WorldWideScience

Sample records for isd litigation involving

  1. In vivo heme scavenging by Staphylococcus aureus IsdC and IsdE proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, John; Vermeiren, Christie; Heinrichs, David E.; Stillman, Martin J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first characterization of the in vivo porphyrin scavenging abilities of two components of a newly discovered heme scavenging system involving iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. These proteins are present within the cell envelope of the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. IsdC and IsdE, when expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, efficiently scavenged intracellular heme and resulted in de novo heme synthesis in excess of 100-fold above background. Magnetic circular dichroism analyses showed that the heme-binding properties of the two proteins differ significantly from one another. IsdC bound almost exclusively free-base protoporphyrin IX, whereas the IsdE protein was associated with low spin Fe(III) and Fe(II) heme. These properties provide important insight into the possible mechanisms of iron scavenging from bound heme by Isd proteins

  2. 44 CFR 5.8 - Records involved in litigation or other judicial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... litigation or other judicial process. 5.8 Section 5.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Provisions § 5.8 Records involved in litigation or other judicial process. Where there is reason to believe that any records requested may be involved in litigation or other judicial process in which the United...

  3. lean-ISD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Guy W.

    2001-01-01

    Explains lean instructional systems design/development (ISD) as it relates to curriculum architecture design, based on Japan's lean production system. Discusses performance-based systems; ISD models; processes for organizational training and development; curriculum architecture to support job performance; and modular curriculum development. (LRW)

  4. Previous ISD Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  5. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  6. Why Can't We Bet on ISD Outcomes: ISD ``Form'' as a Predictor of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mike; Pan, Shan L.; Pan, Gary

    The record of failure to deliver large-scale information systems (IS) in a timely fashion that offer value to major commercial and public organizations is legendary. Just looking to critical success factors such as top management support and user involvement in order to understand how to deliver better systems can at best be a partial solution. We seem to overlook an obvious area in our organizations: what can we learn from our information system development (ISD) historical patterns? In order to develop this idea we draw on parallels in sport where current performance and behaviour are believed to be closely linked to historical precedents, or “form”. In that domain, historical patterns are a fallible but valuable predictor of success. Our thesis is that past negative patterns in ISD will tend to repeat themselves without radical intervention. Put another way, failure begets failure. After examining the game of football as an allegory for ISD, we look briefly at two organizations that have experienced a pattern of failure in the IS area in the past but have transformed the way they build IS, moving from negative patterns to successful ones. This chapter ends with suggestions for managers charged with developing new IS as to how they might use their understanding of ISD “form” to improve their chances of success.

  7. Designing for the ISD Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Guy W.; Hybert, Peter R.; Smith, Kelly R.; Blecke, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the recent criticisms of traditional ISD (Instructional Systems Design) and discusses the implications that impact the life cycle costs of T&D (Training and Development) projects and their ROI (Return On Investment) potential. Describes a modified approach to ISD which mimics the modular approach of systems engineering design.…

  8. Four Levels of Moral Conflict in ISD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Tero

    This study introduces a literature-based classification of moral conflicts in information systems development (ISD). The classification describes what moral conflicts an IS professional confronts in ISD as a whole and includes intentional, functional, managerial, and societal levels. The internal structure of moral conflicts is exemplified by means of a philosophical and a business ethics theory. The limitations of the study are considered and practical implications for the teaching of computer ethics are discussed.

  9. Leukaemia litigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stather, John (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-01

    One case of acute lymphatic leukaemia and another of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that occurred in the Seascale area have been the subject of recent litigation in the High Court in England. The main feature of the trial was the argument by the plaintiffs' solicitors that the diseases were primarily the result of paternal preconception irradiation resulting from exposure of the fathers at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operated by the defendants British Nuclear Fuels plc. Judgment in favour of the defendants was given by Mr Justice French on Friday 8 October 1993. (author).

  10. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m 3 ) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international

  11. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and

  12. A story of scrutiny and fear: Australian midwives' experiences of an external review of obstetric services, being involved with litigation and the impact on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Laraine; Fenwick, Jennifer; Butt, Janice

    2010-06-01

    to describe Australian midwives' experiences of an external review of obstetric services, involvement in legal proceedings and the impact on midwives' clinical practice and personal wellbeing. the external review process (commonly referred to as the 'Douglas Inquiry') was initiated by a state government and was in response to hospital staff and consumer complaints that focused on anomalies in client care and a significantly high rate of adverse outcomes and clinical errors. It took place within the context of a number of legal proceedings against medical practitioners. As a result, some midwives employed by the hospital were called to give evidence at a variety of legal forums. a qualitative study using an explorative descriptive design. Snowball sampling was used to invite 16 Australian midwives to participate in a tape-recorded interview. Thematic analysis and the techniques associated with constant comparison were used to analyse the data. Australian maternity tertiary referral centre. the analysis identified two overarching themes, 'A story of scrutiny' and 'A story of fear', each with a number of subthemes. 'A story of scrutiny' consists of three subthemes. 'A cloak and dagger affair' reflects the midwives' sense of being and feeling 'exposed' and 'vulnerable' whilst simultaneously being 'kept in the dark' and uninformed during the review process. The subtheme 'Being thrown to the wolves' describes the midwives' experiences of being involved, as witnesses, in medico-legal proceedings. The third subtheme, 'The Inquiry followed them home' outlines the effect on midwives' emotional wellbeing and personal relationships. The second major theme, 'A story of fear' again consists of a number of subthemes. 'Feeling unsafe at work: a culture of fear' describes the midwives' experiences of working within an environment they perceive as driven by the fear of litigation. In order to protect themselves and maintain a sense of control, the midwives adopted a number of

  13. Improving ISD Agility in Fast-Moving Software Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2016-01-01

    Fast-moving software organizations must respond quickly to changing technological options and market trends while delivering high-quality services at competitive prices. Improving agility of information systems development (ISD) may reconcile these inherent tensions, but previous research...... study on how to improve ISD agility in a fast-moving software organization. The study maps central problems in the ISD management to direct improvements of agility. Our following intervention addressed method improvements in defining types of ISD by customer relations and integrating the method...... with the task management tool used by the organization. The paper discusses how the action research contributes to our understanding of ISD agility in fast-moving software organizations with a framework for mapping and evaluating improvements of agility. The action research specifically points out that project...

  14. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational litigation, PIL, IP, Choice of law, Arbitration, Jurisdiction, Recognition of judgments......Transnational litigation, PIL, IP, Choice of law, Arbitration, Jurisdiction, Recognition of judgments...

  15. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    In litigation models, the parties’ probability to succeed in a lawsuit hinge upon two main factors: the merits of the parties’ claims and their litigation efforts (Katz, 1988; Hirshleifer, 1989; Farmer and Pecorino, 1999). In this paper we extend this framework to consider an important procedural...

  16. Corporate Governance and Shareholder Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalchev, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.

  17. The Staphylococcus aureus Protein IsdH Inhibits Host Hemoglobin Scavenging to Promote Heme Acquisition by the Pathogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saederup, Kirstine Lindhardt; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kristian; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2016-01-01

    Hemolysis is a complication in septic infections with Staphylococcus aureus, which utilizes the released Hb as an iron source. S. aureus can acquire heme in vitro from hemoglobin (Hb) by a heme-sequestering mechanism that involves proteins from the S. aureus iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd...

  18. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Brozyna, Jeremy R; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity".

  19. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Simon; Brozyna, Jeremy R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Skaar, Eric P.; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by “nutritional immunity” to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking “nutritional immunity”. PMID:27575058

  20. The Poker-Litigation Game

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Pujol, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Is litigation a serious search for truth or simply a game of skill or luck? Although the process of litigation has been modeled as a Prisoner's Dilemma, as a War of Attrition, as a Game of Chicken and even as a simple coin toss, no one has formally modeled litigation as a game of poker. This paper is the first to do so. We present a simple "poker-litigation game" and find the optimal strategy for playing this game.

  1. ISD technology: a strategy for reduction of low-dose radiation exposure in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.A.; Larsen, K.; Fertel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to refocus the current national health care debate. It is the first attempt to provide scientists, health care providers, health care policy makers, politicians, health care payers and public health advocates with a method to improve health care and cut costs through decision-making strategies based primarily on medical standards and secondarily on fiscal considerations. The method for decision-making described in this paper proves more cost-effective and medically sound than current practices. Illness Specific Diagnostic (ISD) tables are introduced as a method to reduce inappropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. The use of ISD tables destroys the myth of a single medical standard of care and focuses on the diagnostician as the individual most capable of diagnosing disease(s) in human beings. Additionally, ionizing radiation has been used routinely under the guise that the resulting benefits outweigh the risks involved in a procedure. This dubious tradition is questioned in this document. Attention is drawn to the inappropriate amount of radiation patients receive when ionizing diagnostic tests are performed with marginal or no diagnostic benefit. The results of a pilot study are presented that explicate the reduction of needless radiation to patients and associated reduction of costs that becomes possible in the presence of appropriate scientific medical standards. Ultimately, quality medicine is indeed the most cost-effective medicine possible. The current practice by which the United States Congress issues laws aimed at dictating quality medicine is both desperate and dangerous. Politicians and legislators would be wise to focus their efforts on methodologies that establish standards of care in a scientific manner that does not interfere with medical practice. ISD technology is precisely such a scientific method. It establishes the standard of medical care at the facility from which the ISD tables are generated

  2. Applying Critical Scandinavian ISD research principles in an African Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    these countries have a vast need for the technology to develop their economies and living standards. We investigate opportunities of applying Scandinavian principles for ISD&I in the context of Africa, through analyzing and comparing two action research projects that have applied two classic approaches; The Trade...... Unionist (TU) and the Activity Theory approach. We focus specifically on the principles of participation, empowerment, and evolutionary design and discuss how they can help mitigate the challenges, create opportunities and exploit possibilities of ISD&I in this context. Based on this we argue how and why...

  3. Litigation in paediatrics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphu, JFA

    2011-03-01

    on the issue. This is understandable. Most individuals are healthy during their childhood and have less need of and less interaction with medical services when compared with adults. However, Paediatric litigation does happen and furthermore it is likely to increase in parallel with other specialties. Carroll and Buddenbaum1 have described the pattern of Paediatric litigation in the US. The annual incidence of malpractice claims has been quoted to be as high as 6.6 claims per 100 Paediatricians per year. Almost 30% of Paediatricians have been sued with many being sued on more than one occasion. Of these cases 36% were settled out of court, 33% were dropped by the plaintiff with the remainder going before the judiciary. The authors point out that in the US medical malpractice is a hotly debated issue. Litigation has a questionable impact on health care quality, cost, and access to services. The AMA believes that rising premiums are resulting in the curtailment of medical care particularly in states with high medico-legal rates. The Physician Insurers Association of America (PIAA) is a trade organisation which insures 60% of all private practicing physicians and surgeons has been a useful source of data. In the 20 year period 1985-2005 among a total of 214,226 claims there were 6363 (2.9%) Paediatric claims which ranked it 10th among the 28 specialties covered. The claims arose in equal numbers from the hospital and Paediatrician’s office settings. Common reasons for Paediatric litigation were errors in diagnosis (32%), incorrect performance of a medical or surgical procedure (13%), failure to monitor or manage a case effectively (10%) and medication error (5%). The top five medico-legal conditions were meningitis, routine infant or child checks, newborn respiratory problems, appendicitis and brain-damaged infants as a co-defendant with Obstetrics. Good quality information about litigation is important because the discussion among doctors is frequently confused by

  4. Experiences in Radiation Litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 20 years ago three events in the United States caused a significant increase in lawsuits filed by persons who claimed to have been injured from exposure to ionizing radiation. I have had some involvement in each of them. One event was the lawsuit filed by Karen Silkwood against Kerr McGee arising out of plutonium that had been found in her home. The Silkwood story became a popular movie and sensitized radiation workers to alleged injury from work related exposures. I participated in the United States Department of Justice amicus brief to the United States Supreme Court and attended that oral argument in the Supreme Court. The second event was a series of litigations filed against the United States by persons who had either been soldiers at the above ground testing of nuclear weapons (the so called a tomic soldiers ) or had been residents living downwind from the place where the bombs were exploded (the so called d ownwinders ) . I was responsible for defending many of these lawsuits as an attorney in the United States Department of Justice. The third event was the accident at Three Mile Island. Thousands of lawsuits were filed by nearby residents. After I entered private practice, I worked on those cases for some years. These three events served to stimulate an increase in cases filed because persons believe that their current illness was caused by some prior exposure to radiation. Most recently I have been defending lawsuits filed by persons who once worked at commercial nuclear power plants and now have some type of cancer. Over these 20 years I have won about 30 cases involving about 50 plaintiffs. In none of these cases was it likely that the person's cancer was caused by his radiation exposure. In fact, the plaintiff's dose was generally less than the average person's lifetime dose from diagnostic x-rays. There is a way in this mixed field of law and science to develop basic rules by which the legal system can quite easily distinguish between a

  5. Executive pay and shareholder litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Ailsa Röell

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of executive compensation on private securities litigation. We find that incentive pay in the form of options increases the probability of securities class action litigation, holding constant a wide range of firm characteristics. We further document that there is abnormal upward earnings manipulation during litigation class periods and that insiders exercise more options and sell more shares during class periods, but that this activity is largely driven by pre-ex...

  6. Organizational Culture and ISD Practices: Comparative Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaska, Päivi; Juvonen, Pasi

    This chapter reports results from a study that aims to analyze and compare the literature related to custom IS, packaged, and open source software organizational cultures, and their systems development practices. The comparative analysis is performed using a framework for organizational culture as lenses to the literature. Our study suggests that the beliefs and values of these three communities of practice differ remarkably and make their organizational culture and systems development practices different. The most important differences were found in business milieu, ISD team efforts, ISD approaches, and products and quality. Based on the study we can question the widely held wisdom of methods, techniques, and tools in systems development and managing its efforts. Our study has several implications for research and practice, which are discussed in this chapter.

  7. An overview of Medicaid managed care litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, S; Teitelbaum, J; Kirby, C; Priebe, L; Klement, T

    1998-11-01

    Since the enactment of Medicaid in 1965, states have had the option of offering beneficiaries enrollment in managed care arrangements. With the advent of mandatory managed care reaching millions of beneficiaries (including a growing proportion of disabled recipients), the amount and scope of litigation involving Medicaid managed care plans can be expected to grow. A review of the current litigation regarding Medicaid managed care reveals two basic types of lawsuits: (1) those that challenge the practices of managed care companies under various federal and state laws that safeguard consumer rights, protect health care quality, and prohibit discrimination; and (2) suits that assert claims arising directly under the Medicaid statute and implementing regulations, as well as claims related to Constitutional safeguards that undergird the program. Lawsuits asserting claims arising under Medicaid tend to raise two basic questions: (1) the extent to which enrollment in a Medicaid managed care plan alters existing Medicaid beneficiary rights and state agency duties under federal or state Medicaid law; and (2) the extent to which managed care companies, as agents of the state, act under "color of law" (i.e., undertaking to perform official duties or acting with the imprimatur of state authority). Additionally, states might see an increase in litigation brought by prospective and current contractors who assert that they have been wrongfully denied contracts or improperly penalized for poor performance. These assertions may involve claims that are grounded in federal and state law, the Medicaid statute, and the Constitution. Moreover, in light of the consumer protection elements of the managed care reforms contained in the Balanced Budget Act, future managed care litigation may focus on the manner in which companies carry out states' obligations toward managed care enrollees. Resolution of Medicaid managed care cases involves the application of general principles of

  8. Medical Litigation Across Specialties

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2013-07-01

    Medical negligence is a major cause of fear and anxiety for doctors. The threat of malpractice consists of 3 factors, the risk of a claim, the probability of a claim leading to a payment, and the size of the payment. The Clinical Indemnity Scheme (CIS) insures against indemnity payments but it cannot protect the doctor against the indirect consequences of litigation including stress, the long hours mounting a defence against the allegation, and the damage to one’s reputation. The adversarial tort system focuses on punishment, blame and compensation. The emotional anguish and potential damage to the doctor’s reputation can be considerable. Doctors subjected to malpractice suits regardless of the outcome may experience depression, anger, frustration and excessive use of alcohol

  9. Malpractice litigation following spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Ruttiman, Roy; Eltorai, Adam E M; DePasse, J Mason; Brea, Bielinsky A; Palumbo, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    likely to result in a plaintiff verdict or settlement (43.7% vs 68.4%, p = 0.03) than a defense verdict, and were more likely to settle out of court (18.1% vs 36.8%, p = 0.04). Overall, 28% of cases (66/234) involved catastrophic complications. Physicians were more likely to lose cases (plaintiff verdict or settlement) with catastrophic complications (66.7% vs 37.5%, p 0.05). The average time to a decision for defendant verdicts was 5.1 years; for plaintiff rulings, 5.0 years; and for settlements, 3.4 years. CONCLUSIONS Delays in the diagnosis and the treatment of a surgical complication predict legal case outcomes favoring the plaintiff. Catastrophic complications are linked to large sums awarded to the plaintiff and are predictive of rulings against the physician. For physician defendants, the costs of settlements are significantly less than those of losing in court. Although this study provides potentially valuable data from a large series of postoperative litigation cases, it may not provide a true representation of all jurisdictions, each of which has variable malpractice laws and medicolegal environments.

  10. Mind the gaps: increasing the impact of IS research on ISD performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O Riordan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance has pervaded the last forty years of software development, evident across industry sectors, project size, budget, geographic location, system quality and functionality, and exacerbated by increased criticality of IT in organizational mission and strategy. A significant body of research has investigated the potential of emerging development methodologies to address these shortcomings but the effectiveness of these methods is largely supported by anecdotal evidence. At the same time, metrics and measurement are known to affect ISD performance but the existing literature on ISD metrics is misaligned with practitioners’ needs, leading to a lack of clarity about ISD metrics in practice. This paper presents an interdisciplinary literature review on ISD metrics to identify the underlying reasons for this misalignment and evaluate the extent to which existing literature can be used to better understand the impact of emerging software development methodologies on ISD performance.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films on ISD MgO buffered metal tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, B; Koritala, R E; Fisher, B L; Markowitz, A R; Erck, R A; Baurceanu, R; Dorris, S E; Miller, D J; Balachandran, U

    2003-01-01

    Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films deposited by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) are desirable for rapid production of high-quality template layers for YBCO-coated conductors. High-quality YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of approx 9deg was observed in the phi-scan for ISD MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55deg . In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first approx 0.5 mu m from the substrate surface, and then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. Yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria buffer layers were deposited on the ISD MgO grown on metallic substrates prior to the deposition of YBCO by PLD. YBCO films with the c-axis parallel to the...

  12. Academic Advising and Potential Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Arline F.; Schubert, George W.

    1983-01-01

    Issues in tort and contract law and recent experiences in litigation that influence the academic adviser's responsibility are outlined, including negligence, nondisclosure and misrepresentation, defamation, written and oral contracts, and the adviser as an agent of the institution. Specific areas of adviser vulnerability are noted. (MSE)

  13. Preventing Playground Injuries and Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.

    1994-01-01

    The typical American playground is antiquated, hazardous, and inappropriate for the developmental needs of children. The paper explains how design, installation, maintenance, and supervision are critical in preventing playground injuries and resulting litigation, noting the importance of regular training for everyone who supervises children on the…

  14. Development Of A Sensor Network Test Bed For ISD Materials And Structural Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-01-01

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  16. Electronic communication in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into common European and national rules regulating electronic communication in legal matters. Such form of communication in legal matters expedites the procedure. It is also pointed out that electronic communication between the court and the parties to the proceedings, as well as third parties, is conducted through registries, regulated by special regulations, for filing written submissions of the parties and decisions of the court. Legislation regulating electronic communication is intended for litigation in commercial matters. European and national rules do not exclude the possibility of electronic communication in non-commercial litigation provided there is an express consent of the parties to such communication. Although steps towards digitalization have been taken in the Republic of Serbia, legislation regulating electronic service of documents, communication in civil litigation, is still missing. The Civil Procedure Law does not have a separate section regulating the electronic communication in legal matters. However, it cannot be said that the CPC does not set basic principles regulating this form of communication in legal matters.

  17. Administrative litigation systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu Săraru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, analyzing the administrative litigation in the comparative law, groups the existing types of administrative litigation into four major systems, namely: a States with administrative jurisdictions who have the State Council on top, administrative body with consultative and judicial role (the French system; b States with administrative jurisdictions completely separated from the active and consultative administrations (the German system; c States with administrative jurisdictions included in the judicial system; d States with no administrative jurisdiction (English system. The administrative contentious systems analyzed have developed in line with historical evolution and legal traditions and have been continually adapted to the realities existing in each state. The manner in which the administrative contentious is regulated in a State reflects the degree of democratization of that country, the extent to which the citizen enjoys legal safeguards to defend himself against abuses by public authorities. The scientific novelty of this article is to capture the latest trends in the evolution of the administrative contentious systems analyzed. This study aims to provide an easy working tool for reforming administrative litigation on comparative law in states with young democracy. In the research we used the comparative method, the historical and the logical method.

  18. Rescuing the Rescuer: On the Protein Complex between the Human Mitochondrial Acyl Carrier Protein and ISD11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María Georgina; Pignataro, María Florencia; Noguera, Martín Ezequiel; Cruz, Karen Magalí; Santos, Javier

    2018-05-16

    Iron-sulfur clusters are essential cofactors in many biochemical processes. ISD11, one of the subunits of the protein complex that carries out the cluster assembly in mitochondria, is necessary for cysteine desulfurase NFS1 stability and function. Several authors have recently provided evidence showing that ISD11 interacts with the acyl carrier protein (ACP). We carried out the coexpression of human mitochondrial ACP and ISD11 in E. coli. This work shows that ACP and ISD11 form a soluble, structured, and stable complex able to bind to the human NFS1 subunit modulating its activity. Results suggest that ACP plays a key-role in ISD11 folding and stability in vitro. These findings offer the opportunity to study the mechanism of interaction between ISD11 and NFS1.

  19. Analysis of Factors Associated With Rhytidectomy Malpractice Litigation Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandinov, Aron; Mutchnick, Sean; Nangia, Vaibhuv; Svider, Peter F; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Shkoukani, Mahdi A; Carron, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the financial burden of medical malpractice litigation associated with rhytidectomies, as well as factors that contribute to litigation and poor defendant outcomes, which can help guide physician practices. To comprehensively evaluate rhytidectomy malpractice litigation. Jury verdict and settlement reports related to rhytidectomy malpractice litigations were obtained using the Westlaw Next database. Use of medical malpractice in conjunction with several terms for rhytidectomy, to account for the various procedure names associated with the procedure, yielded 155 court cases. Duplicate and nonrelevant cases were removed, and 89 cases were included in the analysis and reviewed for outcomes, defendant specialty, payments, and other allegations raised in proceedings. Data were collected from November 21, 2015, to December 25, 2015. Data analysis took place from December 25, 2015, to January 20, 2016. A total of 89 cases met our inclusion criteria. Most plaintiffs were female (81 of 88 with known sex [92%]), and patient age ranged from 40 to 76 years (median age, 56 years). Fifty-three (60%) were resolved in the defendant's favor, while the remaining 36 cases (40%) were resolved with either a settlement or a plaintiff verdict payment. The mean payment was $1.4 million. A greater proportion of cases involving plastic surgeon defendants were resolved with payment compared with cases involving defendants with ear, nose, and throat specialty (15 [36%] vs 4 [24%]). The most common allegations raised in litigation were intraoperative negligence (61 [69%]), poor cosmesis or disfigurement (57 [64%]), inadequate informed consent (30 [34%]), additional procedures required (14 [16%]), postoperative negligence (12 [14%]), and facial nerve injury (10 [11%]). Six cases (7%) involved alleged negligence surrounding a "lifestyle-lift" procedure, which tightens or oversews the superficial muscular aponeurosis system layer. In this study, although most cases of

  20. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning

  1. Class action litigation in correctional psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Jeffrey L

    2002-01-01

    Class action litigation has been instrumental in jail and prison reform during the past two decades. Correctional mental health systems have significantly benefited from such litigation. Forensic psychiatrists have been crucial in the litigation process and the subsequent evolution of correctional mental health care systems. This article summarizes information concerning basic demographics of correctional populations and costs of correctional health care and provides a brief history of such litigation. The role of psychiatric experts, with particular reference to standards of care, is described. Specifically discussed are issues relevant to suicide prevention, the prevalence of mentally ill inmates in supermax prisons, and discharge planning.

  2. Performance evaluation of court in construction claims settlement of litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Kemala; Latief, Yusuf; Rarasati, Ayomi Dita; Siddik, Arief

    2017-06-01

    Claim construction has a major influence on the implementation of projects, such as the cost and time. The success of the construction project is highly dependent on the effective resolution of claims. Although it has been recognized that litigation or court is not the best way because it may reduce or eliminate profits and damage the relationship, it is a method of resolving claims and disputes that is common in the world of construction. The method of resolving claims and disputes through litigation or court may solve the problem in an alternative method, namely the implementation of the judgment which can be enforced effectively against the losing party and the ruling which has the force of law of the country where the claims and disputes are examined. However, litigation or court may take longer time and require high cost. Thus, it is necessary to identify factors affecting the performance of the court and to develop a system capable of improving an existing system in order to run more effectively and efficiently. Resolution in the claims management of construction projects with the method of litigation is a procedure that can be used by the courts in order to shorten the time in order to reduce the cost. The scope of this research is directed to all parties involved in the construction, both the owners and the contractors as implementers and practitioners, as well as experts who are experienced in construction law.

  3. PREFACE: 8th International Symposium of the Digital Earth (ISDE8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium of Digital Earth (8th ISDE) 2013 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, 26th-29th August, 2013 Conference logo This proceedings consists of the peer-reviewed papers from 8th International Symposium for Digital Earth (ISDE) held in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia during 26th-29th August, 2013. The 8th ISDE was a successful event in the Symposium Series of the International Society of Digital Earth, that was previously held in China (1999), Canada (2001), Czech Republic (2003), Japan (2005), the United States (2007), China (2009), and Australia (2011). The 8th ISDE, with the theme 'Transforming Knowledge into Sustainable Practice' aims to enable digital earth scientists, experts and professionals related to the field of geospatial science and technology to provide a brand new opportunity to share their ideas and insights on how we share knowledge and act together globally. In addition, the ISDE symposium series has been providing a venue for researchers and industry practitioners to discuss new ideas, collaborate to solve complex solutions to various complex problems, and importantly, pave new ways in digital earth environment. This 8th ISDE included 20 technical sessions, workshops and student sessions in various areas of digital earth; ranging from digital earth vision & innovation; earth observation technologies; ICT technologies (including spatial data infrastructures); empowering the community and engaging society; applications and innovation of digital earth for environmental applications such as hazard, pollution, flood, air quality, disaster and health, biodiversity, sustainability, forestry, early warning and emergency management, national security, natural resource management and agriculture; mining, energy and resources development; transformation towards sustainable low carbon society; digital city and green cities: towards urban sustainability; and managing water environment for sustainable development. The success of the 8

  4. 6 CFR 25.7 - Litigation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litigation management. 25.7 Section 25.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.7 Litigation management. (a) Liability for all claims...

  5. Teacher Fear of Litigation for Disciplinary Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, Diane M.; Zirkel, Perry A.; Caskie, Grace I. L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined the extent to which teachers' fear of litigation limits their disciplinary actions, including any significant differences by period, demographic factors, and item type. Teachers' perceptions of limitations placed on their disciplinary actions do not substantiate the "paralyzing fear" of litigation that…

  6. Litigation and audit quality; two experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effect of litigation risk on auditors' willingness to yield to management pressure and to omit audit steps of the audit program in case of budget pressure. The results show that litigation risk has a significant impact on audit quality.

  7. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies. PMID:27781000

  8. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 3rd Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009....

  9. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  10. Radiation Litigation and Internal Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation Litigation refers to those lawsuits filed by individuals who claim to have been injured by some past exposure to ionizing radiation. Law classifies these cases as personal injury or tort cases. However, they are a new breed of such cases and the law is presently struggling with whether these cases can be resolved using the traditional methods of legal analysis or whether new forms of analysis, such as probability of causation, need to be applied. There are no absolutely certain rules concerning how these particular lawsuits will be tried and analyzed. The United States presently is defending cases filed by approximately 7000 plaintiffs. The private nuclear industry is defending cases filed by over 2000 plaintiffs. While not all of these cases will actually be tried on their merits, at least some will and internal dosimetry will play a very important part in many of these trials

  11. Refractive Surgery: Malpractice Litigation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Benjamin L; Ballard, Steven R; Carroll, Robert B; Barnes, Scott D; Justin, Grant A

    2017-10-01

    To review data on malpractice claims related to refractive surgery to identify common allegations and injuries and financial outcomes. The WestlawNext database was reviewed for all malpractice lawsuits/settlements related to refractive eye surgery. Data evaluated included patient demographics, type of operation performed, plaintiff allegation, nature of injury, and litigation outcomes. A total of 167 cases met the inclusion criteria, of which 108 cases (64.7%) were found to be favorable and 59 cases (35.3%) unfavorable to the defendant. A total of 141 cases were tried by a jury with 108 cases (76.4%) favorable and 33 cases (23.6%) unfavorable to the defendant. Laser in situ keratomileusis was performed in 127 cases (76%). The most common allegations were negligence in treatment or surgery in 127 cases (76%) and lack of informed consent in 83 cases (49.7%). For all cases, the need for future surgery (P = 0.0001) and surgery resulting in keratoconus (P = 0.05) were more likely to favor the plaintiff. In jury verdict decisions, cases in which failure to diagnose a preoperative condition was alleged favored the defendant (P = 0.03), whereas machine malfunction (P = 0.05) favored the plaintiff. After adjustment for inflation, the overall mean award was $1,287,872. Jury verdicts and settlements led to mean awards of $1,604,801 and $826,883, respectively. Malpractice litigation in refractive surgery tends to favor the defendant. However, large awards and settlements were given in cases that were favorable to the plaintiff. The need for future surgery and surgery leading to keratoconus increased the chance of an unfavorable outcome.

  12. Professional Organizations and Publications in ISD&T Recommended to New Professionals by Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Lee, Youngmin

    2006-01-01

    New members in the field of instructional systems design and technology (ISD&T), including new students in this field, can find lists of publications and organizations available for them to read and to join. However, they may also wish to know which of these publications and organizations are recommended by established professionals. The field of…

  13. The NTeQ ISD Model: A Tech-Driven Model for Digital Natives (DNs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Anekwe, J. U.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating Technology for enquiry (NTeQ) instructional development model (ISD), is believed to be a technology-driven model. The authors x-rayed the ten-step model to reaffirm the ICT knowledge demand of the learner and the educator; hence computer-based activities at various stages of the model are core elements. The model also is conscious of…

  14. Organizational downsizing and age discrimination litigation: the influence of personnel practices and statistical evidence on litigation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Peter H; Thornton, George C; McIntyre, Kelly S; Frame, Jennifer H

    2003-02-01

    The present study examined relationships between reduction-in-force (RIF) personnel practices, presentation of statistical evidence, and litigation outcomes. Policy capturing methods were utilized to analyze the components of 115 federal district court opinions involving age discrimination disparate treatment allegations and organizational downsizing. Univariate analyses revealed meaningful links between RIF personnel practices, use of statistical evidence, and judicial verdict. The defendant organization was awarded summary judgment in 73% of the claims included in the study. Judicial decisions in favor of the defendant organization were found to be significantly related to such variables as formal performance appraisal systems, termination decision review within the organization, methods of employee assessment and selection for termination, and the presence of a concrete layoff policy. The use of statistical evidence in ADEA disparate treatment litigation was investigated and found to be a potentially persuasive type of indirect evidence. Legal, personnel, and evidentiary ramifications are reviewed, and a framework of downsizing mechanics emphasizing legal defensibility is presented.

  15. Acts of God, human influence and litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanac, Sophie; Patton, Lindene; Thornton, James

    2017-09-01

    Developments in attribution science are improving our ability to detect human influence on extreme weather events. By implication, the legal duties of government, business and others to manage foreseeable harms are broadening, and may lead to more climate change litigation.

  16. The effect of threat of litigation on forensic pathologist diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent litigation involving medical examiners has caused concern over certifying deaths. We administered a survey of 716 medical examiners regarding the effects of the threat of litigation. Two hundred twenty-two medical examiners responded (31%). Of those who responded, approximately 13.5% admitted to having modified their diagnostic findings due to threat of litigation, and approximately 32.5% stated these considerations would affect their decisions in the future. Physicians who indicated they had or would modify their diagnoses expressed more concern over the possibility of litigation. Chiefs of services were less likely than staff members to indicate changing diagnoses. Practitioners whose jurisdictions included rural areas were significantly more likely to indicate that litigation considerations would affect their diagnoses in the future, although this was not true with those who had already modified their diagnoses. No correlation was found with elected versus appointed positions, accreditation status, sex, race, geographic location, or board certification. Although very few medical examiners have actually been sued because of their diagnoses, a demonstrated threat of litigation has a substantial effect on diagnostic decision making.

  17. Properties of an interspinous fixation device (ISD) in lumbar fusion constructs: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techy, Fernando; Mageswaran, Prasath; Colbrunn, Robb W; Bonner, Tara F; McLain, Robert F

    2013-05-01

    Segmental fixation improves fusion rates and promotes patient mobility by controlling instability after lumbar surgery. Efforts to obtain stability using less invasive techniques have lead to the advent of new implants and constructs. A new interspinous fixation device (ISD) has been introduced as a minimally invasive method of stabilizing two adjacent interspinous processes by augmenting an interbody cage in transforaminal interbody fusion. The ISD is intended to replace the standard pedicle screw instrumentation used for posterior fixation. The purpose of this study is to compare the rigidity of these implant systems when supplementing an interbody cage as used in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. Seven human cadaver spines (T12 to the sacrum) were mounted in a custom-designed testing apparatus, for biomechanical testing using a multiaxial robotic system. A comparison of segmental stiffness was carried out among five conditions: intact spine control; interbody spacer (IBS), alone; interbody cage with ISD; IBS, ISD, and unilateral pedicle screws (unilat); and IBS, with bilateral pedicle screws (bilat). An industrial robot (KUKA, GmbH, Augsburg, Germany) applied a pure moment (±5 Nm) in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) through an anchor to the T12 vertebral body. The relative vertebral motion was captured using an optoelectronic camera system (Optotrak; Northern Digital, Inc., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). The load sensor and the camera were synchronized. Maximum rotation was measured at each level and compared with the intact control. Implant constructs were compared with the control and with each other. A statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance. A comparison between the intact spine and the IBS group showed no significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) in FE, LB, or AR for the operated level, L3-L4. After implantation of the ISD to augment

  18. Legal process, litigation, and judicial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethically salient issues in neurologic care may have important legal overtones. This chapter considers some of these, emphasizing how law may influence the outcome of controversies over how best to promote autonomy, beneficence, and justice in the care of individuals with neurologic disorders. Constitutional, statutory, and judicial dimensions are addressed. With respect to autonomy, discussion emphasizes legal dimensions of the doctrine of informed consent and the obligations of medical professionals to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients. The discussion of beneficence focuses on issues relating to actual or potential conflicts of interest in the care of patients and on the conduct of research involving human subjects. The section on justice considers how law aims to define protectable rights and interests of individuals and to provide a fair and efficient process for resolving disputes. Applications of legal principles and doctrines are illustrated primarily through the examples afforded by judicial decisions. These cases demonstrate how law both promotes ethical decision-making and protects the rights and interests of those affected. The cases also highlight some of the ethical quandaries that evoke resort to litigation and the limits of law in advancing ethically appropriate outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7, a monoclonal antibody to Staphylococcus aureus iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory ePancari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a human monoclonal antibody (CS-D7, IgG1 with specificity and affinity for the iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB of Staphylococcus aureus. CS-D7 mediates opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and protection in a murine sepsis model. In light of recent data indicating that IsdB specific T cells (CD4+, Th17, not Ab, mediate protection after vaccination with IsdB, it is important to investigate the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7. The mAb was examined to determine if it blocked heme binding to IsdB in vitro. The mAb was not found to have heme blocking activity, nor did it prevent bacterial growth under in vivo conditions, in an implanted growth chamber. To assess the role of the mAb Fc a point mutation was introduced at aa 297 (CS-D7●N297A. This point mutation removes Fc effector functions. In vitro analysis of the mutein confirmed that it lacked measurable binding to FcγR, and that it did not fix complement. The mutein had dramatically reduced in vitro opsonic OP activity compared to CS-D7. Nonetheless, the mutein conferred protection equivalent to the wild type mAb in the murine sepsis model. Both wild type and mutein mAbs were efficacious in FcγR deletion mice (including both FcγRII-/- mice and FcγRIII-/- mice, indicating that these receptors were not essential for mAb mediated protection in vivo. Protection mediated by CS-D7 was lost in Balb/c mice depleted of C3 with cobra venom factor (CFV, was lost in mice depleted of superoxide dismutase (SOD in P47phox deletion mice, and was absent in SCID mice. Enhanced clearance of S. aureus in the liver of CS-D7 treated mice and enhanced production of INF-γ, but not of IL17, may play a role in the mechanism of protection mediated by the mAb. CS-D7 apparently mediates survival in challenged mice through a mechanism involving complement, phagocytes, and lymphocytes, but which does not depend on interaction with FcγR, or on blocking heme

  20. An Evaluation of the Application of ISD to P-3 Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    THESIS AN EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF ISD TO P-3 PILOT TRAINING by William Allen. Snider June 1980 Thesis Advisor: J. K. Arima Approved for...also from quasi-governmental agencies such as RAND and HUMRRO, saw great potential in the use of techniques such as modelling to increase the precision...scores. The preceding discussion suggests that organizational climate , as well as experience, is strongly related to pilot performance on NATOPS

  1. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Surgery: Malpractice Litigation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Grant A; Brietzke, Scott E

    2017-01-01

      This study examined malpractice claims related to cleft lip and cleft palate surgery to identify common allegations and injuries and reviewed financial outcomes.   The WestlawNext legal database was analyzed for all malpractice lawsuits and settlements related to the surgical repair of cleft lip and palate.   Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing surgical repair of a primary cleft lip or palate or revision for complications of previous surgery. Data evaluated included patient demographics, type of operation performed, plaintiff allegation, nature of injury, and litigation outcomes.   A total of 36 cases were identified, with 12 unique cases from 1981 to 2006 meeting the inclusion criteria. Six cases (50%) were decided by a jury and six by settlement. Five cases involved complications related to the specific surgery, and the other seven were associated with any surgery and perioperative care of children and adults. Cleft palate repair (50%) was the most frequently litigated surgery. Postoperative negligent supervision was the most common allegation (42%) and resulted in a payout in each case (mean = $3,126,032). Death (42%) and brain injury (25%) were the most frequent injuries reported. Financial awards were made in nine cases (after adjusting for inflation, mean = $2,470,552, range = $0 to $7,704,585). The awards were significantly larger for brain injury than other outcomes ($4,675,395 versus $1,368,131 after adjusting for inflation, P = .0101).   Malpractice litigation regarding cleft lip and palate surgery is uncommon. However, significant financial awards involving perioperative brain injury have been reported.

  2. Aggresive tax planning, beps and Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María LAGO MONTERO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These article thinks about aggressive tax planning and the OECD plan BEPS to fight it, Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. It is also analysed the litigation that the simultaneus application general and specific antiabuse clauses would induced in the struggle againstfiscal avoid/evasion strategies.

  3. 46 CFR 326.7 - Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.7 Litigation. (a) If a court suit of a P&I nature is filed... insurance, the Agent shall immediately forward copies of the pleading and all other related legal documents... claim of a P&I nature, unless approved in advance by MARAD, and by the underwriter, where applicable...

  4. Analysis of Playground Injuries and Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.

    A study analyzed 82 cases of playground injuries and litigation (including 7 fatalities) in 28 states. In order of frequency, injuries happened in public schools, public parks, child care centers, apartment complexes, fast food restaurants, backyards, recreation camps, state parks, and state schools. Sixty-five percent of all injuries resulted…

  5. Financing Educational Facility Construction: Prevailing Wage Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Wood, R. Craig

    This chapter presents an up-to-date analysis of prevailing state wage laws that affect educational facility construction or renovation and highlights relevant prevailing wage litigation in many states. Currently, 13 states have no prevailing wage laws for public works. The other 37 states and the District of Columbia do have prevailing wage laws…

  6. Auditing Litigation and Claims: Conflicts and the Compromise of Privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Auditing standards require an auditor to make various enquiries about liabilities in general this may entail consideration of potential litigations and claims that the audited entity may be facing. To perform this part of audit, the auditors will generally seek representation letters from lawyers of the company detailing an estimate prepared by management, confirmed by their lawyers through a representation letter, and then sent directly to the auditors. This paper reviews the implications for the auditing profession of a case that involved auditors seeking such representation letters. The case involves litigation between theWestpac Banking Corporation and 789TEN Pty Ltd. While theWestpac case confirmed the legal position of the auditor in their task of collecting evidence in order to form an opinion in Australia, it highlights a significant anomaly under the law and should place the issue of solicitor’s representation letters as audit evidence firmly on the agenda of policymakers. This issue of the compromise of legal privilege during the conduct of an audit is also not confined to Australia: other common law jurisdictions, such as the UK and the US, have also sought to clarify the position of auditors when issues of the integrity of legal privacy privilege arise.

  7. Some aspects of education litigation since 1994: Of hope, concern and despair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Beckmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report on qualitative research in which we probed the opinions and views of a purposive sample of high-profile and influential role players in education about aspects of education litigation in South Africa since 1994. This year marked the transition to a democratic government in South Africa, and resulted in a new education system, which has led to a great deal of litigation, as was to be expected. Our participants were personally involved in litigation in various capacities. Their responses to our questions reflected hope, but also concern, and even despair. In their opinions almost all of the disputes were between the state and its citizens, and that the state lost virtually all cases. State officials often ignored legal advice and acted on "imagined powers", causing embarrassment to the state where they seemed insensitive to the needs of the people, and sometimes deliberately transgressed prescripts and provisions, abandoning its mandate to children and the country more broadly. There is extreme concern about the tendency of officials to ignore court orders. No lessons seem to have been learned from judgments and infractions of the same kind occur repeatedly - even if litigation seems to have consumed between 4-6% of the education budget. There was surprise that cases dealt almost exclusively with disputes about stake-holders' powers, and that few human rights and social issues have been litigated. Furthermore, individual officials that seemed to suffer no consequences from their unlawful actions and showed an apparent lack of professionalism to acquaint themselves with the legal prescripts that govern their professional work, caused concern for our respondents, as did the destructive role that unions and politicians seemed to play in education. However, litigation has nonetheless led to the clarification of some issues.

  8. An exploration of the effects of clinical negligence litigation on the practice of midwives in England: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Judith H; Thomson, Ann M

    2016-02-01

    to explore how midwives׳ personal involvement in clinical negligence litigation affects their midwifery practice. descriptive phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews. in 2006-2007 in-depth interviews were conducted in participants׳ homes or at their place of work and focused on participants׳ experience of litigation. Participants were recruited from various regions of England. 22 National Health Service (NHS) midwives who had been alleged negligent. clinical practice affected was an increase in documentation, fear of practising outside clinical guidelines and electronic fetal monitoring of women at low obstetric risk; these changes were not widespread. Changes in practice were sometimes perceived negatively and sometimes positively. Forming a good relationship with childbearing women was judged to promote effective midwifery care but litigation had affected the ability of a minority of midwives to advocate for women if this relationship had not been established. Litigation could result in loss of confidence leading to self-doubt, isolation, increased readiness to seek medical assistance and avoidance of working in the labour ward, perceived as an area with a high risk of litigation. A blame culture in the NHS was perceived by several midwives. In contrast an open non-punitive culture resulted in midwives readily reporting mistakes to risk managers. Litigation lowered midwifery morale and damaged professional reputations, particularly when reported in the newspapers. Some midwives expressed thoughts of leaving midwifery or taking time off work because of litigation but only one was actively seeking other employment, another took sick leave and one had left midwifery and returned to nursing. litigation can have a negative effect on midwives׳ clinical practice and morale and fosters a culture of blame within the NHS. education regarding appropriate documentation, use or non-use of electronic fetal monitoring and the legal status of clinical

  9. An Index of Susceptibility to Drought (ISD for the Semiarid Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josemir Araujo Neves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents the development of a composite Index of Susceptibility to Drought (ISD for semiarid Brazilian Northeast that considers climatology, physical properties, soil usage, social and economic aspects, the risk of harvest losses and the shortage of human and animal drinking water. The index started with the Index FUNCEME of drought Severity (IFS, developed by FUNCEME. Then, it evolved to use some tools proposed by the Joint Research Centre/Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (JRC/OECD, as well as techniques of multiple imputation for missing data and data winsorization. The work was tested and validated with real data from Rio Grande do Norte State in three climatologic scenarios (dry, regular and rainy. A multivariate analysis test and a Monte Carlo simulation were also produced for a sensibility and strength analysis of the developed model. These analyses validated the composition model and the obtained results with real data. The ISD can be used as a tool to support decision makers in various government levels to help guide the actions for the drought-affected areas.

  10. iSDS: a self-configurable software-defined storage system for enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shyen Eric; Huang, Chun-Fang; Huang, Ming-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Storage is one of the most important aspects of IT infrastructure for various enterprises. But, enterprises are interested in more than just data storage; they are interested in such things as more reliable data protection, higher performance and reduced resource consumption. Traditional enterprise-grade storage satisfies these requirements at high cost. It is because traditional enterprise-grade storage is usually designed and constructed by customised field-programmable gate array to achieve high-end functionality. However, in this ever-changing environment, enterprises request storage with more flexible deployment and at lower cost. Moreover, the rise of new application fields, such as social media, big data, video streaming service etc., makes operational tasks for administrators more complex. In this article, a new storage system called intelligent software-defined storage (iSDS), based on software-defined storage, is described. More specifically, this approach advocates using software to replace features provided by traditional customised chips. To alleviate the management burden, it also advocates applying machine learning to automatically configure storage to meet dynamic requirements of workloads running on storage. This article focuses on the analysis feature of iSDS cluster by detailing its architecture and design.

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 516 - Department of Defense Directive 5405.2, Release of Official Information in Litigation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., enforceable at law against the United States or the Department of Defense. C. Definitions 1. Demand. Subpoena.... Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs F.1.a. and b., the GC, DoD, in litigation involving terrorism...

  12. Managing clinical negligence litigation and costs in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, John

    2016-11-24

    John Tingle, Reader in Health Law, Nottingham Trent University, discusses recent Government proposals to improve NHS maternity services and make changes to litigation and patient safety investigation procedures.

  13. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM: LESSONS FROM CANADIAN LITIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-06-01

    This editorial reviews medicinal cannabis litigation in Canada's superior courts between 1998 and 2015. It reflects upon the outcomes of the decisions and the reasoning within them. It identifies the issues that have driven Canada's jurisprudence in relation to access to medicinal cannabis, particularly insofar as it has engaged patients' rights to liberty and security of the person. It argues that the sequence of medicinal schemes adopted and refined in Canada provides constructive guidance for countries such as Australia which are contemplating introduction of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic option in compassionate circumstances for patients. In particular, it contends that Canada's experience suggests that strategies calculated to introduce such schemes in a gradualist way, enabling informed involvement by medical practitioners and pharmacists, and that provide for safe and inexpensive accessibility to forms of medicinal cannabis that are clearly distinguished from recreational use and unlikely to be diverted criminally maximise the chances of such schemes being accepted by key stakeholders.

  14. THE DUALITY OF CREATIVITY AND TECHNOLOGY IN IS AND ISD ORGANIZATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Ulrich, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) has become an increasing necessity in most organizations to achieve competitive advantages. In this article, we address the use of IS in creative sensemaking processes by presenting the notion of ergodic connections in the sensemaking process and a framework of the iterat......Information Systems (IS) has become an increasing necessity in most organizations to achieve competitive advantages. In this article, we address the use of IS in creative sensemaking processes by presenting the notion of ergodic connections in the sensemaking process and a framework...... of the iterative cycle of ideation and innovation in IS and ISD organizations. To create the framework, we have used Weick et al. (2005) view on sensemaking and Orlikowski's (1992) duality of technology theory. The theoretical framework, with the notion of ergodic connections suggests that sensemaking will cause...

  15. MALDI-ISD Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Hemoglobin Variants: a Top-Down Approach to the Characterization of Hemoglobinopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théberge, Roger; Dikler, Sergei; Heckendorf, Christian; Chui, David H. K.; Costello, Catherine E.; McComb, Mark E.

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders in humans and are thus the target of screening programs worldwide. Over the past decade, mass spectrometry (MS) has gained a more important role as a clinical means to diagnose variants, and a number of approaches have been proposed for characterization. Here we investigate the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF MS) with sequencing using in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) for the characterization of Hb variants. We explored the effect of matrix selection using super DHB or 1,5-diaminonaphthalene on ISD fragment ion yield and distribution. MALDI-ISD MS of whole blood using super DHB simultaneously provided molecular weights for the alpha and beta chains, as well as extensive fragmentation in the form of sequence defining c-, (z + 2)-, and y-ion series. We observed sequence coverage on the first 70 amino acids positions from the N- and C-termini of the alpha and beta chains in a single experiment. An abundant beta chain N-terminal fragment ion corresponding to βc34 was determined to be a diagnostic marker ion for Hb S (β6 Glu→Val, sickle cell), Hb C (β6 Glu→Lys), and potentially for Hb E (β26 Glu→Lys). The MALDI-ISD analysis of Hb S and HbSC yielded mass shifts corresponding to the variants, demonstrating the potential for high-throughput screening. Characterization of an alpha chain variant, Hb Westmead (α122 His→Gln), generated fragments that established the location of the variant. This study is the first clinical application of MALDI-ISD MS for the determination and characterization of hemoglobin variants.

  16. Open Assessment of Proofs in Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltrina Zekolli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key of existence and success in all domains of life to the entity of justice is the thorough compliance to the truth and justice. Therefore when a certain right is violated, liable or challenged entrusted to solve that, are the institutions of justice, rather the courts. Courts are competent to find the right path towards the truth applying different methods with intention to satisfy the justice. In this paper special attention we dedicated to the method of open assessment of proofs in litigation, that in fact is the subject of this research.

  17. Importance of health physics records in litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear insurance pools, through American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and the Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters (MAELU), have been providing the third-party liability insurance required of the nuclear industry by the Price-Anderson Act since 1957. Records of claims of radiation injury have been kept for twenty-five years, and a recent upsurge of the claim rate has been noted. An explanation for this new trend is postulated and some examples are discussed. The use of health physics records as evidence in litigation is described, and specific examples of the types of records required to defend against past and future claims are given

  18. Problems of litigation in settlement of maritime disputes for Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the problems of litigation in settlement of disputes in maritime industry in Nigeria, which sector is vital to the nation's economy. It also investigates the prospects and viability of arbitration technique as an alternative. It is discovered that although litigation has been the most common mechanism for the ...

  19. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an adverse...

  20. 75 FR 65013 - Access in Litigation to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... disclose, in response to discovery requests received in the litigation styled, Tronox Incorporated, et al... litigation function on behalf of the EPA. The DOJ has been served with discovery requests seeking, among other things, documentation supporting the proofs of claim filed by the United States of America in the...

  1. Health care litigation: the arbitration alternative for dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C A

    1989-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on health care litigation. This article focuses on the benefits of arbitration as an alternative dispute mechanism for health care providers. The use of arbitration offers speed and economy to the parties. For the health care provider, arbitration can reduce litigation expense and the likelihood of "runaway" jury verdicts.

  2. A phenomenological study of the effects of clinical negligence litigation on midwives in England: the personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Judith H; Thomson, Ann M

    2014-03-01

    to explore how midwives' personal involvement in clinical negligence litigation affects their emotional and psychological well-being. descriptive phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews. in-depth interviews were conducted in participants' homes or at their place of work and focused on participants' experience of litigation. Participants were recruited from various regions of England. 22 National Health Service (NHS) midwives who had been alleged negligent. unfamiliarity with the legal process when writing statements, attending case conferences and being a witness in court provoked significant stress for midwives. This was exacerbated by the prolonged nature of maternity claims. Support ranged from good to inadequate. Participants who no longer worked for the defendant Trust felt unsupported. Stress could manifest as physical and mental ill-health. Some midwives internalised the allegations of negligence believing their whole career had become worthless. Previous knowledge of the legal process ameliorated the experience. Midwives also exhibited anger and resentment when litigation concluded and some took years to heal from the experience. midwives come from a caring and relational paradigm. When interfacing with the adversarial and contentious paradigm of tort law, midwives can abreact and suffer emotional, physical and psychological harm. Support for midwives experiencing litigation must be improved. Understanding the effects of personal involvement in litigation is important in order to improve the quality of support for this group of midwives. It will also aid development of targeted education for undergraduate, post-graduate and in-service midwives. In the longer term it may help policy makers when considering reform of clinical negligence litigation and NHS employers to structure support mechanisms for staff involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic pain, work performance and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Fiona M; March, Lyn M; Nicholas, Michael K; Cousins, Michael J

    2003-05-01

    The overall population impact of chronic pain on work performance has been underestimated as it has often been described in terms of work-related absence, excluding more subtle effects that chronic pain may have on the ability to work effectively. Additionally, most studies have focussed on occupational and/or patient cohorts and treatment seeking, rather than sampling from the general population. We undertook a population-based random digit dialling computer-assisted telephone survey with participants randomly selected within households in order to measure the impact of chronic pain on work performance. In addition, we measured the association between pain-related disability and litigation. The study took place in Northern Sydney Health Area, a geographically defined urban area of New South Wales, Australia, and included 484 adults aged 18 or over with chronic pain. The response rate was 73.4%. Working with pain was more common (on an average 83.8 days in 6 months) than lost work days due to pain (4.5 days) among chronic pain participants in full-time or part-time employment. When both lost work days and reduced-effectiveness work days were summed, an average of 16.4 lost work day equivalents occurred in a 6-month period, approximately three times the average number of lost work days. In multiple logistic regression modelling with pain-related disability as the dependent variable, past or present pain-related litigation had the strongest association (odds ratio (OR)=3.59, P=0.001). In conclusion, chronic pain had a larger impact on work performance than has previously been recognised, related to reduced performance while working with pain. A significant proportion were able to work effectively with pain, suggesting that complete relief of pain may not be an essential therapeutic target. Litigation (principally work-related) for chronic pain was strongly associated with higher levels of pain-related disability, even after taking into account other factors

  4. The Australian litigation landscape - oral and maxillofacial surgery and general dentistry (oral surgery procedures): an analysis of litigation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenoch-Jones, E K; White, B P; Lynham, A J

    2016-09-01

    There are persistent concerns about litigation in the dental and medical professions. These concerns arise in a setting where general dentists are more frequently undertaking a wider range of oral surgery procedures, potentially increasing legal risk. Judicial cases dealing with medical negligence in the fields of general dentistry (oral surgery procedure) and oral and maxillofacial surgery were located using the three main legal databases. Relevant cases were analysed to determine the procedures involved, the patients' claims of injury, findings of negligence and damages awarded. A thematic analysis of the cases was undertaken to determine trends. Fifteen cases over a 20-year period were located across almost all Australian jurisdictions (eight cases involved general dentists; seven cases involved oral and maxillofacial surgeons). Eleven of the 15 cases involved determinations of whether or not the practitioner had failed in their duty of care; negligence was found in six cases. Eleven of the 15 cases related to molar extractions (eight specifically to third molar). Dental and medical practitioners wanting to manage legal risk should have regard to circumstances arising in judicial cases. Adequate warning of risks is critical, as is offering referral in appropriate cases. Preoperative radiographs, good medical records and processes to ensure appropriate follow-up are also important. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. 76 FR 26682 - Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...-2011-0025] Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in... Act of 2008 (RSIA), FRA is soliciting public comment on the issue of whether it is in the public... withhold from discovery or use in litigation in a Federal or State court proceeding for damages involving...

  6. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  7. Malpractice Litigation and Nursing Home Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konetzka, R Tamara; Park, Jeongyoung; Ellis, Robert; Abbo, Elmer

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the potential deterrent effect of nursing home litigation threat on nursing home quality. Data Sources/Study Setting. We use a panel dataset of litigation claims and Nursing Home Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from 1995 to 2005 in six states: Florida, Illinois, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Missouri, and Delaware, for a total of 2,245 facilities. Claims data are from Westlaw's Adverse Filings database, a proprietary legal database, on all malpractice, negligence, and personal injury/wrongful death claims filed against nursing facilities. Study Design. A lagged 2-year moving average of the county-level number of malpractice claims is used to represent the threat of litigation. We use facility fixed-effects models to examine the relationship between the threat of litigation and nursing home quality. Principal Findings. We find significant increases in registered nurse-to-total staffing ratios in response to rising malpractice threat, and a reduction in pressure sores among highly staffed facilities. However, the magnitude of the deterrence effect is small. Conclusions. Deterrence in response to the threat of malpractice litigation is unlikely to lead to widespread improvements in nursing home quality. This should be weighed against other benefits and costs of litigation to assess the net benefit of tort reform. PMID:23741985

  8. The role of litigation in ensuring women's reproductive rights: an analysis of the Shanti Devi judgement in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jameen

    2012-06-01

    The struggle for reproductive self-determination has specific significance for women and girls in India, where a maternal death occurs every five minutes. This paper analyses the role litigation played in seeking redress for violations of the reproductive rights of Shanti Devi, who died in childbirth in 2010 in Haryana state, and some of the socio-economic, cultural, political and legal factors involved. It provides a brief overview of India's national and international obligations with regard to maternal health, and through the lens of the litigation in Shanti Devi's case, it examines how the government failed to protect, respect and fulfill her right to life and health. Litigation can be used to ensure accountability in further cases by building on case law, informing communities about these decisions and their rights, and holding government accountable at local, state and central level. Litigation also has limits, most importantly due to people's lack of awareness of their rights and entitlements, the lack of government outreach programmes informing them of these, and the lack of accountability mechanisms within health programmes when they are not transparent or functioning effectively. Thus, although constitutional justice is an important tool for democratic progress and social change, social justice will only be achieved through broader social struggle. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The European Union's Emerging Approach to ISDS: a Review of the Canada-Europe CETA, Europe-Singapore FTA, and Europe-Vietnam FTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus Van Harten

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s approach to ISDS is examined based on the available textual evidence in proposed or negotiated trade agreements. The evaluation focuses on three criteria: judicial independence, procedural fairness, and balance in the allocation of rights and responsibilities. Each criteria arises from concerns about the powerful and far-reaching arbitration mechanism at the core of ISDS and its role to decide the legality of sovereign conduct and allocate public funds to foreign investors. The main conclusions are that, in pursuing a massive expansion of ISDS in new trade agreements, the European Union has taken only partial steps on the issue of independence, has signalled but not carried through with steps on the issue of procedural fairness, and has not taken steps to balance investor rights with investor responsibilities or to ensure respect for the role of domestic courts.

  10. Do fears of malpractice litigation influence teaching behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Darcy A; Windish, Donna M; Levine, Rachel B; Kravet, Steven J; Wolfe, Leah; Wright, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    Medical malpractice is prominently positioned in the consciousness of American physicians, and the perceived threat of malpractice litigation may push physicians to practice defensively and alter their teaching behaviors. The purposes of this study were to characterize the attitudes of academic medical faculty toward malpractice litigation and to identify teaching behaviors associated with fear of malpractice litigation. We surveyed 270 full-time clinically active physicians in the Department of Medicine at a large academic medical center. The survey assessed physicians' attitudes toward malpractice issues, fear of malpractice litigation, and self-reported teaching behaviors associated with concerns about litigation. Two hundred and fifteen physicians responded (80%). Faculty scored an average of 25.5 +/- 6.9 (range = 6-42, higher scores indicate greater fear) on a reliable malpractice fear scale. Younger age (Spearman's rho = 0.19, p = .02) and greater time spent in clinical activities (rho = 0.26, p Fear Scale. Faculty reported that because of the perceived prevalence of lawsuits and claims made against physicians, they spend more time writing clinical notes for patients seen by learners (74%), give learners less autonomy in patient care (44%), and limit opportunities for learners to perform clinical procedures (32%) and deliver bad news to patients (33%). Faculty with higher levels of fear on the Malpractice Fear Scale were more likely to report changing their teaching behaviors because of this perceived threat (rho = 0.38, p < .001). Physicians report changes in teaching behaviors because of concerns about malpractice litigation. Although concerns about malpractice may promote increased supervision and positive role modeling, they may also limit important educational opportunities for learners. These results may serve to heighten awareness to the fact that teaching behaviors and decisions may be influenced by the malpractice climate.

  11. TEOLOGI KONSTRUKSI DALAM MERESPONS BENCANA (STUDI PEMIKIRAN MAHASISWA STAIN KUDUS MELALUI MATA KULIAH IAD, IBD, DAN ISD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efa Ida Amaliyah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THEOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION IN RES- PONDING TO DISASTER (THE STUDY OF STAIN KUDUS STUDENTS’ THOUGHTS THROUGH IAD, IBD, ISD COURSES. Indonesia has experienced various natural disasters. After some natural disasters stroke, there is no serious concern about the disaster and the consequences. Students as agents of  change is expected to take an active role in dealing with disasters through productive thoughts. The active role of students is one of  them realized through the course IAD, ISD, and IBD. This paper elaborates on the meaning of  the disaster among students and formulate theological construction that is able to influence him in the handling of  the disaster. Through the method of reviewing secondary data, observation, and interviews, it is concluded that there are ten reasons religious beliefs and practices have significant positions in disaster mitigation, that religion gives a positive view of the disaster, religion gives meaning and purpose in life, belief  systems of  religion enable someone’s ready to face the bad things that befall human life, religious give hope and motivation, religion provides the power personally, religion provides a sense of  control, religion provides examples of exemplary in the face of  suffering, religion provides guidance in making decisions, religion give answers to questions that are not able to be answered by the secular culture and science, and religion provide social support. Thus, students should be prudent in defining the disaster. Do not let them use the arguments that would discourage the victims. Keywords: Teological Construction, Disaster, Student Thought, IAD, IBD, and ISD Courses. Indonesia sudah mengalami bermacam bencana alam. Setelah beberapa bencana alam menimpa, tidak ada perhatian serius tentang bencana dan akibat yang ditimbulkannya. Mahasiswa sebagai agen perubahan diharapkan ikut berperan aktif  dalam menangani bencana melalui pemikiran-pemikiran yang produktif. Peran aktif

  12. Radiation litigation and the nuclear industry--the experience in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, W J; Wakeford, R

    2001-12-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 places a "strict" statutory duty on the operators of nuclear facilities to ensure that any exposure to radiation resulting from operations does not cause injury or damage. A claimant does not have to prove fault to receive compensation under the Act, only causation. The 1965 Act has been fundamental in shaping litigation involving the nuclear industry in the UK. Civil law cases brought under the Act will be heard before a single judge (with no jury or technical assessor) who must present his or her decision in a reasoned judgment. This process leads to a considerable volume of expert evidence being presented to the court and extensive cross-examination of witnesses. The expense and uncertain outcome of cases involving claims by nuclear workers that occupational exposure to radiation had caused the development of cancer has led to employers and trade unions setting up the voluntary Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases as an alternative to litigation. This Scheme has worked well and is held up as a model of alternative dispute resolution. However, a few cases concerning personal injury or damage to property have come before the courts when the defendant nuclear operator considered that the claims were technically unjustified and where settlement was not a policy option. As anticipated, these cases were lengthy, complex, and expensive. The radiation doses assessed to have been received by the individuals who were the subject of claims, whether workers or members of the public, have been crucial to the outcome. The technical expertise of health physicists and allied specialists has been vital in establishing defensible estimates of dose, and this contribution can be expected to remain of high importance in radiation litigation in the UK.

  13. 49 CFR 1103.26 - Discussion of pending litigation in the public press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discussion of pending litigation in the public... § 1103.26 Discussion of pending litigation in the public press. Attempts to influence the action and... unfair to the Board if the facts of pending litigation are made known to the public through the press in...

  14. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  15. School Finance Litigation in a Post-Rodriguez Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. Stephen

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the pertinent rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court in Rodriguez, examines the impact of Rodriguez on future education reform litigation in Federal courts, discusses the potential impact that Rodriguez will have on law suits challenging tax related education inequalities, and examines the impact of the Rodriguez decision on State court…

  16. Some aspects of education litigation since 1994: Of hope, concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Their responses to our questions reflected hope, but also concern, and even despair. ... A thorough examination of litigation since 1994 may yield important and significant benefits for education ... We did not analyse cases or law critically, nor did we attempt to assess the .... advisers also have to certify bills before they go to.

  17. MMPI-2-RF Characteristics of Custody Evaluation Litigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Elizabeth M.; Hagan, Leigh D.; Mason, Janelle; Handel, Richard; Archer, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a 338-item objective self-report measure drawn from the 567 items of the MMPI-2. Although there is a substantial MMPI-2 literature regarding child custody litigants, there has been only one previously published study using MMPI-2-RF data in this population that…

  18. Oral law in litigation in South Africa: An evidential nightmare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, customary law has been applied rather haphazardly in the courts. Its inherent adaptive flexibility and indeterminate nature created confusion in a court system ill-equipped to deal with litigation dealing with customary law issues. Understandably, customary law was treated in the same way as a common-law ...

  19. Litigations in Medical Practice | A O | Nigerian Journal of Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litigations arising as a result of the routine practice of medicine and healthcare delivery are fairly common problems in developed nations of the world. Health personnel are human beings who are not completely infallible to acts of omission and commission with serious legal consequences. There is therefore no health ...

  20. Les litiges fonciers et la marginalisation des jeunes stimulent le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... Selon de nouvelles recherches, la violence chez les jeunes et les litiges fonciers, qui ont migré des communautés rurales aux quartiers pauvres des villes, sont les principaux vecteurs de violence et de criminalité en Côte d'Ivoire.

  1. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  2. Mitigating Litigation for Adventure Recreation Operators: The Ski Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgoch, Shea; Lower, Leeann M.

    2017-01-01

    Adventure tourism is a rapidly growing segment of the tourism industry, which can be regarded as specific activities that are alluring for their uncertain and potentially dangerous outcomes. Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors may be common among adventure recreationists and increase the potential for litigation against recreation operators. In…

  3. An insight into medical malpractice and litigation | Aimakhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical malpractice otherwise known as a breach of professional obligation and negligence of duty by medical practitioners has been identified as the major cause of emerging medical litigation in Nigeria. Medical personnel must be aware in their practice that patients are becoming more aware of their rights. The public ...

  4. Situating Urgenda v the Netherlands within comparative climate change litigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Woerdman, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This article situates the judgement of The Hague District Court in Urgenda Foundation v the Kingdom of the Netherlands within the life of global climate change litigation. To do so, the paper concentrates on the legal particulars of Dutch law, elements of ‘diffused’ jurisprudence from other

  5. Litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice | Adinma | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litigation in obstetrics can be prevented through the Obstetrician's mindfulness of its possibility; acquainting themselves of the medical laws and guidelines related to their practice; ensuring adequate communication with, and consent of patients during treatment together with proper and correct documentation of cases.

  6. Educational Adequacy Litigation in the American South: 1973-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Mike; Redish, Traci

    2010-01-01

    Prior to the United States Supreme Court's decision in "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954), educational finance litigation focused almost entirely on the equitable distribution of state educational financing, ending preferential disbursement of state funds. This ended in 1973, with the United States Supreme Court's decision in "San…

  7. 48 CFR 352.233-71 - Litigation and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the action in good faith. The Government shall not be liable for the expense of defending any action... compensated by insurance which was required by law or regulation or by written direction of the Contracting... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.233-71 Litigation...

  8. Testing the Immunity of the Firearm Industry to Tort Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Donohue, John J; Mello, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of congressional action to reinstate the federal ban on assault weapons, tort litigation offers an alternative strategy for regulating what have become the weapons of choice in mass shootings. However, opportunities to bring successful claims are limited. To prevail, plaintiffs must show that their suit fits within exceptions to the broad immunity from tort actions that Congress gave the firearm industry in the 2005 Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. In one particularly high-profile lawsuit, families of victims of the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 sued the makers and sellers of the military-style rifle used in the attack, alleging negligence and deceptive marketing. The trial court dismissed the case on October 14, 2016, but the plaintiffs plan to appeal. We review the history of tort litigation against the firearm industry, outline the Newtown families' claims, and describe the decision.

  9. Drospirenone Litigation: Does the Punishment Fit the Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Pelin; Casey, Petra M

    2017-02-01

    There has been much controversy in the scientific literature and lay press about the potential for increased relative risks (RRs) of venous thromboembolism associated with certain contraceptives over others. This commentary reviews the conflicting data on drospirenone's relative venous and arterial risks and summarizes the details of over two billion dollars in litigation surrounding the use of these products. The current legal environment supports litigation focused on small potential RRs, associated with even smaller absolute risks. The absolute risks of venous and arterial thrombotic events in drospirenone users are low and comparable to that of other combined hormonal contraceptives. Women should have access to a wide array of contraceptive choices, including those containing drospirenone.

  10. [Litigation and the right to health in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Verónica; Yavich, Natalia; Báscolo, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the characteristics of lawsuits for obtaining access to healthcare through the Argentine Supreme Court and reflects on the potential to influence health rights and equity in a context of growing litigation. An analysis of documents from 125 lawsuits with verdicts issued from 1994 to 2013 showed a majority of individual claims (88% of claimants were individual physical persons), and of claimants covered by social security or private insurance (64%) with typical private legal counsel (87% claiming coverage of a medical service). 75% of the verdicts simply ordered the provision of the claimed health services, without highlighting failures in the healthcare system or mandating measures to promote equity and guarantee the right to health for other persons subject to the same situation as the claimant. Thus far, litigation in health has failed to actively promote either health equity, the right to health, or inter-institutional dialogue.

  11. Litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Address for ... Review involves a literature search on the internet in relevant journals, textbooks, and .... 1; sub-section 2 (c) of the Medical and Dental Practitioners ..... Council for International Organizations of Medical.

  12. Informed Consent Obtainment, Malpractice Litigation, and the Potential Role of Shared Decision Making Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren

    2015-01-01

    of the iceberg as lack of patient ‘ownership’ of the DM is not always exposed or may be explicated otherwise (alleged substandard behavior or surgery etc). SDM approaches possibly may sometimes prevent IC duty breaches, assist documenting the DM process, and reduce litigation occurrence.......Internationally, there is increasing recognition of Shared Decision Making (SDM) and Decision Aids (DAs) as measures to increase patient involvement in – and satisfaction with - decision making (DM), improve health care communication, and address bioethical autonomy principles and informed consent...... search term ‘consent’; 15th May 2015). Among 3291 lawsuits, 229 with explicit IC judgments were found. They mostly concerned the hospital sector (179; 78%) and commonly involved surgery (69), gyn/obstetrics (33), and gen. medicine (20; incl, eg, cardiology). 21 affected minor patients and 36 were cancer...

  13. Litigation and the Timing of Settlement: Evidence from Commercial Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Grajzl; Katarina Zajc

    2015-01-01

    Although an overwhelming proportion of all legal disputes end in settlement, the determinants of the timing of settlement remain empirically underexplored. We draw on a novel dataset on the duration of commercial disputes in Slovenia to study how the timing of settlement is shaped by the stages and features of the litigation process. Using competing risk regression analysis, we find that events such as court-annexed mediation and the first court session, which enable the disputing parties to ...

  14. Auditing Litigation and Claims: Conflicts and the Compromise of Privilege

    OpenAIRE

    Harleen Kaur; Sandra van der Laan

    2013-01-01

    Auditing standards require an auditor to make various enquiries about liabilities in general this may entail consideration of potential litigations and claims that the audited entity may be facing. To perform this part of audit, the auditors will generally seek representation letters from lawyers of the company detailing an estimate prepared by management, confirmed by their lawyers through a representation letter, and then sent directly to the auditors. This paper reviews the ...

  15. Higher value in litigation for nuclear power plant proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The administrative court of Bavaria has rejected in its ruling of 19th August 1976 - No. 117 VI 76 - an appeal against the fixing of the value in litigation according to the judgment of the administrative court in Wuerzburg of 10th March 1976, and it has confirmed DM 20,000 as the disputed sum. The essential points of the grounds upon which the rejection is based are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Litigation and new technologies in post-conventional societies

    OpenAIRE

    Bannwart Junior, Clodomiro José; Oléa, Carlos Frederico

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the volume of litigation verified since the 1990’s, having the Brazilian society as context, made the judiciary open itself to new technologies which facilitate the access to justice, as well as to a faster resolution of the demands. However, the intense insertion of technical rationalization in the process and decision operations by the judiciary, during the last years, led to a legalization supported by presuppositions of technical-instrumental regulation. According to the g...

  17. Litigants in Person in Private Family Law Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Trinder, L.; Hunter, R.; Hitchings, E.; Miles, J.; Smith, L.; Moorhead, R.; Sefton, M.; Hinchly, V.; Pearce, J.; Bader, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the evidence base on litigants in person in private family law cases, including their behavioural drivers, experiences and support needs, and impact on the court prior to the implementation of legal aid reforms in April 2013. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2013. The study delivered primarily qualitative evidence. The researchers sampled 151 private law family cases where a hearing was observed, the court file examined and parties and p...

  18. Cerebral palsy litigation: change course or abandon ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartwelle, Thomas P; Johnston, James C

    2015-06-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds' labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule-the Daubert doctrine that excludes "junk science" from the courtroom-as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring's 40-year masquerade as science. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The significance of radiological control documentation in litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodde, G.M.; Murphy, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Commercial nuclear facilities accumulate radiological control program data and documents generated and retained pursuant to regulatory, license, and technical specification requirements. During and following the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, many documents were produced that would not normally have been produced. Shortly after the accident, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an order requiring the retention of all data, including documentary material and physical samples relating to the TMI-2 accident (44 Fed. Reg. 30788, May 29, 1979). Three years later, the NRC vacated the requirement to retain catalogued physical samples, provided the radioactivity data had been properly recorded, allowing disposal of many samples. After the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear Corporation (GPU) designed and implemented an effective and efficient record management program for TMI. This Computer-Assisted Records and Information Retrieval System (CARIRS) was developed to assess the official record for TMI, which is maintained as a microform. GPU also retains hard copies of selected radiological control documents for potential litigation. This paper describes the use of radiological control documentation in the postaccident litigation and the magnitude of document production required to support that litigation

  20. Public Litigation and the Concept of “Deference” in Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Klaasen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court is the highest court in all constitutional matters and thus decides appeals from other courts in disputes involving natural and juristic persons and the state, including criminal matters, if the matter is a constitutional matter or an issue connected with a decision on a constitutional matter. The Court may hear any matter, if the Constitutional Court grants leave to appeal because the matter raises an arguable point of law of general public importance that ought to be considered by that court. The Constitution makes it clear that courts are independent and subject only to the Constitution and the law. All persons to whom and organs of state to which a court order or decision applies are bound by it. It is important that the courts employ a standard of judicial review that is compatible with constitutional principles and values. The Constitutional Court subscribes to a standard of “deference” in judicial review. This principle recognises the need to protect the institutional character of each of the three arms of government in a manner that will prevent their ability to discharge their constitutional role being undermined. The principle of deference concerns the function of the judge in mediating between the law and legislative and executive politics. Around the world, litigation or judicial review has become immensely popular as a treatment for the pains of modern governance. South Africa is no exception to this phenomenon. This activism by litigation consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis. Organisations and individuals often disregard or distrust the political process and approach the courts to advance their own interest and to protect their own rights. Litigants seek to enforce constitutional principles and values that affect others as directly as them and that are valued for moral or political reasons and are independent of economic

  1. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements

  2. Medical Malpractice Litigation Following Arthroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kalpit N; Eltorai, Adam E M; Perera, Sudheesha; Durand, Wesley M; Shantharam, Govind; Owens, Brett D; Daniels, Alan H

    2018-04-10

    Our study aims to analyze a variety of factors involving malpractice lawsuits following arthroscopy, focusing on reasons for lawsuit and establishing predictors for the outcome of the lawsuit. Two legal databases, VerdictSearch and Westlaw, were queried for arthroscopic cases in adult patients. For all included cases, clinical and demographic data were recorded. The effects of plaintiff demographics, joint involved, lawsuit allegation, case ruling, and size of indemnity payments were assessed. Of the 240 included cases, 62 (26%) resulted in plaintiff verdict, 160 (67%) resulted in defense verdict, and 18 (8%) were settled without trial. Plaintiff demographics (age and sex) had no effect on the case ruling. There was no statistical difference between indemnity awards for plaintiff verdicts ($1,013,494) and settled cases ($848,331; P = .13). Patient death was noted in 20 cases (8.3%); a significantly higher proportion of these cases were settled versus went to trial (P = .0022), including 19 patients (95%) who had knee arthroscopy and 16 deaths (80%) resulting from a pulmonary embolus. Plaintiff verdict or settlement were seen significantly more frequently for vascular complications and wrong-sided surgery. Alternatively, defense verdicts followed lawsuits alleging surgeon technical error. Wrong-sided surgery, retained instruments, deep venous thrombosis, and postoperative infections were seen at a significantly higher proportion after knee arthroscopy than after arthroscopy of other joints. Similarly, neurological injury was significantly associated with elbow and hip arthroscopy, while allegations of technical error by the surgeon and block-related complications were associated with shoulder arthroscopy. Plaintiff verdict or settlement were seen for vascular complications and wrong-sided surgery, while defense verdicts followed lawsuits alleging surgeon technical error and block-related complications. We also identified types of allegations that were associated

  3. Legal advocacy and nuclear power: the impact of litigation on the Midland nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of litigation as an interest-group strategy is analyzed in relation to the controversy over the development of nuclear power. An assessment is made of the impact of the judicial process, with the litigation involving the Midland, Michigan, nuclear plant serving as a representative case study. In the construction permit hearings for the Midland nuclear plant, which began in 1970, the interest groups were Consumers Power Company, a Michigan utility, and the Saginaw and Mapleton Intervernors, environmentalists dwelling near the proposed plant site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a construction permit for the plant after a two-year licensing process, but the environmental groups appealed the permit to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1976, the permit was remanded by the court to the Commission for reconsideration, and Consumers Power Company appealed that decision. In 1978, the Supreme Court handed down a unanimous and definitive opinion, Consumers Power Company vs Aeschliman, that upheld the Commission's original issuance of the construction plant. The Midland case well illustrates the detrimental impact that legal advocacy has had on atomic energy by prolonging the regulatory process. The positive consequences of the Court ruling favoring the utility's position were outweighed by the expense involved in the initial ten years of thelicensing and subsequent lawsuits concerning the Midland plant. Consequently, Consumers Power Company is representative of most other American electric companies in its determination that it cannot build additional nuclear plants without mitigation of the uncertainty and duration of the regulatory process. Thus, it may be concluded that the environmental groups' use of legal advocacy at Midland and elsewhere has proven to be an effective strategy for undermining the nuclear industry and for deterring the future development of nuclear power

  4. Whistleblower litigation: A potential explosion in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowitt, A.J.; Panich, D.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the protection offered nuclear employees and the limits of a nuclear employer's liability under section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act. The author's warn that review by the US Supreme Court is not necessary but could only serve to expose the nuclear industry to an onslaught of litigation resulting from the assertion by an employee subjected to an adverse employment decision that the employee was engaged in a protected activity and as a result has a right to protection from retaliation by the employer

  5. Delays in Medical Malpractice Litigation in Civil Law Jurisdictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Garoupaa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Medical malpractice law and tort reform are contentious issues. In this paper, we focus on Italy as an example of a civil law jurisdiction. Italian medical malpractice law is essentially judge-made law. However, its effectiveness is likely to be curtailed by excessive delays in litigation. Several...... reforms have been enacted since the late 1980s to correct this situation. By making use of the decisions of the Italian Court of Cassation (which have shaped medical malpractice law) from 1970 to 2009, we show that these reforms had no general statistically significant impact on delays. Recent reduction...

  6. Location, Location: Jurisdiction & Conflicts in Transborder Contract Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    In transborder contract litigation place-based factors are often decisive, both as regards jurisdiction to adjudicate as well as the rules which determine the applicable substantive law. Relevant locations include the place where the contract was made, where the parties reside, transact business...... or own property, the place of delivery, payment or other performance etc. Using concrete case-based examples, Professor Lookofsky explains how rules of jurisdiction and contract conflicts in Europe are tied to rigidly defined, single-place-based factors. In the United States, by contrast...

  7. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  8. After Halliburton: Event Studies and Their Role in Federal Securities Fraud Litigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Fisch (Jill); J.B. Gelbach (Jonah); J.M. Klick (Jonathan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractEvent studies have become increasingly important in securities fraud litigation after the Supreme Court’s decision in Halliburton II. Litigants have used event study methodology, which empirically analyzes the relationship between the disclosure of corporate information and the

  9. Poor Agreement Among Expert Witnesses in Bile Duct Injury Malpractice Litigation An Expert Panel Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, Philip R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Gevers, Sjef K. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. Background Data: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modem surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to

  10. Poor agreement among expert witnesses in bile duct injury malpractice litigation: an expert panel survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuver, P.R. de; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Gevers, S.K.; Gouma, D.J.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Cuesta, M.A.; Erp, W.F. van; Gerritsen, J.; Hesselink, E.J.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Lange, J. de; Obertop, H.; Stassen, L.P.; Terpstra, O.T.; Tilanus, H.W.; Vroonhoven, T.J.; Wit, L. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. BACKGROUND DATA: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modern surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to

  11. Supplanting the Venom of Litigation with Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Role of Counsellors and Guidance Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Nsisong Anthony; Sanni, Kudirat Bimbo

    2015-01-01

    This literature review attempts to interface counselling with alternative legal practice. The authors proceed by contrasting the adversarial nature of litigation with the conciliatory nature of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) with a view to encouraging seekers of dispute resolution to opt for ADR in lieu of litigation. The paper discusses the…

  12. 48 CFR 952.231-71 - Insurance-litigation and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agencies, in connection with this contract. The Contractor shall proceed with such litigation in good faith... litigation in good faith and as directed from time to time by the Contracting Officer. (c)(1) Except as... insurance as required by law or approved in writing by the Contracting Officer. (2) The Contractor may, with...

  13. 48 CFR 970.5228-1 - Insurance-litigation and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agencies, in connection with this contract. The Contractor shall proceed with such litigation in good faith... litigation in good faith and as directed from time to time by the Contracting Officer. (c)(1) Except as... insurance as required by law or approved in writing by the Contracting Officer. (2) The Contractor may, with...

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING IN RARE EVENTS: THE CASE OF LEARNING TO LITIGATE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly

    This study proposes that firms can learn from previous litigations, despite litigation being a rare event. Firms learn because the verdicts are unambiguous and provide detailed and precise feedback on the linkages between argumentation, evidence and the outcome. Furthermore, firms’ successful app...

  15. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy: A New Delhi Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Kerry

    2016-06-01

    One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies.

  16. FACING UP TO MULTINATIONALCOMPLEX LITIGATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel R. Oquendo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A federal court should approach the presence of foreigners in a global class action for monetary relief with an openmind. It should keep them in so long as it can conclude, upon a reflective comparative law analysis, that the judiciary in theirnation of origin would uphold the ultimate ruling. For example, Latin American absent class members should normally stay on board inasmuchas virtually every jurisdictionin their regionwould allow a U.S. adjudicator to arrive at this conclusion.Accordingly, they would fail, on grounds of res judicata, if they ever tried to re-litigate the matter back home upon a defeat on the merits in the United States. In particular, a tribunal from any one of seven representative regional countries (Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru, and Ecuador wouldmost probably find such a U.S.judgment consistent with local due process, as well as with the remaining requirements for recognition.In other words, it would hold thatabsentees stemming from its jurisdictional territory could not legitimately complain about the preclusive effect since they would have free ridden on the efforts of their representatives with a chance at compensation, would have benefited from numerous fairness controls, and could have similarly faced preclusion in their homeland based on a suit prosecuted by someone else without their authorization. Judges in the United States should engage in a similar in-depth deliberation to decide whether to welcomecitizens from anywhere else in the world to the litigation.

  17. Conservative litigation against sexual and reproductive health policies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas Defago, María Angélica; Morán Faúndes, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    In Argentina, campaigns for the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights have sparked opposition through litigation in which the dynamics of legal action have come from self-proclaimed "pro-life" NGOs, particularly since 1998, when the conservative NGO Portal de Belén successfully achieved the banning of emergency contraception through the courts. The activities of these groups, acting as a "civil arm" of religion, are focused primarily on obstructing access to legally permissible abortions and bringing about the withdrawal of a number of recognized public policies on sexual and reproductive health, particularly the 2002 National Programme for Sexual Health and Responsible Procreation. This paper analyzes the litigation strategies of these conservative NGOs and how their use of the courts in Argentina has changed over the years. It gives examples of efforts in local courts to block individual young women from accessing legal abortion following rape, despite a ruling by the National Supreme Court of Justice in 2012 that no judicial permission is required. In spite of major advances, the renewed influence of the Catholic hierarchy in the Argentine political scene with the accession of the new Pope poses challenges to the work by feminists and women's movements to extend and consolidate sexual and reproductive rights. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incorporating Environmental Regulation and Litigation in Earth Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A. R.

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental knowledge of geological processes is not only needed for effective environmental regulation and litigation, but Earth Science students find that relevance motivating in their studies of those processes. Crustal abundance and redox reactions suddenly become personally meaningful when they are used to account for the presence of high levels of carcinogenic Cr(VI) in the students' drinking water. Similarly, epithermal mercury deposits and the element's speciation gain new importance when they are related to the warning signs on the consumption of fish that the students catch and eat. And even those students that are not motivated by these, and many other, applications of geology find solace in learning that anthropogenic perturbations of the global lead cycle may partially account for their short attention span, lack of interest, and inability to learn the material. Consequently, a number of courses in environmental toxicology and ground water contamination have been developed that are based on (1) case studies in environmental regulation and litigation and (2) active student participation as "expert witnesses" opining on the scientific basis of environmental decisions.

  19. Why Litigation-Driven History Matters: Lessons Learned from the Secret History of TCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahniser, Keith A

    2015-02-01

    Litigation drives extensive historical research but often allows only select observers to see the results. Historians have conducted untold studies for litigation that become "secret histories" because these histories are not published. An example is the historical use and regulation of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE), a hazardous chemical at issue in much environmental litigation, but a topic virtually absent in the secondary literature. This practice seems to contravene accepted standards of open scholarship. Although not directly aligned with the traditional academic model of historical practice, however, historical research and writing for litigation achieve legitimate and important results without abandoning the discipline's professional standards. History done by consultants for litigation is neither a history of compromised standards nor as "secret" as feared.

  20. Alternatives to litigation for health care conflicts and claims: alternative dispute resolution in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Edward A

    2002-12-01

    Health care has undergone radical changes, and it may be predicted that further changes are in the offing as the burdens and the benefits of the newer configurations become known. Change in any system stresses it, creating opportunities for conflict as people and organizations adjust to new realities and encounter changed expectations. The opportunities for conflict in health care (and legal conflict with it), therefore, have been and will continue to be a measurable part of health care's daily life. Many of these conflicts can be managed through one or another of the several forms of ADR. Some ADR procedures are most productive when used as alternatives to impending litigation. Others may be employed when litigation is not likely but when the persistence of conflict, such as that within a newly structured provider organization, would otherwise take its toll on the productivity of the organization and those who work within it. The challenge in using ADR for any of these problems is similar to what physicians understand as differential diagnosis. A good therapy applied to the wrong case yields a bad result. The world of ADR has matured to the point at which the salient features of both cases and procedures are well-enough understood to allow for low-risk and high-benefit applications. This is particularly true for disputes involving allegations of medical error, where the indicators of efficacy are very positive and the risks to safety are comfortably low. Mediation in particular, but mediation of the interest-based style rather than the settlement conference style, deserves fuller consideration and broader use.

  1. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Redelegation of Authority to the Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Litigation, Antitrust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Assistant Attorney General for Litigation, Antitrust Division, To Authorize Production or Disclosure of... Assistant Attorney General for Litigation, Antitrust Division, To Authorize Production or Disclosure of... described in 28 CFR 16.21(a) is hereby redelegated to the Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Litigation...

  2. The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies' strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah L; Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco companies use a host of strategies to undermine public health efforts directed to reduce and eliminate smoking. The success, failure and trends in domestic litigation used by tobacco companies to undermine tobacco control are not well understood, with commentators often assuming disputes are trade related or international in nature. We analyse domestic legal disputes involving tobacco companies and public health actors in high-income countries across the last decade to ascertain the types of action and the success or failure of cases, develop effective responses. WorldLii, a publicly available online law repository, was used to identify domestic court cases involving tobacco companies from 2004 to 2014, while outcome data from LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were used to identify appeals and trace case history. We identified six domestic cases in the UK, Australia and Canada, noting that the tobacco industry won only one of six cases; a win later usurped by legislative reform and a further court case. Nevertheless, we found cases involve significant resource costs for governments, often progressing across multiple jurisdictional levels. We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  3. The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies’ strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah L.; Gilmore, Anna B.; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies use a host of strategies to undermine public health efforts directed to reduce and eliminate smoking. The success, failure and trends in domestic litigation used by tobacco companies to undermine tobacco control are not well understood, with commentators often assuming disputes are trade related or international in nature. We analyse domestic legal disputes involving tobacco companies and public health actors in high-income countries across the last decade to ascertain the types of action and the success or failure of cases, develop effective responses. Methods WorldLii, a publicly available online law repository, was used to identify domestic court cases involving tobacco companies from 2004 to 2014, while outcome data from LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were used to identify appeals and trace case history. Results We identified six domestic cases in the UK, Australia and Canada, noting that the tobacco industry won only one of six cases; a win later usurped by legislative reform and a further court case. Nevertheless, we found cases involve significant resource costs for governments, often progressing across multiple jurisdictional levels. Discussion We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. PMID:26036703

  4. Audit of litigation against the accident and emergency radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, S; De Stefano, F; Mari, A; Savaia, F; Rosso, R; Derchi, L

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to reduce and monitor litigation due to failure to diagnose a fracture, to evaluate whether the cases were due to radiological error or other problems in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients and to identify organisational, technical or functional changes or guidelines to improve the management of patients with suspected fracture and their expectations. We analysed the litigation database for the period 2004-2006 and extracted all episodes indicating failure to diagnose a fracture at the accident and emergency radiology department of our centre. The radiographs underwent blinded review by two experts, and each case was jointly analysed by a radiologist and a forensic physician to see what led to the compensation claim. We identified 22 events (2004 seven cases; 2005 eight cases; 2006 seven cases). Six cases were unrelated to radiological error. Six were due to imperceptible fractures at the time of the examination. These were accounted for by the presence of a major lesion distracting the examiner's attention from a less important associated lesion in one case, a false negative result in a patient examined on a incompletely radiolucent spinal board and underexposure of the coccyx region in an obese patient. Six cases were related to an interpretation error by the radiologist. In the remaining cases, the lesion being referred to in the compensation claim could either not be established or the case was closed by the insurance company without compensation. Corrective measures were adopted. These included planning the purchase of a higher performance device, drawing up a protocol for imaging patients on spinal boards, reminding radiologists of the need to carefully scrutinise the entire radiogram even after having identified a lesion, and producing an information sheet explaining to patients the possibility of false negative results in cases of imperceptible lesions and inviting them to return to the department if symptoms

  5. Malodorous consequences: what comprises negligence in anosmia litigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Mauro, Andrew C; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Setzen, Michael; Carron, Michael A; Folbe, Adam J

    2014-03-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate factors raised in malpractice litigation in which plaintiffs alleged that physician negligence led to olfactory dysfunction. We analyzed publically available federal and court records using Westlaw, a widely used computerized legal database. Pertinent jury verdicts and settlements were comprehensively examined for alleged causes of malpractice (including procedures for iatrogenic causes), defendant specialty, patient demographics, and other factors raised in legal proceedings. Of 25 malpractice proceedings meeting inclusion criteria, 60.0% were resolved for the defendant, 12.0% were settled, and 28.0% had jury-awarded damages. Median payments were significant ($300,000 and $412,500 for settlements and awards, respectively). Otolaryngologists were the most frequently named defendants (68.0%), with the majority of iatrogenic cases (55.0%) related to rhinologic procedures. Associated medical events accompanying anosmia included dysgeusia, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and meningitis. Other alleged factors included requiring additional surgery (80.0%), unnecessary procedures (47.4% of iatrogenic procedural cases), untimely diagnosis leading to anosmia (44.0%), inadequate informed consent (35.0%), dysgeusia (56.0%), and psychological sequelae (24.0%). Olfactory dysfunction can adversely affect quality of life and thus is a potential area for malpractice litigation. This is particularly true for iatrogenic causes of anosmia, especially following rhinologic procedures. Settlements and damages awarded were considerable, making an understanding of factors detailed in this analysis of paramount importance for the practicing otolaryngologist. This analysis reinforces the importance of explicitly including anosmia in a comprehensive informed consent process for any rhinologic procedure. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. Public litigation and the concept of “deference” in judicial review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All persons to whom and organs of state to which a court order or decision applies ... Litigants seek to enforce constitutional principles and values that affect others ... a threat to constitutional principles and values enshrined in the Constitution.

  7. Clinical negligence in foot and ankle surgery: A 17-year review of claims to the NHS Litigation Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, J; Talbot, C L; Clough, T M

    2014-11-01

    We present a review of litigation claims relating to foot and ankle surgery in the NHS in England during the 17-year period between 1995 and 2012. A freedom of information request was made to obtain data from the NHS litigation authority (NHSLA) relating to orthopaedic claims, and the foot and ankle claims were reviewed. During this period of time, a total of 10 273 orthopaedic claims were made, of which 1294 (12.6%) were related to the foot and ankle. 1036 were closed, which comprised of 1104 specific complaints. Analysis was performed using the complaints as the denominator. The cost of settling these claims was more than £36 million. There were 372 complaints (33.7%) involving the ankle, of which 273 (73.4%) were related to trauma. Conditions affecting the first ray accounted for 236 (21.4%), of which 232 (98.3%) concerned elective practice. Overall, claims due to diagnostic errors accounted for 210 (19.0%) complaints, 208 (18.8%) from alleged incompetent surgery and 149 (13.5%) from alleged mismanagement. Our findings show that the incorrect, delayed or missed diagnosis of conditions affecting the foot and ankle is a key area for improvement, especially in trauma practice. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  9. Firing without fear. Heading off litigation in employee terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C L; Kaiser, G

    1989-03-01

    Under most state laws, employee handbooks carry the status of employment contracts, or such contracts are implied through various employment conversations. Unlike in the past, when a management decision to discharge an employee could be challenged only for statutory or public policy reasons, today's employer may have to prove that he or she did not violate an employee's contractual right to employment. Employers can reduce the risk of employment liability through practical steps such as careful monitoring and documenting of the hiring, performance appraisal, and disciplinary processes, and a credible grievance procedure. Many employers have found, however, that taking these steps does not always prevent litigation. Certain legal precautions, such as written disclaimers and other handbook revisions, can result in the dismissal of such actions before trial and will deter many plaintiffs' attorneys from taking the case. The strongest legal protection in termination situations is a release of all claims executed by the employee and supported by severance pay or other valuable consideration to which the employee would not be otherwise entitled.

  10. Civil Litigation in the UK: сontemporary issues to ensure evidential reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Hugh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The system for assessing appropriate damages for individuals who have suffered a personal injury, caused by another person or persons is well established in the UK. A claimant, for example, who has been in a road accident, work accident, medical accident or negligent action can make a claim for his/her physical and psychological injuries, time off work and future disability, provided it is proven that another person(s is responsible. The system involves obtaining, medical-legal evidence on the diagnosis, causation, treatment and prognosis of any injuries, physical or psychological. One key aspect of this covers the crucial issue of evidential reliability. This paper explains the key questions facing lawyers and experts alike in the UK; fundamental postulates or beliefs about evidence; ways to improve reliability; the relevance of pre-event history and improving evidential reliability via Part 35 questioning. The UK, along with the USA, has the most advanced and developed system of personal injury litigation process.

  11. Judicial Review: Issues of State Court Involvement in School Finance Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, William Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Due to state legislatures' reluctance to initiate school-funding reform, judicial bodies are asked to provide relief from alleged inequities. Before providing judicial review, the judiciary must decide whether an issue is justiciable (does not violate separation of powers) and warrants court intervention. Children's education has not substantially…

  12. The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-28

    Privilege And Separation Of Powers , 75 FORDHAM L. REV. 1931, 1935 (Mar. 2007). 2 Editorial, Securing Lawsuits, WASH. POST, May 11, 2009, at A16...the Supreme Court invalidated a legislative enactment that required federal courts to reopen final decisions as a violation of the separation of powers principle...95 It might be argued that the retroactivity provision in H.R. 984 also reopens final judgments in violation of the separation of powers principle

  13. Are litigation and collective bargaining complements or substitutes for achieving gender equality? A study of the British Equal Pay Act

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Deakin; Sarah Fraser Butlin; Colm McLaughlin; Aleksandra Polanska

    2015-01-01

    We present a socio-legal case study of the recent equal pay litigation wave in Britain, which saw an unprecedented increase in the number of claims, triggered in part by the entry of no-win, no-fee law firms into this part of the legal services market. Although the rise in litigation led to greater adversarialism in pay bargaining, litigation and collective bargaining mostly operated as complementary mechanisms in advancing an equality agenda. Litigation may be a more potent agent for socia...

  14. Considering strategic litigation as an advocacy tool: a case study of the defence of reproductive rights in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Mónica; Klugman, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Women's Link Worldwide developed a test to determine when an environment is conducive to social change through strategic litigation. We first present our understanding of strategic litigation, and then discuss four conditions for successful and sustainable change using strategic litigation: (1) an existing rights framework; (2) an independent and knowledgeable judiciary; (3) civil society organizations with the capacity to frame social problems as rights violations and to litigate; and (4) a network able to support and leverage the opportunities presented by litigation. Next, we present examples from our work in Colombia that show how analysis of these conditions informed our litigation strategy when confronting a powerful public official who opposes reproductive rights. Two litigation strategies were adopted. The first case was not successful in the courts, but allowed us to introduce our message and build support amongst civil society. The second case built on this momentum and resulted in a victory. Strategic litigation is a powerful tool to advance rights as well as hold governments accountable and ensure compliance with human rights obligations. The strategies developed can be adapted for use in other contexts. We hope they inspire others to protect and promote reproductive rights through strategic litigation when women cannot fully enjoy their rights. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Surgical Outcomes and Determinants of Litigation Among Women With Transvaginal Mesh Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Dani; Karram, Mickey; Stecher, Anna; Maxwell, Rose; Whiteside, James

    To identify litigation predictors among women with complications of transvaginal mesh. Chart review and patient survey were conducted among women who had undergone a complication-related explant of a transvaginal prolapse or incontinence sling mesh. Trained study personnel administered a 57-question survey addressing subjective complaints related to bowel, bladder, sexual dysfunction, and development of pain or recurrent prolapse. These data were analyzed with respect to the subject's reported pursuit of litigation related to the mesh complication. Categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using the χ test and the t test as indicated. Ninety-five (68%) of 139 women completed the surveys with 60% of the patients pursuing litigation at the time of the survey. Individual risk factors for pursuing litigation included development of vaginal pain after mesh placement (P = 0.01); dyspareunia after mesh placement (P = 0.01); persistence of dyspareunia, suprapubic pain, and groin pain after mesh excision (P = 0.04, P = 0.02, and P = 0.001, respectively); unsuccessful attempts at conservative management of pelvic pain using pelvic floor rehabilitation (P = 0.002). There is an association between a higher likelihood of pursuing litigation and new-onset or persistent pain symptoms attributable to transvaginal mesh.

  16. A comparison of medical litigation filed against obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgery departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tomoko; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-10-24

    The aim of this study was to review the typical factors related to physician's liability in obstetrics and gynecology departments, as compared to those in internal medicine and surgery, regarding a breach of the duty to explain. This study involved analyzing 366 medical litigation case reports from 1990 through 2008 where the duty to explain was disputed. We examined relationships between patients, physicians, variables related to physician's explanations, and physician's breach of the duty to explain by comparing mean values and percentages in obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgical departments with the t-test and χ(2) test. When we compared the reasons for decisions in cases where the patient won, we found that the percentage of cases in which the patient's claim was recognized was the highest for both physician negligence, including errors of judgment and procedural mistakes, and breach of the duty to explain, in obstetrics and gynecology departments; breach of the duty to explain alone in internal medicine departments; and mistakes in medical procedures alone in surgical departments (p = 0.008). When comparing patients, the rate of death was significantly higher than that of other outcomes in precedents where a breach of the duty to explain was acknowledged (p = 0.046). The proportion of cases involving obstetrics and gynecology departments, in which care was claimed to be substandard at the time of treatment, and that were not argued as breach of a duty to explain, was significantly higher than those of other evaluated departments (p duty to explain had been breached when seeking patient approval (or not) was significantly higher than in other departments (p = 0.002). It is important for physicians working in obstetrics and gynecology departments to carefully explain the risk of death associated with any planned procedure, and to obtain genuinely informed patient consent.

  17. 75 FR 1751 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and Its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act AGENCY: United... Panther Party Litigation and enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act. The Commission is...

  18. 75 FR 13076 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and Its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act AGENCY: United... Department of Justice's actions in the New Black Panther Party Litigation and enforcement of Section 11(b) of...

  19. 75 FR 7441 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and Its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act AGENCY: United... Panther Party Litigation and enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act. The Commission is...

  20. Assessing the Role of the Courts in Addressing the Educational Problems Caused by Racial Isolation in School Finance Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Preston C., III.

    2013-01-01

    Since the separate-but-equal era, students attending schools with high concentrations of Black students have attempted to improve the quality of their educations through school finance litigation. Because of the negative effects of racial isolation, Black students might consider mounting school finance litigation to force states to explicitly…

  1. Can shared decision-making reduce medical malpractice litigation? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Moulton, Benjamin; Cockle, Elizabeth; Mann, Mala; Elwyn, Glyn

    2015-04-18

    To explore the likely influence and impact of shared decision-making on medical malpractice litigation and patients' intentions to initiate litigation. We included all observational, interventional and qualitative studies published in all languages, which assessed the effect or likely influence of shared decision-making or shared decision-making interventions on medical malpractice litigation or on patients' intentions to litigate. The following databases were searched from inception until January 2014: CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, HMIC, Lexis library, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Open SIGLE, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge. We also hand searched reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Downs & Black quality assessment checklist, the Critical Appraisal Skill Programme qualitative tool, and the Critical Appraisal Guidelines for single case study research were used to assess the quality of included studies. 6562 records were screened and 19 articles were retrieved for full-text review. Five studies wee included in the review. Due to the number and heterogeneity of included studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis adapted from the ESRC guidance for narrative synthesis. Four themes emerged. The analysis confirms the absence of empirical data necessary to determine whether or not shared decision-making promoted in the clinical encounter can reduce litigation. Three out of five included studies provide retrospective and simulated data suggesting that ignoring or failing to diagnose patient preferences, particularly when no effort has been made to inform and support understanding of possible harms and benefits, puts clinicians at a higher risk of litigation. Simulated scenarios suggest that documenting the use of decision support interventions in patients' notes could offer some level of medico-legal protection. Our analysis also indicated that a sizeable

  2. Vexatious Litigants and the ADA: Strategies to Fairly Address the Need to Improve Access for Individuals with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Helia Garrido

    2016-01-01

    This Article addresses the need to reform the ADA to prevent vexatious litigation and to promote the underlying goals of the Act. Part I of this Article introduces the topic of vexatious litigation and the importance of remedying the effects of exploitation of the ADA. Part II provides an overview of the ADA and its efforts to increase accessibility to individuals with disabilities, emphasizing the provisions of the Act that create incentives to engage in vexatious litigation. Part III examines and analyzes the judiciary's response to vexatious litigation under the ADA, and sanctions that have been issued to limit exploitation. Finally, Part IV provides recommendations to reform the ADA and state disability law counterparts, suggests corrective actions to address vexatious litigation, and identifies methods to promote equality for individuals with disabilities.

  3. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  4. Litigation to execution in legal labour relationships. Study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Lucian Radulescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enforced execution is the legal way by which the Creditor under an enforceable order protects his rights by resorting to coercive force of the state. When the Debtor does not comply voluntarily, the Creditor may appeal to the Bailiff to commence the enforced execution in all manner prescribed by law. Of course, the start of compulsory execution is limited by the conditions of admissibility imperatively specified in the law, principally the condition to exist an enforceable order owned by the Creditor. Regarding the order to be enforced, it can be represented either by an enforceable or final judgement, with provisional enforcement or any other document that can be enforced. Procedurally, the provisions of Art.712 of the Civil Procedure Code allow the introduction by a Creditor who has a litigation to execution against the execution itself, against the Closures issued by the Bailiff, and against any other act of enforcement. Jurisdiction of the Court in this matter will be of the Executor Court or the Court in whose district the Debtor is situated, on the date of the appeal. The appeal of the Debtor questions the Parties not only over the acts of execution because the appeal is also allowed over the explanations relative to the meaning, scope or application of the enforceable order, but in the conditions limited by the legal nature of this order. Thus, according to the law when enforceable order is not issued by a Court or Arbitration may be invoked before an Executor Court including reasons of fact or law which could not be discussed during an earlier trial, in the first instance or in an appeal. Basically, if enforced execution is under an enforceable order that is not from a Court, these reasons can be invoked when there is no other processual mean for its abolition. There also can be submitted a complaint against the Closure by which was upheld the appeal for an enforced execution, and the act of execution concerning the division of the

  5. Assessing Impression Management With the MMPI-2 in Child Custody Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Ramón; Fariña, Francisca; Seijo, Dolores; Novo, Mercedes

    2015-12-01

    Forensic psychological evaluation of parents in child custody litigation is primarily focused on evaluating parenting capacity and underreporting. The biased responses of underreporting have been classified as Impression Management (IM) or as Self-Deceptive Positivity (S-DP), which are regarded to be conscious or unconscious in nature, respectively. A field study was undertaken to assess impression management on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in child custody cases, the accuracy of the MMPI-2 scales in classifying IM, and what parents in child custody litigation actually manipulate in terms of IM. A total of 244 parents in child custody litigation and 244 parents under standard instructions were administered the MMPI-2. The results revealed that the L, Mp, Wsd, and Od scales discriminated between both samples of parents; the rate of satisfactory classification (i.e., odds ratio ranged from 5.7 for Wsd to 23.3 for Od) and an incremental validity of Od over Mp and Wsd. As for the effects of IM, the results show IM effects in the Basic Clinical Scales, the Restructured Clinical Scales, the Personality Psychopathology Five Scales, the Content Scales, and the Supplementary Scales. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the forensic evaluation of parents in child custody litigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. THE EXECUTION INSTANCE OF THE JUDICIAL JUDGEMENTS SENTENCED IN THE LITIGATIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONTENTIOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA ELENA BELU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The instance which solved the fund of the litigation rising from an administrative contract differs depending on the material competence sanctioned by law, in contrast to the subject of the commercial law where the execution instance is the court. In this matter the High Court stated in a decision1 that in a first case the competence of solving the legal contest against the proper forced execution and of the legal contest that has in view the explanation of the meaning of spreading and applying the enforceable title which does not proceed from a jurisdiction organ is in the authority of the court. The Law of the Administrative Contentious no 554/2004 defines in Article 2 paragraph 1 letter t the notion of execution instance, providing that this is the instance which solved the fund of the litigation of administrative contentious, so even in the case of the administrative contracts the execution instance is the one which solved the litigation rising from the contract. Corroborating this disposal with the ones existing in articles 22 and 25 in the Law, it can be shown that no matter the instance which decision is an enforceable title, the execution of the law will be done by the instance which solved the fund of the litigation regarding the administrative contentious.

  7. Lifting All Boats? Finance Litigation, Education Resources, and Student Needs in the Post-"Rose" Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David P.

    2011-01-01

    "Rose v. Council for Better Education" (1989) is often considered a transition point in education finance litigation, heralding an era of increasing concern for measurable adequacy of education across a broad spectrum of student needs. Prior research suggests that post-Rose lawsuits had less effect on the distribution of school spending…

  8. Practical Obstacles in Cross-Border Litigation and Communication between (EU) Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Stadler (Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In cross-border civil litigation the use of different official court languages causes severe problems when - at least one of the parties - is not familiar with the official language of the court, since the parties' constitutional right to a fair trial depends very

  9. 11 CFR 201.3 - Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... soon after the communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the... communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the communication, unless... REGULATIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS § 201.3 Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts...

  10. 75 FR 34515 - American Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] American Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric Energy, Inc., Future Carz, Inc., NBI, Inc., Noble... concerning the securities of Earth Sciences, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  11. 37 CFR 10.64 - Avoiding acquisition of interest in litigation or proceeding before the Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoiding acquisition of interest in litigation or proceeding before the Office. 10.64 Section 10.64 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent and...

  12. The Burger Court and the Prima Facie Case in Employment Discrimination Litigation: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joel William

    1979-01-01

    The unprincipled and contrived reasoning running through these opinions manifests an intentional effort by the Court to impede litigants' ability to secure their rights to equal employment opportunity by raising the requirements of the prima facie case. Available from Fred B. Rothman & Co., 10368 West Centennial Road, Littleton, CO 80123; sc…

  13. Autism Litigation: Outcomes for 2010, Trends in Decision Making and Changes in Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Doris Adams; Kearley, Regina

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has systematically risen since Kanner's description in 1943 and Asperger's definition in 1944. An increase in numbers has met with an increase in litigation regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). Outcomes that first favored parents…

  14. Legislation and litigation related to low-level radiation injury claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraw, T.

    1985-01-01

    Current legislation and litigation related to radiation exposure will have an enormous impact on the radiation protection and monitoring requirements of the future. A brief review of some proposed injury compensation bills for veterans and a recent court decision for low-level radiation injury claims are reviewed

  15. Group Litigation in European Competition Law: A Law and Economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Keske (Sonja)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, insights of the law and economics literature were collected in order to develop the features of an optimal group litigation concerning the deterrence of European Competition Law violation and these were then compared to the proposals of the European Commission in the

  16. Mobilizing Ethnic Equality in Admissions to Schools: Litigation, Politics, and Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem; Perelstain, Oshrat

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impact of litigation on the mobilization of ethnic equality in the admission to Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) schools in Israel, and examines the socio-political mechanisms that have shaped this impact. It uses a case-study approach and draws on an analysis of documents and interviews. The findings confirm the conclusions of…

  17. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Review of the Scottish Health Service ISD report on 'Geographical distribution of leukaemia in young persons in Scotland 1968-1983'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, David

    1986-09-01

    The Scottish Health Service ISD Report is reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the statistical treatment of the data and its interpretation in relation to the location and frequency of occurrence of clusters of leukaemia identified in it. The sensitivity of cluster occurrence to the choice of sector boundaries and to the sub-division of the total time period of the study is considered, in general terms and by numerical experiment. (UK)

  18. 22 Emergency department litigation and coroner's inquests: a ten year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbury, Nicholas; Tabner, Andrew; Johnson, Graham

    2017-12-01

    The burden of litigation within the NHS should not be underestimated. Indemnity costs rise in response to the rising frequency and costs of claims, with recent changes to the discount rate projected to increase NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) costs by £1 Billion per year. Litigation also has a significant psychological impact on staff. This study represents the first examination of litigation and Coroner's 'Prevention of Future Deaths' reports relating to emergency department care in the UK. Using the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act (2000) we submitted data requests to both the NHSLA and the Ministry of Justice (MoJ).The NHSLA provided data concerning ED litigation claims between 2006 and 2015 including:Number of claims by yearNumber of successful and unsuccessful claims by yearNumber of settled claimsCost of claims (including defence costs, claimant costs and damages awarded)The MoJ provided data concerning PFD reports issued to EDs between 2006 and 2016. Data concerning PFD reports issued between 2012 and 2015 were extracted from the MoJ website. Data included:Report dateAge and gender of the deceasedReport summary RESULTS: The total number of ED litigation claims made between 2006 and 2015 was 10,040; 5745 (57.2%) resulted in a financial settlement. The number of claims successfully settled ranged from 382 in 2005/06 to 830 in 2014/15 with an upward trend throughout the decade. The mean cost of a successful claim was £114,029; increasing from £66 754 in 2005/06 to £1 41 027 in 2014/15, a 111% increase. Delay/failure in diagnosis was the most common cause for litigation (4318 [44.5%]) and PFD reports (15 [21%]).A total of 70 PFD reports were issued within the study period; there was no trend in the number of reports issued per year. The greatest number of reports were issued in 2014 (18), far exceeding any other year. Annual claim numbers have increased by 117% over the study period and mean claim cost has increased by 111% (far in excess of any rise

  19. Mitigating Litigating: An Examination of Psychosocial Impacts of Compensation Processes Associated with the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Liesel A; Gill, Duane A; Long, Michael A

    2018-01-31

    During the past four decades, a number of social science scholars have conceptualized technological disasters as a social problem. More specifically, research in this arena has identified individual and collective stress as a secondary trauma of processes intended to provide compensation and economic relief from disasters in general and, more specifically, technological disasters. Based on data from a 2013 household telephone survey of 1,216 residents of coastal Alabama, this article examines the relationship between psychosocial stress and compensation processes related to the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We examine involvement with claims, settlement, and litigation activities; vulnerability and exposure to the spill; ties to resources; resource loss and gain; perceptions of risk and recreancy; and intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors as measured by the impact of event scale. Regression analysis reveals that the strongest contributors to intrusive stress were being part of the compensation process, resource loss, concerns about air quality, and income. Although being involved with compensation processes was a significant predictor of avoidance behaviors, the strongest contributors to avoidance behaviors were resource loss, air quality concern, income, being male, minority status, and community attachment. Beliefs that the compensation process was as distressing as the oil spill also significantly contributed to intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors. This research represents a step toward filling a gap in empirical evidence regarding the extent to which protracted compensation processes exacerbate adverse psychosocial impacts of disasters and hinder community recovery. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. The Settlement of Litigations Arising from the Interpretation and Enforcement of Administrative Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarded nowadays as an instrument of strategy implementation of government policy and establishment mechanism of public administration, the administrative contract raises many debates on its applicable regime, but also on the jurisdiction, to solve litigations arising from their interpretation and execution. In this paper we proposed, based on the analysis of the laws in force, doctrine, jurisprudence, and previous research results related to the subject, using the comparative method, to clarify the mentioned issues. The conclusions of this paper will strengthen the practice on the referral of courts competent to solve litigations arising from the implementation of the administrative contracts in the context where the administrative contract has profound implications in the administrative, economic and social field.

  1. Tobacco industry use of judicial seminars to influence rulings in products liability litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L C

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the tobacco industry's efforts to influence litigation by sponsoring judicial seminars. Methods Thousands of internal tobacco documents were examined, including memos, reports, presentations, and newsletters. Connections to outside organisations were corroborated by examining tobacco industry financial records, budgets, and letters pledging funds. Facts about outside organisations were triangulated through examining their websites and publicly‐filed financial records, and verifying facts through their representatives' statements in newspaper and law review articles. Results There are direct financial ties between the tobacco industry and groups that organise judicial seminars in an effort to influence jurisprudence, and judges who attend these seminars may be breaching judicial ethics either by not inquiring about the source of funding or by ignoring funding by potential litigants. Conclusions The tobacco industry's attempts to clandestinely influence judges' decisions in cases to which they are a party endangers the integrity of the judiciary. PMID:16565460

  2. The decline of judicial deference to medical opinion in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie J

    2008-06-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Malaysia in abandoning the Bolam principle in relation to doctor's duty to disclose risks has clearly marked the decline of judicial deference to medical opinion in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia. It is undeniable that the Bolam principle has acted as a gatekeeper to the number of claims against medical practitioners. This has always been seen as necessary to protect the society from unwanted effects of defensive medicine. However, will these changes contribute significantly to the growth of medical negligence cases in Malaysia? This article will trace the development of the Bolam principle in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia since 1965 and analyse the influence of selected Commonwealth cases on the development. The implications of the Federal Court ruling will also be discussed.

  3. Does litigation increase or decrease health care quality?: a national study of negligence claims against nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Spittal, Matthew J; Studdert, David M

    2013-05-01

    The tort system is supposed to help improve the quality and safety of health care, but whether it actually does so is controversial. Most previous studies modeling the effect of negligence litigation on quality of care are ecologic. To assess whether the experience of being sued and incurring litigation costs affects the quality of care subsequently delivered in nursing homes. We linked information on 6471 negligence claims brought against 1514 nursing homes between 1998 and 2010 to indicators of nursing home quality drawn from 2 US national datasets (Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system; Minimum Data Set Quality Measure/Indicator Reports). At the facility level, we tested for associations between 9 quality measures and 3 variables indicating the nursing homes' litigation experience in the preceding 12-18 months (total indemnity payments; total indemnity payments plus administrative costs; ≥ 1 paid claims vs. none). The analyses adjusted for quality at baseline, case-mix, ownership, occupancy, year, and facility and state random effects. Nearly all combinations of the 3 litigation exposure measures and 9 quality measures--27 models in all--showed an inverse relationship between litigation costs and quality. However, only a few of these associations were statistically significant, and the effect sizes were very small. For example, a doubling of indemnity payments was associated with a 1.1% increase in the number of deficiencies and a 2.2% increase in pressure ulcer rates. Tort litigation does not increase the quality performance of nursing homes, and may decrease it slightly.

  4. A Public Health Analysis of the Proposed Resolution of [the 1997 United States] Tobacco Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Brion J. J.D.; Lightwood, James M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed tobacco settlement agreement, as negotiated by some state attorneys general and the tobacco industry that was made public on June 20, 1997 (Appendix F), raises a complex array of public health, public policy, legal and economic issues. It was intended to be a blueprint for national tobacco control legislation that would end the most important litigation current and potential against the tobacco industry. As with most complex legislation, the deal, after it was announced, underwen...

  5. Roundup litigation discovery documents: implications for public health and journal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimsky, Sheldon; Gillam, Carey

    2018-06-08

    This paper reviews the court-released discovery documents obtained from litigation against Monsanto over its herbicide Roundup and through Freedom of Information Act requests (requests to regulatory agencies and public universities in the United States). We sought evidence of corporate malfeasance and undisclosed conflicts of interest with respect to issues of scientific integrity. The findings include evidence of ghostwriting, interference in journal publication, and undue influence of a federal regulatory agency.

  6. Beyond Litigation: The Need for Creativity in Working to Realise Environmental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Chamberlain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental harm is one of the biggest challenges facing communities living in poverty across the world. Unfortunately, in developing strategies to combat environmental harm, the lawyers that support such communities often tend to focus purely on litigation. Yet there are many reasons why litigation is not ideally suited to the environmental context. These reasons include the need for speed in order to avert irreversible harm quickly, the difficulty in quantifying and proving environmental harm using conventional legal tests, the very technical subject matter with which judges are often unfamiliar and the challenge of securing scientific experts. Fortunately litigation is not the only option, and a wealth of alternative strategies to realise environmental rights exist. Using the campaign to protect the Mapungubwe World Heritage Site in South Africa as a case study, this article will examine three such alternatives: namely the linkages between advocacy campaigns and company share price, community learning exchanges and an interesting model for collaboratively monitoring compliance by mining companies.

  7. Closed medical negligence claims can drive patient safety and reduce litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegalis, Steven E; Bal, B Sonny

    2012-05-01

    Medical liability reform is viewed by many physician groups as a means of reducing medical malpractice litigation and lowering healthcare costs. However, alternative approaches such as closed medical negligence claims data may also achieve these goals. We asked whether information gleaned from closed claims related to medical negligence could promote patient safety and reduce costs related to medical liability. Specifically, we investigated whether physician groups have examined such data to identify error patterns and to then institute specific patient treatment protocols. We searched for medical societies that have systematically examined closed medical negligence claims in their specialty to develop specific standards of physician conduct. We then searched the medical literature for published evidence of the efficacy, if any, related to the patient safety measures thus developed. Anesthesia and obstetric physician societies have successfully targeted costs and related concerns arising from medical malpractice lawsuits by using data from closed claims to develop patient safety and treatment guidelines. In both specialties, after institution of safety measures derived from closed medical negligence claims, the incidence and costs related to medical malpractice decreased and physician satisfaction improved. Tort reform, in the form of legislatively prescribed limits on damages arising from lawsuits, is not the only means of addressing the incidence and costs related to medical malpractice litigation. As the experience of anesthesia and obstetric physicians has demonstrated, safety guidelines derived from analyzing past medical malpractice litigation can achieve the same goals while also promoting patient safety.

  8. INTERACTION BETWEEN HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND DOMESTIC LITIGATIONS CONCERNING DOMICILE OF THE CHILD AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Magda VOICULESCU

    2018-01-01

    In the vast majority of cases, international abduction of a child determines almost per se litigations both at international and national level, namely an international litigation based on provisions of Hague Convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction and a domestic litigation aiming at establishing the domicile of the child in the state of destination and other different measures concerning the child which fall within the area of parental authority (joint or ...

  9. Radiation litigation: Quality assurance and the radiation analyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper touches on three areas of interest to the radiation analyst; the dose issue, legal persuasion, and future legal issues. While many laboratory scientists would think that the actual dose received by the plaintiff's relevant organ would be an easy issue to resolve, that has not been the experience to date. All radiation cases are assumed to be ultrahazardous activity cases, even though they involve a dose well below yearly natural background. At some point the law needs to realize that such low dose cases are a waste of scarce judicial resources. Lawyers and scientists need to communicate with each other and work together to help improve the way the legal system processes these important cases

  10. LAW ENFORCEMENT ON TAXATION THROUGH NON LITIGATION MECHANISM (AN ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Muttaqin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Attorney General can discontinue the investigation to the default tax obligor together with the imposition of four times of outstanding fines. That are raises the issues concerning the nature of the crimes of the tax obligor. This happens because with the payment of the tax debt, the loss suffered by the state as the element of crime, the crimes seemed to be inexistence. This research was an empirical-juridical one. The aim of the research was to find a model of legal enforcement in tax matters without the court involvement. Jaksa Agung dapat menghentikan penyidikan terhadap wajib pajak apabila wajib pajak tersebut membayar pajak yang terutang beserta denda 4 (empat kali jumlah pajak yang tidak/kurang dibayar. Hal tersebut menimbulkan persoalan mengenai akibat hukumnya terhadap sifat perbuatan pidana yang dilakukan wajib pajak mengingat dengan pelunasan pajak tersebut, kerugian negara sebagai unsur tindak pidana tidak terjadi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis empiris dengan tujuan menemukan model penegakan hukum di bidang pajak tanpa melalui proses pengadilan.

  11. HadISD: a quality-controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Parker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the creation of HadISD: an automatically quality-controlled synoptic resolution dataset of temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover from global weather stations for 1973–2011. The full dataset consists of over 6000 stations, with 3427 long-term stations deemed to have sufficient sampling and quality for climate applications requiring sub-daily resolution. As with other surface datasets, coverage is heavily skewed towards Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The dataset is constructed from a large pre-existing ASCII flatfile data bank that represents over a decade of substantial effort at data retrieval, reformatting and provision. These raw data have had varying levels of quality control applied to them by individual data providers. The work proceeded in several steps: merging stations with multiple reporting identifiers; reformatting to netCDF; quality control; and then filtering to form a final dataset. Particular attention has been paid to maintaining true extreme values where possible within an automated, objective process. Detailed validation has been performed on a subset of global stations and also on UK data using known extreme events to help finalise the QC tests. Further validation was performed on a selection of extreme events world-wide (Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the cold snap in Alaska in 1989 and heat waves in SE Australia in 2009. Some very initial analyses are performed to illustrate some of the types of problems to which the final data could be applied. Although the filtering has removed the poorest station records, no attempt has been made to homogenise the data thus far, due to the complexity of retaining the true distribution of high-resolution data when applying adjustments. Hence non-climatic, time-varying errors may still exist in many of the individual station records and care is needed in inferring long-term trends from these data. This

  12. ISD Designed Medical Specialist Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Samuel K., Jr.; Chagalis, George P.

    The Basic Medical Specialist course has one of the largest enrollments of the U.S. Army's Academy of Health Sciences; 11,000 soldiers were trained in this course in 1977 and 1978. Training encompasses both emergency first aid (for field medics) and basic nursing skills. A task force working to improve Army training developed this course, in…

  13. Analysis of medical litigation among patients with medical disputes in cosmetic surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Liao, Chuh-Kai; Chang, Kao-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Ta; Lee, Ming-Been; Tsai, Feng-Chou

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the key factors in medical disputes (arguments) among female patients after cosmetic surgery in Taiwan and to explore the correlates of medical litigation. A total of 6,888 patients (3,210 patients from two hospitals and 3,678 patients from two clinics) received cosmetic surgery from January 2001 to December 2009. The inclusion criteria specified female patients with a medical dispute. Chi-square testing and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Of the 43 patients who had a medical dispute (hospitals, 0.53%; clinics, 0.73%), 9 plaintiffs eventually filed suit against their plastic surgeons. Such an outcome exhibited a decreasing annual trend. The hospitals and clinics did not differ significantly in terms of patient profiles. The Chi-square test showed that most patients with a medical dispute (p stress, had a history of medical litigation, and eventually did not sue the surgeons. The test results also showed that the surgeon's seniority and experience significantly influenced the possibility of medical dispute and nonlitigation. Multiple logistical regression analysis further showed that the patients who did decide to enter into litigation had two main related factors: marital stress (odds ratio [OR], 10.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-94.73) and an education level below junior college (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.01-86.36). The study findings suggest that the key characteristics of patients and surgeons should be taken into consideration not only in the search for ways to enhance pre- and postoperative communication but also as useful information for expert testimony in the inquisitorial law system.

  14. Blue Jeans, Chewing Gum and Climate Change Litigation: American Exports to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Hare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how American-style climate change litigation might be adopted by the European Union ('EU' and projects potential methods by which the EU might employ the US model, if it indeed chooses to take the climate change battle to the courts. By synthesising existing US case law in the environment and climate change fields, the paper roughly defines the 'American model' of climate change litigation as parens patriae actions, oftentimes based in the tort of public nuisance, brought by states and other sovereign entities against polluter-defendants. The structural differences between the common law United States and the predominantly civil law European Union are substantial, and the EU has traditionally been averse to enter too far into the American mass torts arena. Accordingly, Europeans have not yet undertaken these types of lawsuits. This paper identifies and examines several realistic options for Europe's possible espousal of the American climate change litigation model through EU law and national law of individual Member States. Although the comparison is admittedly imperfect, I conclude that by drawing on the blueprint of its American counterparts, the EU could viably use Directive 2004/35/EC (environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage and the 'polluter pays' principle and Directive 2003/87/EC (establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading in a parens patriae-like manner to hold defendants liable for damages caused by climate change. Additionally with case studies focusing on France, Germany and the United Kingdom, national law alternatives exist for individual Member States, as well as regional and local governments, to take action on behalf of their citizens for injuries resulting from climate change, just like sovereign bodies in the United States have done.

  15. An Analysis of “Natural” Food Litigation to Build a Sesame Allergy Consumer Class Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Dana

    In a world where food allergy is still an incurable disease, law and regulation stand as necessary mechanisms to provide food-allergic consumers with the information they need to protect their health. The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 provided specific labeling requirements for the “Top Eight” allergens in the U.S.: milk, soy, gluten, egg, tree nut, peanut, fish, and Crustacean shellfish. Since then, sesame has become more prevalent as an allergen and remains just as dangerous, inducing anaphylactic shock in some sesame-allergic individuals. Yet sesame remains unregulated, despite advocates and congressional members arguing for its inclusion. This note entertains one solution to this problem by exploring the most strategic way to bring a sesame allergy class action against a private food company under California’s consumer protection statutes. Because this kind of class action does not have much, if any, precedent, this note analyzes the basic, preliminary issues that any litigant would have to navigate around to certify a class, including preemption, standing, and the claim itself, by focusing on how courts have examined these issues in the recent “natural” class action litigation. It also analyzes the legal, moral, and practical aspects of choosing a type of relief, as well as whom to include in the class. Finally, this note briefly considers how FDA itself can ensure sesame is regulated on the labels of food products, given that some of the legal issues may well be insurmountable for this particular class action. This note explores the potential solutions to difficult legal hurdles in constructing a sesame allergy class action, arguing that litigating a sesame allergy class action—even if it is not ultimately successful—could start a productive conversation that might lead Congress or FDA to provide greater public health and consumer protection for those with sesame allergy.

  16. Litigation Friends or Foes? Representation of ‘P’ before the Court of Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck Keene, Alexander; Bartlett, Peter; Allen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that, properly analysed, the common law and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) march hand in hand with the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA 2005) so as to impose a set of requirements on litigation friends acting for the subject of applications of proceedings before the Court of Protection (‘P’) which are very different to those currently understood by practitioners and the judiciary. The authors examine critically current practice and procedures and provide a set of proposals for reforms. PMID:28007807

  17. Litigation Friends or Foes? Representation of 'P' before the Court of Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck Keene, Alexander; Bartlett, Peter; Allen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that, properly analysed, the common law and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) march hand in hand with the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA 2005) so as to impose a set of requirements on litigation friends acting for the subject of applications of proceedings before the Court of Protection ('P') which are very different to those currently understood by practitioners and the judiciary. The authors examine critically current practice and procedures and provide a set of proposals for reforms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Image processing by computer analysis--potential use and application in civil and criminal litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T W

    1990-01-01

    The image processing by computer analysis has established a data base for applications in the industrial world. Testing has proved that the same system can provide documentation and evidence in all facets of modern day life. The medicolegal aspects in civil and criminal litigation are no exception. The primary function of the image processing system is to derive all of the information available from the image being processed. The process will extract this information in an unbiased manner, based solely on the physics of reflected light energy. The computer will analyze this information and present it in pictorial form, with mathematical data to support the form presented. This information can be presented in the courtroom with full credibility as an unbiased, reliable witness. New scientific techniques shown in the courtroom are subject to their validity being proven. Past imaging techniques shown in the courtroom have made the conventional rules of evidence more difficult because of the different informational content and format required for presentation of these data. I believe the manner in which the evidence can now be presented in pictorial form will simplify the acceptance. Everyone, including the layman, the judge, and the jury, will be able to identify and understand the implications of the before and after changes to the image being presented. In this article, I have mentioned just some of the ways in which image processing by computer analysis can be useful in civil and criminal litigation areas: existing photographic evidence; forensic reconstruction; correlation of effect evidence with cause of evidence; medical records as legal protection; providing evidence of circumstance of death; child abuse, with tracking over time to prevent death; investigation of operating room associated deaths; detection of blood at the scene of the crime and on suspected objects; use of scales at the scene of the crime; providing medicolegal evidence beyond today

  19. They would if they could: class, gender, and popular representation of English divorce litigation, 1858-1908.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Gail

    2011-01-01

    A systematic sample of the petitions presented to the English Divorce Court from 1858 through 1908 makes it possible to assess the differential contribution of discrete social and economic subgroups to the litigation the Court oversaw. An examination of four of these -- the titled aristocracy, those employed in the theater, those in receipt of financial aid, and laborers -- shows that English divorce litigants exhibited a broader social profile than commonly attributed to it by the newspaper coverage of divorce litigation, which gave a skewed impression of its social profile. Analysis of these cases underscores the gendered, class, and geographically inflected demand for divorce in a judicial setting that imposed severe restrictions on access to divorce as a remedy for marital breakdown.

  20. The Expected Net Present Value of Developing Weight Management Drugs in the Context of Drug Safety Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Anita; Carls, Ginger; Deng, Edmund; Tuttle, Edward

    2015-07-01

    Following withdrawals, failures, and significant litigation settlements, drug product launches in the anti-obesity category slowed despite a large and growing unmet need. Litigation concerns, a more risk-averse regulatory policy, and the difficulty of developing a product with a compelling risk-benefit profile in this category may have limited innovators' expected return on investment and restricted investment in this therapeutic area. The objective of the study was to estimate perceived manufacturer risk associated with product safety litigation and increased development costs vs. revenue expectations on anticipated return on investment and to determine which scenarios might change a manufacturer's investment decision. Expected net present value of a weight-management drug entering pre-clinical trials was calculated for a range of scenarios representing evolving expectations of development costs, revenue, and litigation risk over the past 25 years. These three factors were based on published estimates, historical data, and analogs from other therapeutic areas. The main driver in expected net present value calculations is expected revenue, particularly if one assumes that litigation risk and demand are positively correlated. Changes in development costs associated with increased regulatory concern with potential safety issues for the past 25 years likely did not impact investment decisions. Regulatory policy and litigation risk both played a role in anti-obesity drug development; however, product revenue-reflecting efficacy at acceptable levels of safety-was by far the most important factor. To date, relatively modest sales associated with recent product introductions suggest that developing a product that is sufficiently efficacious with an acceptable level of safety continues to be the primary challenge in this market.

  1. Does litigation increase or decrease health care quality? A national study of negligence claims against nursing homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G.; Spittal, Matthew J.; Studdert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The tort system is supposed to help improve the quality and safety of health care, but whether it actually does so is controversial. Most previous studies modeling the effect of negligence litigation on quality of care are ecologic. Objective To assess whether the experience of being sued and incurring litigation costs affects the quality of care subsequently delivered in nursing homes. Research Design, Subjects, Measures We linked information on 6,471 negligence claims brought against 1,514 nursing homes between 1998 and 2010 to indicators of nursing home quality drawn from two U.S. national datasets (Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system; Minimum Data Set Quality Measure/Indicator Reports). At the facility level, we tested for associations between 9 quality measures and 3 variables indicating the nursing homes’ litigation experience in the preceding 12–18 months (total indemnity payments; total indemnity payments plus administrative costs; ≥1 paid claims vs. none). The analyses adjusted for quality at baseline, case-mix, ownership, occupancy, year, and facility and state random effects. Results Nearly all combinations of the 3 litigation exposure measures and 9 quality measures—27 models in all—showed an inverse relationship between litigation costs and quality. However only a few of these associations were statistically significant, and the effect sizes were very small. For example, a doubling of indemnity payments was associated with a 1.1% increase in the number of deficiencies and a 2.2% increase in pressure ulcer rates. Conclusions Tort litigation does not increase the quality performance of nursing homes, and may decrease it slightly. PMID:23552438

  2. The evaluation of sexual harassment litigants: reducing discrepancies in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Angela K; Wright, Caroline Vaile; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2013-10-01

    Relatively few targets of sexual harassment cope with the psychological sequelae of their experiences by engaging in litigation. Those who do are often subjected to forensic examination to evaluate their history of psychological distress or disorder and to determine whether such a condition could be reasonably attributed to the alleged harassment, as opposed to some other cause. An unbiased approach to such examinations is critical to all parties, as well as to the profession itself. This study investigates the relationship between the clinical and restructured clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Trauma Symptom Inventory subscales, the Crime-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CR-PTSD) scale, and an American Psychiatric Association diagnosis (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM-IV-TR; 4th ed., text rev., 2000, Washington, DC, Author) of PTSD in a sample of sexual harassment plaintiffs. All measures performed well independently, but together provided improved predictive accuracy, suggesting that the use of multiple validated measures as well as structured diagnostic interviews may help us better understand litigants' experiences and reduce bias in evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Reducing medical complaints and litigation in Malaysia: turning patients' voices into opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn

    2007-10-01

    One of the most important ironies of modern health care is that public expectations are rising faster than the ability of health services to meet them. Patients nowadays no longer want to be treated as passive recipients of medical care but as co-producers or partners able to manage their illnesses. Thus, it is not surprising that poor communication and failure to take into account the patient's perspective are at the heart of most formal complaints and legal actions in Malaysia. The difficulties of existing complaint procedures in Malaysia have become manifest over the years and this has been accentuated by patients becoming more willing to challenge the decisions of medical practitioners and health service management in court. To reduce the number of complaints and risks of litigation, a more patient-centred approach should be adopted. When patients voice their concern by making a complaint or inquiry, this should be seen as a unique source of information for health care services on why adverse events occur and how to prevent them. As well as reducing future harm to patients, better management of complaints should restore trust and reduce the risk of litigation, through open communication and a commitment to learn from the problem. The existing procedures for patients to be heard in Malaysia should be reviewed and incorporate features such as responsiveness, accessibility, impartiality, simplicity, speed and accountability.

  4. THE ACTIVE ROLE OF THE JUDGE IN THE FIELD OF UNFAIR TERMS LITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Titus Paveliu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unfair contract terms mark a delicate area in the field of consumer protection given the premise in which the consumer finds himself. This field of private law stems from the idea that the consumer needs an enhanced protection which from a legal standpoint may consist of introducing of measures of substantial law that can provide support in the precontractual phase, with evidence and even in understanding the legal consequences at hand. At a first glance, these comprise most of the benefits a consumer is granted and may choose to utilize in a litigation procedure against a professional in case on unfair contract terms. However, there is also a lesser known benefit that comes in the form of the obligation of the national courts to sanction on its own motion and in any procedural phase the occurrence of unfair contract terms. This line of thought has support within the Romanian legal system, but the decisive arguments in this sense com in the form of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union from the past decades. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the hystorical evolution of the active role of the court in civil law litigation, especially from the perspective of unfair terms cases in which consumers are parties to the proceedings, and to highlight the process that the Romanian judges have to follow in solving this type of cases.

  5. Assessing Success in School Finance Litigation: The Case of New Jersey. Education, Equity, and the Law. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Weiss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Education finance policy in New Jersey has been shaped by over 30 years of school finance litigation. Through its decisions in "Robinson v. Cahill" (1973-1976) and "Abbott v. Burke" (1985-2005), the justices of New Jersey's supreme court have defined the state's constitutional guarantee of a "thorough and efficient"…

  6. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  7. The Principal's Quick-Reference Guide to School Law: Reducing Liability, Litigation, and Other Potential Legal Tangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunklee, Dennis R.; Shoop, Robert J.

    This book is designed to inform school administrators regarding school law. As a resource, it provides suggested, easy-to-understand guidelines for the avoidance of litigation. Subjects include preventive law and risk management; constitutional and statutory foundations of staff selection, contracting, and evaluation; negligent hiring, defamation,…

  8. 75 FR 8045 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act Correction Notice document 2010-3168 appearing on page 7441 in the issue of Friday, February 19, 2010 was included in error...

  9. 37 CFR 201.15 - Special handling of pending claims requiring expedited processing for purposes of litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special handling of pending... PROVISIONS § 201.15 Special handling of pending claims requiring expedited processing for purposes of... compelling need for the service exists due to pending or prospective litigation, customs matters, or contract...

  10. 9 CFR 205.214 - Litigation as to whether a system is operating in compliance with the Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as to whether a system is operating in compliance with the Section. (a) The requirements for a system... certification, is operating in compliance, thus whether it is a “central filing system” as defined, could be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litigation as to whether a system is...

  11. The Tobacco Industry’s Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS, is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO report’s argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word “deadly” from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  12. INTERACTION BETWEEN HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND DOMESTIC LITIGATIONS CONCERNING DOMICILE OF THE CHILD AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Magda VOICULESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the vast majority of cases, international abduction of a child determines almost per se litigations both at international and national level, namely an international litigation based on provisions of Hague Convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction and a domestic litigation aiming at establishing the domicile of the child in the state of destination and other different measures concerning the child which fall within the area of parental authority (joint or exclusive. The purpose of the article is to analyze the interaction between the international and the national case and how they influence each other from a double perspective (procedural and substantial, taking into account that the two litigations are generally pending at the same time. Even the mere coexistence of the two litigations gives rise to the question which one should have priority in solving. Therefore, the objectives of this study are, on the one hand, to examine the implications in the domestic litigation of the decision pronounced in the Hague litigation (international competence, suspension of the national case, elements which are covered by the res judicata principle, and on the other hand to identify how a national decision on domicile and parental authority may influence the solution in the Hague case.

  13. A review of medical malpractice issues in Malaysia under tort litigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, Siti Naaishah; Khodapanahandeh, Solmaz

    2014-04-07

    Medical malpractice cases are a matter of much concern in many countries including Malaysia where several cases caught the attention of the public and authorities. Although comprehensive annual statistics on medical negligence claims are not available in Malaysia since such data are not collected systematically in this country there are indications of an upward trend. Medical malpractice cases have been publicized by the media, academic researchers and in government annual reports prompting government policy makers, oversight agencies and the medical profession itself to take appropriate action. The increasing dissatisfaction with the current tort litigation system requires exploring alternatives and new approaches for handling medical malpractice cases. This study aims to examine the difficulties inherent in the tort system in Malaysia for solving medical malpractice claims and evaluates the structure of this system from the perspective of effectiveness, fairness, compensation, accessibility, and accountability.

  14. Review of Medical Malpractice Issues in Malaysia under Tort Litigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, Siti Naaishah; Khodapanahandeh, Solmaz

    2014-01-01

    Medical malpractice cases are a matter of much concern in many countries including Malaysia where several cases caught the attention of the public and authorities. Although comprehensive annual statistics on medical negligence claims are not available in Malaysia since such data are not collected systematically in this country there are indications of an upward trend. Medical malpractice cases have been publicized by the media, academic researchers and in government annual reports prompting government policy makers, oversight agencies and the medical profession itself to take appropriate action. The increasing dissatisfaction with the current tort litigation system requires exploring alternatives and new approaches for handling medical malpractice cases. This study aims to examine the difficulties inherent in the tort system in Malaysia for solving medical malpractice claims and evaluates the structure of this system from the perspective of effectiveness, fairness, compensation, accessibility, and accountability. PMID:24999124

  15. Compensation for damage caused by abuse of procedural rights in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakočević Milka V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of compensation for damage caused by the abuse of procedural rights as a measure within the oppressive apparatus for sanctioning the abuse of process in civil proceedings, which issue is, unlike others related to the idea of prohibition of abuse of rights within the system of civil procedure, the least treated in the procedural doctrine. The author deals with procedural aspects of certain essential issues that are important in the context of the matter concerned, highlighting the nature of the claim for damages caused by the abuse of process, the manner this right is realized (whether in the pending litigation or by initiating a separate civil procedure, the procedural form of the claim for compensation of damages, etc.

  16. Barriers to Advocacy and Litigation in the Equality Courts for Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willene Holness

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective implementation of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000 (PEPUDA and the fulfilment of the South African state's obligations in terms of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD are dependent on two fundamental tools, advocacy and litigation. This article discusses the outcome of three cases in the Equality Courts and how these cases promote accessibility and access to justice for persons with disabilities. The authors then consider the impact of CREATE, a KwaZulu-Natal NGO's advocacy initiatives to promote the rights of persons with disabilities and the utilisation of the Equality Court to realise those rights. Participants of ten workshops in KwaZulu-Natal identified three barriers to access to justice in accessing the Equality Courts. Firstly, some Equality Courts are geographically (and financially inaccessible. Secondly, the negative and insensitive attitudes of front-line workers impact on the ability of persons with disabilities to bring equality claims to and access the services of the Equality Court. These barriers constitute discrimination and flout articles 9 and 13 of the CRPD, which require the provision of support for persons with disabilities to access the justice system and the promotion of accessibility to the physical environment, and the provision to them of transportation, information and other services. Thirdly, cultural norms and fears impede access to courts and the agency of persons with disabilities to bring these claims, for example the requirement that traditional leaders provide "permission" to persons with disabilities to sue and a similar requirement of permission from the in-laws of women with disabilities. The article analyses the three barriers identified as inhibiting advocacy and litigation, and explains the implication of these barriers for the state's obligations in terms of articles 5, 8, 9, 12 and 13 of the CRPD. Recommendations

  17. MOYENS ALTERNATIFS DE RÈGLEMENT DES LITIGES: REALITÉS, PERSPECTIVES ET ENJEUX EUROPÉENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROŞU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the development of alternative dispute resolution is related to many circumstances.ADR techniques are being used more and more, as parties and lawyers and courts realize that these techniques can often help them resolve legal disputes faster and cheaper and more privately than can conventional litigation. More- over, many people prefer ADR approaches because they see these methods as being more creative and more focused on problem solving than litigation, which has always been based on an adversarial model.Although certain ADR techniques are well established and frequently used — for example, mediation and arbitration — alternative dispute resolution has no fixed definition.The definition of alternative dispute resolution is constantly expanding to include new techniques.

  18. Trend of Malpractice Litigation against Neurosurgeons in Japan: An Analysis of Disclosed Database by Courts in Japan from 2001 through 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisashi; Wada, Yoshitaka; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-15

    Following the modern raising of public awareness, the numbers of malpractice litigation are increasing in the health care delivery system in Japan despite the extensive efforts of physicians. Authors reviewed the issues of litigation and the reasons for court decision from the healthcare-related negligence lawsuits in the past 15 years in Japan and investigated the cautionary points for reducing potential litigation. Healthcare-related negligence lawsuits between January 2001 and December 2015 were retrieved and sorted in each clinical field from the database in Courts in Japan and investigated on the proportional factors of the claims and court decisions in the neurosurgical field. During the period, 446 of healthcare-related court decisions including 41 against neurosurgeons (9.2%) were retrieved. Three of 41 decisions retrieved were decisions to retries for lower court decisions. In 38 claims against the neurosurgeons, 26 identified the negligence and 12 dismissed. In 26 decisions in favor of the plaintiffs, identified negligence in diagnosis in 4, clinical judgment in 3, technical skills in 5, clinical management in 7 and process of informed consent in 7. Five out of 18 decisions after 2006 were identified as negligence in an informed consent process, and additional one, who was mainly identified in inadequate technical skills also identified existing an inadequate informed consent process as a fundamental cause of litigation. Neurosurgeons are a higher risk group for malpractice litigation in Japan and adequate informed consent is important to reduce the risk of litigation.

  19. The Civil Rights Act of 1991: From Conciliation to Litigation-- How Congress Delegates Lawmaking to the Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    instead of attacking the causes. The 1991 Act is a law of stratification that encourages racism , sexism , and litigation to further individual goals and...30 D. What About Those Statistics ? ............................ 31 E. Race Norming - The Dos and Don’ts of Test Scores...in Title VII to recognize group rights through a "disparate impact" theory of discrimination. In Griggs v. Duke Power Co.,` the Court recognized that

  20. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  1. IMPACT OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN LITIGATION CONCERNING ACCESS TO HIGH-COST DRUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Perez Galan, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The impact of health technology assessment (HTA) in the judicialization of the right of health has not been deeply studied in Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to review the process of judicialization of the access to high cost drugs in Uruguay and assess the impact HTAs have had on this process. The methodology used for this study included a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases, local journals, internal documents developed in the Ministry of Health, as well as conducting interviews with key informants. Judicialization of the access of high cost drugs has been increasing since 2010. The strategy of the Ministry of Health of Uruguay to decrease this problem included the organization of roundtables with judges and other stakeholders on the basis of HTA, the training of defense lawyers in the use and interpretation of HTA, and the participation of a professional who develops HTA in the preparation of the defense arguments. A year after the implementation of this strategy, 25 percent of writs of protection were won by the Ministry of Health. Even though the strategy implemented was effective in reducing the loss of litigations, it was not effective in reducing the growing number of writs of protection. It is essential to address this problem in a broad debate and to promote understanding between the parties.

  2. How to avoid liability litigation in courts – Suggestions from a German example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebermeister, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical art is difficult, its results can not always be predicted. After looking at TV, patients know more or think they know more about medicine. They tend to assume faulty diagnostics or treatment by their physician, if the good result promised by the news-media or by the doctor himself has not been obtained. The resulting litigation in court is time-consuming, causes a lot of paperwork and frequently leads to negative publicity for the doctor in the local news-media. Therefore, in 1975, the German Medical Associations in the different federal areas have founded expert committees to help solve this problem. These avoid negative publicity, heavy expenses and law-suits. Presidents of these committees are high-level judges – mostly retired – with experience in the field. They are masters of the procedure, choose the experts and formulate the final draft. This structure invalidates the understandable suspicion that physicians will protect each other or – as we say in Germany: “A crow will not hurt the eye of another one”. The system is now well accepted by liability insurances, lawyers and patients.

  3. Surgical Fires and Operative Burns: Lessons Learned From a 33-Year Review of Medical Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Asad J; Haddad, Nadeem N; Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Cullinane, Daniel C; Zielinski, Martin D

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to understand the setting and litigation outcomes of surgical fires and operative burns. Westlaw, an online legal research data-set, was utilized. Data were collected on patient, procedure, and case characteristics. One hundred thirty-nine cases were identified; 114 (82%) operative burns and 25 (18%) surgical fires. Median plaintiff (patient) age was 46 (IQR:28-59). Most common site of operative burn was the face (26% [n = 36]). Most common source of injury was a high energy device (43% [n = 52]). Death was reported in 2 (1.4%) cases. Plaintiff age <18 vs age 18-50 and mention of a non-surgical physician as a defendant both were shown to be independently associated with an award payout (OR = 4.90 [95% CI, 1.23-25.45]; p = .02) and (OR = 4.50 [95% CI, 1.63-13.63]; p = .003) respectively. Plaintiff award payment (settlement or plaintiff verdict) was reported in 83 (60%) cases; median award payout was $215,000 (IQR: $82,000-$518,000). High energy devices remain as the most common cause of injury. Understanding and addressing pitfalls in operative care may mitigate errors and potentially lessen future liability. III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Model for Developing a Coparenting Relationship After Protracted Litigation: The Case of Antonia, a 14-Year-Old Caught in the Crossfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Annette

    2016-05-01

    Research has consistently documented long-term negative effects of high-conflict divorce on children's mental health. Court-issued custody and visitation judgments require parental collaboration, yet it is often challenging for parents to shift their interactions from acrimonious to cooperative, leaving children at increased risk for further exposure to conflict. Clinicians have developed strategies that help parents reduce conflict and increase coparenting skills after divorce. In this work, therapists integrate an empathic, active clinical stance and incorporate parenting education and skill building to help shift parents from a relationship marked by conflict to collaboration. A clinical case study provides an illustration of the steps involved in engaging a highly reactive and acrimonious mother and father in a Coparenting Treatment after prolonged litigation. It traces specific changes the parents implemented during 2 years of monthly sessions and the positive effects on the family system, including both the daughter's relationship to each parent and the parents' capacity to cooperate on her behalf. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Litigation in Obstetrics: a Lesson Learnt and a Lesson to Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Min Chou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A perfect baby is the expectation of all parents, and a perfect outcome is the mission of obstetrics. Every obstetrician dreads to hear that there is an unexpected maternal mortality and/or severe fetal injury at the hospital. The role of a perceived public expectation of perfection in obstetric medicine reflects a belief that bad outcomes in obstetrics should not be tolerated and that every maternal-fetal injury merits financial compensation and punishment. What has brought these troubling times to obstetric medicine? The drivers behind malpractice crises are the four leading interest groups in the medical-legal debate: pregnant patients and their environment (husband, parents, relatives, friends, legislators, and the media, health-care providers, insurance companies, and trial attorneys. Litigation in obstetrics is the result of a complex of events when malpractice (presumed or real impacts on the attitude of pregnant women and their environment. In such complexity, information is mandatory but may often be misinterpreted. If messages are not tailored to the receiver's capacity, communicating well with the pregnant patient becomes crucial. Therefore, to reduce medical-legal issues in obstetrics, increasing attention and an applicable standard of obstetric care to avoid negligence and medical errors should go along with better communication with pregnant women. Communication should be clear, targeted, effective, flexible, and empathic to share a common language and decisions. This review briefly presents and discusses some of the most frequently encountered medical-legal claim cases in obstetric practice. In-depth review of pregnancy-related deaths and major morbidities can help determine strategies needed to continue making pregnancy safer.

  6. IMPROVING LEGAL ARGUMENT CRITICALLY IN THE LITIGATION MECHANISM IN INDONESIA (AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL VERDICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Lisdiyono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal argument is a debate or argument in explaining the issues between two or more people performed in court. Legal argument is one way to perform law finding with the purpose to avoid legal vacuum when the judge makes a legal reasoning in a verdict. In making a legal argument, it is at least performed by legal reasoning, logic, facts. However, some judges, in making a decision, did not use the legal arguments by legal reasoning and facts so that it resulted in debates and arguments. It is  interesting to study on how to build legal argument in the litigation mechanism in Indonesia. Some verdicts in Indonesia have been the debate among the public through social media, by both academic and non-academic communities, because they were not based on the legal facts revealed at the trials and not in favor of the public sense of justice. Some of the examples are the verdict in the case of the environmental lawsuits of Lapindo Brantas Mud in Sidoarjo, the case verdict in Palembang District Court on the lawsuit filed by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry on forest fires and land concessions of PT. Bumi Mekar Hijau in 2014. From the decisions, it turned out that the judges, in making the legal arguments for their decisions, had deviated from the analogy and were not based on the existing legal facts. In building legal arguments, it would have to be conducted by collecting data (evidence and clear fact so that its solutions do not deviate from the rules of law

  7. Fen-Phen Litigation Against American Home Products Corporation: The Widespread Use of Fenfluramine (Pondimin) and Dexfenfluramine (Redux) for Weight Loss, The Health Problems Associated with Those Drugs, the Resulting Litigation Against American Home Prod

    OpenAIRE

    Tragos, Camille N.

    2000-01-01

    The fen-phen affair has spawned thousands of lawsuits and a multitude of scientific studies concerning valvular heart disease. It has also led to a lively debate over off-label prescriptions, medical monitoring, and class actions. The proposed Settlement Agreement, while an attempt to put an end to the valvular litigation, will not be the end of the fen-phen affair. The Settlement Agreement has been widely criticized and plaintiffs' lawyers have indicated that there will be a large number of ...

  8. Winning From the Beginning: International Electronic Discovery in Commercial Litigation and the Home Field Advantage of American Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    As technology is increasingly integrated into every aspect of the commercial environment, the amount of data generated from each transaction multiplies. Electronic discovery (eDiscovery) represents the collision of data and the law; in this paper, the powerful influence of the American judicial system is explored as it relates to the pursuit of digitally native file types for use in matters of litigation that transcend International borders. Home of the Silicon Valley, the world’s bigge...

  9. The Most Restrictive Alternative: A Litigation History of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons, 1960-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Keramet Ann

    2012-01-01

    Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a supermax between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. This chapter examines the role of federal prisoners’ rights litigation in the 1960s and 1970s in shaping the prisons, especially supermaxes, built in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States. This chapter uses a systematic analysis of federal court case law, as well as archival re...

  10. Traditional Knowledge and Social Science on Trial: Battles over Evidence in Indigenous Rights Litigation in Canada and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Ray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge and oral traditions history are crucial lines of evidence in Aboriginal claims litigation and alternative forms of resolution, most notably claims commissions. This article explores the ways in which these lines of evidence pose numerous challenges in terms of how and where they can be presented, who is qualified to present it, questions about whether this evidence can stand on its own, and the problems of developing appropriate measures to protect it from inappropriate use by outsiders while not unduly restricting access by the traditional owners.

  11. The MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Symptom Validity Scale (FBS/FBS-r) is not a measure of 'litigation response syndrome': commentary on Nichols and Gass (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Boone, Kyle B; Rohling, Martin L

    2017-11-01

    To address (1) Whether there is empirical evidence for the contention of Nichols and Gass that the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF FBS/FBS-r Symptom Validity Scale is a measure of Litigation Response Syndrome (LRS), representing a credible set of responses and reactions of claimants to the experience of being in litigation, rather than a measure of non-credible symptom report, as the scale is typically used; and (2) to address their stated concerns about the validity of FBS/FBS-r meta-analytic results, and the risk of false positive elevations in persons with bona-fide medical conditions. Review of published literature on the FBS/FBS-r, focusing in particular on associations between scores on this symptom validity test and scores on performance validity tests (PVTs), and FBS/FBS-r score elevations in patients with genuine neurologic, psychiatric and medical problems. (1) several investigations show significant associations between FBS/FBS-r scores and PVTs measuring non-credible performance; (2) litigants who pass PVTs do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r; (3) non-litigating medical patients (bariatric surgery candidates, persons with sleep disorders, and patients with severe traumatic brain injury) who have multiple physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r. Two meta-analytic studies show large effect sizes for FBS/FBS-r of similar magnitude. FBS/FBS-r measures non-credible symptom report rather than legitimate experience of litigation stress. Importantly, the absence of significant FBS/FBS-r elevations in litigants who pass PVTs demonstrating credible performance, directly contradicts the contention of Nichols and Gass that the scale measures LRS. These data, meta-analytic publications, and recent test use surveys support the admissibility of FBS/FBS-r under both Daubert and the older Frye criteria.

  12. Litigation, Mass Media, and the Campaign to Criminalize the Firearms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Haltom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the co-authors’ researches on mass media coverage of crusades against manufacturers and marketers of tobacco products in the United States to media coverage of similar crusades against manufacturers and marketers of firearms in the United States. The major contention of the article is that firearms-reformers have used civil suits and allied publicity outside courts to depict firearms producers and retailers as criminals. A major tactic that has unified reformers’ efforts inside and outside courts is deployment of crimtorts, civil litigation for torts that includes elements of criminal prosecution. Crimtorts and publicity through entertainment media enabled opponents of firearms companies to lose case after case yet to damage the reputations or brands of firearms makers and marketers. The firearms interests fended off crusaders in civil action after civil action yet became portrayed as outright criminals owing mostly to crimtorts. Este artículo amplia las investigaciones de los autores sobre la cobertura mediática de las cruzadas contra productores y vendedores de tabaco en los Estados Unidos hacia la cobertura mediática de cruzadas similares contra productores y vendedores de armas de fuego en Estados Unidos. El argumento principal del artículo sostiene que los que buscan la reforma de la legislación sobre armas de fuego han utilizado las demandas civiles y la publicidad externa a los tribunales para representar a los productores y vendedores de armas de fuego como criminales. Una táctica principal que ha unido los esfuerzos de los reformistas dentro y fuera de los tribunales es el uso de crimtorts, juicios civiles para acciones por responsabilidad civil extracontractual que incluyen elementos de procesos criminales. A pesar de perder caso tras caso, los crimtorts y la publicidad en los medios de entretenimiento permitió a los oponentes a las compañías armamentísticas perjudicar la reputación o las marcas de

  13. THE ADVERSARIAL SYSTEM AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD IN DIVORCE LITIGATION: SOME THOUGHTS REGARDING COLLABORATIVE LAW AS A MEANS TO RESOLVE PARENTAL DISPUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution it is argued that the adversarial system of litigation does not serve the best interests of children upon divorce. After a brief analysis of the system it is concluded that other less aggressive means of litigation should be considered under upon divorce. Collaborative Law is suggested as a means to bear in mind. The fact that current practice of lawyer negotiations in respect of divorce is not too far removed from Collaborative Law may lead to practitioners readily accepting the concept.

  14. Using litigation to defend women prosecuted for abortion in Mexico: challenging state laws and the implications of recent court judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jennifer; Noriega, Regina Tamés; Puga, Alma Luz Beltrán Y

    2014-11-01

    While women in Mexico City can access free, safe and legal abortion during the first trimester, women in other Mexican states face many barriers. To complicate matters, between 2008 and 2009, 16 state constitutions were amended to protect life from conception. While these reforms do not annul existing legal abortion indications, they have created additional obstacles for women. Health providers increasingly report women who seek life-saving care for complications such as haemorrhage to the police, and some cases eventually end up in court. The Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida (GIRE) has successfully litigated such cases in state courts, with positive outcomes. However, state courts have mainly focused on procedural issues. The Mexican Supreme Court ruling supporting Mexico City's law has had a positive effect, but a stronger stance is needed. This paper discusses the constitutional framework and jurisprudence regarding abortion in Mexico, and the recent Costa Rica decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. We assert that Mexican states must guarantee women's access to abortion on the legal grounds established in law. We continue to support litigation at the state level to oblige courts to exonerate women prosecuted for illegal abortion. Advocacy should, of course, also address the legislative and executive branches, while working simultaneously to set legal precedents on abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The assault on bad food: tobacco-style litigation as an element of the comprehensive scheme to fight obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehn, Jada J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in the U.S. has reached epidemic proportions. A dilemma of this sort must be attacked with a comprehensive, multi-faceted scheme. Litigation against the companies providing dangerous food has been called trivial, but allowing market forces to regulate has proven ineffective. The history of tobacco litigation has revealed that industry is willing to ignore dangers, act solely in the interest of profit, and completely disregard public health. The notion that all consumers have enough information to make an autonomous choice and focus only on health when purchasing food borders is unrealistic. Legislatures, that will ignore the huge lobbying dollars spent by the food industry, and enact laws with only the public health of the citizenry in mind, fall in the same category of naivete. Corporations are obligated to shareholders, who are concerned universally with profits. To get the attention of food industry, it is necessary to hit them where they notice - in the wallet - by way of legal damage awards. The battle against bad food needs to be fought on every possible front and the courtroom should be one theater of combat. As evidence of fraudulent and deceptive industry practice is brought to light, state attorneys general have a responsibility to take the same course of action as tobacco, by filing fraud suits to recoup state funds spent on the negative health effects of the detrimental food.

  16. MMPI-2 validity, clinical and content scales, and the Fake Bad Scale for personal injury litigants claiming idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, Herman; Phillips, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a descriptor for nonspecific complaints that are attributed to environmental exposure. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) was administered to 50 female and 20 male personal injury litigants alleging IEI. The validity scales indicated no overreporting of psychopathology. Half of the cases had elevated scores on validity scales suggesting defensiveness, and a large number had elevations on Fake Bad Scale (FBS) suggesting overreporting of unauthenticated symptoms. The average T-score profile for females was defined by the two-point code type 3-1 (Hysteria-Hypochondriasis), and the average T-score profile for males was defined by the three-point code type 3-1-2 (Hysteria, Hypochondriasis-Depression). On the content scales, Health Concerns (HEA) scale was significantly elevated. Idiopathic environmental intolerance litigants (a) are more defensive about expressing psychopathology, (b) express distress through somatization, (c) use a self-serving misrepresentation of exaggerated health concerns, and (d) may exaggerate unauthenticated symptoms suggesting malingering.

  17. The role of human rights litigation in improving access to reproductive health care and achieving reductions in maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer Templeton; Lesyna, Katherine; Zaret, Anna

    2017-11-08

    Improving maternal health, reducing global maternal mortality, and working toward universal access to reproductive health care are global priorities for United Nations agencies, national governments, and civil society organizations. Human rights lawyers have joined this global movement, using international law and domestic constitutions to hold nations accountable for preventable maternal death and for failing to provide access to reproductive health care services. This article discusses three decisions in which international treaty bodies find the nations of Brazil and Peru responsible for violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also two domestic decisions alleging constitutional violations in India and Uganda. The authors analyze the impact of these decisions on access to maternal and other reproductive health services in Brazil, Peru, India, and Uganda and conclude that litigation is most effective when aligned with ongoing efforts by the public health community and civil society organizations. In filing these complaints and cases on behalf of individual women and their families, legal advocates highlight health system failures and challenge the historical structures and hierarchies that discriminate against and devalue women. These international and domestic decisions empower women and their communities and inspire nations and other stakeholders to commit to broader social, economic, and political change. Human rights litigation brings attention to existing public health campaigns and supports the development of local and global movements and coalitions to improve women's health.

  18. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  19. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Brauer, J.M.; Vos, P.E.; Werf, S.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. RESEARCH DESIGN: (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a

  20. Delays in medical malpractice litigation in civil law jurisdictions: some evidence from the Italian Court of Cassation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembi, Veronica; Garoupa, Nuno

    2013-10-01

    Medical malpractice law and tort reform are contentious issues. In this paper, we focus on Italy as an example of a civil law jurisdiction. Italian medical malpractice law is essentially judge-made law. However, its effectiveness is likely to be curtailed by excessive delays in litigation. Several reforms have been enacted since the late 1980s to correct this situation. By making use of the decisions of the Italian Court of Cassation (which have shaped medical malpractice law) from 1970 to 2009, we show that these reforms had no general statistically significant impact on delays. Recent reduction of delays does not seem to be related to legal reforms but rather explained by other factors.

  1. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  2. Learning from the Law. A review of 21 years of litigation for pain during caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombe, K; Bogod, D G

    2018-02-01

    The large majority of caesarean sections in the UK are now carried out under neuraxial anaesthesia. Although this technique is widely accepted as being the safest option in most circumstances, the use of regional anaesthesia increases the risk of patients experiencing intra-operative discomfort or pain. Pain during operative obstetric delivery is the commonest successful negligence claim relating to regional anaesthesia against obstetric anaesthetists in the UK. In the following article, using a database of over 360 cases spanning 21 years, we break down and examine the recurrent components of medicolegal claims concerning pain during caesarean section and consider how anaesthetists might avoid litigation. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Independent validation of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic/Cognitive and Validity scales in TBI Litigants tested for effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R; Wershba, Rebecca; Stevenson, Matthew; Sturgeon, John; Thomas, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) is replacing the MMPI-2 as the most widely used personality test in neuropsychological assessment, but additional validation studies are needed. Our study examines MMPI-2-RF Validity scales and the newly created Somatic/Cognitive scales in a recently reported sample of 82 traumatic brain injury (TBI) litigants who either passed or failed effort tests (Thomas & Youngjohn, 2009). The restructured Validity scales FBS-r (restructured symptom validity), F-r (restructured infrequent responses), and the newly created Fs (infrequent somatic responses) were not significant predictors of TBI severity. FBS-r was significantly related to passing or failing effort tests, and Fs and F-r showed non-significant trends in the same direction. Elevations on the Somatic/Cognitive scales profile (MLS-malaise, GIC-gastrointestinal complaints, HPC-head pain complaints, NUC-neurological complaints, and COG-cognitive complaints) were significant predictors of effort test failure. Additionally, HPC had the anticipated paradoxical inverse relationship with head injury severity. The Somatic/Cognitive scales as a group were better predictors of effort test failure than the RF Validity scales, which was an unexpected finding. MLS arose as the single best predictor of effort test failure of all RF Validity and Somatic/Cognitive scales. Item overlap analysis revealed that all MLS items are included in the original MMPI-2 Hy scale, making MLS essentially a subscale of Hy. This study validates the MMPI-2-RF as an effective tool for use in neuropsychological assessment of TBI litigants.

  4. Strengthening Locus Standi in Human Rights Litigation in Zimbabwe: An analysis of the Provisions in the New Zimbabwean Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovemore Chiduza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabweans have been both victims of and witnesses to serious human rights violations over the years. Though there is wide agreement and speculation that the state and its agencies are the perpetrators of these atrocities, they have largely remained unprosecuted and unpunished. Such impunity is inter alia the result of ineffective law enforcement mechanisms and institutions as well as the lack of capacity and legal knowledge of victims to approach the courts and seek redress. These factors negatively affected the protection of human rights and access to justice in Zimbabwe. Although the Lancaster House Constitution contained a Declaration of Rights, its enforcement mechanisms, particularly those relating to locus standi (legal standing, posed a great challenge to human rights litigation in Zimbabwe. This is so because the Lancaster House Constitution adopted the traditional common law approach to standing. Under this approach it was required that an individual must have a "personal, direct or substantial interest" in a matter in order to have standing. The Lancaster House Constitution failed to recognise the importance of broader rules of standing, which would accommodate public interest litigation, specifically for protecting human rights. Contrary to this, the new Constitution of Zimbabwe (2013 broadens the rules of standing in order to enhance access to the courts. This paper analyses the new approach to standing under the new constitutional dispensation in Zimbabwe. To this end, the discussion commences with an elucidation of the concept of locus standi and its link to access to justice. This is followed by an analysis of locus standi under the Lancaster House Constitution. Since the new approach in Zimbabwe is greatly informed by the South African approach to locus standi, a brief analysis of standing in South Africa is made. The paper concludes with a discussion of the approach to locus standi under the new constitution with a view to

  5. Rights, Regulation and Bureaucratic Impact: The Impact of Human Rights Litigation on the Regulation of Informal Trade in Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pieterse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemplating the extent to which rights-based litigation is conducive to positive social change, attention ought to be paid to the bureaucratic impact of court judgments that vindicate rights against the State. As a case study of such impact, this article considers the effects of human rights litigation on the regulation of informal trade in the City of Johannesburg, where a 2013 attempt by local government to clamp down on informal trade in the central business district (CBD led to high-profile court action. After describing and problematising the City's general approach to managing informal trade, the article focuses on "Operation Clean Sweep", which aimed to rid much of the CBD of informal traders and became the focal point of rights-based resistance. It then briefly describes the constitutional and jurisprudential framework within which the legal challenge to "Operation Clean Sweep" was to be decided, before critically discussing the judgment of the Constitutional Court in South African Informal Traders Forum v City of Johannesburg 2014 4 SA 371 (CC, which effectively halted "Operation Clean Sweep" by interdicting the City from removing traders from their places of business. The article then proceeds to consider the aftermath of the judgment, and assesses its impact on the City's informal trade policy and urban management practices, as well as on the broader regulatory and political environment around street trade in South African cities. The article shows that the bureaucratic impact of the judgment has, at best, been mixed, and that the judgment has not been entirely successful in disrupting the legal and bureaucratic mindsets, frameworks and processes that simultaneously create, exacerbate and unsuccessfully attempt to address the "unmanageability" of street trade in Johannesburg.

  6. Business and Human Rights Litigation in Europe and Canada : The Promises of Forum of Necessity Jurisdiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, L.; Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the international debate over the human rights impact of transnational corporations' activities, access to judicial remedies for the human rights consequences of corporate misbehaviour has acquired a rather prominent place. For various reasons, victims of human rights abuses involving

  7. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  8. “Religious Freedom” as a Tool to Oppress: The Explosion in Religion-Based Attacks on Civil Rights in Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Luchenitser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half-decade, there has been an explosion in the United States of lawsuits in which claims to religious liberty have been used to justify abridging the civil rights of women, LGBTQ people, and other minorities. This article surveys such litigation in several areas: health-insurance coverage, healthcare services, marriage-related services, employment, and housing. For each area, the article analyzes recent litigation, compares it to earlier activity (if any, and discusses the kinds of arguments that have been made, how courts have responded to them, and how such arguments are likely to fare in the future. The article concludes that the ultimate fate of many of these kinds of cases will likely be determined by who the next member is of a U.S. Supreme Court that is currently split four-four between social liberals and conservatives.

  9. The Political Economy of Healthcare Litigation : Model and Empirical Application to Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Hamilton, Alexander; Masses-Ferrer, Issel

    2011-01-01

    The political economy of health care is complex, as stakeholders have conflicting preferences over efficiency and equity. This paper formally models the preferences of consumer and producer groups involved in priority setting and judicialization in public health care. It uses a unique dataset of stakeholder perceptions, from Uruguay, to test whether these hypotheses are consistent with emp...

  10. Perception de la notion de litige sportif par les acteurs du mouvement sportif camerounais : entre et lueurs et leurres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Dey Yelem Franck

    2016-01-01

    L'intérêt de cette communication sera de donner le contenu des notions de litige sportif et contentieux électoral et les différentes positions en présence et voir comment les acteurs du mouvement sportif en ont fait une appréhension erronée. Il va aussi permettre à travers la jurisprudence qui est source de droit de trancher définitivement cette équivoque.

  11. A relevância dos precedentes na análise econômica da litigância: um estudo de Law and Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Máximo Rodrigues Neto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que os litigantes agem conforme agentes econômicos, no sentido de que decidem pelo ajuizamento ou não de demandas em virtude do seu custo/benefício, o presente trabalho tem como escopo analisar os custos envolvidos em um processo judicial e como um sistema de precedentes vinculantes pode auxiliar na minoração destes prejuízos, ao mesmo tempo que desestimula a litigância.

  12. Business and Human Rights Litigation in Europe and Canada : The Promises of Forum of Necessity Jurisdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Roorda, L.; Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the international debate over the human rights impact of transnational corporations' activities, access to judicial remedies for the human rights consequences of corporate misbehaviour has acquired a rather prominent place. For various reasons, victims of human rights abuses involving corporations may not have access to the fora offered by corporations' home and host states. Therefore, attention can be turned to bystander states offering an exceptional “forum of necessity” to avert a denia...

  13. War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    separation of powers . Prominent on the surface of any case held to involve a political question is found a textually demonstrable constitutional...and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia again affirmed. The district court stated as a predicate that the separation of powers doctrine...grave separation of powers issues” and observed that courts traditionally have been reluctant “to intercede in disputes between the political

  14. Cross-Border Litigation and ADR Mechanisms in Disputes Concerning Mobile Computing in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss briefly how the EU rules on jurisdiction, choice of law and alternative dispute resolution in civil and commercial matters operate in the context of mobile computing. The article first looks at rules on jurisdiction in commercial disputes, both between businesses...... and between businesses and consumers. It then discusses the choice-of-law issues applicable to mobile computing. Finally, there is an examination of alternative dispute resolution as an alternative to regular courts in transactions involving mobile computing....

  15. Causality and collateral estoppel: process and content of recent SSRI litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul D

    2003-01-01

    In Tobin v. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals a jury in the U.S. District Court for the District of Wyoming found that the medication Paxil "can cause some individuals to commit homicide and/or suicide," and that it was a legal cause of the deaths in this case. A motion was recently put before the United States District Court for the District of Utah to adopt the findings of the Tobin case--via the application of collateral estoppel--to a case involving an individual's suicide while prescribed Paxil. This article summarizes these two cases, as reflected in court documents, and comments on limitations of common causality assertions.

  16. Litigating Economic, Social and Cultural Rights against Transnational Corporations in Indonesian Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Prihandono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available States should take appropriate steps to ensure the effectiveness of domestic judicial mechanisms when addressing business-related human rights abuses. These steps may include ways to reduce legal, practical and other relevant barriers that could lead to a denial of access to remedy. To a certain degree, these problems exist in Indonesia’s judicial remedy mechanism. This article examines court decisions in five cases involving Transnational Corporations (TNCs. These decisions are examined to identify challenges and opportunities in bringing a case on ESC rights violations against TNCs. It is found that claim on ESC rights violation may be brought to the court, and the court has jurisdiction to entertain the case. However, of the five cases filed against TNCs, only in one case has the court decided in favour of the plaintiff. Most of the cases were rejected on procedural matters. This situation suggests that it remains burdensome for the victims of ESC rights violations to seek remedy at the court. There are procedural burdens that has to be faced by plaintiff when bringing ESC rights case against corporations, particularly TNCs. Nevertheless, there are new develop-ments in relation with pursuing ESC rights in court. One of the important development is private business contract between the govern-ment and private corporations may be annulled by the court, if the exercise of the contract would violate the government's obligation to fulfil human rights of the citizens

  17. Examining the impact of sexism on evaluations of social scientific evidence in discrimination litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anita; Tidwell, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    The present 2 studies involved undergraduate participants and investigated whether various types of sexism and other correlated predictors, such as political conservatism and scientific discounting, can predict people's evaluations of social science research on sex stereotypes, sexism, and sex discrimination. In Study 1, participants high in hostile sexism, scientific discounting, and/or political conservatism were more critical of scientific studies that provided evidence for sexism than identical studies showing null results. Study 2 showed that participants high in modern sexism, hostile sexism, and political conservatism evaluated social scientific studies more negatively; in addition, assessments of social scientific evidence quality mediated the effect of modern sexism on admissibility ratings (b = -0.15, z = -4.16, p = .00). Overall, these results suggest that sexist beliefs can bias one's judgments of social scientific evidence. Future research should explore whether the same psychological processes operate for judges and jurors as they evaluate the admissibility of evidence and examine ways to attenuate the effect of sexism on evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a systematic review of litigation in the face of new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagwula, Tochi; Chang, Peter L; Hossain, Amjad; Tyner, Joey; Rivers, Aimée L; Phelps, John Y

    2012-11-01

    To study legal cases against IVF facilities pertaining to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) misdiagnosis. Systematic case law review. University medical center using US legal databases. The IVF recipients using PGD services. Lawsuits pertaining to PGD against IVF facilities. Lawsuits, court rulings, damage awards, and settlements pertaining to PGD after the birth of a child with a genetic defect. Causes of action pertaining to PGD arise from negligence in performing the procedure as well as failure to properly inform patients of key information, such as inherent errors associated with the PGD process, a facility's minimal experience in performing PGD, and the option of obtaining PGD. Courts have sympathized with the financial burden involved in caring for children with disabilities. Monetary damage awards are based on the costs of caring for children with debilitating defects, including lifetime medical and custodial care. Facilities offering PGD services expose themselves to a new realm of liability in which damage awards can easily exceed the limits of a facility's insurance policy. Competent laboratory personnel and proper informed consent--with particular care to inform patients of the inherent inaccuracies of PGD--are crucial in helping deter liability. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Litigating the right to health: what can we learn from a comparative law and health care systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen; Gross, Aeyal

    2014-12-11

    This article presents research demonstrating that the right to health plays different roles in different types of health systems. In high-income countries with tax-funded health systems, we usually encounter a lack of an enforceable right to heath. In contrast, rights play a more significant role in social health insurance/managed competition systems (which are present in a mixture of high-income and middle-income countries). There is concern, for example in Colombia, that a high volume of rights litigation can challenge the very sustainability of a public health care system and distort resources away from those most in need. Finally, in middle-income countries with big gaps between a poor public health system and a rich private one, we are more likely to find an express constitutional right to health care (or one is inferred from, for example, the right to life). In some of these countries, constitutional rights were included as part of the transition to democracy and an attempt to address huge inequities within society. Here the scale of health inequities suggests that courts need to be bolder in their interpretation of health care rights. We conclude that in adjudicating health rights, courts should scrutinize decision-making through the lens of health equity and equality to better achieve the inherent values of health human rights. Copyright © 2014 Gross and Flood. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  20. The clinician impact and financial cost to the NHS of litigation over pregabalin: a cohort study in English primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Richard; Smyth, Darren; Walker, Alex J; Goldacre, Ben

    2018-06-07

    Following litigation over pregabalin's second-use medical patent for neuropathic pain, National Health Service (NHS) England was required by the court to instruct general practitioners (GPs) to prescribe the branded form (Lyrica) for pain. Pfizer's patent was found invalid in 2015, a ruling subject to ongoing appeals. If the Supreme Court appeal in February 2018, whose judgement is awaited, is unsuccessful, the NHS can seek to reclaim excess prescribing costs. We set out to describe the variation in prescribing of pregabalin as branded Lyrica, geographically and over time; to determine how clinicians responded to the NHS England instruction to GPs; and to model excess costs to the NHS attributable to the legal judgements. English primary care. English general practices. Variation in prescribing of branded Lyrica across the country before and after the NHS England instruction, by practice and by Clinical Commissioning Group; excess prescribing costs. The proportion of pregabalin prescribed as Lyrica increased from 0.3% over 6 months before the NHS England instruction (September 2014 to February 2015) to 25.7% afterwards (April to September 2015). Although 70% of pregabalin is estimated to be for pain, including neuropathic pain, only 11.6% of practices prescribed Lyrica at this level; the median proportion prescribed as Lyrica was 8.8% (IQR 1.1%-41.9%). If pregabalin had come entirely off patent in September 2015, and Pfizer had not appealed, we estimate the NHS would have spent £502 million less on pregabalin to July 2017. NHS England instructions to GPs regarding branded prescription of pregabalin were widely ignored and have created much debate around clinical independence in prescribing. Protecting revenue from 'skinny labels' will pose a challenge. If Pfizer's final appeal on the patent is unsuccessful, the NHS can seek reimbursement of excess pregabalin prescribing costs, potentially £502 million. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  1. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Brauer, Jolanda M P; Vos, Pieter E; Van Der Werf, Sieberen

    2007-03-01

    To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a cohort of 618 consecutive MTBI patients aged 18-60, who attended the emergency department of our level I trauma centre. Effort was tested with the Amsterdam Short Term Memory test. Thirty patients (27%) failed the effort test. Poor effort was associated with significantly poorer scores on seven out of eleven measures, covering all tested domains. Poor effort was associated with lower educational level and changes in work status, but not litigation. Furthermore, poor effort was related to high levels of distress, Type-D personality and fatigue. Even in a sample of non-referred MTBI patients, poor effort was common and was strongly associated with inferior test performance. These findings imply that effort testing should be part of all cognitive assessments, also outside mediolegal settings. Behavioural factors like distress and personality should be considered as potential threats to the validity of neuropsychological testing after MTBI.

  2. [A systematic review of decided litigated cases on adverse drug events in Japan: classification of decided cases appearing in law reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Kato, Masahisa; Kaneko, Erina; Kusaba, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Yamano, Toru; Seo, Takashi; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Much of the damage to health caused by drugs could be prevented by appropriate care. A well-defined duty of care and further information are required for healthcare professionals. Although there are many litigation cases to use as references, neither the extent of the duty of care nor the obligation to explain medication according to the type of drug prescribed has yet been fully established. Thus, we systematically collected decided cases of adverse drug events, and assessed the degree of the duties of care and information. Specifically, we collected decided cases in which physicians, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, or hospitals had been sued. Data were derived from Bessatsu Jurist Iryo-kago Hanrei Hyakusen, Hanrei Jihou, and Hanrei Times from 1989 to November 2013, and information on precedents in the records of the Supreme Court of Japan from 2001 to November 2013. We analyzed the cases, and assessed the following according to the type of drug: (1) standards and explanations when dealing with drugs that were critical issues in litigation, and (2) the degree of the physician's or pharmacist's duties of care and information. In total, 126 cases were collected. The number of drug categories classified was 27, and 9 were considered of practical importance. After this systematic review, we found a trend in the degree of the required level of care and information on several drugs. With respect to duties of care and information, the gap between the required level and actual practice suggests that healthcare professionals must improve their care and explanations.

  3. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  4. Litigations in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    There are various regulatory bodies at the international and national level, which lay down norms for radiation protection. These are the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) the National Commission for Radiation Protection (NCRP) in America, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. These bodies recommend norms on various radiation issues. Radiography and radiology are two key tools for diagnosing and treating diseases. Recently there are concerns about the effect of ionizing radiation on man and the frequent use of diagnostic radiographs. The professionals are expected to conduct their actions according to guidelines which reflect new information and changing technology in diagnostic radiography. Failure to do so may have severe legal consequences. Patient protection is a matter of normal course but knowledge and awareness of the legal issues is important to avoid legal hassles. Implications of the radiation protection guidelines are discussed. (author)

  5. IgG4-related systemic disease of the pancreas with involvement of the lung: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley JR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available IgG-related systemic disease (ISD remains exceedingly rare and unfamiliar, particularly extrapancreatic disease. We report a patient with separate presentations of IgG4 pulmonary disease and recurring IgG4 related biliary sclerosis and pancreatitis. Because of the intricate and perplexing pathogenesis, overlapping organ systems and wide variation in disease presentation, ISD in its entirety remains undefined. Accurate identification of ISD is critical to avoid permanent organ damage especially since treatment is nearly always successful with corticosteroids. As recognition and awareness of this disease grows, development of standard diagnostic criteria and treatment plans are needed.

  6. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  7. Legal consequences of nuclear accidents and shutdowns. Regulatory matters. Private litigation matters. Transcript of proceedings, held in Hershey, Pennsylvania, July 27-28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Four months after the Three Mile Island-2 accident, the Pennsylvania Law Journal assembled many of the most prominent attorneys with experience in nuclear power issues to discuss and explore some of the questions confronting lawyers and their clients affected by the nation's worst civilian nuclear accident. It is significant that the conference was held in Hershey, Pennsylvania, seven miles from Harrisburg, the State Capitol, and 15 miles from Three Mile Island. The conference focused on the legal issues, of rates, used and useful, and cost of replacement energy; and the litigation issues - extraordinary nuclear occurrence, theories of liability, and damages. The audience also had a need to discuss the future of Federal regulation as well as the issues of most immediate concern

  8. Bridging international law and rights-based litigation: mapping health-related rights through the development of the Global Health and Human Rights Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Cabrera, Oscar A; Ayala, Ana; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2012-06-15

    The O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, the World Health Organization, and the Lawyers Collective have come together to develop a searchable Global Health and Human Rights Database that maps the intersection of health and human rights in judgments, international and regional instruments, and national constitutions. Where states long remained unaccountable for violations of health-related human rights, litigation has arisen as a central mechanism in an expanding movement to create rights-based accountability. Facilitated by the incorporation of international human rights standards in national law, this judicial enforcement has supported the implementation of rights-based claims, giving meaning to states' longstanding obligations to realize the highest attainable standard of health. Yet despite these advancements, there has been insufficient awareness of the international and domestic legal instruments enshrining health-related rights and little understanding of the scope and content of litigation upholding these rights. As this accountability movement evolves, the Global Health and Human Rights Database seeks to chart this burgeoning landscape of international instruments, national constitutions, and judgments for health-related rights. Employing international legal research to document and catalogue these three interconnected aspects of human rights for the public's health, the Database's categorization by human rights, health topics, and regional scope provides a comprehensive means of understanding health and human rights law. Through these categorizations, the Global Health and Human Rights Database serves as a basis for analogous legal reasoning across states to serve as precedents for future cases, for comparative legal analysis of similar health claims in different country contexts, and for empirical research to clarify the impact of human rights judgments on public health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Meier, Nygren

  9. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  10. The Limitation of the Media's Supervision upon Civil Litigation under the Context of"Three Opens"%“三公开”背景下媒体对民事诉讼监督的有限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢焱

    2015-01-01

    Media's supervision upon justice has already become a normality .Civil litigation has three distinct characteristics-the peculi-arity of the disputes to be solved , more respect of the parties'autonomy of will as well as the comparative gentleness of the disposition which are quite different from criminal litigation and administrative litigation .So if media carries out an excessive supervision upon civil litigation, on one hand it might offend parties'privacy, on the other hand , it might also unjustifiably interfere with the performance of the power of trial .Based on the great context of "three opens"of justice and under the prerequisite that it is necessary to undertake media supervision upon civil litigation , we should on one hand rationally limit the interview and report to the case fact by the medias , and on the other hand absolutely forbid the unjustifiable interference on the disposition of the case by medias , thus to establish a limited supervision mechanism based on the positive interaction between media supervision and civil litigation .%媒体对司法进行监督已经成为一种常态。民事诉讼,因其解决的纠纷具有特定性、更为尊重当事人的意思自治以及处理结果相对柔和等三个异于刑事诉讼和行政诉讼的特质,如果媒体对其进行过度监督,一方面可能侵犯当事人的隐私,另一方面也可能会不当干涉审判权的行使。基于司法“三公开”的大背景,我们在肯定媒体对民事诉讼进行监督具有必要性的前提下,一方面要合理限制媒体对案件事实的采访报道,另一方面要绝对禁止媒体对案件处理结果的不当干预,从而构建一种媒体监督与民事诉讼良性互动的有限监督机制。

  11. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  12. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...... in perspectives, values and understandings between patients and healthcare professionals, or the lack of managerial attention and prioritization....

  13. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  14. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  15. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities......-natal data. Data revealed that men, according to their partner’s perceptions, used consumption as a virtual umbilical cord, although levels of consumption involvement varied from co-involvement for most purchases, to limited involvement, and/or involvement for ‘large’ items, particularly travel systems...... and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...

  16. Public interface and waste management planning: An approach for integrating community involvement in waste strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiques, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public involvement and information programs have bridged a communication abyss and allowed waste management policy-makers to understand legitimate public concerns. The perception often held by waste generators that technical concerns had greater validity than institutional issues is being altered as managers realize that information failures can halt a program as abruptly as technical ones. The role and level of involvement of the public in establishing waste management policies has changed dramatically over the past decade. Once the domain only of the generators and regulators, effective waste management strategy development must now make early provisions for public and local government involvement. By allowing public decision makers to participate in the initial planning process and maintain involvement throughout the implementation, many institutional barriers can be avoided. In today's climate, such barriers may represent direct costs, such as litigation, or indirect costs, such as delay, deferral, or duplication of work. Government programs have historically enjoyed a degree of insulation from public involvement factors on the basis of national security, defense, or the greater public good. However, such programs are no longer sacrosanct. Today, the cost of cleaning up past environmental impact can leave little or no money to meet present program objectives. Thus failure to get a public consensus before beginning remedial action can have a major impact on the allocation of scarce resources. Specific approaches to integrating the public into the planning phase of waste management will be addressed, including audience identification, issue analysis and tracking, prioritization of concerns, and information tool development

  17. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  18. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  19. The Friends of Northside ISD Libraries Sets Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    The Director of Library and Textbook services for the Northside Independent School District (NISD) Jana Knezek, had long wanted to create a Friends group and she realized how beneficial it would be to have an organization in place that could serve as an advocate for school library issues. Jana temporarily put aside that desire and participated in…

  20. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  1. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  2. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  3. "I Don't Know That I've Ever Felt Like I Got the Full Story": A Qualitative Study of Courtroom Interactions Between Judges and Litigants in Domestic Violence Protective Order Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Cara J; Moracco, Kathryn E Beth; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Bowling, J Michael

    2018-01-01

    One in three U.S. women has experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and many seek domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs) for secondary IPV prevention. Because judges have considerable autonomy making DVPO decisions, there is a need to describe how courtroom interactions and information available to judges may influence DVPO dispositions. We conducted DVPO hearing observations and phone interviews with District Court Judges. Qualitative themes emerged that may influence judges' decision making in DVPO hearings: case information availability, judge engagement level, and litigant credibility. Recommendations include more time for judges to review case files, IPV-related training for judges, and increased court advocate use.

  4. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  5. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  6. Reactors also involve people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    As the nuclear industry develops it is to be hoped that high quality occupational health programs will evolve along with other sound operational procedures and practices. The immediate involvement of occupational health personnel may well afford a safety factor which will minimize the likelihood of either the selection of personnel not adequate for the full responsibilities of their work or the continuation in responsible positions of personnel who develop handicaps of either a physical or mental nature

  7. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  8. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  9. Implementation of a publication strategy in the context of reporting biases. A case study based on new documents from Neurontin litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S Swaroop; Goldman, Palko S; Rona, Ilyas J; Greene, Thomas M; Dickersin, Kay

    2012-08-13

    Previous studies have documented strategies to promote off-label use of drugs using journal publications and other means. Few studies have presented internal company communications that discussed financial reasons for manipulating the scholarly record related to off-label indications. The objective of this study was to build on previous studies to illustrate implementation of a publication strategy by the drug manufacturer for four off-label uses of gabapentin (Neurontin, Pfizer, Inc.): migraine prophylaxis, treatment of bipolar disorders, neuropathic pain, and nociceptive pain. We included in this study internal company documents, email correspondence, memoranda, study protocols and reports that were made publicly available in 2008 as part of litigation brought by consumers and health insurers against Pfizer for fraudulent sales practices in its marketing of gabapentin (see http://pacer.mad.uscourts.gov/dc/cgi-bin/recentops.pl?filename=saris/pdf/ucl%20opinion.pdf for the Court's findings).We reviewed documents pertaining to 20 clinical trials, 12 of which were published. We categorized our observations related to reporting biases and linked them with topics covered in internal documents, that is, deciding what should and should not be published and how to spin the study findings (re-framing study results to explain away unfavorable findings or to emphasize favorable findings); and where and when findings should be published and by whom. We present extracts from internal company marketing assessments recommending that Pfizer and Parke-Davis (Pfizer acquired Parke-Davis in 2000) adopt a publication strategy to conduct trials and disseminate trial findings for unapproved uses rather than an indication strategy to obtain regulatory approval. We show internal company email correspondence and documents revealing how publication content was influenced and spin was applied; how the company selected where trial findings would be presented or published; how publication of

  10. Implementation of a publication strategy in the context of reporting biases. A case study based on new documents from Neurontin® litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedula S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented strategies to promote off-label use of drugs using journal publications and other means. Few studies have presented internal company communications that discussed financial reasons for manipulating the scholarly record related to off-label indications. The objective of this study was to build on previous studies to illustrate implementation of a publication strategy by the drug manufacturer for four off-label uses of gabapentin (Neurontin®, Pfizer, Inc.: migraine prophylaxis, treatment of bipolar disorders, neuropathic pain, and nociceptive pain. Methods We included in this study internal company documents, email correspondence, memoranda, study protocols and reports that were made publicly available in 2008 as part of litigation brought by consumers and health insurers against Pfizer for fraudulent sales practices in its marketing of gabapentin (see http://pacer.mad.uscourts.gov/dc/cgi-bin/recentops.pl?filename=saris/pdf/ucl%20opinion.pdf for the Court’s findings. We reviewed documents pertaining to 20 clinical trials, 12 of which were published. We categorized our observations related to reporting biases and linked them with topics covered in internal documents, that is, deciding what should and should not be published and how to spin the study findings (re-framing study results to explain away unfavorable findings or to emphasize favorable findings; and where and when findings should be published and by whom. Results We present extracts from internal company marketing assessments recommending that Pfizer and Parke-Davis (Pfizer acquired Parke-Davis in 2000 adopt a publication strategy to conduct trials and disseminate trial findings for unapproved uses rather than an indication strategy to obtain regulatory approval. We show internal company email correspondence and documents revealing how publication content was influenced and spin was applied; how the company selected where trial

  11. Implementation of a publication strategy in the context of reporting biases. A case study based on new documents from Neurontin® litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented strategies to promote off-label use of drugs using journal publications and other means. Few studies have presented internal company communications that discussed financial reasons for manipulating the scholarly record related to off-label indications. The objective of this study was to build on previous studies to illustrate implementation of a publication strategy by the drug manufacturer for four off-label uses of gabapentin (Neurontin®, Pfizer, Inc.): migraine prophylaxis, treatment of bipolar disorders, neuropathic pain, and nociceptive pain. Methods We included in this study internal company documents, email correspondence, memoranda, study protocols and reports that were made publicly available in 2008 as part of litigation brought by consumers and health insurers against Pfizer for fraudulent sales practices in its marketing of gabapentin (see http://pacer.mad.uscourts.gov/dc/cgi-bin/recentops.pl?filename=saris/pdf/ucl%20opinion.pdf for the Court’s findings). We reviewed documents pertaining to 20 clinical trials, 12 of which were published. We categorized our observations related to reporting biases and linked them with topics covered in internal documents, that is, deciding what should and should not be published and how to spin the study findings (re-framing study results to explain away unfavorable findings or to emphasize favorable findings); and where and when findings should be published and by whom. Results We present extracts from internal company marketing assessments recommending that Pfizer and Parke-Davis (Pfizer acquired Parke-Davis in 2000) adopt a publication strategy to conduct trials and disseminate trial findings for unapproved uses rather than an indication strategy to obtain regulatory approval. We show internal company email correspondence and documents revealing how publication content was influenced and spin was applied; how the company selected where trial findings would be presented or

  12. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  13. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  14. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Formueret, international law, conflict of law, arbitration, tort, contract, delict, jurisdiction......Formueret, international law, conflict of law, arbitration, tort, contract, delict, jurisdiction...

  15. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn DH

    2013-01-01

    David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort syst...

  16. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn DH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system.Keywords: medical malpractice, tort reform, no fault compensation, alternative dispute resolution, system errors

  17. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, David H

    2013-01-01

    Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system. PMID:23426783

  18. Litigation After Nasal Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Razmpa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Esthetic surgeries are among the commonest medical procedures in the world nowadays; and as statistics declare, there has been a rapid increase in the rate of rhinoplasty during the recent years. Hence, as the number of cosmetic surgeries rises, the increment in the number of physicians being sued is quite inevitable; either due to complication in rhinoplasties or even inability to fulfill the patients’ expectations. This article aims to clarify the aspects of causes leading to these legal claims. Materials and Methods: We designed a retrospective study according to the available files in the Iranian Organization for Forensic Medicine in which physicians were sued for the outcomes of rhinoplasty through the years 2004 to 2010. In addition, information on the patients’ demographic data, surgeons’ specialty and experience, and method of anesthesia were also collected. Results: One hundred twenty six patients entered the study among which 77 (61% were female and 49 (39% male. Mean age was obtained as 26.9 ± 7.7yrs. Up to 79.4% of patients had complaints concerning the cosmetic outcomes, 39.7% with respiratory and 4.8% with olfactory problems. The reason to sue the physician had a significant relationship with the patients’ age and sex, and also with the surgeons’ experience. Conclusion: There are multiple reasons impelling the patients to sue surgeons after rhinoplasty, some are related to physicians’ malpractice and some to the patients’ social and personal circumstances.

  19. Litigation After Nasal Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmpa, Ebrahim; Saedi, Babak; Safavi, Amin; Shahsavari, Ebrahim; Arvin Sazgar, Amir; Massihi, Farzaneh; Tofighi, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Esthetic surgeries are among the commonest medical procedures in the world nowadays; and as statistics declare, there has been a rapid increase in the rate of rhinoplasty during the recent years. Hence, as the number of cosmetic surgeries rises, the increment in the number of physicians being sued is quite inevitable; either due to complication in rhinoplasties or even inability to fulfill the patients’ expectations. This article aims to clarify the aspects of causes leading to these legal claims. Materials and Methods: We designed a retrospective study according to the available files in the Iranian Organization for Forensic Medicine in which physicians were sued for the outcomes of rhinoplasty through the years 2004 to 2010. In addition, information on the patients’ demographic data, surgeons’ specialty and experience, and method of anesthesia were also collected. Results: One hundred twenty six patients entered the study among which 77 (61%) were female and 49 (39%) male. Mean age was obtained as 26.9 ± 7.7yrs. Up to 79.4% of patients had complaints concerning the cosmetic outcomes, 39.7% with respiratory and 4.8% with olfactory problems. The reason to sue the physician had a significant relationship with the patients’ age and sex, and also with the surgeons’ experience. Conclusion: There are multiple reasons impelling the patients to sue surgeons after rhinoplasty, some are related to physicians’ malpractice and some to the patients’ social and personal circumstances. PMID:24303371

  20. Litigation After Nasal Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Razmpa, Ebrahim; Saedi, Babak; Safavi, Amin; Shahsavari, Ebrahim; Arvin Sazgar, Amir; Massihi, Farzaneh; Tofighi, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Esthetic surgeries are among the commonest medical procedures in the world nowadays; and as statistics declare, there has been a rapid increase in the rate of rhinoplasty during the recent years. Hence, as the number of cosmetic surgeries rises, the increment in the number of physicians being sued is quite inevitable; either due to complication in rhinoplasties or even inability to fulfill the patients’ expectations. This article aims to clarify the aspects of causes leading ...

  1. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  2. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  3. A judicialização da saúde e os novos desafios da gestão da assistência farmacêutica Health litigation and new challenges in the management of pharmaceutical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Edais Pepe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os desafios para a gestão da assistência farmacêutica (AF provocados pelo fenômeno da judicialização da saúde vêm exigindo um tipo de atuação do gestor, administrativa e judicialmente diferenciada, no sentido de responder às ordens judiciais, evitar o crescimento de novas demandas, bem como preservar os princípios e as diretrizes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Este artigo se propõe a avançar na compreensão de um dos aspectos da judicialização da saúde, representado pelo intenso uso da via judicial para fornecimento de medicamentos, em especial, a relação deste mecanismo com a gestão da AF no SUS. A partir de revisão e análise das pesquisas disponíveis, realizadas em estados e municípios brasileiros, são abordados os principais elementos de interferência da "judicialização de medicamentos" no ciclo da AF, explicitando características comuns e divergentes desta demanda. Aponta, ao final, mecanismos possíveis de serem adotados na tomada de decisão neste âmbito, pelos gestores e profissionais do sistema de justiça, uma vez que a efetivação do direito à saúde só se realizará se no momento da tomada de decisão forem adotadas medidas, tanto por parte da gestão da AF como do Poder Judiciário, que certifiquem a segurança e a proteção dos usuários.Health litigation spurs many challenges in the management of pharmaceutical services. Performance of health managers and decisionmakers must be adjusted to new administrative and legal boundaries. Their actions must also be efficient in responding to ongoing lawsuits, as well as in avoiding additional litigation and in upholding principles and directives of the Brazilian Health System (SUS. This paper proposes to better understand one of the aspects of health litigation, namely the growing use of lawsuits demanding medicines, and the relationship between this phenomenon and pharmaceutical services management in SUS. Through review and analysis of available

  4. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish whether students' involvement in sports activities affected their involvement in academic activities. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses that guided ...

  5. 我國智慧財產訴訟中專利權無效抗辯趨勢報導 The Defense of Patent Invalidity in the Intellectual Property Litigation Special Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳群顯 Chun-Hsien Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 我國智慧財產民事訴訟中,以往囿於「公、私法訴訟二元制」之體系設計,被告即便認為原告所主張之智慧財產權有無效的理由,亦僅能循行政救濟的途徑主張,並無法直接於民事訴訟中直接提起智慧財產權無效抗辯,造成民事訴訟程序之延滯等不便。我國預計於2007 年間設立智慧財產法院,而該法院之設立對於我國智慧財產案件之爭訟將產生巨大而直接之影響,而攸關該法院成敗之主要關鍵⎯⎯「智慧財產法院組織法」及「智慧財產案件審理法」等二法案,業已送立法院進行審查。其中「智慧財產案件審理法」已 於2007 年1 月9 日經立法院三讀通過,「智慧財產法院組織法」亦已於2007 年3 月5 日經立法院三讀通過。「智慧財產案件審理法」中一項劃時代的變革,即是在第16 條第1 項規定:「當事人主張或抗辯智慧財產權有應撤銷、廢止之原因者,法院應就其主張或抗辯有無理由自為判斷」,易言之,該法條規定將直接改變目前我國「公、私法訴訟二元制」的現狀,對於專利訴訟當事人間自產生重大之影響,然依據該法案之規定,是否確能達到立法者之目的?以及是否需要有其他配套制度?本文將介紹我國智慧財產訴訟中 專利權無效抗辯相關制度沿革,並嘗試提供分析意見,同時就目前各國相關專利訴訟制度之設計,提供分析及建議。 In the past, the defendant of intellectual property (IP litigation cannot raise the defense of patent invalidity in the civil litigation. The defendant can only file an invalidity action against the IP at issue. Such judicial system design delays the proceeding of the civil litigation of the IP infringement. The IP Court is proposed to be established in 2007. The establishment of the IP Court will change the current court proceeding of the intellectual

  6. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  7. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  8. Esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M A; Daneman, A

    1983-02-01

    The radiologic appearance of esophageal involvement due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 15-year-old boy is presented. The lower two thirds of the esophagus was narrowed and the peristalsis diminished. The mucosa appeared smooth. This is the fourth reported case of esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  9. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  10. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  11. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  12. Black parental involvement in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. ... Review of selected studies on parental involvement in ..... Anna, a Grade 11 teacher, summed up the feelings of the.

  13. Renal involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Noshad, Hamid; Sadreddini, Shahram; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar; Molaeefard, Mahsheed; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Shoja, Mohammadali Mohajel

    2009-01-01

    There are conflicting reports about the renal involvement in Behcet's disease (BD). In this study we aimed to study the frequency and type of renal involvement in a group of patients with BD in Azerbaijan province that is one of the prevalent areas of BD in Iran. All cases of BD were prospectively followed between June 2004 and January 2007, and evaluated for renal dys-function (serum creatinine > 1.7 mg/dL), glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Those patients with proteinuria > 500 mg/day and serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL, underwent renal biopsy. From a total number of 100 patients, six patients (6%) had obvious renal involvements. Four patients had glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy in two of them revealed measangial proliferative glumerulonephritis with IgA deposit in one of them and membranoproliferative glumerolonephritis in another one. Two remaining patients had serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL without any hematuria or proteinuria. Serologic study for viral agents and collagen vascular disease were negative in all patients with renal involvements. In conclusion, renal involvement in BD is not infrequent, although in most cases it is mild in nature and may be missed. (author)

  14. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  15. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... by top management. The article describes the briefing processes and the methods for user involvement, identifies problem areas and points out possible improvements. The author was actively involved in the project as deputy project director, with responsibility for the briefing process, and is now...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  16. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  17. User involvement in care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kamp, Annette

    In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost effectiven...... forms of professionalism, and imply tensions in health and social care work.......In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost...... addressed the way this paradigm affects the users, in specific sectors. However user involvement also affects working life. It may imply change and redistribution of tasks and identities between users and professionals, and may also transform the relations of care. In this paper we explore the possible...

  18. User interface and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users.

  19. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  20. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  1. Multisystem involvement in neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of pediatric neuromyelitis optica (NMO with muscle and lung involvement in addition to central nervous system disease. Our patient initially presented with features of area postrema syndrome, then subsequently with optic neuritis. The patient also had recurrent hyperCKemia that responded to corticosteroids. Finally, axillary and hilar adenopathy with pulmonary consolidation were noted as well and responded to immunomodulation. Our case highlights multisystem involvement in NMO including non-infectious pulmonary findings which have not been described in the pediatric population previously.

  2. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  3. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving ...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  4. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  5. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  6. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  7. Patient involvement in hospital architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2017-01-01

    the structure of the design process, identification and ranking of stakeholders, the methods of user-involvement and approaches to accessibility. The paper makes recommendations for a change of approach to user-participation in large-scale, long-duration projects. The paper adds new insight on an under...

  8. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  9. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy

    2006-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  10. Corporate Involvement in C AI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Justine C.

    1978-01-01

    Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to CAI. Corporate CAI products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information. (RAO)

  11. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  12. Parental involvement and educational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.

  13. Eye involvement in haematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the involvement of the eye in haematological malignancies and focuses on two topics; primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). The aim of this thesis is first: to compare the efficacy of diverse treatment options of PVRL with regard to

  14. Factors involved in dental surgery fires: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Andrea M; Jones, James E; McGlothlin, James D; Saxen, Mark A; Sanders, Brian J; Walker, LaQuia A

    2014-01-01

    Surgical fires are well-characterized, readily preventable, potentially devastating operating room catastrophes that continue to occur from 20 to 100 times per year or, by one estimate, up to 600 times per year in US operating rooms, sometimes with fatal results. The most significant risk factors for surgical fires involve (a) the use of an ignition source, such as laser or electrocautery equipment, in or around an oxygen-enriched environment in the head, neck, and upper torso area and (b) the concurrent delivery of supplemental oxygen, especially via nasal cannula. Nonetheless, while these 2 conditions occur very commonly in dental surgery, especially in pediatric dental surgery where sedation and anesthesia are regularly indicated, there is a general absence of documented dental surgical fires in the literature. Barring the possibility of underreporting for fear of litigation, this may suggest that there is another mechanism or mechanisms present in dental or pediatric dental surgery that mitigates this worst-case risk of surgical fires. Some possible explanations for this include: greater fire safety awareness by dental practitioners, incidental ventilation of oxygen-enriched environments in patient oral cavities due to breathing, or suction used by dental practitioners during procedures. This review of the literature provides a background to suggest that the practice of using intraoral suction in conjunction with the use of supplemental oxygen during dental procedures may alter the conditions needed for the initiation of intraoral fires. To date, there appear to be no published studies describing the ability of intraoral suctioning devices to alter the ambient oxygen concentration in an intraoral environment. In vivo models that would allow examination of intraoral suction on the ambient oxygen concentration in a simulated intraoral environment may then provide a valuable foundation for evaluating the safety of current clinical dental surgical practices

  15. Lupus panniculitis involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, Josep M.; Gomez, Antonio; Torrubia, Sofia; Salinas, Teresa; Clotet, Montse; Lerma, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Lupus panniculitis is an unusual immunological disease that characteristically affects the subcutaneous fat and occurs in 2% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a case of lupus panniculitis involving the breast, which represents a very uncommon location. Mammographically, it presented as a suspicious irregular mass involving the subcutaneous fat pad with skin thickening. High echogenicity constituted the most relevant sonographic finding. To the best of our knowledge, the magnetic resonance (MR) features have not been previously described. High signal intensity was found on both T1- and T2-weighted precontrast MR images. A dynamic contrast-enhanced study revealed a suspicious focal mass with irregular margins and rim enhancement, with a type 3 time-signal intensity curve. Differential diagnosis with carcinoma and fat necrosis and the value of core biopsy are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Multiobjective Optimization Involving Quadratic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Brito Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization is nowadays a word of order in engineering projects. Although the idea involved is simple, the implementation of any procedure to solve a general problem is not an easy task. Evolutionary algorithms are widespread as a satisfactory technique to find a candidate set for the solution. Usually they supply a discrete picture of the Pareto front even if this front is continuous. In this paper we propose three methods for solving unconstrained multiobjective optimization problems involving quadratic functions. In the first, for biobjective optimization defined in the bidimensional space, a continuous Pareto set is found analytically. In the second, applicable to multiobjective optimization, a condition test is proposed to check if a point in the decision space is Pareto optimum or not and, in the third, with functions defined in n-dimensional space, a direct noniterative algorithm is proposed to find the Pareto set. Simple problems highlight the suitability of the proposed methods.

  17. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    OpenAIRE

    Vancassel Sylvie; Aïd Sabah; Denis Isabelle; Guesnet Philippe; Lavialle Monique

    2007-01-01

    The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3), is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6) and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3). Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved ...

  18. Stakeholder involvement - a japanese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional societal and cultural background of Japanese in general indicates the intrinsic difficulty in involving the public as stakeholders in the process of any type of decision making in policy matters. It is characterized by the long-taught virtue of harmonization and obedience to others. In addition, characteristic system of Japanese traditional industrial society, such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage system, and enterprise-based labour union, encourages the loyalty to the employer/company, but not to the public. The public or ordinary citizens would seldom come out as stakeholders and express their true feelings or real opinions, even though younger generation is notably getting out from such a trend. On the other hand, it is a common practice in Japanese society for any business or administrative transactions to try to obtain 'consensus' among relevant parties concerned (stakeholders) by negotiations behind the curtain prior to the formal discussion. In this sense, 'stakeholders involvement' is accepted and practised as a matter of course, but mostly for actions between parties of equivalently influential status levels or between 'directly relevant' parties such as those between the different government agencies, between regulators and industries. The concept of 'Involving the public in decision making as stakeholders' is not yet fully understood nor accepted in Japan both by regulators and by the public so far as the issue of radiation protection is concerned. These situations are explained with some examples. (author)

  19. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  20. Stakeholder involvement in developing brochures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.; Garing, K.; Waldrop, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management involved stakeholders (i.e., people who perceive themselves to be affected by the DOE's activities) in a pre-decisional draft of a DOE public document-a practice that the public has called for if the DOE is to begin real public participation. Early and ongoing public input is key to realizing Environmental Management's goal of increasing public participation. The stakeholder review process employed in the development of this document, a brochure outlining public participation information, demonstrates that Environmental Management is open-quotes practicing what it preachesclose quotes about institutionalizing public participation in its program. environmental Management's objective for the brochure is to create a document that uses plain, direct language that encourages citizens to become involved in its decision making process. The information in the brochure provides the public with the information they need to become involved stakeholders. The breadth and volume of comments received assisted in the development of a brochure that includes many viewpoints

  1. Contenciosos brasileiros na Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC: pauta comercial, política e instituições Brazil litigation in the WTO: trade mix, politics and institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arbix

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo busca analisar a formulação da política comercial brasileira, de relevância e complexidade crescentes, no caso das demandas brasileiras ao Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias (OSC da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC. Examina-se a centralização de tal política no Poder Executivo com foco em seus processos decisórios, a partir do contexto econômico e político pertinente para a seleção das demandas apresentadas a tal mecanismo de solução de controvérsias. Além de se perscrutar o funcionamento da Câmara de Comércio Exterior (Camex e sua interação com outros órgãos estatais, investiga-se a dinâmica da condução dos contenciosos e de suas repercussões na agenda comercial da OMC. Constata-se que, à margem do desenho institucional focalizado na Camex, a escolha das demandas responde à pauta comercial e ao impacto nas negociações internacionais do país, acompanhando a pauta de exportação e os principais parceiros comerciais do Brasil, no marco da Rodada Doha da OMC. Marcadas por constrangimentos internos e externos, portanto, as estratégias sobre litígios comerciais internacionais demandam transparência e cooperação aperfeiçoadas com o setor privado.This study seeks to analyze Brazil's foreign trade policy, which is of growing importance and complexity, in the particular case of litigation with the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body. Such policy centralization with the Executive Branch is examined with focus on the decision making processes, with grounds on the political and economical context relevant to the selection of disputes to be initiated with the mentioned dispute settlement mechanism. Brazilian Chamber of Foreign Commerce (Camex's operations are scrutinized, as well as its interactions with other state bodies, which is followed by an investigation of the dynamics of the disputes' conduction and their repercussion on the WTO's trade agenda. Perceived results are that, despite decisions

  2. 論美國專利訴訟之專家證人資格―以美國聯邦巡迴上訴法院與聯邦證據規則第702條有關之判決為中心 Qualification of Expert Witnesses in United States Patent Litigation: A Review of Federal Circuit Case Law Regarding Rule 702 of the Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳秉訓 Ping-Hsun Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 專家證人在美國專利訴訟中扮演重要的角色。專利訴訟常涉及技術議題,需要技術專家的參與來幫助解釋請求項或協助陪審團瞭解專利技術或侵權物。當處理可專利性爭點時,技術專家則是事實認定者很好的顧問。此外,賠償金計算需要產業或財務會計理論等知識。賠償金專家必須參與,以能讓金錢式賠償的爭議得以處理。雖然專家證人的角色重要,但對相關判例法的研究不是很多,特別是針對證人資格或證詞採納等議題。因此,本文在探討巡迴上訴法院針對該類議題之判例。美國專利法並無著墨專家證人之規範,而相關議題主要是聯邦證據規則第702 條所主導。在本文中,首先分析 與第702 條解釋有關之司法意見,包括三件聯邦最高法院判決和幾件巡迴上訴法院判決。接著,本文著重在討論二類專家證人(技術專家和賠償金專家)之相關判決。第702 條要求專家必須具有「科學的、技術的、或特殊的知識」,但由地方法院的法官來裁定是否要准予或排除專家證人或意見作為 證據。此外,對於地院的裁定,巡迴上訴法院的審查基準是「裁量權之濫用」。因而,地院法官有很大的裁量空間。本文亦對相關判決進行分析,並整理相關法理原則。 Expert witnesses serve an important role in United States patent litigation. Patent litigation often involves complex technological issues. Technical experts are needed to help a judge interpret claim language or to assist a jury to understand patented technology or infringing products. When resolving the patentability issues, such as anticipation and obviousness, technical experts are good consultants for factfinders. Additionally, damages calculation requires knowledge of industries and financial or accounting theories. Damages experts must get in to resolve the issues of

  3. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  4. Relapsing polychondritis and airway involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Boiselle, Phillip; Sung, Arthur; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Michaud, Gaetane; Majid, Adnan; Herth, Felix J F; Trentham, David

    2009-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP). Retrospective chart review and data analysis of RP patients seen in the Rheumatology Clinic and the Complex Airway Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from January 2004 through February 2008. RP was diagnosed in 145 patients. Thirty-one patients had airway involvement, a prevalence of 21%. Twenty-two patients were women (70%), and they were between 11 and 61 years of age (median age, 42 years) at the time of first symptoms. Airway symptoms were the first manifestation of disease in 17 patients (54%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 20 patients (64%), followed by cough, stridor, and hoarseness. Airway problems included the following: subglottic stenosis (n = 8; 26%); focal and diffuse malacia (n = 15; 48%); and focal stenosis in different areas of the bronchial tree in the rest of the patients. Twelve patients (40%) required and underwent intervention including balloon dilatation, stent placement, tracheotomy, or a combination of the above with good success. The majority of patients experienced improvement in airway symptoms after intervention. One patient died during the follow-up period from the progression of airway disease. The rest of the patients continue to undergo periodic evaluation and intervention. In this largest cohort described in the English language literature, we found symptomatic airway involvement in RP to be common and at times severe. The nature of airway problems is diverse, with tracheomalacia being the most common. Airway intervention is frequently required and in experienced hands results in symptom improvement.

  5. Behcet's disease involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleto, Maria Jesus; Marcos, Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin that was traditionally defined by oral and genital ulcers and uveitis. We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome who presented a palpable lesion in the right breast with inflammatory signs. X-ray findings posed a differential diagnosis between tumoral and inflammatory pathology. The pathological findings confirmed a small-vessel vasculitis. We found two reports of breast involvement by this disease in the literature. Our patient was studied by mammogram and sonogram which together with clinical history are important to prevent delay in diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  6. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal......Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...

  7. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...... of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes...

  8. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  9. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Fabry's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenvuo, Juha W; Kantola, Ilkka M; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani; Parkkola, Riitta; Mononen, Ilkka; Hurme, Saija; Kalliokoski, Riikka; Viikari, Jorma S; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Hartiala, Jaakko J

    2010-04-01

    Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A enzyme activity. Decreased enzyme activity leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipid in different tissues, including endothelial and smooth-muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. There is controversial data on cardiopulmonary involvement in Fabry's disease, because many reports are based on small and selected populations with Fabry's disease. Furthermore, the aetiology of cardiopulmonary symptoms in Fabry's disease is poorly understood. We studied cardiopulmonary involvement in seventeen patients with Fabry's disease (20-65 years, 6 men) using ECG, bicycle stress, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry, diffusing capacity and pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) tests. Cardiopulmonary symptoms were compared to observed parameters in cardiopulmonary tests. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and reduced exercise capacity are the most apparent cardiac changes in both genders with Fabry's disease. ECG parameters were normal when excluding changes related to LVH. Spirometry showed mild reduction in vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV I), and mean values in diffusing capacity tests were within normal limits. Generally, only slight morphological pulmonary changes were detected using pulmonary HRCT, and they were not associated with changes in pulmonary function. The self-reported amount of pulmonary symptoms associated only with lower ejection fraction (P routine cardiopulmonary evaluation in Fabry's disease using echocardiography is maybe enough when integrated to counselling for aerobic exercise training.

  10. Subfascial involvement in glomuvenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Raja; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P.W. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is an inherited autosomal dominant trait. The lesions, which appear as bluish nodules or plaque-like cutaneous elevations, are usually tender and more firm than sporadic venous malformations. Conventionally, the lesions are thought to be limited to the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue planes. The objective was to characterize the depth of involvement of GVM lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in GVM were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The signal characteristics, tissue distribution, pattern of contrast enhancement of the lesions in GVM were documented. Thirty patients (19 female) aged 1-35 years (mean 18 years) were diagnosed with GVM based on clinical features (n = 20) and/or histopathological findings (n = 10). The lesions were present in the lower extremity (n = 15), upper extremity (n = 6), cervico-facial region (n = 6), pelvis (n = 2), and chest wall (n = 1). All patients had skin and subcutaneous lesions. Fifty percent of the patients (n = 15) demonstrated subfascial intramuscular (n = 15), intra-osseous (n = 1), and intra-articular involvement (n = 1). Contrary to the conventional belief that GVMs are generally limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, deep subfascial extension of the lesions is common. (orig.)

  11. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  12. Measuring Purchase‐decision involvement ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, increasing competition is forcing businesses to pay more attention on customer satisfaction providing strong customer services. Increased competition has also increased marketing activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing purchase decision involvement in food industry in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 270 experts in food industry and, using principle component (PCA analysis, extracts important group of factors. The questionnaire consists of 27 questions, which is reduced to 23 questions because of sensitivity of the PCA to Skewness of data. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.81, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that there were four factors including individual differences, product validation, triggers and dependent behavior influencing purchasing decisions.

  13. Pulmonary involvement of secondary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Imai, Yuichiro; Yoshihara, Shingo; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Sato, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Taku; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Yano, Hisakazu; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. Since clinical manifestations of syphilis are highly variable, clinicians should bear in mind that pleural chest pain with bilateral subpleural nodules can be caused by pulmonary syphilis.

  14. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  15. Involve women at many levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1995-03-01

    The organizers of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) realize that slowing the rate of population growth requires the involvement of women at many levels. The planning processes in countries leading up to the ICPD were required to include women, and funds became available for women to attend regional and international preparatory meetings. National delegations at the ICPD also included many more women than the previous two world population conferences in 1974 and 1984. Space was also provided at the ICPD for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. Naripokkho, a women's advocacy organization in Bangladesh, was therefore able to communicate its message at the conference. In preparation, the organization held consultations and workshops with grassroots women in thirteen regions of Bangladesh. Approximately one third of the women in the workshops had more children than they desired, many felt that they had to have at least two sons, poor services led women to discontinue contraceptive use, and very few women reported that a lack of access to contraception or method failure was responsible for their large families. It was also determined during the preparatory phase that environmental damage cannot be linked to population in a simplistic manner, history, politics, geography, business, and economics play important roles. Once at the ICPD, Naripokkho they negotiated and lobbied the governments to influence the ICPD program of action. Gains for women were made in both language and substance. Indeed, the program of action is the most progressive population document ever issued by a mainstream institution, gives women's goals new legitimacy, and is a powerful tool for groups working at the grassroots level. Governments must now be held to their commitments made in the program.

  16. Nail involvement in psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobolewski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nail psoriasis is considered a significant psychological and social problem causing functional impairment in affected patients. Nail changes hamper their daily and occupational activities and contribute to a worse quality of life. Almost 50% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis are afflicted with nail lesions. The important correlation between psoriatic arthritis and nail changes is well established – the presence of the latter is a strong predictor of the development of arthritis. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting, subungual hyperkeratosis and loosening of the nail plate to less frequent discolouration and splinter haemorrhages. Some of these symptoms are also observed in other nail diseases, and further diagnostics should be performed. The assessment tools NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, mNAPSI (Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, and PNSS (Psoriasis Nail Severity Score are most commonly used to grade the severity of nail involvement in psoriasis and enable the evaluation of therapy effectiveness. The treatment of nail psoriasis is a major clinical challenge. It should be adjusted to the extent of dermal, articular and ungual lesions. Systemic therapies of psoriasis, especially biological agents, are most likely to be effective in treating nail psoriasis. However, as their use is limited in scope and safety, topical therapy remains a mainstay, and the combination of corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues is considered to be most helpful.

  17. Public involvement in nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. De La

    1993-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the environment has gained an understandable degree of political prominence, drawing attention to the concept of direct participation of the public in decision-making. As part of that process, the first World Environmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the final act of the 1975 Helsinki Conference, the Global Nature Charter of the UN General Assembly of 1982 and the 1992 Rio conference have all increased the obligation of governments to inform their publics, and to give individuals and all categories of the public some degree of involvement in decisions that will directly affect their surroundings. The use of nuclear energy fits clearly into this process. Uncertainty in the public mind about the scientific foundation of nuclear-energy exploitation often motivates the public to intervene in the decision-making process, as does fear of catastrophic consequences. There can also be a specific reaction -crystallizing on nuclear energy - against uncontrolled technological and unlimited industrial development. In any event, there is a direct relationship between public pressure for participation and the perception of the ability - or inability - of the relevant authorities to act with a genuine sense of the wider interest. But, although the nuclear industry has often been taken as a scapegoat, the problems of public acceptance and government management that it raises are not substantially different from those in other branches of heavy industry, particularly in their social and environmental impacts. Indeed, in a large number of countries (France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States are examples) the mechanisms for public participation are broadly similar for both conventional industrial and nuclear installations

  18. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  19. judicial attitude to environmental litigation and access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    2011-08-04

    Aug 4, 2011 ... A critical analysis of the NESREA Act and selected environmental statutes ..... 1988, an old tree fell on the defendant/appellant's oil pipeline and indented it. The ..... the material issues over and over in each individual action.

  20. Clean air litigation; Klagen fuer Saubere Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-11

    The pollution of air by nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in cities is one of the central challenges of air pollution in Germany, in addition to the pollution of particulate matter (PM10). In cooperation with the British non-governmental organization ClientEarth, the German Environmental Aid (DUH) filed a lawsuit in November 2015 for exceeding air quality limits for NO{sub 2}. The cities of Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Aachen, Cologne and Bonn are affected. Here, citizens are constantly exposed to high air pollution. Because of the excess of the NO{sub 2} limits at all traffic-related measuring stations in Berlin, the DUH initiated legal steps and filed a lawsuit too in June 2016. With the lawsuits, DUH wants to promote the implementation of measures to reduce NO{sub 2} in Germany. [German] Die Belastung der Luft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) in Staedten ist neben der Belastung durch Feinstaub (PM10) eine der zentralen Herausforderungen der Luftreinhaltung in Deutschland. In Zusammenarbeit mit der britischen Nichtregierungsorganisation ClientEarth legte die Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) im November 2015 Klage wegen Ueberschreitung der Luftqualitaetsgrenzwerte fuer NO{sub 2}ein. Betroffen sind die Staedte Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Aachen, Koeln und Bonn. Hier sind Buergerinnen und Buerger anhaltend zu hoher Luftverschmutzung ausgesetzt. Wegen Ueberschreitung der NO{sub 2}-Grenzwerte an allen verkehrsnahen Messstationen in Berlin hat die DUH im Juni 2016 auch hier rechtliche Schritte eingeleitet und Klage eingereicht. Mit den Klagen will die DUH die Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur NO{sub 2}-Reduktion in Deutschland voranbringen.

  1. 34 CFR 674.46 - Litigation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... borrower has income from wages or salary which may be garnished under applicable State law sufficient to... Government; or (B) Secured by collateral of reasonably equivalent value; or (ii) Invested in low-risk income...

  2. Hanford Task Force: Collaboration over litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorett, A.; Ross, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    At a number of USDOE sites around the country, USDOE and the regulators who oversee its sites have negotiated agreements that govern the cleanup of hazardous and/or radioactive contamination. Historically, these agreements have been hammered out in protracted and difficult inter-agency negotiations, behind closed doors. When the agencies have finally emerged to announce their hard-won agreements, the response from interested parties and the public has all too often ranged from lukewarm acceptance to severe criticism. The negotiations that led to the 1989 signing of Hanford's Tri-Party Agreement, officially known as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as well as subsequent negotiated modifications to that Agreement, followed this pattern of closed-door agency negotiation, followed by a strategy of ''announce and defend.'' However, Hanford's latest Tri-Party Agreement negotiations, concluded with a signing ceremony on January 25, 1994, are persuasive evidence that a different approach can yield much more satisfying results -- for the agencies, for affected and interested parties, and for the public. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief description of that approach which can be a useful model for other USDOE sites that face similar negotiations

  3. Surrogacy litigation in China and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan

    2015-02-01

    Chinese law neither generally prohibits nor expressly permits surrogacy. As there has been a massive underground surrogacy market in the country, surrogacy lawsuits have occurred from time to time. Chinese courts are called to decide a number of disputed issues regarding validity of surrogacy contract, parenthood of the surrogate child, and sole care and control of the surrogate child. This article examines the judicial solutions to these disputes through a case study, and analyses whether Chinese courts have adopted appropriate approaches in applying the existing law to surrogacy lawsuits. The article further discusses the inadequacies of Chinese law in solving surrogacy disputes and regulating surrogacy, and recommends a set of suggestions for improvement so that Chinese law may better adapt to the social demand of surrogacy.

  4. Surrogacy litigation in China and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Chinese law neither generally prohibits nor expressly permits surrogacy. As there has been a massive underground surrogacy market in the country, surrogacy lawsuits have occurred from time to time. Chinese courts are called to decide a number of disputed issues regarding validity of surrogacy contract, parenthood of the surrogate child, and sole care and control of the surrogate child. This article examines the judicial solutions to these disputes through a case study, and analyses whether Ch...

  5. 32 CFR 516.23 - Litigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... results of an administrative claim. If the action is predicated on the Federal Tort Claims Act, include a... relevant issues such as measure of damages, scope of employment, effect of contributory negligence, or...

  6. Public Interest Environmental Litigation in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yenehun Birlie

    purpose of this article is to examine the legal and policy frameworks for PIEL ... individual firms can and cannot do (enforced by the threat of penalties for non- ... participation, deliberative styles of decision-making, adaptation and learning. ...... powers and its implications for the judiciary in Ethiopia”, Journal of Eastern African.

  7. Endangered Species Litigation and Associated Pesticide Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.

  8. Handicapped Litigation: A Review of Significant Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, John W.

    Since 1979 many courts have handed down rulings in favor of handicapped children under the Education of the Handicapped Act. This twentieth chapter in a book on school law summarizes these cases. In "Kruelle v. Biggs," the court ruled that a school district must provide residential placement free of charge if such placement is necessary…

  9. Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children’s lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers’ reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers’ reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior. PMID:29515272

  10. [Urological diseases most frequently involved in medical professional liability claims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Blasco, César; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Arimany-Manso, Josep; Pera-Bajo, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical safety and medical professional liability are international major concerns, especially in surgical specialties such as urology. This article analyzes the claims filed at the Council of Medical Colleges of Catalonia between 1990 and 2012, exploring urology procedures. The review of the 173 cases identified in the database highlighted the importance of surgical procedures (74%). Higher frequencies related to scrotal-testicular pathology (34%), especially testicular torsion (7.5%) and vasectomy (19.6%), and prostate pathology (26 %), more specifically the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (17.9%). Although urology is not among the specialties with the higher frequency of claims, there are special areas of litigation in which it is advisable to implement improvements in clinical safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  12. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  13. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  14. Quality assurance - how to involve the employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation.......An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation....

  15. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  16. Cross-Cultural Issues in Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach-Tuyet Pham; And Others

    Four papers address cultural issues related to the involvement of limited-English-proficient parents in public schools in the United States. "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement" (Bach-Tuyet (Pham) Tran) outlines the linguistic, social, and practical barriers to Indochinese immigrant parent involvement and makes suggestions for…

  17. 论代孕子女监护权的归属以法规出发型诉讼为视角%The Attribution of Guardianship for Surrogate Children From the Perspective of the“Action from Norm”Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文哲; 刘正川

    2016-01-01

    代孕引发的监护权纠纷,揭示了法律的安定性结构和正义之间的冲突,但正义必须以法规作为基础,也应符合法律规范。以诉讼的出发点的不同可将诉讼划分为法规出发型和事实出发型,大陆法系的诉讼属于前者,英美法系的诉讼属于后一类型。我国法律制度无疑为大陆法系的成文法法律制度,因此,诉讼的出发点只能是现行法的有效规范。在解决因代孕引发的监护权纠纷时,不得以道德的、个人或阶层的正义观念替代法律规定,必须依照法律的规定予以裁决。就本文案例而言,依照儿童利益最大化原则的法律规定予以裁决,可既不破坏法律的安定性,也可以实现个案的正义。%Guardianship dispute raised by surrogacy reveals conflict between stability structure of law and justice. But justice must be based on laws and regulations and it should accord with legal norm. According to the different starting point of litigation, there are the law-driven stand and the fact-driven stand. And the litigation of civil law system belongs to the former and the common law system belongs to the latter. There is no doubt that legal system in our country is the statute law system of the civil law system;therefore, the starting point of litigation is only on the basis of current laws and regulations. The solution of the custody disputes raised by surrogacy should not be based on the idea of ethics, or individual or hierarchical justice but on the legal rule. It is necessary to adjudicate according to the laws. Cases in this paper, with the requirements of maximizing the interests of children, can be solved without breaking the law stability, and by achieving individual justice.

  18. Radiologic science students' perceptions of parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Cheryl; Barymon, Deanna; Vanderford, Virginia; Hensley, Chad; Shaver, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A new generation of students is in the classroom, and they are not always alone. Helicopter parents, those who hover around the student and attempt to ease life's challenges, are accompanying the students to radiologic science programs across the nation. To determine radiologic science students' perception regarding their parents' level of involvement in their lives. A survey focused on student perceptions of parental involvement inside and outside of the academic setting was completed by 121 radiologic science students at 4 institutional settings. The analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationships between student sex, age, marital status, and perceived level of parental involvement. In addition, as financial support increases, students' perception of the level of parental involvement also increases. Radiologic science students want their parents to be involved in their higher education decisions. Research indicates that students with involved parents are more successful, and faculty should be prepared for increased parental involvement in the future. Radiologic science students perceive their parents to be involved in their academic careers. Ninety-five percent of respondents believe that the financial support of their parent or parents contributes to their academic success. Sixty-five percent of participants are content with their parents' current level of involvement, while 11% wish their parents were more involved in their academic careers.

  19. Mapping the Challenges of Creativity Management in IS and ISD Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Managing for creativity has proven to be one of the most important drivers in IS and IS development, providing competitive advantages for strong companies as Google, SAS Institute and LEGO. The continuous changing market environment drives companies to focus on creativity as an increasing necessity...... when competing through sustained innovations. However, creativity in the IS environment is a challenge for most organizations - primarily caused by the lack of knowledge in strategizing creative processes in relation to the IS strategies - causing companies to act ad hoc in their creative endeavors....... In this paper, I address these organizational challenges in creativity and IS. Grounded in a literature review conducted previously and a rigorous selection process, I have identified and presented a model of seven important factors for the creative context in IS organizations. From these factors, 21 common...

  20. Defining the "D" in ISD. Part 1: Task-General Instructional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1986-01-01

    The first of two articles designed to provide guidelines for the instructional development phase of instructional systems development focuses on general instructional methods supporting all instructional tasks. Teaching methods that support selective attention, processing in working memory, and connecting in long-term memory are described and…

  1. Integrated Software Development System/Higher Order Software Conceptual Description (ISDS/HOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    Structured Flowchart Conventions 270 6.3.5.3 Design Diagram Notation 273 xii HIGHER ORDER SOFTWARE, INC. 843 MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS...associated with the process steps. They also reference other HIPO diagrams as well an non-HIPO documentation such as flowcharts or decision tables of...syntax that is easy to learn and must provide the novice with some prompting to help him avoid classic beginner errors. Desirable editing capabilities

  2. Top Management Involvement in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2010-01-01

    a broader conceptual space than this participation. This paper reviews the literature on top management involvement in new product development (NPD) and discusses relevance of different theoretical perspectives from other disciplines such as management, organisational behaviour and communication to analyse......Involvement of top managers in new product development (NPD) is a critical factor affecting NPD performance and frequently considered to be the participation of top management to certain activities in NPD or their NPD related behaviours. However, “Top management involvement in NPD” occupies...... antecedents, realisation and consequences of top management involvement in NPD. It is argued that top management has different involvement at different NPD levels: organisation level and project level. Resulting from this literature review, a tentative framework for top management involvement in NPD...

  3. How can stakeholder involvement be improved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as environment, risk management, sustainability, energy and health policy. In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement, participation or engagement. Guidance for public authorities also generally encourages greater involvement of the public. Involvement may take different forms at different phases and can include sharing information, consulting, dialoguing or deliberating on decisions with relevant stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement should be seen as a meaningful part of formulating and implementing public policy. There is no single technique for organising engagement. Initiatives should respond to their context and to stakeholders' particular needs. As the number of stakeholder involvement approaches and publications describing them continues to grow, new opportunities are opening up through social media, which has become an important tool for stakeholder involvement in recent years

  4. Does employee involvement work? Yes, sometimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J L

    1997-12-01

    Employee involvement per se is not always effective for improving performance and/or employee attitudes. Rather, there are several different forms of employee involvement, some of which are effective, while others are not. This article describes seven forms of employee involvement, giving examples, and summarizes research findings for each form, concluding with a summary of which are the best and which are worst. This article also describes what is necessary for effective employee involvement, focusing on management commitment and training for both management and employees.

  5. Client Involvement in Home Care Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Stinne; Henriksen, Nina; Kjær, Lone

    2013-01-01

    , political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: ‘Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care’; ‘Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life......’; ‘Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting’; and ‘Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life’. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which...

  6. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak; Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  7. Initial thoracic involvement in lymphoma. CT assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, A.; Corredoira, J.; Ferreiros, J.; Cabeza, B.; Jorquera, M.; Pedrosa, I.; Martinez, R.; Fernandez, C.

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the initial thoracic involvement by CT in a consecutive series of patients with lymphoma. A retrospective analysis was made of thoracic CT studies made at the time of diagnosis of 259 patients with lymphoma. Mediastinal pulmonary, pleural, pericardial and chest wall involvement was assessed by CT. Of 259 patients (129 men y 130 women), 56 had Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 203 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Forty-two percent (42.5%, 110/259) of the patients had chest involvement on CT: 33 of 56 patients with HD (58.9%) and 77 of 203 patients with NHL (37.9%). All the patients with thoracic HD) and 71.4% of patients with thoracic NHL, had mediastinal lymph node involvement. of the patients with thoracic involvement 12.1% (4/33) of the patient with HD and 23.3% (18/77) of the patients with NHL had pulmonary involvement. Thoracic involvement on CT was more frequent in HD. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was the most common finding fundamentally in HD. Pulmonary disease always occurred in the presence of mediastinal lymph node involvement in HD but could occur as an isolated finding in NHL. (Author) 24 refs

  8. Parent Involvement: Turning Up the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that parent involvement makes a significant difference in children's achievement, especially during elementary and middle school. Even though the school year is well underway, there is still plenty of time to make this your school's best year ever for parent involvement. Here are some of the most effective strategies I've come…

  9. Understanding the Value of Volunteer Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…

  10. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  11. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  12. Parent Education: A Perspective on Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Jean

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews ways in which parents of handicapped children can become involved with the schools, and two models (an oral program for deaf students in which parents are trained to provide language stimulation, and a program for autistic children involving parents in behavioral treatment) are described. (CL)

  13. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  14. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  15. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  16. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  17. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  18. Patient involvement in Danish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework for anal......PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework...... for analysis of patient involvement in health care. This framework is used to analyze key governance features of patient involvement in Denmark based on previous research papers and reports describing patient involvement in Danish health care. FINDINGS: Patient involvement is important in Denmark...... be identified when pursuing the strategies at the same time. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed framework further. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The paper includes...

  19. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  20. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  1. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  2. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  3. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  4. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  5. User involvement in the innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Saugstrup

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in the innovation process is not a new phenomenon. However, combined with the growing individualisation of demand and with highly competitive and dynamic environments, user involvement in the innovation process and thereby in the design, development, and manufacturing process, can...... nevertheless provide a competitive advantage. This is the case as an intensified user involvement in the innovation process potentially results in a more comprehensive understanding of the user needs and requirements and the context within which these are required, and thereby provides the possibility...... of developing better and more suitable products. The theoretical framework of this thesis is based on user involvement in the innovation process and how user involvement in the innovation process can be deployed in relation to deriving and colleting user needs and requirements, and thereby serves...

  6. Do falls and falls-injuries in hospital indicate negligent care -- and how big is the risk? A retrospective analysis of the NHS Litigation Authority Database of clinical negligence claims, resulting from falls in hospitals in England 1995 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, D; Killick, S; Even, T; Willmott, M

    2008-12-01

    Accidental falls are very common in older hospital patients -- accounting for 32% of reported adult patient safety incidents in UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals and occurring with similar frequency in settings internationally. In countries where the population is ageing, and care is provided in inpatient settings, falls prevention is therefore a significant and growing risk-management issue. Falls may lead to a variety of harms and costs, are cited in formal complaints and can lead to claims of clinical negligence. The NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) negligence claims database provides a novel opportunity to systematically analyse such (falls-related) claims made against NHS organisations in England and to learn lessons for risk-management systems and claims recording. To describe the circumstances and injuries most frequently cited in falls-related claims; to investigate any association between the financial impact (total cost), and the circumstances of or injuries resulting from falls in "closed" claims; to draw lessons for falls risk management and for future data capture on falls incidents and resulting claims analysis; to identify priorities for future research. A keyword search was run on the NHSLA claims database for April 1995 to February 2006, to identify all claims apparently relating to falls. Claims were excluded from further analysis if, on scrutiny, they had not resulted from falls, or if they were still "open" (ie, unresolved). From the narrative descriptions of closed claims (ie, those for which the financial outcome was known), we developed categories of "principal" and "secondary" injury/harm and "principal" and "contributory" circumstance of falls. For each category, it was determined whether cases had resulted in payment and what total payments (damages and costs) were awarded. The proportions of contribution-specific injuries or circumstances to the number of cases and to the overall costs incurred were compared in order to identify

  7. Comparing methods for involving users in ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Scupola, Ada; Sørensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    workshop method (involving users and employees) is especially good at qualifying and further developing ideas. The findings suggest that methods for involving users in ideation should be carefully selected and combined to achieve optimum benefits and avoid potential disadvantages.......In this paper we discuss how users may be involved in the ideation phase of innovation. The study compares the use of a blog and three future workshops (students, employees and a mix of the two) in a library. Our study shows that the blog is efficient in giving the users voice whereas the mixed...

  8. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  9. User involvement in mental health rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten; Hounsgaard, Lise; Borg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation. Findings: The study showed that user involvement in rehabilitation was experienced by the users as a struggle for self-determination and recognition. Being able to decide and to have influence on daily activities and everyday life, together...... with having goals to reach during rehabilitation, were viewed as valuable. Situations without influence or involving coercion were reported especially during periods of illness or hospitalization. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to knowledge about user involvement from service users...

  10. Winning at litigation through decision analysis creating and executing winning strategies in any litigation or dispute

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, John

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first in-depth guide to applying the philosophy, theory, and methods of decision analysis to creating and executing winning legal strategies. With explanations that progress from introductory to advanced and practice problems at the end of each chapter, this is a book the reader will want to use and refer to for years to come. Practicing decision analysts, operations research and management science students, attorneys and law students will find this book an invaluable addition to their knowledge and skills. John Celona has over three decades of experience in teaching and applying decision analysis. John lectures in the School of Engineering at Stanford University and is on faculty at The Stanford Center for Professional Development, the American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Sciences, and the Academy of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management.

  11. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Multibusiness Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    The strategy literature has shown that headquarters involve themselves into subsidiary operations to add value. Yet, little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters do so. Therefore, we investigate antecedents of corporate and divisional headquarters’ involvement in innovation...... development projects of subsidiaries. Analyses of 85 innovation development projects reveal that dual innovation importance (innovation that is important for the division and the rest of the firm), and dual dual embeddedness (innovating subsidiary is embedded both within the division and in the rest...... of the firm) lead to greater dual headquarters involvement, especially when the innovation development network is large. The results contribute to the literature on complex parenting and theory of selective headquarters involvement....

  12. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    INVOLVEMENT OF METHYLTRANSFERASES ENZYMES DURING THE. ENERGY METABOLISM OF ..... cell extract still exhibited relatively high methanogenesis with methanol (Fig ... product CH3-CoM into methane (see Fig. 1). The HS-CoM ...

  13. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, I.; Saiz, A.; Bustos, A.; Hernando, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present two cases of pulmonary lumphangioleiomyomatosis and one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement describing the most characteristic features according to plain chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). (Author) 14 refs

  14. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    This study explores the interaction between professional imprinting and age in the context of industry-science collaboration. Specifically, we examine the impact of localized and personal peer effects on academics’ involvement with industry and how these effects are moderated by the career age...... of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...

  15. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  16. Healthcare decisions: a review of children's involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Jenny

    2008-04-01

    Children's rights, their ability to consent to treatment and their involvement in healthcare decisions have received considerable attention in recent years. There is some evidence to suggest that when children are involved in the decision-making process, they retain a sense of control over their situation. However there are still unresolved issues related to a child's right to decide and nurses may be confused about the extent to which children can and should be involved in decision-making. A code of practice for involving children in decisions was first suggested in 2001 and there is still a need for a consistent, structured and robust method of ensuring that children are included in the decision-making process at all stages of their health care.

  17. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  19. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  20. Neurologic involvement in scleroderma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Marques-Neto, João Francisco; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-12-01

    To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment. We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses. A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described

  1. Parents’ Perceptions of Their Involvement in Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children’s educational engagementduring the elementary years. The objective of this study was to examine theperceptions of rural Turkish parents about their involvement in schooling withelementary school students based on Epstein’s (1995) six types of parentalinvolvement (parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home,decision-making, and collaborating with the community).  This study also investigated the differencesamong parent demographic ch...

  2. Patient empowerment and involvement in telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge Nielsen, Marie; Johannessen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Basic ideas of empowerment and user involvement in relation to telemedicine are presented, as is a case implying user resistance to telemedicine. Four logics of empowerment are employed to identify the underlying rationale of specific cases of telemedicine. The article concludes, that although...... telemedicine is acknowledged as relevant, the approach to it is often too mechanical to imply empowerment of the patient. Some patient groups may not feel safe by using telemedicine, and user involvement and empowerment will not be possible....

  3. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of cranial nerve involvement in cryptococcal meningitis.

  4. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  5. Lean Customer Involvement : A Multiple Case Study on the Effects of Kanban on Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Lundheim, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Customer involvement is an important, but challenging part of software development. Delays and failures can often be attributed to a lack of customer involvement. Different development methodologies provide different strategies for customer involvement, all with their own challenges. Kanban is a new development methodology quickly gaining popularity in the software development community. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does Kanban influence customer involvement? The main prob...

  6. Motivational Influences on Cognition: Task Involvement, Ego Involvement, and Depth of Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Golan, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Task involvement and ego involvement were studied in relation to depth of information processing for 126 fifth and sixth graders in 2 experiments. Ego involvement resulted in poorer word recall at deep rather than shallow information processing levels. Implications for the study of motivation are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  8. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  9. [Xanthoma disseminatum with asymptomatic multisystem involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H

    2015-04-01

    Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal

  10. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed.

  11. Creating Learning at Conferences Through Participant Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    as a forum for learning, mutual inspiration and "human co-flourishing." We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may involve participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research and development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers......The typical conference is brimming with PowerPoint presentations that leave very little time for participant involvement. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies this massive show of one-way communication. We propose an alternative theory of the conference...... in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...

  12. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The strategy and international business literature has identified the overall potential for headquarters to add value by allocating resources to subsidiary activities, but little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters simultaneously involves itself in subsidiary operations....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  13. O perfil de casais que vivenciam divórcios consensuais e litigiosos: uma análise das demandas judiciais El perfil de las parejas que experimentan divorcios consensuales y litigiosos: un análisis de los litigios The profile of couples who experience consensual divorces and litigation: an analysis of lawsuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Piccoli Zordan

    2012-08-01

    divorcio puede ser considerado como una crisis vital contemporánea y demanda de los profesionales una mayor complejidad en sus intervenciones tanto de orden jurídico como psicológico en el fenómeno.This study aimed to identify the reasons, circumstances and consequences of marital dissolution from records in legal proceedings. A documentary analysis of 152 marital dissolutions archived from 1992 to 2006 in the Forum of a city in RS was performed. There was a descriptive and discriminant analysis of the data. The most cited reasons relate to marital conflict in its different hues and intensities. As for the outcome, it was found that 46.7% of cases were consensual, 30.9 % litigation, 22.4% abandoned the lawsuit or have reconciled. The profile of the couples is mainly discriminated by socioeconomic level in relation to consensual processes or litigation. Consensual separations are more common in low socioeconomic levels and litigation in high. Data indicate that divorce may be considered a contemporary life crisis that demands more complexity of professionals in their interventions both legal and psychological phenomenon.

  14. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  15. Peer Involvement in University Students' Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlations between peer involvement in students’ education and their self-perception, attachment style, relationships with peers, personality and well-being. We used the Inventory of parent and peer attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991, Questionnaire of the subjects’ self-perceptions (Cugmas, 2012 and The big five questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara et al, 2002. We developed the questionnaires of peer involvement and subjects’ well-being. Positive relationships with peers, secure attachment style, positive self-perceptions, some personal characteristics and well-being were positively associated with peer support, and negatively with peer pressure.

  16. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, Jon.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperation agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons [fr

  17. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Involving Maxilla and Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guna Shekhar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a relatively rare unique disease process characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells usually affecting children and young adults. Jaws are involved in less than 10% of children with the disease while mandibular involvement in young children is uncommon and bilateral affection is very rare. The purpose of this report is to describe a unique and very rare case of simultaneous and bilateral occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in both the jaws of a four-year-old boy.

  18. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperative agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons. (author)

  19. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  20. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  1. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  2. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design....

  3. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  4. Involving IDPs in the Darfur peace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lanz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The UN estimates that there are 2.4 millionIDPs in Darfur –over one third of the totalpopulation. There can be no meaningfulpeace process without their involvement.Giving IDPs a formal seat in official peacenegotiations is problematic but there areother ways to ensure their participation.

  5. Involving Families and Community through Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Gardens are complex and require a variety of skills. Gross- and fine-motor activities, science concepts, language and literacy development, math, and community involvement are all part of the preschool gardening project the authors describe. They list gardening books for children and suggest container gardens for urban school settings. The authors…

  6. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Librarian Involvement in Grant Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Marci D.; Cordell, Sigrid Anderson; Joque, Justin; MacEachern, Mark P.; Song, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Librarians are excellent research collaborators, although librarian participation is not usually considered, thereby making access to research funds difficult. The University of Michigan Library became involved in the university's novel funding program, MCubed, which supported innovative interdisciplinary research on campus, primarily by funding…

  7. Parent Involvement, Technology, and Media: Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakou, Eva N.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid technological advances, the expansion of online media use, and the declining cost of mobile technology have introduced a communication factor that has precipitously affected parent involvement and the relationship between parents and children. The present article explores ways through which technology and online media have affected…

  8. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  9. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  10. Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Afifi, Tracie O; Shaffer, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    A growing literature is addressing the nature of the relationships among gambling activity, gambling involvement, and gambling-related problems. This research suggests that among the general population, compared to playing any specific game, gambling involvement is a better predictor of gambling-related problems. To date, researchers have not examined these relationships among casino patrons, a population that differs from the general population in a variety of important ways. A survey of 1160 casino patrons at two Las Vegas resort casinos allowed us to determine relationships between the games that patrons played during the 12 months before their casino visit, the games that patrons played during their casino visit, and patrons' self-perceived history of gambling-related problems. Results indicate that playing specific gambling games onsite predicted (i.e., statistically significant odds ratios ranging from .5 to 4.51) self-perceived gambling-related problems. However, after controlling for involvement, operationally defined as the number of games played during the current casino visit and self-reported gambling frequency during the past 12 months, the relationships between games and gambling-related problems disappeared or were attenuated (i.e., odds ratios no longer statistically significant). These results extend the burgeoning literature related to gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling-related problems.

  11. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  12. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  13. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  14. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  15. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  16. Spinal cord involvement in Balo's concentric sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreft, Karim L.; Mellema, S. Jouke; Hintzen, Rogier Q.

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with a history of myelitis, who had a steroid refractory attack of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease that developed into cerebral concentric sclerosis of Balo after plasma exchange. The acute inflammatory disease involved the spinal cord, a phenomenon rarely demonstrated.

  17. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methyl group transfer from dimethylsulfide (DMS), trimethylamine and methanol to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were investigated from cell extracts of Methanosarcina semesiae sp. nov. to evaluate whether the enzyme systems involved were constitutive or inductive. The extracts from cells grown on ...

  18. Epiphyseal involvement in unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capanna, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Biagini, R.; Horn, J. van

    1986-01-01

    Twelve patients are reported in whom a unicameral bone cyst was found to involve the epiphysis or apophysis across an open growth plate. Nine patients showed pathologic fracture. In four patients a growth disturbance was found. A varying amount of varus angulation was present in most cases. No patient had functional impairment. (orig.)

  19. Epiphyseal involvement in unicameral bone cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capanna, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Biagini, R.; Horn, J. van

    1986-08-01

    Twelve patients are reported in whom a unicameral bone cyst was found to involve the epiphysis or apophysis across an open growth plate. Nine patients showed pathologic fracture. In four patients a growth disturbance was found. A varying amount of varus angulation was present in most cases. No patient had functional impairment.

  20. Comparison of Learner Involvement in Biology Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance in the biology practical paper has been poor at Kenya national examinations in the past five years (1998-2002). This may imply a lack of emphasis on the teaching of biology through the process-based approach. This study investigated the level of learner involvement in biology practical investigations in ...

  1. Exploring genes and pathways involved in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, E.

    2017-01-01

    The research in this thesis was aimed at identifying genes and molecular pathways involved in migraine. To this end, two gene expression analyses were performed in brain tissue obtained from transgenic mouse models for familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura.

  2. Family involvement and helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement ( family

  3. Family involvement and helping behaviour in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement (family

  4. Job Involvement And Organizational Climate | MOGAJI | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at finding the relationship between job involvement and organizational climate. Data were collected from 600 subjects which include 150 junior workers (120 males and 30 females), 30 supervisors (27 males and 3 females) and 20 managers (18 males and 2 females) totalling 200 subjects from each of ...

  5. Motivation and involvement toward physical activity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence involvement of university students to participate in physical activity. 400 students comprising 200 men and 200 women were used as the main respondents were respond to the adapted Exercise Motivations Inventory questionnaire. It revealed that highest ...

  6. Student Involvement in Learning and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected student characteristics, student involvement in learning, and achievement. Both naturalistic (n = 28, 27) and experimental studies were conducted. In the experimental study, two classes (n = 29, 26) learned a sequence of matrix arithmetic by mastery learning strategies.…

  7. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  8. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various ...

  9. Overview of airway involvement in tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Arundeep; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Jana, Manisha; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is a ubiquitous infection and a re-emerging medical and socioeconomic problem resulting in increasing mortality and morbidity, especially in Asian countries. We aim to review the spectrum of imaging findings in airway involvement in tuberculosis through characteristic radiological images and to assess the role of computed tomography and image-guided interventions in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  10. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  11. Involvement of Students in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ya, Marwa; Aziz, Sheikha A.; Mohyuddin, Muhammad Raheel; Al Balushi, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of E-learning activities for students in the classroom play an important role in the teaching and learning process. In this paper, the authors describe how we collected information from 3-different Colleges/Universities in Oman forming an online study with regard to the use of internet, e-library, online book access, and…

  12. Choice, Empowerment, and Involvement: What Satisfies Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen B.; Shapira, Rina

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 337 parents in Israel examine the nature of interrelationships between parent satisfaction with public schools of choice and parent empowerment, parent involvement, and the congruence of parental expectation with school programs. Findings indicate the importance of socioeconomic status as a factor in these…

  13. Relative Effects of Psychological Flexibility, Parental Involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical analysis and understanding of secondary students' experiences and of safety in public schools are currently lacking in the literature and warrant further research. This study investigated the relative effects of psychological flexibility, parental involvement and school climate on secondary school student's school ...

  14. Endotoxin content in endodontically involved teeth. 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Benjamin; Schilder, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Fluid was aspirated from the root canals of 40 endodontically involved teeth. This fluid was assayed for endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. Pulpless teeth contained greater concentrations of endotoxin than those with vital pulps. Symptomatic teeth also contained more endotoxin than asymptomatic teeth.

  15. Czech Companies Involved in the ARTEMIS Programme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří

    -, special issue (2013), s. 4-5 ISSN 1210-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE13020 Keywords : ARTEMIS JU * embedded systems * european technology platforms * FP7 * ICT * microelectronics * ENIAC JU Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZS/kadlec-czech companies involved in the artemis programme.pdf

  16. 78 FR 27339 - Private Attorney Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Pro Bono Task Force identified the benefits of integrated intake and referral systems that link... volunteers, the Pro Bono Task Force recommended that the resources the recipient uses to support the training... Involvement (PAI) rule to respond to Recommendation 2 of LSC's Pro Bono Task Force Report. The discussions in...

  17. Isolated posterior fossa involvement of progressive multifocal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... and the HIV pandemic has resulted in an increased prevalence of PML, affecting 3% – 7% of HIV- infected ... majority of HIV-infected patients with PML have CD4 lymphocyte counts < 200 cells/mm3. JC ... infrequent contrast enhancement.3 There is no involvement of the optic nerves or spinal cord. Isolated ...

  18. Temporomandibular joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis | Okkesim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriasis is a chronic, papulosquamous, and an inflammatory skin disease. It has been found that between 5% and 24% of patients develop psoriatic arthritis (PA) at the same time after or even prior to skin findings. The involvement of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare condition. In this report, a-46-year-old male ...

  19. Parental Involvement in Children's Independent Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine types of parental involvement associated with independent music lessons. A self-report survey was designed to explore parent characteristics, parental goals, students' musical progress, the teacher-student relationship, the practice environment, and parent behaviours during practice sessions. The extent to…

  20. Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systematize the local identities by deriving four local 'master identities' analogous to the ... involving Jacobi elliptic functions can be explicitly evaluated and a number of .... most of these integrals do not seem to be known in the literature. In §6 ...

  1. [Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Masciocco, Gabriella; Ammirati, Enrico; Bonacina, Edgardo; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome, recently renamed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by disseminated necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular granulomas occurring among patients with asthma and tissue eosinophilia. EGPA is classified as a small and medium-sized vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Typical clinical features include asthma, sinusitis, transient pulmonary infiltrates and neuropathy. Blood eosinophils are often >1500/µl or more than 10% on the differential leukocyte count. Blood eosinophils should always be tested in unexplained cardiac disorders, and may normalize even after low doses of corticosteroids. ANCA are positive in 40-60% of cases, mainly anti-myeloperoxidase. Heart involvement occurs in approximately 15-60% of EGPA patients, especially those who are ANCA negative. Any cardiac structure can be involved, and patients present with myocarditis, heart failure, pericarditis, arrhythmia, coronary arteritis, valvulopathy, intracavitary cardiac thrombosis. Although cardiovascular involvement is usually an early manifestation, it can also occur later in the course of the disease. A significant proportion of patients with cardiac involvement is asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms and major ECG abnormalities, cardiac involvement may be detected in nearly 40% of the patients. All patients with EGPA should be studied not only with a detailed history of cardiac symptoms and ECG, but also with echocardiography; if abnormalities are detected, a cardiac magnetic resonance study should be performed. Coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy should be reserved to selected cases. Heart involvement carries a poor prognosis and causes 50% of the deaths of these patients. It is often insidious and underestimated. Optimal therapy is therefore important and based on high-dose corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive

  2. 78 FR 44981 - Restructuring of National Labor Relations Board's Headquarters' Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Administrative Law, (2) Contempt, Compliance and Special Litigation, and (3) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA... bar ethics. The Contempt, Compliance and Special Litigation Branch will provide compliance and contempt advice and litigation involving, among other things, the Bankruptcy Code, the Federal Debt...

  3. Stakeholder Involvement in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. In particular, we concentrate on how the two municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar have acted as engaged stakeholders, and have gained recognition as such, in the siting process. In general: How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? An effect of the history of nuclear activity in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar is that stakeholder involvement over a final repository can be divided into social and technical issues. Both municipalities have out of tradition, as part of their social acceptance of a new repository, been prepared to surrender extended involvement in key safety issues. They have been prepared to do this because they also see themselves being able to delegate these safety issues to the government authorities SSI and SKI. These two authorities have been acceptable to the two municipalities as their legitimate 'technological guardians'. As physical geology re-enters the siting process for a deep repository, Oskarshamn appear more prepared to break with tradition than Oesthammar. Oskarshamn are currently demanding transparency from SKB in relation to the exact technical and geological criteria they will use to choose between them and Oesthammar as a repository site. In contrast to Oesthammar, Oskarshamn are preparing with the expected help of SKI and SSI to dispute their geology and its relation to nuclear safety with SKB if they consider it necessary. If Oskarshamn act to draw safety issues in relation to alternative methods and sitings into the EIA process where might this lead? As environmental groups now enter the process (three groups were granted funding in the first round - 2005) the character of site

  4. Conflict of interest reporting by authors involved in promotion of off-label drug use: an analysis of journal disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Wang, Bo; Studdert, David M; Avorn, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Litigation documents reveal that pharmaceutical companies have paid physicians to promote off-label uses of their products through a number of different avenues. It is unknown whether physicians and scientists who have such conflicts of interest adequately disclose such relationships in the scientific publications they author. We collected whistleblower complaints alleging illegal off-label marketing from the US Department of Justice and other publicly available sources (date range: 1996-2010). We identified physicians and scientists described in the complaints as having financial relationships with defendant manufacturers, then searched Medline for articles they authored in the subsequent three years. We assessed disclosures made in articles related to the off-label use in question, determined the frequency of adequate disclosure statements, and analyzed characteristics of the authors (specialty, author position) and articles (type, connection to off-label use, journal impact factor, citation count/year). We identified 39 conflicted individuals in whistleblower complaints. They published 404 articles related to the drugs at issue in the whistleblower complaints, only 62 (15%) of which contained an adequate disclosure statement. Most articles had no disclosure (43%) or did not mention the pharmaceutical company (40%). Adequate disclosure rates varied significantly by article type, with commentaries less likely to have adequate disclosure compared to articles reporting original studies or trials (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.02-0.67, p = 0.02). Over half of the authors (22/39, 56%) made no adequate disclosures in their articles. However, four of six authors with ≥ 25 articles disclosed in about one-third of articles (range: 10/36-8/25 [28%-32%]). One in seven authors identified in whistleblower complaints as involved in off-label marketing activities adequately disclosed their conflict of interest in subsequent journal publications. This is a much

  5. Conflict of interest reporting by authors involved in promotion of off-label drug use: an analysis of journal disclosures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron S Kesselheim

    Full Text Available Litigation documents reveal that pharmaceutical companies have paid physicians to promote off-label uses of their products through a number of different avenues. It is unknown whether physicians and scientists who have such conflicts of interest adequately disclose such relationships in the scientific publications they author.We collected whistleblower complaints alleging illegal off-label marketing from the US Department of Justice and other publicly available sources (date range: 1996-2010. We identified physicians and scientists described in the complaints as having financial relationships with defendant manufacturers, then searched Medline for articles they authored in the subsequent three years. We assessed disclosures made in articles related to the off-label use in question, determined the frequency of adequate disclosure statements, and analyzed characteristics of the authors (specialty, author position and articles (type, connection to off-label use, journal impact factor, citation count/year. We identified 39 conflicted individuals in whistleblower complaints. They published 404 articles related to the drugs at issue in the whistleblower complaints, only 62 (15% of which contained an adequate disclosure statement. Most articles had no disclosure (43% or did not mention the pharmaceutical company (40%. Adequate disclosure rates varied significantly by article type, with commentaries less likely to have adequate disclosure compared to articles reporting original studies or trials (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.02-0.67, p = 0.02. Over half of the authors (22/39, 56% made no adequate disclosures in their articles. However, four of six authors with ≥ 25 articles disclosed in about one-third of articles (range: 10/36-8/25 [28%-32%].One in seven authors identified in whistleblower complaints as involved in off-label marketing activities adequately disclosed their conflict of interest in subsequent journal publications. This is

  6. Involving patients with E-health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    2015-01-01

    With e-health technologies, patients are invited as co-producers of data and information. The invitation sparks new expectations, yet often results in disappointments. With persistent ambitions to involve patients by means of e-health, it seems crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature......, sources and workings of the expectations that come with being invited. I analyse the use of an e-health system for ICD-patients, focusing on how patients sought to serve as information providers. Continuing STS-research on invisible work in technology use, I show how using the system involved complex work...... that understanding the dialogic dynamics and ‘overflows’ of information filtration work can help unpack the challenges of facilitating (patient) participation with e-health and other filtration devices....

  7. Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukas, Arthur A; Snyder, Mark; Clary, E Gil

    2016-01-01

    Volunteerism and community involvement have been demonstrated to offer benefits both to communities and to volunteers themselves. However, not every method to encourage these behaviors is equally effective in producing committed volunteers. Drawing on relevant theoretical and empirical literatures, we identify features of efforts that are likely to produce intrinsically motivated other-oriented volunteers and those that may produce extrinsically motivated self-oriented volunteers. In particular, we explore ways to socialize young people to help and ways to build a sense of community focused on particular issues. We also examine requirements for community service and other approaches that highlight self-oriented benefits that volunteers may obtain. Finally, we return to a focus on the importance of intrinsic motivation for promoting sustained involvement in volunteers, even as we acknowledge that volunteers who come with extrinsic or self-oriented reasons can still offer much to communities and can be satisfied when their activities match their motivations.

  8. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  9. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicanor Austriaco, O.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death.

  11. Involving stakeholders in evaluating environmental restoration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.; Serie, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    Involving citizens, interest groups, and regulators in environmental restoration and waste management programs is a challenge for government agencies and the organizations that support them. To be effective, such involvement activities must identify all individuals and groups who have a stake in the cleanup. Their participation must be early, substantive, and meaningful. Stockholders must be able to see how their input was considered and used, and feel that a good- faith effort was made to reconcile conflicting objectives. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development project located at Hanford. Along with technical evaluation of innovative cleanup technologies, the program is conducting an institutional assessment of regulatory and public acceptance of new technologies. Through a series of interviews and workshops, and use of a computerized information management tool, stakeholders are having a voice in the evaluation. Public and regulatory reaction has been positive

  12. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  13. [Parotid involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R; Bertin, H; Delemazure, A S; Clairand, R; Mercier, J; Corre, P

    2014-06-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vascularitis. This disease causes eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The most frequent manifestations are cortico-dependent asthma, mono- or polyneuropathy, paranasal sinus polyposis, and digestive and renal dysfunction. Salivary glands are very rarely involved. We describe a case of CSS in a patient presenting with bilateral parotid swelling. The morphological study of salivary glands revealed an unusual thickening of the salivary duct walls. Salivary gland involvement in Churg and Strauss syndrome can be difficult to demonstrate histologically; it does not usually present in the clinical foreground of the disease, and can be a source of misdiagnosis. The biopsy should be performed in the symptomatic gland, away from any previous corticoid treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  15. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy...... between what patients with cancer and their relatives experience as important unanswered questions and those which are actually researched. This study aims to challenge the conventional research process by inviting patients with life-threatening cancer (primary malignant brain tumours or acute leukaemia......), relatives and patient organisations to join forces with clinical specialists and researchers to identify, discuss and prioritise supportive care and rehabilitation issues in future research. Methods and analysis: This is an exploratory qualitative study comprising two sets of three focus group interviews...

  16. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezyar, E.; Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.H.; Guerkaynak, M.; Zorlu, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1989, 23 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients presenting with cranial nerve involvement (CNI) of one or more nerves at the time of diagnosis were treated and followed-up in our department. All patients were irradiated with curative intent, and total doses of 50 to 70 Gy (median 65 Gy) were delivered to the nasopharynx. Cranial nerves VI, III, V, IV, IX, and XII were the most commonly involved nerves. The total response rate of cranial nerves was 74% in a median follow-up time of 2 years, with the highest rate observed in the third and sixth cranial nerves. All complete responses except two were observed in the first month after radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Bladder Involvement in Stage I Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Laufer, Marc R

    2017-08-01

    Endometriosis-the ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of adolescent females and adults. Bladder involvement, causing dysuria and hematuria, occurs in a very small number of endometriosis patients. The patient presented at age 12 years with dysuria and pelvic pain. Laparoscopy revealed stage I endometriosis. Postoperatively, she reported persistent dysuria and passage of tissue in her urine. Cystoscopy showed diffuse erythema; urine cytology revealed glandular and spindle cells suggestive of endometriosis. She was transitioned from oral contraceptives to an intranasal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, with symptom resolution. Intravesicular endometriosis coinciding with stage I disease supports a mechanism of endometriosis dissemination other than direct bladder infiltration. Patients with endometriosis who complain of urinary symptoms warrant assessment, because intravesicular bladder involvement cannot be excluded using pelviscopy. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges with social media for user involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhlbröst, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Integrating social media into the innovation process can offer great opportunities for organizations striving for user involvement. Due to the spread of social media in all types of user groups it is, today, possible to engage users all around the world in innovation activities simultaneously. But even if social media usage in innovation activities offers great opportunities, it can be challenging to know how to use it to engage users in these processes. In this paper, the purpose is to discu...

  20. [The impact of socially involved films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, M

    1979-01-01

    During the past few years studies on linguistics and particularly on semiology have considerably renewed the approach and investigation methods in artistic expression. Ideology has several languages and expression systems (photography, painting, music, speech, architecture and so on). The film does not only carry an ideological content: besides the signification systems and the signs taken from other means of films. To consider only films which have the ostensible objective to urge the public to a political action as socially involved is wrong: any movie is socially involved. One must appreciate correctly and politically the place, role and level at which it intervenes in the framework of the ideological fight. Audiovisual alphabetization is essential for the progress of new ideas in the field of picture and sound. In the Third World, when they do exist, cinematographies rarely have the political power to consider such an action. Ideological impact depends mostly on the social, political and cultural environment. A movie is 1st questioned from the standpoint of the historical place and of the problems of the public. The example of Algerian cinematography as a socially involved one is given. At its origin, film-making in this country was working at informing the outside world of the meaning of the people's fight. Its goal was to capture the political and social reality in order to change it. Therefore the social involvement role of Algerian film-producing is tightly connected to the revolutionary process in which the whole country is engaged. Algerian film-producing is often understood as a propaganda cinematography. The stagnation or progress of a cinematography cannot be measured in relation to the universal mythical culture, but in relation to the social and cultural reality of the country where it originates. The present deepening of the reflection on film and ideology is a result of a recent accentuation of the ideologic fight.