate the experimental viscosity data. The UNIFAC-VISCO method and ASOG-VISCO method, based on contribution groups, were used to predict the dynamic viscosities of the binary mixtures. The interaction parameters of cycloalkanes with ketones (CH{sub cy}/CO) have been determined for their application in the predictive UNIFAC-VISCO method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, Begona [Chemical Engineering Department, Vigo University, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Calvar, Noelia [Chemical Engineering Department, Vigo University, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Dominguez, Angeles [Chemical Engineering Department, Vigo University, 36200 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: admguez@uvigo.es; Tojo, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Vigo University, 36200 Vigo (Spain)
2007-02-15
In this work, dynamic viscosities, densities, and speed of sound have been measured over the whole composition range and 0.1 MPa for the binary mixtures (cyclopentane and cyclohexane with ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol) at several temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15) K along with the properties of the pure components. Excess molar volumes, molar isentropic compression, excess molar isentropic compression, and excess free energy of activation for the binary systems at the above mentioned temperatures, were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root-mean-square deviations. The UNIQUAC equation was used to correlate the experimental viscosity data. The UNIFAC-VISCO method and ASOG-VISCO method, based on contribution groups, were used to predict the dynamic viscosities of the binary mixtures. The interaction parameters of cycloalkanes with primary alcohol (CH{sub cy}/-OH) have been determined for their application in the predictive UNIFAC-VISCO method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Harsh; Singla, Meenu; Jindal, Rajeev
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous trisodium citrate. • Positive values of transfer volume indicates interactions between ions of amino acids and TSC. • Ion–hydrophilic and hydrophilic–hydrophilic interactions are present. • Pair-wise interactions are dominant in the mixtures. -- Abstract: Densities, ρ, and speed of sound, u for glycine, L-alanine and L-valine in (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) mol · kg −1 aqueous solutions of trisodium citrate at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K have been measured. The different parameters such as apparent molar volume, limiting apparent molar volume, transfer volume, have been derived from density data. Experimental values of the speed of sound were used to estimate apparent molar apparent molar isentropic compression, limiting apparent molar isentropic compression, and transfer parameter. The pair and triplet interaction coefficient have been calculated from transfer parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Bhajan; Sahin, Melike; Ayranci, Erol
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Imidazolium based ionic liquids in water were investigated thermodynamically. ► Densities and speeds of sound were measured for these systems. ► Apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressions were calculated. ► Apparent molar isobaric expansions at infinite dilution were derived. ► The results were interpreted in terms of ionic liquid–water interactions. - Abstract: Densities and speeds of sound for aqueous solutions of ionic liquids having 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium as cation and chloride, bromide, iodide, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate as anions were accurately measured at various concentrations and temperatures. The data were used in evaluating thermodynamic properties as apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressions. Infinite dilution values of these properties were determined using appropriate extrapolation procedures utilizing Debye–Hückel limiting law for electrolyte solutions. Apparent molar isobaric expansions at infinite dilutions were also evaluated from the temperature dependence of apparent molar volumes. The results were interpreted in terms of ionic liquid–water interactions.
Lossless compression of waveform data for efficient storage and transmission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stearns, S.D.; Tan, Li Zhe; Magotra, Neeraj
1993-01-01
Compression of waveform data is significant in many engineering and research areas since it can be used to alleviate data storage and transmission bandwidth. For example, seismic data are widely recorded and transmitted so that analysis can be performed on large amounts of data for numerous applications such as petroleum exploration, determination of the earth's core structure, seismic event detection and discrimination of underground nuclear explosions, etc. This paper describes a technique for lossless wave form data compression. The technique consists of two stages. The first stage is a modified form of linear prediction with discrete coefficients and the second stage is bi-level sequence coding. The linear predictor generates an error or residue sequence in a way such that exact reconstruction of the original data sequence can be accomplished with a simple algorithm. The residue sequence is essentially white Gaussian with seismic or other similar waveform data. Bi-level sequence coding, in which two sample sizes are chosen and the residue sequence is encoded into subsequences that alternate from one level to the other, further compresses the residue sequence. The principal feature of the two-stage data compression algorithm is that it is lossless, that is, it allows exact, bit-for-bit recovery of the original data sequence. The performance of the lossless compression algorithm at each stage is analyzed. The advantages of using bi-level sequence coding in the second stage are its simplicity of implementation, its effectiveness on data with large amplitude variations, and its near-optimal performance in encoding Gaussian sequences. Applications of the two-stage technique to typical seismic data indicates that an average number of compressed bits per sample close to the lower bound is achievable in practical situations
Rodi, Patrick E.
1993-01-01
Forward swept sidewall compression inlets have been tested in the Mach 4 Blowdown Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effects of bodyside compression surfaces on inlet performance in the presence of an incoming turbulent boundary layer. The measurements include mass flow capture and mean surface pressure distributions obtained during simulated combustion pressure increases downstream of the inlet. The kerosene-lampblack surface tracer technique has been used to obtain patterns of the local wall shear stress direction. Inlet performance is evaluated using starting and unstarting characteristics, mass capture, mean surface pressure distributions and permissible back pressure limits. The results indicate that inlet performance can be improved with selected bodyside compression surfaces placed between the inlet sidewalls.
Compression and information recovery in ptychography
Loetgering, L.; Treffer, D.; Wilhein, T.
2018-04-01
Ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging (PCDI) is a scanning microscopy modality that allows for simultaneous recovery of object and illumination information. This ability renders PCDI a suitable technique for x-ray lensless imaging and optics characterization. Its potential for information recovery typically relies on large amounts of data redundancy. However, the field of view in ptychography is practically limited by the memory and the computational facilities available. We describe techniques that achieve robust ptychographic information recovery at high compression rates. The techniques are compared and tested with experimental data.
Modeling ramp compression experiments using large-scale molecular dynamics simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Grest, Gary Stephen; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Baskes, Michael I. (University of California, San Diego); Winey, J. Michael (Washington State University); Gupta, Yogendra Mohan (Washington State University); Lane, J. Matthew D.; Ditmire, Todd (University of Texas at Austin); Quevedo, Hernan J. (University of Texas at Austin)
2011-10-01
Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) is an invaluable tool for studying problems sensitive to atomscale physics such as structural transitions, discontinuous interfaces, non-equilibrium dynamics, and elastic-plastic deformation. In order to apply this method to modeling of ramp-compression experiments, several challenges must be overcome: accuracy of interatomic potentials, length- and time-scales, and extraction of continuum quantities. We have completed a 3 year LDRD project with the goal of developing molecular dynamics simulation capabilities for modeling the response of materials to ramp compression. The techniques we have developed fall in to three categories (i) molecular dynamics methods (ii) interatomic potentials (iii) calculation of continuum variables. Highlights include the development of an accurate interatomic potential describing shock-melting of Beryllium, a scaling technique for modeling slow ramp compression experiments using fast ramp MD simulations, and a technique for extracting plastic strain from MD simulations. All of these methods have been implemented in Sandia's LAMMPS MD code, ensuring their widespread availability to dynamic materials research at Sandia and elsewhere.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pontier, C. [S.P.C.T.S., Faculte des Sciences, Limoges (France); G.E.F., Faculte de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Viana, M.; Chulia, D. [G.E.F., Faculte de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Champion, E.; Bernache-Assollant, D. [S.P.C.T.S., Faculte des Sciences, Limoges (France)
2002-07-01
Measurement of the cycles of compression and rupture helps to understand the phenomena occurring during compaction. Different parameters are deduced from the cycles, such as the packing of the material and energies used during compression. The ratio between the energy of rupture and the energy of compaction defines the efficacy of compaction of the materials. This technique is applied to ceramic materials using apatitic calcium phosphates with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 (apatitic tricalcium phosphate and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate) and 1.667 (stoichiometric hydroxyapatite). The methodology uses a uniaxial instrumented press to plot the cycles of compaction and rupture. The results point out the good compaction and cohesion properties of apatitic tricalcium phosphate, compared to the other apatitic materials. (orig.)
Three-dimensional range data compression using computer graphics rendering pipeline.
Zhang, Song
2012-06-20
This paper presents the idea of naturally encoding three-dimensional (3D) range data into regular two-dimensional (2D) images utilizing computer graphics rendering pipeline. The computer graphics pipeline provides a means to sample 3D geometry data into regular 2D images, and also to retrieve the depth information for each sampled pixel. The depth information for each pixel is further encoded into red, green, and blue color channels of regular 2D images. The 2D images can further be compressed with existing 2D image compression techniques. By this novel means, 3D geometry data obtained by 3D range scanners can be instantaneously compressed into 2D images, providing a novel way of storing 3D range data into its 2D counterparts. We will present experimental results to verify the performance of this proposed technique.
Parallel compression of data chunks of a shared data object using a log-structured file system
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary
2016-10-25
Techniques are provided for parallel compression of data chunks being written to a shared object. A client executing on a compute node or a burst buffer node in a parallel computing system stores a data chunk generated by the parallel computing system to a shared data object on a storage node by compressing the data chunk; and providing the data compressed data chunk to the storage node that stores the shared object. The client and storage node may employ Log-Structured File techniques. The compressed data chunk can be de-compressed by the client when the data chunk is read. A storage node stores a data chunk as part of a shared object by receiving a compressed version of the data chunk from a compute node; and storing the compressed version of the data chunk to the shared data object on the storage node.
A seismic data compression system using subband coding
Kiely, A. B.; Pollara, F.
1995-01-01
This article presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The algorithm includes three stages: a decorrelation stage, a quantization stage that introduces a controlled amount of distortion to allow for high compression ratios, and a lossless entropy coding stage based on a simple but efficient arithmetic coding method. Subband coding methods are particularly suited to the decorrelation of nonstationary processes such as seismic events. Adaptivity to the nonstationary behavior of the waveform is achieved by dividing the data into separate blocks that are encoded separately with an adaptive arithmetic encoder. This is done with high efficiency due to the low overhead introduced by the arithmetic encoder in specifying its parameters. The technique could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-07-01
High-pressure compressed air shots have been begun to use for coal stop caving in horizontal sublevel caving workings, as alternative to explosives, since they do not condition the winning cycles and they produce a smaller deterioration in the vein walls. In spite of those advantages, different parameters influence on shot result is not known. For this reason, a research project has been carried out in order to improve the high-pressure compressed air technique to extend the system implementation and to reduce the winning costs in the sublevel caving workings. The research works have consisted of a numerical model development and reduced scale and real scale tests. The model describes fragile material fragmentation under dynamical loadings and it has been implemented in a code. The tests allow to study the different parameter influence and to validate the numerical model. The main research results are, on the one hand, a numerical model that allows to define the best shot plan for user's working conditions and, on the other hand, the great influence of the air volume on the disruptive strength has been proven. (Author)
Melts in the Deep Earth: Calculating the Densities of CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Liquids
Thomas, C.; Guo, X.; Agee, C. B.; Asimow, P. D.; Lange, R. A.
2012-12-01
We present new equation of state (EOS) measurements for hedenbergite (Hd, CaFeSi2O6) and forsterite (Fo, Mg2SiO4) liquids. These liquid EOS add to the basis set in the CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMASF) oxide space at elevated temperatures and pressures; other liquids include: enstatite (En, MgSiO3), anorthite (An, CaAl2Si2O8), diopside (Di, CaMgSi2O6), and fayalite (Fa, Fe2SiO4). The Hd EOS measurement was a multi-technique collaboration using 1-atm double-bob Archimedean, ultrasonic, sink/float, and shock wave techniques. Un-weighted linear fitting of the shock data in shock velocity (US)-particle velocity (up) space defines a pre-heated (1400 °C) Hugoniot US = 2.628(0.024) + 1.54(0.01)up km/s. The slope corresponds to a K' of 5.16(0.04), consistent with piston-cylinder and multi-anvil sink/float experiments. The intercept is fixed at the ultrasonic sound speed (Co) since the unconstrained intercept is within the stated error. This behavior demonstrates consistency across methods and that the liquid is relaxed during shock compression. Shock compression of pre-heated (2000°C) single crystal Fo gives an un-weighted linear Hugoniot of US = 2.674(0.188) + 1.64(0.06)up km/s. The unconstrained Co falls below estimates based on extrapolation in both temperature and composition from two published partial molar sound speed models, 3.195m/s [1] and 3.126 m/s [2]. The shock-derived Co indicates that dC/dT is negative for Fo liquid, contrary to the positive [1] and zero [2] temperature dependences derived over relatively narrow temperature intervals. CMASF liquid isentropes were calculated using five end-members (En, Fo, Fa, An, Di). For modeling crystallization of a fictive magma ocean, we examined two liquids: peridotite [3] (P=.33En+.56Fo+.07Fa+.03An+.007Di) and simplified chondrite [4] (Ch=.62En+.24Fo+.08Fa+.04An+.02Di). Each end-member is defined by a 3rd or 4th order Birch-Murnaghan isentrope, Mie-Grüneisen thermal pressure and a constant heat capacity. The volumes are
Wavelet-based compression of pathological images for telemedicine applications
Chen, Chang W.; Jiang, Jianfei; Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Xue G.; Yu, Lun
2000-05-01
In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of wavelet-based coding techniques as applied to the compression of pathological images for application in an Internet-based telemedicine system. We first study how well suited the wavelet-based coding is as it applies to the compression of pathological images, since these images often contain fine textures that are often critical to the diagnosis of potential diseases. We compare the wavelet-based compression with the DCT-based JPEG compression in the DICOM standard for medical imaging applications. Both objective and subjective measures have been studied in the evaluation of compression performance. These studies are performed in close collaboration with expert pathologists who have conducted the evaluation of the compressed pathological images and communication engineers and information scientists who designed the proposed telemedicine system. These performance evaluations have shown that the wavelet-based coding is suitable for the compression of various pathological images and can be integrated well with the Internet-based telemedicine systems. A prototype of the proposed telemedicine system has been developed in which the wavelet-based coding is adopted for the compression to achieve bandwidth efficient transmission and therefore speed up the communications between the remote terminal and the central server of the telemedicine system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangwei Li
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.
Subsurface Profile Mapping using 3-D Compressive Wave Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazreek Z A M
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Geotechnical site investigation related to subsurface profile mapping was commonly performed to provide valuable data for design and construction stage based on conventional drilling techniques. From past experience, drilling techniques particularly using borehole method suffer from limitations related to expensive, time consuming and limited data coverage. Hence, this study performs subsurface profile mapping using 3-D compressive wave imaging in order to minimize those conventional method constraints. Field measurement and data analysis of compressive wave (p-wave, vp was performed using seismic refraction survey (ABEM Terraloc MK 8, 7 kg of sledgehammer and 24 units of vertical geophone and OPTIM (SeisOpt@Picker & SeisOpt@2D software respectively. Then, 3-D compressive wave distribution of subsurface studied was obtained using analysis of SURFER software. Based on 3-D compressive wave image analyzed, it was found that subsurface profile studied consist of three main layers representing top soil (vp = 376 – 600 m/s, weathered material (vp = 900 – 2600 m/s and bedrock (vp > 3000 m/s. Thickness of each layer was varied from 0 – 2 m (first layer, 2 – 20 m (second layer and 20 m and over (third layer. Moreover, groundwater (vp = 1400 – 1600 m/s starts to be detected at 2.0 m depth from ground surface. This study has demonstrated that geotechnical site investigation data related to subsurface profiling was applicable to be obtained using 3-D compressive wave imaging. Furthermore, 3-D compressive wave imaging was performed based on non destructive principle in ground exploration thus consider economic, less time, large data coverage and sustainable to our environment.
Fundamental study of compression for movie files of coronary angiography
Ando, Takekazu; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Kodera, Yoshie
2005-04-01
When network distribution of movie files was considered as reference, it could be useful that the lossy compression movie files which has small file size. We chouse three kinds of coronary stricture movies with different moving speed as an examination object; heart rate of slow, normal and fast movies. The movies of MPEG-1, DivX5.11, WMV9 (Windows Media Video 9), and WMV9-VCM (Windows Media Video 9-Video Compression Manager) were made from three kinds of AVI format movies with different moving speeds. Five kinds of movies that are four kinds of compression movies and non-compression AVI instead of the DICOM format were evaluated by Thurstone's method. The Evaluation factors of movies were determined as "sharpness, granularity, contrast, and comprehensive evaluation." In the virtual bradycardia movie, AVI was the best evaluation at all evaluation factors except the granularity. In the virtual normal movie, an excellent compression technique is different in all evaluation factors. In the virtual tachycardia movie, MPEG-1 was the best evaluation at all evaluation factors expects the contrast. There is a good compression form depending on the speed of movies because of the difference of compression algorithm. It is thought that it is an influence by the difference of the compression between frames. The compression algorithm for movie has the compression between the frames and the intra-frame compression. As the compression algorithm give the different influence to image by each compression method, it is necessary to examine the relation of the compression algorithm and our results.
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped with...
GPU Lossless Hyperspectral Data Compression System for Space Applications
Keymeulen, Didier; Aranki, Nazeeh; Hopson, Ben; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, Matthew; Benkrid, Khaled
2012-01-01
On-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces data volume in order to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. At JPL, a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data, named the Fast Lossless (FL) algorithm, was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves state-of-the-art performance in both compression effectiveness and low complexity. Because of its outstanding performance and suitability for real-time onboard hardware implementation, the FL compressor is being formalized as the emerging CCSDS Standard for Lossless Multispectral & Hyperspectral image compression. The FL compressor is well-suited for parallel hardware implementation. A GPU hardware implementation was developed for FL targeting the current state-of-the-art GPUs from NVIDIA(Trademark). The GPU implementation on a NVIDIA(Trademark) GeForce(Trademark) GTX 580 achieves a throughput performance of 583.08 Mbits/sec (44.85 MSamples/sec) and an acceleration of at least 6 times a software implementation running on a 3.47 GHz single core Intel(Trademark) Xeon(Trademark) processor. This paper describes the design and implementation of the FL algorithm on the GPU. The massively parallel implementation will provide in the future a fast and practical real-time solution for airborne and space applications.
A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Power Reduction in Wireless Sensors for IoT.
Deepu, Chacko John; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lian, Yong
2017-04-01
This paper presents a novel data compression and transmission scheme for power reduction in Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensors. In the proposed scheme, data is compressed with both lossy and lossless techniques, so as to enable hybrid transmission mode, support adaptive data rate selection and save power in wireless transmission. Applying the method to electrocardiogram (ECG), the data is first compressed using a lossy compression technique with a high compression ratio (CR). The residual error between the original data and the decompressed lossy data is preserved using entropy coding, enabling a lossless restoration of the original data when required. Average CR of 2.1 × and 7.8 × were achieved for lossless and lossy compression respectively with MIT/BIH database. The power reduction is demonstrated using a Bluetooth transceiver and is found to be reduced to 18% for lossy and 53% for lossless transmission respectively. Options for hybrid transmission mode, adaptive rate selection and system level power reduction make the proposed scheme attractive for IoT wireless sensors in healthcare applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Melike; Ayranci, Erol
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Di- and tri-glycine in aqueous PEG400 solutions were investigated thermodynamically. ► Density and ultrasound speed of glycine oligomer-PEG400-water systems were measured. ► Apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressions were calculated. ► Apparent molar isobaric expansions were derived. ► Results were interpreted in terms of water–glycine oligomer-PEG400 interactions. -- Abstract: Density and ultrasound speed were measured accurately for diglycine + water, triglycine + water, diglycine + water-polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) and triglycine + water-PEG400 solutions at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. The results were used in evaluating thermodynamic properties as apparent molar volumes (V Ø ) and apparent molar isentropic compressions (K SΦ ) of diglycine and triglycine in water and in PEG400 solutions. Infinite dilution values of these parameters, V o Ø , and K o SΦ , were obtained from their plots as a function of molality by extrapolation and have been utilized in obtaining transfer volumes and transfer compressions at infinite dilution. All transfer volumes and transfer compressions were found to increase with increasing molality of PEG400. Apparent molar isobaric expansions were derived from the temperature dependence of V Ø values at infinite dilution and at finite concentrations. All the results were interpreted in terms of solute (diglycine or triglycine) and co-solute (PEG400) and solvent (H 2 O) interactions
A high capacity text steganography scheme based on LZW compression and color coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aruna Malik
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, capacity and security issues of text steganography have been considered by employing LZW compression technique and color coding based approach. The proposed technique uses the forward mail platform to hide the secret data. This algorithm first compresses secret data and then hides the compressed secret data into the email addresses and also in the cover message of the email. The secret data bits are embedded in the message (or cover text by making it colored using a color coding table. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only produces a high embedding capacity but also reduces computational complexity. Moreover, the security of the proposed method is significantly improved by employing stego keys. The superiority of the proposed method has been experimentally verified by comparing with recently developed existing techniques.
Electron beam acceleration and compression for short wavelength FELs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raubenheimer, T.O.
1994-11-01
A single pass UV or X-ray FEL will require a low emittance electron beam with high peak current and relatively high beam energy, a few hundred MeV to many GeV. To achieve the necessary peak current and beam energy, the beams must be bunch compressed and they must be accelerated in long transport lines where dispersive and wakefield emittance dilutions are important. In this paper, we will describe the sources and significance of the dilutions during acceleration, bunch compression, and transport through the undulator. In addition, we will discuss sources of jitter, especially effects arising from the bunch compressions, and the possible cancellation techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: spsantin@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara, E-mail: augustosantos@terra.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HCFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia
2013-07-01
Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10{sup -6}, as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B.; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara
2013-01-01
Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10 -6 , as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations in
The compression dome concept: the restorative implications.
Milicich, Graeme
2017-01-01
Evidence now supports the concept that the enamel on a tooth acts like a compression dome, much like the dome of a cathedral. With an overlying enamel compression dome, the underlying dentin is protected from damaging tensile forces. Disruption of a compression system leads to significant shifts in load pathways. The clinical restorative implications are significant and far-reaching. Cutting the wrong areas of a tooth exposes the underlying dentin to tensile forces that exceed natural design parameters. These forces lead to crack propagation, causing flexural pain and eventual fracture and loss of tooth structure. Improved understanding of the microanatomy of tooth structure and where it is safe to cut teeth has led to a revolution in dentistry that is known by several names, including microdentistry, minimally invasive dentistry, biomimetic dentistry, and bioemulation dentistry. These treatment concepts have developed due to a coalescence of principles of tooth microanatomy, material science, adhesive dentistry, and reinforcing techniques that, when applied together, will allow dentists to repair a compromised compression dome so that it more closely replicates the structure of the healthy tooth.
Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy
2012-11-01
The problem is of practical relevance in determining the motion response of multi-hull and air-cushion vehicles in high seas and in littoral waters. The linear inviscid problem without surface pressure has been well studied in the past. In the present work, the nonlinear wave-body interaction problem is solved using finite-difference methods based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The inviscid nonlinear problem is tackled using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the viscous problem using a fractional-step method. The pressure variation in the air cushion is modeled using the isentropic gas equation pVγ = Constant. Results show that viscosity and free-surface nonlinearity significantly affect the hydrodynamic force and the wave motion at the resonant Helmholtz frequency (at which the primary wave motion is the vertical oscillation of the mean surface in between the bodies). Air compressibility suppresses the Helmholtz oscillation and enhances the wave radiation. Work supported by the ONR under the grant N00014-98-1-0151.
Right brachial angiography with compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, G.; Dalbuono, S.; Tampieri, D.
1982-01-01
A technique for performing right brachial anigography by compressing the right anterior-inferior part of the neck is proposed, as a result of studying the left carotid circulation without puncturing the left carotid artery. A success was obtained in about 75% of cases. The success of the technique depends mainly on the anatomical nature of the innominate artery. When the technique is successful both left carotid arteries in the neck and their intracranial branches can be satisfactorily visualized. In some cases visualization of the left vertebral artery was also otbained. Attention is drawn also on the increased diagnostic possibilities of studying the vessels in the neck with a greater dilution of the contrast medium. (orig.)
Cartesian anisotropic mesh adaptation for compressible flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keats, W.A.; Lien, F.-S.
2004-01-01
Simulating transient compressible flows involving shock waves presents challenges to the CFD practitioner in terms of the mesh quality required to resolve discontinuities and prevent smearing. This paper discusses a novel two-dimensional Cartesian anisotropic mesh adaptation technique implemented for compressible flow. This technique, developed for laminar flow by Ham, Lien and Strong, is efficient because it refines and coarsens cells using criteria that consider the solution in each of the cardinal directions separately. In this paper the method will be applied to compressible flow. The procedure shows promise in its ability to deliver good quality solutions while achieving computational savings. The convection scheme used is the Advective Upstream Splitting Method (Plus), and the refinement/ coarsening criteria are based on work done by Ham et al. Transient shock wave diffraction over a backward step and shock reflection over a forward step are considered as test cases because they demonstrate that the quality of the solution can be maintained as the mesh is refined and coarsened in time. The data structure is explained in relation to the computational mesh, and the object-oriented design and implementation of the code is presented. Refinement and coarsening algorithms are outlined. Computational savings over uniform and isotropic mesh approaches are shown to be significant. (author)
The FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Onyshczak, R.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)
1996-10-01
The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations. We will review the current status of the FBI standard, including the compliance testing process and the details of the first-generation encoder.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duval, L.
2000-11-01
Wavelet and wavelet packet transforms are the most commonly used algorithms for seismic data compression. Wavelet coefficients are generally quantized and encoded by classical entropy coding techniques. We first propose in this work a compression algorithm based on the wavelet transform. The wavelet transform is used together with a zero-tree type coding, with first use in seismic applications. Classical wavelet transforms nevertheless yield a quite rigid approach, since it is often desirable to adapt the transform stage to the properties of each type of signal. We thus propose a second algorithm using, instead of wavelets, a set of so called 'extended transforms'. These transforms, originating from the filter bank theory, are parameterized. Classical examples are Malvar's Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (LOT) or de Queiroz et al. Generalized Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (GenLOT). We propose several optimization criteria to build 'extended transforms' which are adapted the properties of seismic signals. We further show that these transforms can be used with the same zero-tree type coding technique as used with wavelets. Both proposed algorithms provide exact compression rate choice, block-wise compression (in the case of extended transforms) and partial decompression for quality control or visualization. Performances are tested on a set of actual seismic data. They are evaluated for several quality measures. We also compare them to other seismic compression algorithms. (author)
Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Liang, Wenqiang; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan
2015-10-01
In this paper, we propose a high performance optical encryption (OE) scheme based on computational ghost imaging (GI) with QR code and compressive sensing (CS) technique, named QR-CGI-OE scheme. N random phase screens, generated by Alice, is a secret key and be shared with its authorized user, Bob. The information is first encoded by Alice with QR code, and the QR-coded image is then encrypted with the aid of computational ghost imaging optical system. Here, measurement results from the GI optical system's bucket detector are the encrypted information and be transmitted to Bob. With the key, Bob decrypts the encrypted information to obtain the QR-coded image with GI and CS techniques, and further recovers the information by QR decoding. The experimental and numerical simulated results show that the authorized users can recover completely the original image, whereas the eavesdroppers can not acquire any information about the image even the eavesdropping ratio (ER) is up to 60% at the given measurement times. For the proposed scheme, the number of bits sent from Alice to Bob are reduced considerably and the robustness is enhanced significantly. Meantime, the measurement times in GI system is reduced and the quality of the reconstructed QR-coded image is improved.
Scalable RDF data compression with MapReduce
Urbani, J.; Maassen, J.; Drost, N.; Seinstra, F.J.; Bal, H.E.
2013-01-01
The Semantic Web contains many billions of statements, which are released using the resource description framework (RDF) data model. To better handle these large amounts of data, high performance RDF applications must apply a compression technique. Unfortunately, because of the large input size,
Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin
Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration
2015-06-01
Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.
Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.
2012-01-01
Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately
Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)
2012-01-15
Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately
New experimental platform to study high density laser-compressed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauthier, M.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gamboa, E. J.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Heimann, P.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Schropp, A.; Falcone, R.; Glenzer, S. H.; Ravasio, A.; Gleason, A.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; MacDonald, M. J.; Ali, S.
2014-01-01
We have developed a new experimental platform at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) which combines simultaneous angularly and spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements. This technique offers a new insights on the structural and thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter. The < 50 fs temporal duration of the x-ray pulse provides near instantaneous snapshots of the dynamics of the compression. We present a proof of principle experiment for this platform to characterize a shock-compressed plastic foil. We observe the disappearance of the plastic semi-crystal structure and the formation of a compressed liquid ion-ion correlation peak. The plasma parameters of shock-compressed plastic can be measured as well, but requires an averaging over a few tens of shots
Acoustical Studies of Some Schiff Bases in 1,4-Dioxane and Dimethylformamide at 318.15 K
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BALUJA Shipra
2006-01-01
From experimental data of density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity, the various acoustical properties, such as specific impedance (Z), isentropic compressibility (κs), Rao's molar sound function (Rm), the van der Waals constant (b), molar compressibility (W), intermolecular free length (Lf), relaxation strength (r), internal pressure (π),free volume (Vf), solvation number (Sn) etc., were calculated for three Schiff bases in 1,4-dioxane and dimethylformamide (DMF) at 318.15 K. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solutions.
NIR hyperspectral compressive imager based on a modified Fabry–Perot resonator
Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Blumberg, Dan G.; Stern, Adrian
2018-04-01
The acquisition of hyperspectral (HS) image datacubes with available 2D sensor arrays involves a time consuming scanning process. In the last decade, several compressive sensing (CS) techniques were proposed to reduce the HS acquisition time. In this paper, we present a method for near-infrared (NIR) HS imaging which relies on our rapid CS resonator spectroscopy technique. Within the framework of CS, and by using a modified Fabry–Perot resonator, a sequence of spectrally modulated images is used to recover NIR HS datacubes. Owing to the innovative CS design, we demonstrate the ability to reconstruct NIR HS images with hundreds of spectral bands from an order of magnitude fewer measurements, i.e. with a compression ratio of about 10:1. This high compression ratio, together with the high optical throughput of the system, facilitates fast acquisition of large HS datacubes.
Mechanical behavior of silicon carbide nanoparticles under uniaxial compression
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Qiuxiang; Fei, Jing; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin; Meng, Lijun, E-mail: ljmeng@xtu.edu.cn [Xiangtan University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Faculty of School of Physics and Optoelectronics (China)
2016-03-15
The mechanical behavior of SiC nanoparticles under uniaxial compression was investigated using an atomic-level compression simulation technique. The results revealed that the mechanical deformation of SiC nanocrystals is highly dependent on compression orientation, particle size, and temperature. A structural transformation from the original zinc-blende to a rock-salt phase is identified for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [001] direction at low temperature. However, the rock-salt phase is not observed for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [110] and [111] directions irrespective of size and temperature. The high-pressure-generated rock-salt phase strongly affects the mechanical behavior of the nanoparticles, including their hardness and deformation process. The hardness of [001]-compressed nanoparticles decreases monotonically as their size increases, different from that of [110] and [111]-compressed nanoparticles, which reaches a maximal value at a critical size and then decreases. Additionally, a temperature-dependent mechanical response was observed for all simulated SiC nanoparticles regardless of compression orientation and size. Interestingly, the hardness of SiC nanocrystals with a diameter of 8 nm compressed in [001]-orientation undergoes a steep decrease at 0.1–200 K and then a gradual decline from 250 to 1500 K. This trend can be attributed to different deformation mechanisms related to phase transformation and dislocations. Our results will be useful for practical applications of SiC nanoparticles under high pressure.
Fast and Adaptive Lossless On-Board Hyperspectral Data Compression System for Space Applications
Aranki, Nazeeh; Bakhshi, Alireza; Keymeulen, Didier; Klimesh, Matthew
2009-01-01
Efficient on-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces the data volume necessary to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The techniques also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware, which makes it practical for flight implementations of pushbroom instruments. A prototype of the compressor (and decompressor) of the algorithm is available in software, but this implementation may not meet speed and real-time requirements of some space applications. Hardware acceleration provides performance improvements of 10x-100x vs. the software implementation (about 1M samples/sec on a Pentium IV machine). This paper describes a hardware implementation of the JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA implementation targets the current state of the art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for Space applications.
Approaching maximal performance of longitudinal beam compression in induction accelerator drivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mark, J.W.K.; Ho, D.D.M.; Brandon, S.T.; Chang, C.L.; Drobot, A.T.; Faltens, A.; Lee, E.P.; Krafft, G.A.
1986-01-01
Longitudinal beam compression occurs before final focus and fusion chamber beam transport and is a key process determining initial conditions for final focus hardware. Determining the limits for maximal performance of key accelerator components is an essential element of the effort to reduce driver costs. Studies directed towards defining the limits of final beam compression including considerations such as maximal available compression, effects of longitudinal dispersion and beam emittance, combining pulse-shaping with beam compression to reduce the total number of beam manipulators, etc., are given. Several possible techniques are illustrated for utilizing the beam compression process to provide the pulse shapes required by a number of targets. Without such capabilities to shape the pulse, an additional factor of two or so of beam energy would be required by the targets
Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tony Zitek, MD
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT, but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. Methods: This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Results: Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5] and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5] for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2] and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]. The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5] and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]. Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV, which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the
SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression.
Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan
2014-10-01
The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High speed fluorescence imaging with compressed ultrafast photography
Thompson, J. V.; Mason, J. D.; Beier, H. T.; Bixler, J. N.
2017-02-01
Fluorescent lifetime imaging is an optical technique that facilitates imaging molecular interactions and cellular functions. Because the excited lifetime of a fluorophore is sensitive to its local microenvironment,1, 2 measurement of fluorescent lifetimes can be used to accurately detect regional changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration. However, typical state of the art fluorescent lifetime methods are severely limited when it comes to acquisition time (on the order of seconds to minutes) and video rate imaging. Here we show that compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) can be used in conjunction with fluorescent lifetime imaging to overcome these acquisition rate limitations. Frame rates up to one hundred billion frames per second have been demonstrated with compressed ultrafast photography using a streak camera.3 These rates are achieved by encoding time in the spatial direction with a pseudo-random binary pattern. The time domain information is then reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm, resulting in a cube of data (x,y,t) for each readout image. Thus, application of compressed ultrafast photography will allow us to acquire an entire fluorescent lifetime image with a single laser pulse. Using a streak camera with a high-speed CMOS camera, acquisition rates of 100 frames per second can be achieved, which will significantly enhance our ability to quantitatively measure complex biological events with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability of this technique to do single-shot fluorescent lifetime imaging of cells and microspheres.
Coding Strategies and Implementations of Compressive Sensing
Tsai, Tsung-Han
This dissertation studies the coding strategies of computational imaging to overcome the limitation of conventional sensing techniques. The information capacity of conventional sensing is limited by the physical properties of optics, such as aperture size, detector pixels, quantum efficiency, and sampling rate. These parameters determine the spatial, depth, spectral, temporal, and polarization sensitivity of each imager. To increase sensitivity in any dimension can significantly compromise the others. This research implements various coding strategies subject to optical multidimensional imaging and acoustic sensing in order to extend their sensing abilities. The proposed coding strategies combine hardware modification and signal processing to exploiting bandwidth and sensitivity from conventional sensors. We discuss the hardware architecture, compression strategies, sensing process modeling, and reconstruction algorithm of each sensing system. Optical multidimensional imaging measures three or more dimensional information of the optical signal. Traditional multidimensional imagers acquire extra dimensional information at the cost of degrading temporal or spatial resolution. Compressive multidimensional imaging multiplexes the transverse spatial, spectral, temporal, and polarization information on a two-dimensional (2D) detector. The corresponding spectral, temporal and polarization coding strategies adapt optics, electronic devices, and designed modulation techniques for multiplex measurement. This computational imaging technique provides multispectral, temporal super-resolution, and polarization imaging abilities with minimal loss in spatial resolution and noise level while maintaining or gaining higher temporal resolution. The experimental results prove that the appropriate coding strategies may improve hundreds times more sensing capacity. Human auditory system has the astonishing ability in localizing, tracking, and filtering the selected sound sources or
Survey Of Lossless Image Coding Techniques
Melnychuck, Paul W.; Rabbani, Majid
1989-04-01
Many image transmission/storage applications requiring some form of data compression additionally require that the decoded image be an exact replica of the original. Lossless image coding algorithms meet this requirement by generating a decoded image that is numerically identical to the original. Several lossless coding techniques are modifications of well-known lossy schemes, whereas others are new. Traditional Markov-based models and newer arithmetic coding techniques are applied to predictive coding, bit plane processing, and lossy plus residual coding. Generally speaking, the compression ratio offered by these techniques are in the area of 1.6:1 to 3:1 for 8-bit pictorial images. Compression ratios for 12-bit radiological images approach 3:1, as these images have less detailed structure, and hence, their higher pel correlation leads to a greater removal of image redundancy.
A novel high-frequency encoding algorithm for image compression
Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.
2017-12-01
In this paper, a new method for image compression is proposed whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction from 2D images. The method is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) together with a high-frequency minimization encoding algorithm at compression stage and a new concurrent binary search algorithm at decompression stage. The proposed compression method consists of five main steps: (1) divide the image into blocks and apply DCT to each block; (2) apply a high-frequency minimization method to the AC-coefficients reducing each block by 2/3 resulting in a minimized array; (3) build a look up table of probability data to enable the recovery of the original high frequencies at decompression stage; (4) apply a delta or differential operator to the list of DC-components; and (5) apply arithmetic encoding to the outputs of steps (2) and (4). At decompression stage, the look up table and the concurrent binary search algorithm are used to reconstruct all high-frequency AC-coefficients while the DC-components are decoded by reversing the arithmetic coding. Finally, the inverse DCT recovers the original image. We tested the technique by compressing and decompressing 2D images including images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction. The technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results demonstrate that the proposed compression method is perceptually superior to JPEG with equivalent quality to JPEG2000. Concerning 3D surface reconstruction from images, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000.
Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Sawyer, James Wayne; Yamaki, Y. Robert
1989-01-01
An experimental evaluation has been conducted to ascertain the the usefulness of two techniques for measuring in-plane compressive failure strength and modulus in coated and uncoated carbon-carbon composites. The techniques involved testing specimens with potted ends as well as testing them in a novel clamping fixture; specimen shape, length, gage width, and thickness were the test parameters investigated for both coated and uncoated 0/90 deg and +/-45 deg laminates. It is found that specimen shape does not have a significant effect on the measured compressive properties. The potting of specimen ends results in slightly higher measured compressive strengths than those obtained with the new clamping fixture. Comparable modulus values are obtained by both techniques.
Energy-efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks using compressed sensing.
Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Dobson, Simon
2014-02-12
Sensing of the application environment is the main purpose of a wireless sensor network. Most existing energy management strategies and compression techniques assume that the sensing operation consumes significantly less energy than radio transmission and reception. This assumption does not hold in a number of practical applications. Sensing energy consumption in these applications may be comparable to, or even greater than, that of the radio. In this work, we support this claim by a quantitative analysis of the main operational energy costs of popular sensors, radios and sensor motes. In light of the importance of sensing level energy costs, especially for power hungry sensors, we consider compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing as potential approaches to provide energy efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks. Numerical experiments investigating the effectiveness of compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing using real datasets show their potential for efficient utilization of sensing and overall energy costs in wireless sensor networks. It is shown that, for some applications, compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing can provide greater energy efficiency than transform coding and model-based adaptive sensing in wireless sensor networks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, Akiko; Urashima, Masaki; Nishihara, Reisuke
2009-01-01
Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a useful method of breast biopsy. However, some patients feel unbearable breast pain due to compression. Breast pain due to compression caused the fact that the breast cannot be compressed sufficiently. Sufficient compression is important to fix the breast in this method. Breast pain during this procedure is problematic from the perspectives of both stress and fixing the breast. We performed biopsy in the original manner by injecting local anesthetic before compression, in order to relieve breast pain due to compression. This was only slightly different in order from the standard method, and there was no need for any special technique or device. This way allowed for even higher breast compression, and all of the most recent 30 cases were compressed at levels greater than 120N. This approach is useful not only for relieving pain, but also for fixing the breast. (author)
Velocity and Magnetic Compressions in FEL Drivers
Serafini, L
2005-01-01
We will compare merits and issues of these two techniques suitable for increasing the peak current of high brightness electron beams. The typical range of applicability is low energy for the velocity bunching and middle to high energy for magnetic compression. Velocity bunching is free from CSR effects but requires very high RF stability (time jitters), as well as a dedicated additional focusing and great cure in the beam transport: it is very well understood theoretically and numerical simulations are pretty straightforward. Several experiments of velocity bunching have been performed in the past few years: none of them, nevertheless, used a photoinjector designed and optimized for that purpose. Magnetic compression is a much more consolidated technique: CSR effects and micro-bunch instabilities are its main drawbacks. There is a large operational experience with chicanes used as magnetic compressors and their theoretical understanding is quite deep, though numerical simulations of real devices are still cha...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhondge, Sudhakar S.; Deshmukh, Dinesh W.; Paliwal, Lalitmohan J.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Study of aqueous solutions of vitamins B 1 .HCl and B 6 .HCl at different temperatures has been presented. ► These are important vitamins. ► Different interactions among solute and solvents have been investigated. ► The results are interpreted in terms of water structure making and breaking effects due to cations. -- Abstract: The experimental values of density (ρ), speed of sound (u), absolute viscosity (η) and refractive index (n D ) properties are reported for aqueous solutions of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B 1 .HCl) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B 6 .HCl) within the concentration range (0.01 to 0.55) mol ⋅ kg −1 at three different temperatures, viz. T/K = 278.15, 288.15, and 298.15. Using experimental data, different derived parameters such as the apparent molar volume of solute (ϕ V ), isentropic compressibility of solution (β S ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility of solute (ϕ KS ) and relative viscosity of solution (η r ) have been computed. The limiting values of apparent molar volume (ϕ V 0 ) and apparent molar isentropic compressibility (ϕ KS 0 ) have been obtained. The limiting apparent molar expansivity (ϕ E 0 ) of solute, coefficient of thermal expansion (α ∗ ) and hydration numbers (n h ) of above vitamins in the aqueous medium have also been estimated. The experimental values of relative viscosity are used to calculate the Jones–Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients for the hydrochlorides. The temperature coefficients of B i.e. (dB/dT) for these solutes have been used to study water structure making and breaking effects due to cations. Further, a discussion is made on the basis of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuburn, J.; Woollings, T.J.
2005-01-01
Accurate representation of different kinds of wave motion is essential for numerical models of the atmosphere, but is sensitive to details of the discretization. In this paper, numerical dispersion relations are computed for different vertical discretizations of the compressible Euler equations and compared with the analytical dispersion relation. A height coordinate, an isentropic coordinate, and a terrain-following mass-based coordinate are considered, and, for each of these, different choices of prognostic variables and grid staggerings are considered. The discretizations are categorized according to whether their dispersion relations are optimal, are near optimal, have a single zero-frequency computational mode, or are problematic in other ways. Some general understanding of the factors that affect the numerical dispersion properties is obtained: heuristic arguments concerning the normal mode structures, and the amount of averaging and coarse differencing in the finite difference scheme, are shown to be useful guides to which configurations will be optimal; the number of degrees of freedom in the discretization is shown to be an accurate guide to the existence of computational modes; there is only minor sensitivity to whether the equations for thermodynamic variables are discretized in advective form or flux form; and an accurate representation of acoustic modes is found to be a prerequisite for accurate representation of inertia-gravity modes, which, in turn, is found to be a prerequisite for accurate representation of Rossby modes
Particle-induced thermonuclear fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salisbury, W.W.
1980-01-01
A nuclear fusion process for igniting a nuclear fusion pellet in a manner similar to that proposed for laser beams uses, an array of pulsed high energy combined particle beams, focused to bombard the pellet for isentropically compressing it to a Fermi-degenerate state by thermal blow-off and balanced beam momentum transfer. (author)
Robust steganographic method utilizing properties of MJPEG compression standard
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Oravec
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article presents design of steganographic method, which uses video container as cover data. Video track was recorded by webcam and was further encoded by compression standard MJPEG. Proposed method also takes in account effects of lossy compression. The embedding process is realized by switching places of transform coefficients, which are computed by Discrete Cosine Transform. The article contains possibilities, used techniques, advantages and drawbacks of chosen solution. The results are presented at the end of the article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan
2015-01-01
This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Rahmat; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman
2008-01-01
Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.com; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-09-15
Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied.
Multiband and Lossless Compression of Hyperspectral Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raffaele Pizzolante
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Hyperspectral images are widely used in several real-life applications. In this paper, we investigate on the compression of hyperspectral images by considering different aspects, including the optimization of the computational complexity in order to allow implementations on limited hardware (i.e., hyperspectral sensors, etc.. We present an approach that relies on a three-dimensional predictive structure. Our predictive structure, 3D-MBLP, uses one or more previous bands as references to exploit the redundancies among the third dimension. The achieved results are comparable, and often better, with respect to the other state-of-art lossless compression techniques for hyperspectral images.
Dynamic mode decomposition for compressive system identification
Bai, Zhe; Kaiser, Eurika; Proctor, Joshua L.; Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Steven L.
2017-11-01
Dynamic mode decomposition has emerged as a leading technique to identify spatiotemporal coherent structures from high-dimensional data. In this work, we integrate and unify two recent innovations that extend DMD to systems with actuation and systems with heavily subsampled measurements. When combined, these methods yield a novel framework for compressive system identification, where it is possible to identify a low-order model from limited input-output data and reconstruct the associated full-state dynamic modes with compressed sensing, providing interpretability of the state of the reduced-order model. When full-state data is available, it is possible to dramatically accelerate downstream computations by first compressing the data. We demonstrate this unified framework on simulated data of fluid flow past a pitching airfoil, investigating the effects of sensor noise, different types of measurements (e.g., point sensors, Gaussian random projections, etc.), compression ratios, and different choices of actuation (e.g., localized, broadband, etc.). This example provides a challenging and realistic test-case for the proposed method, and results indicate that the dominant coherent structures and dynamics are well characterized even with heavily subsampled data.
Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Compressive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salim T. Yousif
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Compressive strength of concrete is a commonly used criterion in evaluating concrete. Although testing of the compressive strength of concrete specimens is done routinely, it is performed on the 28th day after concrete placement. Therefore, strength estimation of concrete at early time is highly desirable. This study presents the effort in applying neural network-based system identification techniques to predict the compressive strength of concrete based on concrete mix proportions, maximum aggregate size (MAS, and slump of fresh concrete. Back-propagation neural networks model is successively developed, trained, and tested using actual data sets of concrete mix proportions gathered from literature. The test of the model by un-used data within the range of input parameters shows that the maximum absolute error for model is about 20% and 88% of the output results has absolute errors less than 10%. The parametric study shows that water/cement ratio (w/c is the most significant factor affecting the output of the model. The results showed that neural networks has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting compressive strength of concrete.
Acceptable levels of digital image compression in chest radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, I.
2000-01-01
The introduction of picture archival and communications systems (PACS) and teleradiology has prompted an examination of techniques that optimize the storage capacity and speed of digital storage and distribution networks. The general acceptance of the move to replace conventional screen-film capture with computed radiography (CR) is an indication that clinicians within the radiology community are willing to accept images that have been 'compressed'. The question to be answered, therefore, is what level of compression is acceptable. The purpose of the present study is to provide an assessment of the ability of a group of imaging professionals to determine whether an image has been compressed. To undertake this study a single mobile chest image, selected for the presence of some subtle pathology in the form of a number of septal lines in both costphrenic angles, was compressed to levels of 10:1, 20:1 and 30:1. These images were randomly ordered and shown to the observers for interpretation. Analysis of the responses indicates that in general it was not possible to distinguish the original image from its compressed counterparts. Furthermore, a preference appeared to be shown for images that have undergone low levels of compression. This preference can most likely be attributed to the 'de-noising' effect of the compression algorithm at low levels. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty. Ltd
Compressive sensing with a microwave photonic filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Chi, Hao
2015-01-01
In this letter, we present a novel approach to realizing photonics-assisted compressive sensing (CS) with the technique of microwave photonic fi ltering. In the proposed system, an input spectrally sparse signal to be captured and a random sequence are modulated on an optical carrier via two Mach...
MANU. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Small scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laaksonen, R.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to become familiar with the isostatic compression technique and to manufacture specimens to study various aspects of the manufacturing process. These included for example the effect of moisture, maximum compressive pressure, vibration, vacuum, specimen size, coating, multiple compressions and duration of load cycle on the density and other properties of bentonite specimens. Also the amount of volumetric contraction was of interest in this study together with the used mould technology. This work summarizes the tests done with isostatic compression technique during 2008. Tests were mainly carried out with MX-80 bentonite, which is a commercial product and currently the reference bentonite in the repository reference plan. Tests were made from June to November 2008 both in Finland and in Sweden. VTT made four test series in Finland. MABU Consulting Ab made two test series in Sweden. Also Posiva Oy carried out one preliminary series before this study in Finland. The test results show that there is a clear relationship between density and moisture content at all pressure levels. The calculated degree of saturation of more moist samples remained at the level of 95 -to 98 % of full saturation. It should be possible to manufacture buffer blocks with high accuracy (density, water content, degree of saturation), if similar preliminary tests are done. Tests did not support the assumption that vacuum (partial or full) in the specimen during compression increases the final density. Tests showed that pre-vibrated specimens had a slightly higher density but the difference was insignificant. Coarse raw bentonite produced the highest dry density of all sodium bentonites used. The highest dry density values were received with Minelco's Ca-bentonite, but the average water content was not extremely accurate. The following recommendations were derived from the results of this project: additional tests should be carried out to determine the relationship
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Soraghan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Lattice vector quantization (LVQ reduces coding complexity and computation due to its regular structure. A new multistage LVQ (MLVQ using an adaptive subband thresholding technique is presented and applied to image compression. The technique concentrates on reducing the quantization error of the quantized vectors by “blowing out” the residual quantization errors with an LVQ scale factor. The significant coefficients of each subband are identified using an optimum adaptive thresholding scheme for each subband. A variable length coding procedure using Golomb codes is used to compress the codebook index which produces a very efficient and fast technique for entropy coding. Experimental results using the MLVQ are shown to be significantly better than JPEG 2000 and the recent VQ techniques for various test images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salleh MFM
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Lattice vector quantization (LVQ reduces coding complexity and computation due to its regular structure. A new multistage LVQ (MLVQ using an adaptive subband thresholding technique is presented and applied to image compression. The technique concentrates on reducing the quantization error of the quantized vectors by "blowing out" the residual quantization errors with an LVQ scale factor. The significant coefficients of each subband are identified using an optimum adaptive thresholding scheme for each subband. A variable length coding procedure using Golomb codes is used to compress the codebook index which produces a very efficient and fast technique for entropy coding. Experimental results using the MLVQ are shown to be significantly better than JPEG 2000 and the recent VQ techniques for various test images.
Compression of magnetohydrodynamic simulation data using singular value decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo Negrete, D. del; Hirshman, S.P.; Spong, D.A.; D'Azevedo, E.F.
2007-01-01
Numerical calculations of magnetic and flow fields in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations can result in extensive data sets. Particle-based calculations in these MHD fields, needed to provide closure relations for the MHD equations, will require communication of this data to multiple processors and rapid interpolation at numerous particle orbit positions. To facilitate this analysis it is advantageous to compress the data using singular value decomposition (SVD, or principal orthogonal decomposition, POD) methods. As an example of the compression technique, SVD is applied to magnetic field data arising from a dynamic nonlinear MHD code. The performance of the SVD compression algorithm is analyzed by calculating Poincare plots for electron orbits in a three-dimensional magnetic field and comparing the results with uncompressed data
A Compressed Sensing Framework for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting
Davies, Mike; Puy, Gilles; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Wiaux, Yves
2013-01-01
Inspired by the recently proposed Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) technique, we develop a principled compressed sensing framework for quantitative MRI. The three key components are: a random pulse excitation sequence following the MRF technique; a random EPI subsampling strategy and an iterative projection algorithm that imposes consistency with the Bloch equations. We show that theoretically, as long as the excitation sequence possesses an appropriate form of persistent excitation, w...
LFQC: a lossless compression algorithm for FASTQ files
Nicolae, Marius; Pathak, Sudipta; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar
2015-01-01
Motivation: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized genomic research by reducing the cost of whole genome sequencing. One of the biggest challenges posed by modern sequencing technology is economic storage of NGS data. Storing raw data is infeasible because of its enormous size and high redundancy. In this article, we address the problem of storage and transmission of large FASTQ files using innovative compression techniques. Results: We introduce a new lossless non-reference based FASTQ compression algorithm named Lossless FASTQ Compressor. We have compared our algorithm with other state of the art big data compression algorithms namely gzip, bzip2, fastqz (Bonfield and Mahoney, 2013), fqzcomp (Bonfield and Mahoney, 2013), Quip (Jones et al., 2012), DSRC2 (Roguski and Deorowicz, 2014). This comparison reveals that our algorithm achieves better compression ratios on LS454 and SOLiD datasets. Availability and implementation: The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from http://engr.uconn.edu/rajasek/lfqc-v1.1.zip. Contact: rajasek@engr.uconn.edu PMID:26093148
A blended pressure/density based method for the computation of incompressible and compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossow, C.-C.
2003-01-01
An alternative method to low speed preconditioning for the computation of nearly incompressible flows with compressible methods is developed. For this approach the leading terms of the flux difference splitting (FDS) approximate Riemann solver are analyzed in the incompressible limit. In combination with the requirement of the velocity field to be divergence-free, an elliptic equation to solve for a pressure correction to enforce the divergence-free velocity field on the discrete level is derived. The pressure correction equation established is shown to be equivalent to classical methods for incompressible flows. In order to allow the computation of flows at all speeds, a blending technique for the transition from the incompressible, pressure based formulation to the compressible, density based formulation is established. It is found necessary to use preconditioning with this blending technique to account for a remaining 'compressible' contribution in the incompressible limit, and a suitable matrix directly applicable to conservative residuals is derived. Thus, a coherent framework is established to cover the discretization of both incompressible and compressible flows. Compared with standard preconditioning techniques, the blended pressure/density based approach showed improved robustness for high lift flows close to separation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.
Compressing Control System Data for Efficient Storage and Retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christopher Larrieu
2003-01-01
The controls group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), acquires multiple terabytes of EPICS control system data per year via CZAR, its new archiving system. By heuristically applying a combination of rudimentary compression techniques, in conjunction with several specialized data transformations and algorithms, the CZAR storage engine reduces the size of this data by approximately 88 percent, without any loss of information. While the compression process requires significant memory and processor time, the decompression routine suffers only slightly in this regard
Compressive sensing in a photonic link with optical integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Chi, Hao
2014-01-01
In this Letter, we present a novel structure to realize photonics-assisted compressive sensing (CS) with optical integration. In the system, a spectrally sparse signal modulates a multiwavelength continuous-wave light and then is mixed with a random sequence in optical domain. The optical signal......, which is equivalent to the function of integration required in CS. A proof-of-concept experiment with four wavelengths, corresponding to a compression factor of 4, is demonstrated. More simulation results are also given to show the potential of the technique....
A review of lossless audio compression standards and algorithms
Muin, Fathiah Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy Surya; Kartiwi, Mira; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.
2017-09-01
Over the years, lossless audio compression has gained popularity as researchers and businesses has become more aware of the need for better quality and higher storage demand. This paper will analyse various lossless audio coding algorithm and standards that are used and available in the market focusing on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) specifically due to its popularity and robustness in audio compression, nevertheless other prediction methods are compared to verify this. Advanced representation of LPC such as LSP decomposition techniques are also discussed within this paper.
Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...
Object characterization simulator for estimating compressed breast during mammography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, Luciana de J.S.; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del
2011-01-01
The measurement of the thickness of a compressed breast during the mammography test is necessary in order to calculate the glandular dose in mammography procedures, in an analysis of risk/benefit, given that the target organ in these procedures is highly sensitive to ionising radiation. However, mammography is a test of utmost importance in diagnosis. In theory, it may be possible to calculate the thickness of the compressed breast through the measurements of the focus object distance by using projections of radio opaque objects fixed to the compression tray. The facilities of the Laboratory of Applied Radioprotection to Mammography - LARAM were used for this study, as well as breast simulators with well defined thickness, in the assembly of the techniques for the measurement of the thickness of the compressed breast. The results showed that it is possible to determine this thickness through calculations and simulators through this method which is susceptible to be adequate to the dosimetry. (author)
The computation of pressure waves in shock tubes by a finite difference procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbaro, M.
1988-09-01
A finite difference solution of one-dimensional unsteady isentropic compressible flow equations is presented. The computer program has been tested by solving some cases of the Riemann shock tube problem. Predictions are in good agreement with those presented by other authors. Some inaccuracies may be attributed to the wave smearing consequent of the finite-difference treatment. (author)
Monitoring and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using noninvasive compressive sensing EEG
Morabito, F. C.; Labate, D.; Morabito, G.; Palamara, I.; Szu, H.
2013-05-01
The majority of elderly with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) receive care at home from caregivers. In contrast to standard tethered clinical settings, a wireless, real-time, body-area smartphone-based remote monitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG) can be extremely advantageous for home care of those patients. Such wearable tools pave the way to personalized medicine, for example giving the opportunity to control the progression of the disease and the effect of drugs. By applying Compressive Sensing (CS) techniques it is in principle possible to overcome the difficulty raised by smartphones spatial-temporal throughput rate bottleneck. Unfortunately, EEG and other physiological signals are often non-sparse. In this paper, it is instead shown that the EEG of AD patients becomes actually more compressible with the progression of the disease. EEG of Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI) subjects is also showing clear tendency to enhanced compressibility. This feature favor the use of CS techniques and ultimately the use of telemonitoring with wearable sensors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez, F.J., E-mail: javier.gomez@amsimulation.com [Advanced Material Simulation, AMS, Bilbao (Spain); Martin Rengel, M.A., E-mail: mamartin.rengel@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Professor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Puerta, M.A. [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Professor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2017-06-15
In this work, the hoop fracture toughness of ZIRLO{sup ®} fuel cladding is calculated as a function of three parameters: hydrogen concentration, temperature and displacement rate. To this end, pre-hydrided samples with nominal hydrogen concentrations of 0 (as-received), 150, 250, 500, 1200 and 2000 ppm were prepared. Hydrogen was precipitated as zirconium hydrides in the shape of platelets oriented along the hoop direction. Ring Compression Tests (RCTs) were conducted at three temperatures (20, 135 and 300 °C) and two displacement rates (0.5 and 100 mm/min). A new method has been proposed in this paper which allows the determination of fracture toughness from ring compression tests. The proposed method combines the experimental results, the cohesive crack model, finite elements simulations, numerical calculations and non-linear optimization techniques. The parameters of the cohesive crack model were calculated by minimizing the difference between the experimental data and the numerical results. An almost perfect fitting of the experimental results is achieved by this method. In addition, an estimation of the error in the calculated fracture toughness is also provided.
Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica
2009-01-01
In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... a collision for the full compression function of Lane-256 and Lane-512. Using a relatively sparse truncated differential path, we are able to solve for a valid message expansion and colliding lanes independently. Additionally, we are able to apply the inbound phase more than once by exploiting the degrees...
WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhouzhou Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.
Compressed ECG biometric: a fast, secured and efficient method for identification of CVD patient.
Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Mahmood, Abdun
2011-12-01
Adoption of compression technology is often required for wireless cardiovascular monitoring, due to the enormous size of Electrocardiography (ECG) signal and limited bandwidth of Internet. However, compressed ECG must be decompressed before performing human identification using present research on ECG based biometric techniques. This additional step of decompression creates a significant processing delay for identification task. This becomes an obvious burden on a system, if this needs to be done for a trillion of compressed ECG per hour by the hospital. Even though the hospital might be able to come up with an expensive infrastructure to tame the exuberant processing, for small intermediate nodes in a multihop network identification preceded by decompression is confronting. In this paper, we report a technique by which a person can be identified directly from his / her compressed ECG. This technique completely obviates the step of decompression and therefore upholds biometric identification less intimidating for the smaller nodes in a multihop network. The biometric template created by this new technique is lower in size compared to the existing ECG based biometrics as well as other forms of biometrics like face, finger, retina etc. (up to 8302 times lower than face template and 9 times lower than existing ECG based biometric template). Lower size of the template substantially reduces the one-to-many matching time for biometric recognition, resulting in a faster biometric authentication mechanism.
Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan
2017-05-29
MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.
Effect of data compression on diagnostic accuracy in digital hand and chest radiography
Sayre, James W.; Aberle, Denise R.; Boechat, Maria I.; Hall, Theodore R.; Huang, H. K.; Ho, Bruce K. T.; Kashfian, Payam; Rahbar, Guita
1992-05-01
Image compression is essential to handle a large volume of digital images including CT, MR, CR, and digitized films in a digital radiology operation. The full-frame bit allocation using the cosine transform technique developed during the last few years has been proven to be an excellent irreversible image compression method. This paper describes the effect of using the hardware compression module on diagnostic accuracy in hand radiographs with subperiosteal resorption and chest radiographs with interstitial disease. Receiver operating characteristic analysis using 71 hand radiographs and 52 chest radiographs with five observers each demonstrates that there is no statistical significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the original films and the compressed images with a compression ratio as high as 20:1.
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Zaidi, Habib
2013-01-01
Purpose: Compressed sensing (CS) provides a promising framework for MR image reconstruction from highly undersampled data, thus reducing data acquisition time. In this context, sparsity-promoting regularization techniques exploit the prior knowledge that MR images are sparse or compressible in a
Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression
Merhav, Neri
2011-09-01
We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.
Image Segmentation, Registration, Compression, and Matching
Yadegar, Jacob; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Joseph; Ray, Nilanjan; Zabuawala, Sakina
2011-01-01
A novel computational framework was developed of a 2D affine invariant matching exploiting a parameter space. Named as affine invariant parameter space (AIPS), the technique can be applied to many image-processing and computer-vision problems, including image registration, template matching, and object tracking from image sequence. The AIPS is formed by the parameters in an affine combination of a set of feature points in the image plane. In cases where the entire image can be assumed to have undergone a single affine transformation, the new AIPS match metric and matching framework becomes very effective (compared with the state-of-the-art methods at the time of this reporting). No knowledge about scaling or any other transformation parameters need to be known a priori to apply the AIPS framework. An automated suite of software tools has been created to provide accurate image segmentation (for data cleaning) and high-quality 2D image and 3D surface registration (for fusing multi-resolution terrain, image, and map data). These tools are capable of supporting existing GIS toolkits already in the marketplace, and will also be usable in a stand-alone fashion. The toolkit applies novel algorithmic approaches for image segmentation, feature extraction, and registration of 2D imagery and 3D surface data, which supports first-pass, batched, fully automatic feature extraction (for segmentation), and registration. A hierarchical and adaptive approach is taken for achieving automatic feature extraction, segmentation, and registration. Surface registration is the process of aligning two (or more) data sets to a common coordinate system, during which the transformation between their different coordinate systems is determined. Also developed here are a novel, volumetric surface modeling and compression technique that provide both quality-guaranteed mesh surface approximations and compaction of the model sizes by efficiently coding the geometry and connectivity
Compression of computer generated phase-shifting hologram sequence using AVC and HEVC
Xing, Yafei; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Dufaux, Frederic
2013-09-01
With the capability of achieving twice the compression ratio of Advanced Video Coding (AVC) with similar reconstruction quality, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is expected to become the newleading technique of video coding. In order to reduce the storage and transmission burden of digital holograms, in this paper we propose to use HEVC for compressing the phase-shifting digital hologram sequences (PSDHS). By simulating phase-shifting digital holography (PSDH) interferometry, interference patterns between illuminated three dimensional( 3D) virtual objects and the stepwise phase changed reference wave are generated as digital holograms. The hologram sequences are obtained by the movement of the virtual objects and compressed by AVC and HEVC. The experimental results show that AVC and HEVC are efficient to compress PSDHS, with HEVC giving better performance. Good compression rate and reconstruction quality can be obtained with bitrate above 15000kbps.
Dual compression is not an uncommon type of iliac vein compression syndrome.
Shi, Wan-Yin; Gu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jian; Lou, Wen-Sheng; He, Xu
2017-09-01
Typical iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is characterized by compression of left common iliac vein (LCIV) by the overlying right common iliac artery (RCIA). We described an underestimated type of IVCS with dual compression by right and left common iliac arteries (LCIA) simultaneously. Thirty-one patients with IVCS were retrospectively included. All patients received trans-catheter venography and computed tomography (CT) examinations for diagnosing and evaluating IVCS. Late venography and reconstructed CT were used for evaluating the anatomical relationship among LCIV, RCIA and LCIA. Imaging manifestations as well as demographic data were collected and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Sole and dual compression were found in 32.3% (n = 10) and 67.7% (n = 21) of 31 patients respectively. No statistical differences existed between them in terms of age, gender, LCIV diameter at the maximum compression point, pressure gradient across stenosis, and the percentage of compression level. On CT and venography, sole compression was commonly presented with a longitudinal compression at the orifice of LCIV while dual compression was usually presented as two types: one had a lengthy stenosis along the upper side of LCIV and the other was manifested by a longitudinal compression near to the orifice of external iliac vein. The presence of dual compression seemed significantly correlated with the tortuous LCIA (p = 0.006). Left common iliac vein can be presented by dual compression. This type of compression has typical manifestations on late venography and CT.
Fujiwara, Takahiro; Uchiito, Haruki; Tokairin, Tomoya; Kawai, Hiroyuki
2017-04-01
Regarding Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for seismic acceleration, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a promising tool for low-cost monitoring. Compressed sensing and transmission schemes have been drawing attention to achieve effective data collection in WSN. Especially, SHM systems installing massive nodes of WSN require efficient data transmission due to restricted communications capability. The dominant frequency band of seismic acceleration is occupied within 100 Hz or less. In addition, the response motions on upper floors of a structure are activated at a natural frequency, resulting in induced shaking at the specified narrow band. Focusing on the vibration characteristics of structures, we introduce data compression techniques for seismic acceleration monitoring in order to reduce the amount of transmission data. We carry out a compressed sensing and transmission scheme by band pass filtering for seismic acceleration data. The algorithm executes the discrete Fourier transform for the frequency domain and band path filtering for the compressed transmission. Assuming that the compressed data is transmitted through computer networks, restoration of the data is performed by the inverse Fourier transform in the receiving node. This paper discusses the evaluation of the compressed sensing for seismic acceleration by way of an average error. The results present the average error was 0.06 or less for the horizontal acceleration, in conditions where the acceleration was compressed into 1/32. Especially, the average error on the 4th floor achieved a small error of 0.02. Those results indicate that compressed sensing and transmission technique is effective to reduce the amount of data with maintaining the small average error.
Diffusive wave in the low Mach limit for non-viscous and heat-conductive gas
Liu, Yechi
2018-06-01
The low Mach number limit for one-dimensional non-isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes system without viscosity is investigated, where the density and temperature have different asymptotic states at far fields. It is proved that the solution of the system converges to a nonlinear diffusion wave globally in time as Mach number goes to zero. It is remarked that the velocity of diffusion wave is proportional with the variation of temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the solution of compressible Navier-Stokes system also has the same phenomenon when Mach number is suitably small.
Hyperspectral image compressing using wavelet-based method
Yu, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Lei, Bo; Wang, Chen-sheng
2017-10-01
Hyperspectral imaging sensors can acquire images in hundreds of continuous narrow spectral bands. Therefore each object presented in the image can be identified from their spectral response. However, such kind of imaging brings a huge amount of data, which requires transmission, processing, and storage resources for both airborne and space borne imaging. Due to the high volume of hyperspectral image data, the exploration of compression strategies has received a lot of attention in recent years. Compression of hyperspectral data cubes is an effective solution for these problems. Lossless compression of the hyperspectral data usually results in low compression ratio, which may not meet the available resources; on the other hand, lossy compression may give the desired ratio, but with a significant degradation effect on object identification performance of the hyperspectral data. Moreover, most hyperspectral data compression techniques exploits the similarities in spectral dimensions; which requires bands reordering or regrouping, to make use of the spectral redundancy. In this paper, we explored the spectral cross correlation between different bands, and proposed an adaptive band selection method to obtain the spectral bands which contain most of the information of the acquired hyperspectral data cube. The proposed method mainly consist three steps: First, the algorithm decomposes the original hyperspectral imagery into a series of subspaces based on the hyper correlation matrix of the hyperspectral images between different bands. And then the Wavelet-based algorithm is applied to the each subspaces. At last the PCA method is applied to the wavelet coefficients to produce the chosen number of components. The performance of the proposed method was tested by using ISODATA classification method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moravie, Philippe
1997-01-01
Today, in the digitized satellite image domain, the needs for high dimension increase considerably. To transmit or to stock such images (more than 6000 by 6000 pixels), we need to reduce their data volume and so we have to use real-time image compression techniques. The large amount of computations required by image compression algorithms prohibits the use of common sequential processors, for the benefits of parallel computers. The study presented here deals with parallelization of a very efficient image compression scheme, based on three techniques: Wavelets Transform (WT), Vector Quantization (VQ) and Entropic Coding (EC). First, we studied and implemented the parallelism of each algorithm, in order to determine the architectural characteristics needed for real-time image compression. Then, we defined eight parallel architectures: 3 for Mallat algorithm (WT), 3 for Tree-Structured Vector Quantization (VQ) and 2 for Huffman Coding (EC). As our system has to be multi-purpose, we chose 3 global architectures between all of the 3x3x2 systems available. Because, for technological reasons, real-time is not reached at anytime (for all the compression parameter combinations), we also defined and evaluated two algorithmic optimizations: fix point precision and merging entropic coding in vector quantization. As a result, we defined a new multi-purpose multi-SMIMD parallel machine, able to compress digitized satellite image in real-time. The definition of the best suited architecture for real-time image compression was answered by presenting 3 parallel machines among which one multi-purpose, embedded and which might be used for other applications on board. (author) [fr
Block-Based Compressed Sensing for Neutron Radiation Image Using WDFB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Jin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An ideal compression method for neutron radiation image should have high compression ratio while keeping more details of the original image. Compressed sensing (CS, which can break through the restrictions of sampling theorem, is likely to offer an efficient compression scheme for the neutron radiation image. Combining wavelet transform with directional filter banks, a novel nonredundant multiscale geometry analysis transform named Wavelet Directional Filter Banks (WDFB is constructed and applied to represent neutron radiation image sparsely. Then, the block-based CS technique is introduced and a high performance CS scheme for neutron radiation image is proposed. By performing two-step iterative shrinkage algorithm the problem of L1 norm minimization is solved to reconstruct neutron radiation image from random measurements. The experiment results demonstrate that the scheme not only improves the quality of reconstructed image obviously but also retains more details of original image.
Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh
2016-01-01
Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.
SBS pulse compression applied to a commercial Q-switch Nd-YAG laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Bayley, J.; Mamin, A.; Nizienko, Y.
1997-01-01
In optical diagnosis of dense Z-pinches, sub-nanosecond laser pulses are required in order to freeze the movement of the plasma during the probing. Commercial lasers can provide such type of pulses but they are either very expensive, or they have a very low energy per pulse. A technique that uses Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) to compress a 8 ns pulse of a commercial Q-switched Nd-YAG laser is reported here. To carry out this passive compression technique, a frequency doubled laser pulse of 10 ns was focused into a single SBS gas cell, 2 m long, filled with a mixture of argon and sulphurhexafluoride (SF 6 ) at a total pressure of 40 bar. A shorter and high intensity pulse was reflected from the cell (created by SBS) and it travelled back along its original path until it was separated from its original direction by using a dichroic polariser. The pumping volume of the SBS cell, the convergence of the incident beam and the pressure of the gas cell, were optimised to maximise both temporal compression and the output energy. Pulses of 10 ns were compressed to less than 400 ps with a conversion efficiency of 80%. This SBS pulse compression system has been used to make most of the optical measurements of a dense fibre pinch plasma produced in the MAGPIE generator
Entropy and Certainty in Lossless Data Compression
Jacobs, James Jay
2009-01-01
Data compression is the art of using encoding techniques to represent data symbols using less storage space compared to the original data representation. The encoding process builds a relationship between the entropy of the data and the certainty of the system. The theoretical limits of this relationship are defined by the theory of entropy in…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H.M.; Jiang, J.S.; Huang, Z.Y.; Chen, Y.; Liu, K.; Lu, Z.W.; Qi, J.Q.; Li, F.; He, D.W.; Lu, T.C.; Wang, Q.Y.
2016-01-01
Nano-grained ceramics have their unique mechanical characteristics that are not commonly found in their coarse-grained counterparts. In this study, nano-grained YAG transparent ceramics (NG-YAG) were prepared by low-temperature high-pressure technique (LTHP). The peak profile analysis of the X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the compressive yield strength of NG-YAG. During the temperature at 450 °C, the residual micro-strain (RMS) increased with increasing loading pressure. However when the loading pressure was exceeded to 4.0 GPa the RMS exhibited a severe negative slop. The temperature effects on the compressive yield strength were also studied. It shows that the compressive yield strength of NG-YAG is 4.0 GPa and 5.0 GPa respectively at 450 °C and 350 °C. More importantly according to this investigation, a feasible technique to study the nano-grained ceramics is provided. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 2 shows the significant slope changes of calculated residual micro-strain (RMS) associated with five selected pressure-temperature conditions. Another the grain size estimated from Scherrer's formula, especially when it changes with the pressure-temperature condition is also plotted in Fig. 2. - Highlights: • Prepared the nano-grained YAG transparent ceramic by high pressure technique. • Obtained the compressive yield with different temperature. • Obtained the compressive yield of nano-grained YAG transparent ceramic.
Loss less real-time data compression based on LZO for steady-state Tokamak DAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujara, H.D.; Sharma, Manika
2008-01-01
The evolution of data acquisition system (DAS) for steady-state operation of Tokamak has been technology driven. Steady-state Tokamak demands a data acquisition system which is capable enough to acquire data losslessly from diagnostics. The needs of loss less continuous acquisition have a significant effect on data storage and takes up a greater portion of any data acquisition systems. Another basic need of steady state of nature of operation demands online viewing of data which loads the LAN significantly. So there is strong demand for something that would control the expansion of both these portion by a way of employing compression technique in real time. This paper presents a data acquisition systems employing real-time data compression technique based on LZO. It is a data compression library which is suitable for data compression and decompression in real time. The algorithm used favours speed over compression ratio. The system has been rigged up based on PXI bus and dual buffer mode architecture is implemented for loss less acquisition. The acquired buffer is compressed in real time and streamed to network and hard disk for storage. Observed performance of measure on various data type like binary, integer float, types of different type of wave form as well as compression timing overheads has been presented in the paper. Various software modules for real-time acquiring, online viewing of data on network nodes have been developed in LabWindows/CVI based on client server architecture
Lossy compression of quality scores in genomic data.
Cánovas, Rodrigo; Moffat, Alistair; Turpin, Andrew
2014-08-01
Next-generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing medicine. Data from sequencing technologies are typically represented as a string of bases, an associated sequence of per-base quality scores and other metadata, and in aggregate can require a large amount of space. The quality scores show how accurate the bases are with respect to the sequencing process, that is, how confident the sequencer is of having called them correctly, and are the largest component in datasets in which they are retained. Previous research has examined how to store sequences of bases effectively; here we add to that knowledge by examining methods for compressing quality scores. The quality values originate in a continuous domain, and so if a fidelity criterion is introduced, it is possible to introduce flexibility in the way these values are represented, allowing lossy compression over the quality score data. We present existing compression options for quality score data, and then introduce two new lossy techniques. Experiments measuring the trade-off between compression ratio and information loss are reported, including quantifying the effect of lossy representations on a downstream application that carries out single nucleotide polymorphism and insert/deletion detection. The new methods are demonstrably superior to other techniques when assessed against the spectrum of possible trade-offs between storage required and fidelity of representation. An implementation of the methods described here is available at https://github.com/rcanovas/libCSAM. rcanovas@student.unimelb.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Fragment separator momentum compression schemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)
2011-07-21
We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.
Fragment separator momentum compression schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.
2011-01-01
We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.
Moro, A. C.; Nadesh, R. K.
2017-11-01
The cloud computing paradigm has transformed the way we do business in today’s world. Services on cloud have come a long way since just providing basic storage or software on demand. One of the fastest growing factor in this is mobile cloud computing. With the option of offloading now available to mobile users, mobile users can offload entire applications onto cloudlets. With the problems regarding availability and limited-storage capacity of these mobile cloudlets, it becomes difficult to decide for the mobile user when to use his local memory or the cloudlets. Hence, we take a look at a fast algorithm that decides whether the mobile user should go for cloudlet or rely on local memory based on an offloading probability. We have partially implemented the algorithm which decides whether the task can be carried out locally or given to a cloudlet. But as it becomes a burden on the mobile devices to perform the complete computation, so we look to offload this on to a cloud in our paper. Also further we use a file compression technique before sending the file onto the cloud to further reduce the load.
Lossy compression for Animated Web Visualisation
Prudden, R.; Tomlinson, J.; Robinson, N.; Arribas, A.
2017-12-01
This talk will discuss an technique for lossy data compression specialised for web animation. We set ourselves the challenge of visualising a full forecast weather field as an animated 3D web page visualisation. This data is richly spatiotemporal, however it is routinely communicated to the public as a 2D map, and scientists are largely limited to visualising data via static 2D maps or 1D scatter plots. We wanted to present Met Office weather forecasts in a way that represents all the generated data. Our approach was to repurpose the technology used to stream high definition videos. This enabled us to achieve high rates of compression, while being compatible with both web browsers and GPU processing. Since lossy compression necessarily involves discarding information, evaluating the results is an important and difficult problem. This is essentially a problem of forecast verification. The difficulty lies in deciding what it means for two weather fields to be "similar", as simple definitions such as mean squared error often lead to undesirable results. In the second part of the talk, I will briefly discuss some ideas for alternative measures of similarity.
Knudson, Marcus
2013-06-01
The past several years have seen tremendous increase in the number of identified extra-solar planetary systems. Our understanding of the formation of these systems is tied to our understanding of the internal structure of these exoplanets, which in turn rely upon equations of state of light elements and compounds such as water and hydrogen. Here we present shock compression data for water with unprecedented accuracy that shows commonly used models for water in planetary modeling significantly overestimate the compressibility at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, we show that its behavior at these conditions, including reflectivity and isentropic response, is well described by a recent first-principles based equation of state. These findings advocate the use of this model as the standard for modeling Neptune, Uranus, and ``hot Neptune'' exoplanets, and should contribute to improved understanding of the interior structure of these planets, and perhaps improved understanding of formation mechanisms of planetary systems. We also present very recent experiments on deuterium that have taken advantage of continued improvements in both experimental configuration and the understanding of the quartz shock standard to obtain Hugoniot data with a significant increase in precision. These data will prove to provide a stringent test for the equation of state of hydrogen and its isotopes. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-ACO4-94AL85000.
2nd International MATHEON Conference on Compressed Sensing and its Applications
Caire, Giuseppe; Calderbank, Robert; März, Maximilian; Kutyniok, Gitta; Mathar, Rudolf
2017-01-01
This contributed volume contains articles written by the plenary and invited speakers from the second international MATHEON Workshop 2015 that focus on applications of compressed sensing. Article authors address their techniques for solving the problems of compressed sensing, as well as connections to related areas like detecting community-like structures in graphs, curbatures on Grassmanians, and randomized tensor train singular value decompositions. Some of the novel applications covered include dimensionality reduction, information theory, random matrices, sparse approximation, and sparse recovery. This book is aimed at both graduate students and researchers in the areas of applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering, as well as other applied scientists exploring the potential applications for the novel methodology of compressed sensing. An introduction to the subject of compressed sensing is also provided for researchers interested in the field who are not as familiar with it. .
Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-10-01
This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)
Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)
2012-07-01
Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.
Structure of boron nitride after the high-temperature shock compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurdyumov, A.V.; Ostrovskaya, N.F.; Pilipenko, V.A.; Pilyankevich, A.N.; Savvakin, G.I.; Trefilov, V.I.
1979-01-01
Boron nitride structure changes as a result of high temperature dynamic compression are studied. The X-ray technique and transmission electron microscopy have been applied. The data on the structure and regularities of formation of diamond-like modifications of boron nitride at high temperature impact compression permit to consider martensite transformation as the first stage of formation of the sphalerite phase stable at high pressures. The second stage is possible if the temperature at the impact moment is sufficiently high for intensive diffusion processes
[Medical image compression: a review].
Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo
2013-01-01
Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings.
A New Algorithm for the On-Board Compression of Hyperspectral Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raúl Guerra
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Hyperspectral sensors are able to provide information that is useful for many different applications. However, the huge amounts of data collected by these sensors are not exempt of drawbacks, especially in remote sensing environments where the hyperspectral images are collected on-board satellites and need to be transferred to the earth’s surface. In this situation, an efficient compression of the hyperspectral images is mandatory in order to save bandwidth and storage space. Lossless compression algorithms have been traditionally preferred, in order to preserve all the information present in the hyperspectral cube for scientific purposes, despite their limited compression ratio. Nevertheless, the increment in the data-rate of the new-generation sensors is making more critical the necessity of obtaining higher compression ratios, making it necessary to use lossy compression techniques. A new transform-based lossy compression algorithm, namely Lossy Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Image Systems (HyperLCA, is proposed in this manuscript. This compressor has been developed for achieving high compression ratios with a good compression performance at a reasonable computational burden. An extensive amount of experiments have been performed in order to evaluate the goodness of the proposed HyperLCA compressor using different calibrated and uncalibrated hyperspectral images from the AVIRIS and Hyperion sensors. The results provided by the proposed HyperLCA compressor have been evaluated and compared against those produced by the most relevant state-of-the-art compression solutions. The theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that the proposed algorithm represents an excellent option for lossy compressing hyperspectral images, especially for applications where the available computational resources are limited, such as on-board scenarios.
Data compression systems for home-use digital video recording
With, de P.H.N.; Breeuwer, M.; van Grinsven, P.A.M.
1992-01-01
The authors focus on image data compression techniques for digital recording. Image coding for storage equipment covers a large variety of systems because the applications differ considerably in nature. Video coding systems suitable for digital TV and HDTV recording and digital electronic still
The effect of depth compression on multiview rendering quality
Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K..; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegand, T.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparative study on different techniques for depth-image compression and its implications on the quality of multiview video plus depth virtual view rendering. A novel coding algorithm for depth images that concentrates on their special characteristics, namely smooth regions
Image and video compression for multimedia engineering fundamentals, algorithms, and standards
Shi, Yun Q
2008-01-01
Part I: Fundamentals Introduction Quantization Differential Coding Transform Coding Variable-Length Coding: Information Theory Results (II) Run-Length and Dictionary Coding: Information Theory Results (III) Part II: Still Image Compression Still Image Coding: Standard JPEG Wavelet Transform for Image Coding: JPEG2000 Nonstandard Still Image Coding Part III: Motion Estimation and Compensation Motion Analysis and Motion Compensation Block Matching Pel-Recursive Technique Optical Flow Further Discussion and Summary on 2-D Motion Estimation Part IV: Video Compression Fundam
Image-Based Compression Method of Three-Dimensional Range Data with Texture
Chen, Xia; Bell, Tyler; Zhang, Song
2017-01-01
Recently, high speed and high accuracy three-dimensional (3D) scanning techniques and commercially available 3D scanning devices have made real-time 3D shape measurement and reconstruction possible. The conventional mesh representation of 3D geometry, however, results in large file sizes, causing difficulties for its storage and transmission. Methods for compressing scanned 3D data therefore become desired. This paper proposes a novel compression method which stores 3D range data within the c...
Compressive sensing scalp EEG signals: implementations and practical performance.
Abdulghani, Amir M; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther
2012-11-01
Highly miniaturised, wearable computing and communication systems allow unobtrusive, convenient and long term monitoring of a range of physiological parameters. For long term operation from the physically smallest batteries, the average power consumption of a wearable device must be very low. It is well known that the overall power consumption of these devices can be reduced by the inclusion of low power consumption, real-time compression of the raw physiological data in the wearable device itself. Compressive sensing is a new paradigm for providing data compression: it has shown significant promise in fields such as MRI; and is potentially suitable for use in wearable computing systems as the compression process required in the wearable device has a low computational complexity. However, the practical performance very much depends on the characteristics of the signal being sensed. As such the utility of the technique cannot be extrapolated from one application to another. Long term electroencephalography (EEG) is a fundamental tool for the investigation of neurological disorders and is increasingly used in many non-medical applications, such as brain-computer interfaces. This article investigates in detail the practical performance of different implementations of the compressive sensing theory when applied to scalp EEG signals.
Thermodynamic analysis on optimum performance of scramjet engine at high Mach numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Duo; Yang, Shengbo; Zhang, Silong; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen
2015-01-01
In order to predict the maximum performance of scramjet engine at flight conditions with high freestream Mach numbers, a thermodynamic model of Brayton cycle was utilized to analyze the effects of inlet pressure ratio, fuel equivalence ratio and the upper limit of gas temperature to the specific thrust and the fuel impulse of the scramjet considering the characteristics of non-isentropic compression in the inlet. The results show that both the inlet efficiency and the temperature limit in the combustor have remarkable effects on the overall engine performances. Different with the ideal Brayton cycles assuming isentropic compression without upper limit of gas temperature, both the maximum specific thrust and the maximum fuel impulse of a scramjet present non-monotonic trends against the fuel equivalence ratio in this study. Considering the empirical design efficiencies of inlet, there is a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios in which the fuel impulses remain at high values. Moreover, the maximum specific thrust can also be achieved with a fuel equivalence ratio near this range. Therefore, it is possible to achieve an overall high performance in a scramjet at high Mach numbers. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis with Brayton cycle on overall performances of scramjet. • The compression loss in the inlet was considered in predicting scram-mode operation. • Non-monotonic trends of engine performances against fuel equivalence ratio.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singla, Meenu; Kumar, Harsh; Jindal, Rajeev
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous amoxicillin solutions. • Partial molar volumes and compressibility of transfer. • Group contribution have been calculated. • (Ion + hydrophilic) and (hydrophilic + hydrophilic) interactions are present. • Pair-wise interactions are dominant in the mixtures. - Abstract: The interactions of glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-valine (Val) and L-Leucine (Leu) with drug amoxicillin (AMX) as a function of temperature have been investigated by combination of volumetric and acoustic measurements. Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous solutions of amoxicillin have been measured at T = (305.15, 310.15 and 315.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), the partial molar volume (V ϕ 0 ) and standard partial molar volumes of transfer (ΔV ϕ 0 ) for amino acids from water to aqueous amoxicillin solutions have been calculated from density data. Group contributions of amino acids to partial molar volume were determined. Partial molar isentropic compression (κ ϕ,s ) and partial molar isentropic compression of transfer (Δκ ϕ,S 0 ) have been calculated from speed of sound data. The pair and triplet interaction coefficient have been calculated from both the properties. The results have been explained based on competing patterns of interactions of co-solvents and the solute
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcinkowski, Łukasz; Szepiński, Emil; Kloskowski, Adam; Namieśnik, Jacek; Warmińska, Dorota
2017-01-01
Highlights: • V ϕ of DMSO and DMF solutions of [Mor1,R][BF 4 ] increase with increasing IL concentration at all investigated temperatures. • Ion–ion interaction are stronger for DMF solutions than corresponding for DMSO. • DMSO interacts more effectively with ionic liquids studied than DMF. • Obtained results are the consequence of the cation size of the ionic liquid. - Abstract: Apparent molar volumes and molar isentropic compressibilities for N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium and N-decyl-N-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborates in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been determined from density and speed of sound measurements over the temperature range T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 328.15) K at experimental pressure p = 0.1 MPa. This data has been used to calculate partial molar volumes and partial molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution. The partial molar expansion coefficients and their secondary derivative have been estimated as well. The obtained results indicate that dimethyl sulfoxide interacts more effectively with ionic liquids studied than N,N-dimetylformamide and ion–ion interaction are stronger for N,N-dimetylformamide solutions than corresponding in dimethyl sulfoxide. Moreover the temperature dependence of the limiting apparent molar volumes and compressibilities is a result of temperature influence on the electrostriction effect, the ordering of a bulk solvent and number solvent molecules in the nearest presence of the salt.
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression.
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-26
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-01
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Optimization of Error-Bounded Lossy Compression for Hard-to-Compress HPC Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di, Sheng; Cappello, Franck
2018-01-01
Since today’s scientific applications are producing vast amounts of data, compressing them before storage/transmission is critical. Results of existing compressors show two types of HPC data sets: highly compressible and hard to compress. In this work, we carefully design and optimize the error-bounded lossy compression for hard-tocompress scientific data. We propose an optimized algorithm that can adaptively partition the HPC data into best-fit consecutive segments each having mutually close data values, such that the compression condition can be optimized. Another significant contribution is the optimization of shifting offset such that the XOR-leading-zero length between two consecutive unpredictable data points can be maximized. We finally devise an adaptive method to select the best-fit compressor at runtime for maximizing the compression factor. We evaluate our solution using 13 benchmarks based on real-world scientific problems, and we compare it with 9 other state-of-the-art compressors. Experiments show that our compressor can always guarantee the compression errors within the user-specified error bounds. Most importantly, our optimization can improve the compression factor effectively, by up to 49% for hard-tocompress data sets with similar compression/decompression time cost.
The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions - a manikin study.
Field, Richard A; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D
2012-03-01
Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables. Twenty healthcare professionals performed 2 min of continuous compressions on an instrumented manikin at rates of 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 min(-1) in a random order. An electronic metronome was used to guide compression rate. Compression data were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and are presented as mean (SD). Non-parametric data was analysed by Friedman test. At faster compression rates there were significant improvements in the number of compressions delivered (160(2) at 80 min(-1) vs. 312(13) compressions at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and compression duty-cycle (43(6)% at 80 min(-1) vs. 50(7)% at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). This was at the cost of a significant reduction in compression depth (39.5(10)mm at 80 min(-1) vs. 34.5(11)mm at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and earlier decay in compression quality (median decay point 120 s at 80 min(-1) vs. 40s at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). Additionally not all participants achieved the target rate (100% at 80 min(-1) vs. 70% at 160 min(-1)). Rates above 120 min(-1) had the greatest impact on reducing chest compression quality. For Guidelines 2005 trained rescuers, a chest compression rate of 100-120 min(-1) for 2 min is feasible whilst maintaining adequate chest compression quality in terms of depth, duty-cycle, leaning, and decay in compression performance. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of the Guidelines 2010 recommendation for deeper and faster chest compressions. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adaptive compressive ghost imaging based on wavelet trees and sparse representation.
Yu, Wen-Kai; Li, Ming-Fei; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie
2014-03-24
Compressed sensing is a theory which can reconstruct an image almost perfectly with only a few measurements by finding its sparsest representation. However, the computation time consumed for large images may be a few hours or more. In this work, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a method that combines the advantages of both adaptive computational ghost imaging and compressed sensing, which we call adaptive compressive ghost imaging, whereby both the reconstruction time and measurements required for any image size can be significantly reduced. The technique can be used to improve the performance of all computational ghost imaging protocols, especially when measuring ultra-weak or noisy signals, and can be extended to imaging applications at any wavelength.
Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program
2014-06-01
Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s^{-1}) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.
Data compression with applications to digital radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elnahas, S.E.
1985-01-01
The structure of arithmetic codes is defined in terms of source parsing trees. The theoretical derivations of algorithms for the construction of optimal and sub-optimal structures are presented. The software simulation results demonstrate how arithmetic coding out performs variable-length to variable-length coding. Linear predictive coding is presented for the compression of digital diagnostic images from several imaging modalities including computed tomography, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. The problem of designing optimal predictors is formulated and alternative solutions are discussed. The results indicate that noiseless compression factors between 1.7 and 7.4 can be achieved. With nonlinear predictive coding, noisy and noiseless compression techniques are combined in a novel way that may have a potential impact on picture archiving and communication systems in radiology. Adaptive fast discrete cosine transform coding systems are used as nonlinear block predictors, and optimal delta modulation systems are used as nonlinear sequential predictors. The off-line storage requirements for archiving diagnostic images are reasonably reduced by the nonlinear block predictive coding. The online performance, however, seems to be bounded by that of the linear systems. The subjective quality of image imperfect reproductions from the cosine transform coding is promising and prompts future research on the compression of diagnostic images by transform coding systems and the clinical evaluation of these systems
Sharifahmadian, Ershad
2006-01-01
The set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm is very effective and computationally simple technique for image and signal compression. Here the author modified the algorithm which provides even better performance than the SPIHT algorithm. The enhanced set partitioning in hierarchical trees (ESPIHT) algorithm has performance faster than the SPIHT algorithm. In addition, the proposed algorithm reduces the number of bits in a bit stream which is stored or transmitted. I applied it to compression of multichannel ECG data. Also, I presented a specific procedure based on the modified algorithm for more efficient compression of multichannel ECG data. This method employed on selected records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. According to experiments, the proposed method attained the significant results regarding compression of multichannel ECG data. Furthermore, in order to compress one signal which is stored for a long time, the proposed multichannel compression method can be utilized efficiently.
A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space
Khan, Babar Hasan
2012-01-01
Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion techniques has seen mitigation of some artifacts. We reformulate the problem by taking advantage of some of the developments from the field of Compressive Sensing. The seismic data is compressed at the sensor level by recording projections of the traces. We then process this compressed data directly to estimate the inverse data space. Due to the smaller number of data set we also gain in terms of computational complexity.
Monsieurs, Koenraad G; De Regge, Melissa; Vansteelandt, Kristof; De Smet, Jeroen; Annaert, Emmanuel; Lemoyne, Sabine; Kalmar, Alain F; Calle, Paul A
2012-11-01
BACKGROUND AND GOAL OF STUDY: The relationship between chest compression rate and compression depth is unknown. In order to characterise this relationship, we performed an observational study in prehospital cardiac arrest patients. We hypothesised that faster compressions are associated with decreased depth. In patients undergoing prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by health care professionals, chest compression rate and depth were recorded using an accelerometer (E-series monitor-defibrillator, Zoll, U.S.A.). Compression depth was compared for rates 120/min. A difference in compression depth ≥0.5 cm was considered clinically significant. Mixed models with repeated measurements of chest compression depth and rate (level 1) nested within patients (level 2) were used with compression rate as a continuous and as a categorical predictor of depth. Results are reported as means and standard error (SE). One hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients were analysed (213,409 compressions). Of all compressions 2% were 120/min, 36% were 5 cm. In 77 out of 133 (58%) patients a statistically significant lower depth was observed for rates >120/min compared to rates 80-120/min, in 40 out of 133 (30%) this difference was also clinically significant. The mixed models predicted that the deepest compression (4.5 cm) occurred at a rate of 86/min, with progressively lower compression depths at higher rates. Rates >145/min would result in a depth compression depth for rates 80-120/min was on average 4.5 cm (SE 0.06) compared to 4.1 cm (SE 0.06) for compressions >120/min (mean difference 0.4 cm, Pcompression rates and lower compression depths. Avoiding excessive compression rates may lead to more compressions of sufficient depth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubey, Gyan P.; Sharma, Monika
2008-01-01
Experimental values of densities (ρ) and speeds of sound (u) at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K while the viscosities (η) at T = 298.15 K in the binary mixtures of 1-octanol with n-hexane, n-octane, and n-decane are presented over the entire composition range of the binary mixtures. Using these data, excess molar volumes (V m E ), viscosity deviation (Δη), deviation in speeds of sound (Δu), deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκ s ), excess free volume (V f E ), and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG* E ) are calculated and presented graphically. All the computed quantities are fitted to a polynomial equation. The values of V m E have been analyzed using Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. Furthermore, the theoretical values of speed of sound (u) and isentropic compressibility (κ s ) have also been estimated using the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory with the van der Waals (vdW) potential energy model and the results have been compared with experimental values. The experimental and calculated quantities are used to study the nature of mixing behaviour between the mixture components
Jaggi, S.
1993-01-01
A study is conducted to investigate the effects and advantages of data compression techniques on multispectral imagery data acquired by NASA's airborne scanners at the Stennis Space Center. The first technique used was vector quantization. The vector is defined in the multispectral imagery context as an array of pixels from the same location from each channel. The error obtained in substituting the reconstructed images for the original set is compared for different compression ratios. Also, the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix obtained from the reconstructed data set are compared with the eigenvalues of the original set. The effects of varying the size of the vector codebook on the quality of the compression and on subsequent classification are also presented. The output data from the Vector Quantization algorithm was further compressed by a lossless technique called Difference-mapped Shift-extended Huffman coding. The overall compression for 7 channels of data acquired by the Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS), with an RMS error of 15.8 pixels was 195:1 (0.41 bpp) and with an RMS error of 3.6 pixels was 18:1 (.447 bpp). The algorithms were implemented in software and interfaced with the help of dedicated image processing boards to an 80386 PC compatible computer. Modules were developed for the task of image compression and image analysis. Also, supporting software to perform image processing for visual display and interpretation of the compressed/classified images was developed.
Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, C.H.
1980-01-01
Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape
Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method based on binary index archiving. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... This paper intends to present a common use archiver, made up following the dictionary technique and using the index archiving method as a simple and ...
The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions : a manikin study
Field, Richard A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P.; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D.
2012-01-01
Purpose\\ud Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty healthcare professionals performed two minutes of co...
Informational analysis for compressive sampling in radar imaging.
Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke
2015-03-24
Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation.
Austin, Andrea L; Spalding, Carmen N; Landa, Katrina N; Myer, Brian R; Donald, Cure; Smith, Jason E; Platt, Gerald; King, Heather C
2017-10-27
In effort to improve chest compression quality among health care providers, numerous feedback devices have been developed. Few studies, however, have focused on the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation feedback devices for infants and children. This study evaluated the quality of chest compressions with standard team-leader coaching, a metronome (MetroTimer by ONYX Apps), and visual feedback (SkillGuide Cardiopulmonary Feedback Device) during simulated infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seventy voluntary health care providers who had recently completed Pediatric Advanced Life Support or Basic Life Support courses were randomized to perform simulated infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation into 1 of 3 groups: team-leader coaching alone (control), coaching plus metronome, or coaching plus SkillGuide for 2 minutes continuously. Rate, depth, and frequency of complete recoil during cardiopulmonary resuscitation were recorded by the Laerdal SimPad device for each participant. American Heart Association-approved compression techniques were randomized to either 2-finger or encircling thumbs. The metronome was associated with more ideal compression rate than visual feedback or coaching alone (104/min vs 112/min and 113/min; P = 0.003, 0.019). Visual feedback was associated with more ideal depth than auditory (41 mm vs 38.9; P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in complete recoil between groups. Secondary outcomes of compression technique revealed a difference of 1 mm. Subgroup analysis of male versus female showed no difference in mean number of compressions (221.76 vs 219.79; P = 0.72), mean compression depth (40.47 vs 39.25; P = 0.09), or rate of complete release (70.27% vs 64.96%; P = 0.54). In the adult literature, feedback devices often show an increase in quality of chest compressions. Although more studies are needed, this study did not demonstrate a clinically significant improvement in chest compressions with the addition of a metronome or visual
Cloud solution for histopathological image analysis using region of interest based compression.
Kanakatte, Aparna; Subramanya, Rakshith; Delampady, Ashik; Nayak, Rajarama; Purushothaman, Balamuralidhar; Gubbi, Jayavardhana
2017-07-01
Recent technological gains have led to the adoption of innovative cloud based solutions in medical imaging field. Once the medical image is acquired, it can be viewed, modified, annotated and shared on many devices. This advancement is mainly due to the introduction of Cloud computing in medical domain. Tissue pathology images are complex and are normally collected at different focal lengths using a microscope. The single whole slide image contains many multi resolution images stored in a pyramidal structure with the highest resolution image at the base and the smallest thumbnail image at the top of the pyramid. Highest resolution image will be used for tissue pathology diagnosis and analysis. Transferring and storing such huge images is a big challenge. Compression is a very useful and effective technique to reduce the size of these images. As pathology images are used for diagnosis, no information can be lost during compression (lossless compression). A novel method of extracting the tissue region and applying lossless compression on this region and lossy compression on the empty regions has been proposed in this paper. The resulting compression ratio along with lossless compression on tissue region is in acceptable range allowing efficient storage and transmission to and from the Cloud.
Kang, Jeonghyun; Park, Min Geun; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu
2013-04-01
Compression anastomoses may represent an improvement over traditional hand-sewn or stapled techniques. This prospective exploratory study aimed to assess the efficacy and complication rates in patients undergoing anterior resection (AR) or low anterior resection (LAR) anastomosed with a novel end-to-end compression anastomosis ring, the ColonRing. In all, 20 patients (13 male) undergoing AR or LAR were enrolled to be anastomosed using the NiTi Shape Memory End-to-End Compression Anastomosis Ring (NiTi Medical Technologies Ltd, Netanya, Israel). Demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Patients underwent AR (11/20) or LAR using laparoscopy (75%), robotic (10%) surgery, or an open laparotomy (15%) approach, with a median anastomotic level of 14.5 cm (range, 4-25 cm). Defunctioning loop ileostomies were formed in 6 patients for low anastomoses. Surgeons rated the ColonRing device as either easy or very easy to use. One patient developed an anastomotic leakage in the early postoperative period; there were no late postoperative complications. Mean time to passage of first flatus and commencement of oral fluids was 2.5 days and 3.2 days, respectively. Average hospital stay was 12.6 days (range, 8-23 days). Finally, the device was expelled on average 15.3 days postoperatively without difficulty. This is the first study reporting results in a significant number of LAR patients and the first reported experience from South Korea; it shows that the compression technique is surgically feasible, easy to use, and without significant complication rates. A large randomized controlled trial is warranted to investigate the benefits of the ColonRing over traditional stapling techniques.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oxvig, Christian Schou; Pedersen, Patrick Steffen; Arildsen, Thomas
2014-01-01
Magni is an open source Python package that embraces compressed sensing and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging techniques. It provides AFM-specific functionality for undersampling and reconstructing images from AFM equipment and thereby accelerating the acquisition of AFM images. Magni also pr...... as a convenient platform for researchers in compressed sensing aiming at obtaining a high degree of reproducibility of their research....
Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...
Ma, JiaLi; Zhang, TanTan; Dong, MingChui
2015-05-01
This paper presents a novel electrocardiogram (ECG) compression method for e-health applications by adapting an adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) algorithm hybridized with a symbol substitution (SS) technique. The compression consists of two stages: first stage AFD executes efficient lossy compression with high fidelity; second stage SS performs lossless compression enhancement and built-in data encryption, which is pivotal for e-health. Validated with 48 ECG records from MIT-BIH arrhythmia benchmark database, the proposed method achieves averaged compression ratio (CR) of 17.6-44.5 and percentage root mean square difference (PRD) of 0.8-2.0% with a highly linear and robust PRD-CR relationship, pushing forward the compression performance to an unexploited region. As such, this paper provides an attractive candidate of ECG compression method for pervasive e-health applications.
Wavelet transform-vector quantization compression of supercomputer ocean model simulation output
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradley, J N; Brislawn, C M
1992-11-12
We describe a new procedure for efficient compression of digital information for storage and transmission purposes. The algorithm involves a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition of the data set, followed by vector quantization of the wavelet transform coefficients using application-specific vector quantizers. The new vector quantizer design procedure optimizes the assignment of both memory resources and vector dimensions to the transform subbands by minimizing an exponential rate-distortion functional subject to constraints on both overall bit-rate and encoder complexity. The wavelet-vector quantization method, which originates in digital image compression. is applicable to the compression of other multidimensional data sets possessing some degree of smoothness. In this paper we discuss the use of this technique for compressing the output of supercomputer simulations of global climate models. The data presented here comes from Semtner-Chervin global ocean models run at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and at the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Laboratory.
Quantum tomography via compressed sensing: error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flammia, Steven T; Gross, David; Liu, Yi-Kai; Eisert, Jens
2012-01-01
Intuitively, if a density operator has small rank, then it should be easier to estimate from experimental data, since in this case only a few eigenvectors need to be learned. We prove two complementary results that confirm this intuition. Firstly, we show that a low-rank density matrix can be estimated using fewer copies of the state, i.e. the sample complexity of tomography decreases with the rank. Secondly, we show that unknown low-rank states can be reconstructed from an incomplete set of measurements, using techniques from compressed sensing and matrix completion. These techniques use simple Pauli measurements, and their output can be certified without making any assumptions about the unknown state. In this paper, we present a new theoretical analysis of compressed tomography, based on the restricted isometry property for low-rank matrices. Using these tools, we obtain near-optimal error bounds for the realistic situation where the data contain noise due to finite statistics, and the density matrix is full-rank with decaying eigenvalues. We also obtain upper bounds on the sample complexity of compressed tomography, and almost-matching lower bounds on the sample complexity of any procedure using adaptive sequences of Pauli measurements. Using numerical simulations, we compare the performance of two compressed sensing estimators—the matrix Dantzig selector and the matrix Lasso—with standard maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE). We find that, given comparable experimental resources, the compressed sensing estimators consistently produce higher fidelity state reconstructions than MLE. In addition, the use of an incomplete set of measurements leads to faster classical processing with no loss of accuracy. Finally, we show how to certify the accuracy of a low-rank estimate using direct fidelity estimation, and describe a method for compressed quantum process tomography that works for processes with small Kraus rank and requires only Pauli eigenstate preparations
Coronary angiogram video compression for remote browsing and archiving applications.
Ouled Zaid, Azza; Fradj, Bilel Ben
2010-12-01
In this paper, we propose a H.264/AVC based compression technique adapted to coronary angiograms. H.264/AVC coder has proven to use the most advanced and accurate motion compensation process, but, at the cost of high computational complexity. On the other hand, analysis of coronary X-ray images reveals large areas containing no diagnostically important information. Our contribution is to exploit the energy characteristics in slice equal size regions to determine the regions with relevant information content, to be encoded using the H.264 coding paradigm. The others regions, are compressed using fixed block motion compensation and conventional hard-decision quantization. Experiments have shown that at the same bitrate, this procedure reduces the H.264 coder computing time of about 25% while attaining the same visual quality. A subjective assessment, based on the consensus approach leads to a compression ratio of 30:1 which insures both a diagnostic adequacy and a sufficient compression in regards to storage and transmission requirements. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Image Compression using Haar and Modified Haar Wavelet Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohannad Abid Shehab Ahmed
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Efficient image compression approaches can provide the best solutions to the recent growth of the data intensive and multimedia based applications. As presented in many papers the Haar matrix–based methods and wavelet analysis can be used in various areas of image processing such as edge detection, preserving, smoothing or filtering. In this paper, color image compression analysis and synthesis based on Haar and modified Haar is presented. The standard Haar wavelet transformation with N=2 is composed of a sequence of low-pass and high-pass filters, known as a filter bank, the vertical and horizontal Haar filters are composed to construct four 2-dimensional filters, such filters applied directly to the image to speed up the implementation of the Haar wavelet transform. Modified Haar technique is studied and implemented for odd based numbers i.e. (N=3 & N=5 to generate many solution sets, these sets are tested using the energy function or numerical method to get the optimum one.The Haar transform is simple, efficient in memory usage due to high zero value spread (it can use sparse principle, and exactly reversible without the edge effects as compared to DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. The implemented Matlab simulation results prove the effectiveness of DWT (Discrete Wave Transform algorithms based on Haar and Modified Haar techniques in attaining an efficient compression ratio (C.R, achieving higher peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and the resulting images are of much smoother as compared to standard JPEG especially for high C.R. A comparison between standard JPEG, Haar, and Modified Haar techniques is done finally which approves the highest capability of Modified Haar between others.