Medium-resolution isaac newton telescope library of empirical spectra
Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Gorgas, J.; Selam, S.; Vazdekis, A.
2006-01-01
A new stellar library developed for stellar population synthesis modelling is presented. The library consists of 985 stars spanning a large range in atmospheric parameters. The spectra were obtained at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and cover the range lambda lambda 3525-7500 angstrom at 2.3
The Service Programme of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes
Méndez, J.
2013-05-01
The Service Programme of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) aims at providing astronomers with a rapid and flexible tool for obtaining small sets of observations on the William Herschel Telescope up to 8 hours. This can be used to try new ideas or complement a regular observing programme allocated on the ING telescopes, for instance. Proposals are accepted from principal investigators working in an institution located in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands or Spain, but also regardless the nationality of the host institution. A monthly deadline for application submission takes place at midnight on the last day of each month but urgent requests submitted at any time can also be accepted. Proposals are generally withdrawn from the scheme after a one year period. In this poster we provide an overview of the programme and some statistics. More information can be obtained at http://www.ing.iac.es/astronomy/service/.
HARPS3 for a roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope
Thompson, Samantha J.; Queloz, Didier; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; González Hernández, Jonay I.; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramón; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Ségransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Young, John
2016-08-01
We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R≃115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10- year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ≍1:4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous ow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a robotic operation. The robotic operation will optimise our programme which requires our target stars to be measured on a nightly basis. We present an overview of the entire project, including a description of our anticipated robotic operation.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Isaac Newton Telescope Wide Field Survey (CASU 2002)
Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit
2002-04-01
The INT Wide Field Survey (WFS) is using the Wide Field Camera (~0.3 square degrees) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The project was initiated in August 1998 and is expected to have a duration of up to five years. Multicolour data will be obtained over 200+ square degrees to a typical depth of ~25 mag (u' through z'). The data is publically accessible via the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit to UK and NL communities from day one, with access to the rest of the world after one year. This observation log lists all observations older than the one year proprietary period. (1 data file).
Isaac Newton: Man, Myth, and Mathematics.
Rickey, V. Frederick
1987-01-01
This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)
Cox, Carol
2001-01-01
Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)
May, Andrew
2015-01-01
Isaac Newton had an extraordinary idea. He believed the physical universe and everything in it could be described in exact detail using mathematical relationships. He formulated a law of gravity that explained why objects fall downwards, how the moon causes the tides, and why planets and comets orbit the sun. While Newton's work has been added to over the years, his basic approach remains at the heart of the scientific worldview. Yet Newton's own had little in common with that of a modern scientist. He believed the universe was created to a precise and rational design - a design that was fully
Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch
Dimitrijević, M. S.
In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.
[Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].
Wawrzycki, Jarosław
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.
Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint. Biman Nath. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 6-7. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0006-0007 ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Venter
1964-03-01
Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.
Newton's gift how Sir Isaac Newton unlocked the system of the world
Berlinski, David
2000-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton, creator of the first and perhaps most important scientific theory, is a giant of the scientific era. Despite this, he has remained inaccessible to most modern readers, indisputably great but undeniably remote. In this witty, engaging, and often moving examination of Newton's life, David Berlinski recovers the man behind the mathematical breakthroughs. The story carries the reader from Newton's unremarkable childhood to his awkward undergraduate days at Cambridge through the astonishing year in which, working alone, he laid the foundation for his system of the world, his Principia Mathematica, and to the subsequent monumental feuds that poisoned his soul and wearied his supporters. An edifying appreciation of Newton's greatest accomplishment, Newton's Gift is also a touching celebration of a transcendent man.
Newton's apple Isaac Newton and the English scientific renaissance
Aughton, Peter
2003-01-01
In the aftermath of the English Civil War, the Restoration overturned England's medieval outlook and a new way of looking at the world allowed the genius of Isaac Newton (b. 1642) and his contemporaries to flourish. Newton had a long and eventful life apart from his scentific discoveries. He was born at the beginnings of the Civil War, his studies were disrupted by the twin disasters of the Great Plague and the Fire of London; a brilliant and enigmatic genius, Newton dabbled in alchemy, wrote over a million words on the Bible, quarrelled with his contemporaries and spent his last years as Master of the Royal Mint as well as President of the Royal Society. This book sets Newton's life and work against this dramatic intellectual rebirth; among his friends and contemporaries were Samuel Pepys, the colourful diarist, John Evelyn, the eccentric antiquarian, the astronomers Edmund Halley and John Flamsteed, and Christopher Wren, the greatest architect of his age. They were all instrumental in the founding of the Ro...
Isaac Newton and the astronomical refraction.
Lehn, Waldemar H
2008-12-01
In a short interval toward the end of 1694, Isaac Newton developed two mathematical models for the theory of the astronomical refraction and calculated two refraction tables, but did not publish his theory. Much effort has been expended, starting with Biot in 1836, in the attempt to identify the methods and equations that Newton used. In contrast to previous work, a closed form solution is identified for the refraction integral that reproduces the table for his first model (in which density decays linearly with elevation). The parameters of his second model, which includes the exponential variation of pressure in an isothermal atmosphere, have also been identified by reproducing his results. The implication is clear that in each case Newton had derived exactly the correct equations for the astronomical refraction; furthermore, he was the first to do so.
On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer
Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita
2013-01-01
Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…
"To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.
Schilt, Cornelis J
2016-01-01
When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.
The Newton papers the strange and true odyssey of Isaac Newton's manuscripts
Dry, Sarah
2014-01-01
When Isaac Newton died at 85 without a will on March 20, 1727, he left a mass of disorganized papers-upwards of 8 million words-that presented an immediate challenge to his heirs. Most of these writings, on subjects ranging from secret alchemical formulas to impassioned rejections of the Holy Trinity to notes and calculations on his core discoveries in calculus, universal gravitation, and optics, were summarily dismissed by his heirs as "not fit to be printed." Rabidly heretical, alchemically obsessed, and possibly even mad, the Newton presented in these papers threatened to undermine not just his personal reputation but the status of science itself. As a result, the private papers of the world's greatest scientist remained hidden to all but a select few for over two hundred years. In The Newton Papers, Sarah Dry divulges the story of how this secret archive finally came to light-and the complex and contradictory man it revealed. Covering a broad swath of history, Dry explores who controlled Newton's legacy, ...
The Newtonian Moment - Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture
Feingold, Mordechai
2004-12-01
Isaac Newton is a legendary figure whose mythical dimension threatens to overshadow the actual man. The story of the apple falling from the tree may or may not be true, but Isaac Newton's revolutionary discoveries and their importance to the Enlightenment era and beyond are undeniable. The Newtonian Moment , a companion volume to a forthcoming exhibition by the New York Public Library, investigates the effect that Newton's theories and discoveries had, not only on the growth of science, but also on the very shape of modern culture and thought. Newton's scientific work at Cambridge was groundbreaking. From his optical experiments with prisms during the 1660s to the publication of both Principia (1687) and Opticks (1704), Newton's achievements were widely disseminated, inciting tremendous interest and excitement. Newtonianism developed into a worldview marked by many tensions: between modernity and the old guard, between the humanities and science, and the public battles between great minds. The Newtonian Moment illuminates the many facets of his colossal accomplishments, as well as the debates over the kind of knowledge that his accomplishments engendered. The book contributes to a greater understanding of the world today by offering a panoramic view of the profound impact of Newtonianism on the science, literature, art, and religion of the Enlightenment. Copiously illustrated with items drawn from the collections of the New York Public Library as well as numerous other libraries and museums, The Newtonian Moment enlightens its audience with a guided and in-depth look at the man, his world, and his enduring legacy.
A gravitação universal na filosofia da natureza de Isaac Newton
Garcia, Valdinei Gomes
2010-01-01
Resumo: Esta pesquisa apresenta um estudo sobre o conceito de força gravitacional na filosofia da natureza de Isaac Newton. O presente texto foi elaborado a partir dos argumentos desenvolvidos por Newton para defender esse conceito em sua obra mais importante, o Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). Será visto que, em tais argumentos, Newton restringe o conceito de força gravitacional a partir de um tratamento matemático, que ele próprio elaborou em sua obra. Por outro lado, Ne...
How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century
Clarke, Imogen
2014-01-01
In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.
Alquimia: Isaac Newton revisitado Alchemy: Isaac Newton Revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reginaldo Carmello Corrêa de Moraes
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Nota sobre publicações recentes que revelam aspectos pouco conhecidos da biblioteca de Newton - os numerosos textos religiosos, místicos e herméticos. Os biógrafos de Newton resistiram muito até admitir que os escritos esotéricos fossem genuíno interesse do sábio e que tivessem importância para entender sua trajetória intelectual. As publicações aqui indicadas afirmam o contrário, seguindo trilha aberta por ensaio pioneiro de J. M. Keynes (1946.A note on recent books about an unexplored side of Newtons library: religious, mystical and hermetic texts. Newton's biographers had resisted so much to believe that esoteric writings were in Newtons field of interest. Even if they recognized that, they didn't believe those strange works were important elements to understand his intellectual trajectory. The studies we mention here are saying just the opposite thing, exploring the way opened by the pioneer essay of J. M. Keynes (1946.
From the Landgrave in Kassel to Isaac Newton
Høg, E.
2018-01-01
Landgrave Wilhelm IV established in 1560 the first permanent astronomical observatory in Europe. When he met the young Tycho Brahe in 1575 he recognized the genius and recommended him warmly to the Danish king Frederik II. Wilhelm and Tycho must share the credit for renewing astronomy with very accurate observations of positions of stars by new instrumentation and new methods. Tycho's observations of planets during 20 years enabled Johannes Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. These laws set Isaac Newton in a position to publish the laws of physical motion and universal gravitation in 1687 - the basis for the technical revolution.
280 one-opposition near-Earth asteroids recovered by the EURONEAR with the Isaac Newton Telescope
Vaduvescu, O.; Hudin, L.; Mocnik, T.; Char, F.; Sonka, A.; Tudor, V.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Díaz Alfaro, M.; Ashley, R.; Errmann, R.; Short, P.; Moloceniuc, A.; Cornea, R.; Inceu, V.; Zavoianu, D.; Popescu, M.; Curelaru, L.; Mihalea, S.; Stoian, A.-M.; Boldea, A.; Toma, R.; Fields, L.; Grigore, V.; Stoev, H.; Lopez-Martinez, F.; Humphries, N.; Sowicka, P.; Ramanjooloo, Y.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Riddick, F. C.; Jimenez-Lujan, F.; Mendez, J.; Aceituno, F.; Sota, A.; Jones, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Murabito, S.; Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Zamora, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Génova-Santos, R.; Font, J.; Bereciartua, A.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Monelli, M.; Cicuendez, L.; Monteagudo, L.; Agulli, I.; Bouy, H.; Huélamo, N.; Monguió, M.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Gentile-Fusillo, N. P.; Hollands, M. A.; Toloza, O.; Manser, C. J.; Dhillon, V.; Sahman, D.; Fitzsimmons, A.; McNeill, A.; Thompson, A.; Tabor, M.; Murphy, D. N. A.; Davies, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Groot, P. J.; Macfarlane, S.; Peletier, R.; Sen, S.; İkiz, T.; Hoekstra, H.; Herbonnet, R.; Köhlinger, F.; Greimel, R.; Afonso, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Kong, A. K. H.; Bassa, C.; Pleunis, Z.
2018-01-01
Context. One-opposition near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are growing in number, and they must be recovered to prevent loss and mismatch risk, and to improve their orbits, as they are likely to be too faint for detection in shallow surveys at future apparitions. Aims: We aimed to recover more than half of the one-opposition NEAs recommended for observations by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in soft-override mode and some fractions of available D-nights. During about 130 h in total between 2013 and 2016, we targeted 368 NEAs, among which 56 potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), observing 437 INT Wide Field Camera (WFC) fields and recovering 280 NEAs (76% of all targets). Methods: Engaging a core team of about ten students and amateurs, we used the THELI, Astrometrica, and the Find_Orb software to identify all moving objects using the blink and track-and-stack method for the faintest targets and plotting the positional uncertainty ellipse from NEODyS. Results: Most targets and recovered objects had apparent magnitudes centered around V 22.8 mag, with some becoming as faint as V 24 mag. One hundred and three objects (representing 28% of all targets) were recovered by EURONEAR alone by Aug. 2017. Orbital arcs were prolonged typically from a few weeks to a few years; our oldest recoveries reach 16 years. The O-C residuals for our 1854 NEA astrometric positions show that most measurements cluster closely around the origin. In addition to the recovered NEAs, 22 000 positions of about 3500 known minor planets and another 10 000 observations of about 1500 unknown objects (mostly main-belt objects) were promptly reported to the MPC by our team. Four new NEAs were discovered serendipitously in the analyzed fields and were promptly secured with the INT and other telescopes, while two more NEAs were lost due to extremely fast motion and lack of rapid follow-up time. They increase the counting to nine NEAs discovered by the EURONEAR in 2014 and
Isaac Newton learns Hebrew: Samuel Johnson's Nova cubi Hebræi tabella
Joalland, Michael; Mandelbrote, Scott
2016-01-01
This article concerns the earliest evidence for Isaac Newton's use of Hebrew: a manuscript copy by Newton of part of a work intended to provide a reader of the Hebrew alphabet with the ability to identify or memorize more than 1000 words and to begin to master the conjugations of the Hebrew verb. In describing the content of this unpublished manuscript and establishing its source and original author for the first time, we suggest how and when Newton may have initially become acquainted with the language. Finally, basing our discussion in part on an examination of the reading marks that Newton left in the surviving copies of Hebrew grammars and lexicons that he owned, we will argue that his interest in Hebrew was not intended to achieve linguistic proficiency but remained limited to particular theological queries of singular concern.
Isaac Newton's scientific method turning data into evidence about gravity and cosmology
Harper, William L.
2014-01-01
Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also have those phenomena accurately measure the parameters which explain them. Harper explores the ways in which Newton's method aims to turn theoretical questions into ones which can be answered empirically by measurement from phenomena, and to establish that propositions inferred from phenomena are provisionally accepted as guides to further research. This methodology, guided by its rich ideal of empirical success, supports a conception of scientific progress that does not require construing it as progr...
Bellon, Richard
2014-01-01
For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Isaac newton et la gravitation universelle un scientifique au tempérament rageur
Mettra, Pierre
2015-01-01
Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Newton et la théorie de la gravitation universelle en moins d'une heure ! Figure incontournable de l'histoire des sciences, Isaac Newton bouleverse le monde avec sa théorie de la gravitation universelle. Secrètement passionné d'alchimie, il fait accomplir à l'optique et à l'analyse mathématique d'incroyables progrès, devenant aux yeux de ses contemporains l'un des savants les plus novateurs et les plus respectés au monde, ce que la postérité ne démentira pas.Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : La vie de New
Enlarging the bounds of moral philosophy: Why did Isaac Newton conclude the Opticks the way he did?
Henry, John
2017-01-01
This paper draws attention to the remarkable closing words of Isaac Newton's Optice (1706) and subsequent editions of the Opticks (1718, 1721), and tries to suggest why Newton chose to conclude his book with a puzzling allusion to his own unpublished conclusions about the history of religion. Newton suggests in this concluding passage that the bounds of moral philosophy will be enlarged as natural philosophy is ‘perfected’. Asking what Newton might have had in mind, the paper first considers the idea that he was foreshadowing the ‘moral Newtonianism’ developed later in the eighteenth century; then it considers the idea that he was perhaps pointing to developments in natural theology. Finally, the paper suggests that Newton wanted to at least signal the importance of attempting to recover the true original religion, and perhaps was hinting at his intention to publish his own extensive research on the history of the Church.
Isaac Newton: Eighteenth-century Perspectives
Hall, A. Rupert
1999-05-01
This new product of the ever-flourishing Newton industry seems a bit far-fetched at first sight: who but a few specialists would be interested in the historiography of Newton biography in the eighteenth century? On closer inspection, this book by one of the most important Newton scholars of our day turns out to be of interest to a wider audience as well. It contains several biographical sketches of Newton, written in the decades after his death. The two most important ones are the Eloge by the French mathematician Bernard de Fontenelle and the Italian scholar Paolo Frisi's Elogio. The latter piece was hitherto unavailable in English translation. Both articles are well-written, interesting and sometimes even entertaining. They give us new insights into the way Newton was revered throughout Europe and how not even the slightest blemish on his personality or work could be tolerated. An example is the way in which Newton's famous controversy with Leibniz is treated: Newton is without hesitation presented as the wronged party. Hall has provided very useful historical introductions to the memoirs as well as footnotes where needed. Among the other articles discussed is a well-known memoir by John Conduitt, who was married to Newton's niece. This memoir, substantial parts of which are included in this volume, has been a major source of personal information for Newton biographers up to this day. In a concluding chapter, Hall gives a very interesting overview of the later history of Newton biography, in which he describes the gradual change from adoration to a more critical approach in Newton's various biographers. In short, this is a very useful addition to the existing biographical literature on Newton. A J Kox
Hendry, Archibald W.
2007-01-01
Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…
Newton's Telescope in Print: the Role of Images in the Reception of Newton's Instrument
Dupré, Sven
2008-01-01
While Newton tried to make his telescope into a proof of the supremacy of his theory of colours over older theories, his instrument was welcomed as a way to shorten telescopes, not as a way to solve the problem of chromatic aberration. This paper argues that the image published together with the
Nunan, E.
1973-01-01
Presents a brief biography of Sir Isaac Newton, lists contemporary scientists and scientific developments and discusses Newton's optical research and conceptual position concerning the nature of light. (JR)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Fiorentino
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular – but far from marginal – aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution. In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments. The primacy of nature is not manifested only in contrast to and outside the book of Scriptures, but conditions the Book of Scriptures, locating it within a precise cultural perspective and religious sense that are by no means contrary to Galileo and Newton’s views.
Ryder, L. H.
1987-01-01
Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)
Hall, Alfred Rupert
1982-01-01
The near century (1630–1720) that separates the important astronomical findings of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) and the vastly influential mathematical work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) represents a pivotal stage of transition in the history of science. Tracing the revolution in physics initiated by Galileo and culminating in Newton's achievements, this book surveys the work of Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Boyle, Descartes, and others. 35 illustrations.
2008-01-01
Isaac Newton, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect
Jacquette, Dale
2014-09-01
In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.
Voltaire-Newton... Renversant!
2004-01-01
The encounter, even improbable, between François Marie Arouet, said Voltaire, and Isaac Newton could occur only in Pays de Gex, near his city... It's indeed right above of the accelerator, in Saint-Genis, that the meeting between this two "monsters" of the 18e century took place
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio Marineli
Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca analisar a estrutura argumentativa e as características dos argumentos que aparecem no texto em que Isaac Newton descreve sua "Nova teoria sobre luz e cores", escrito em 1672. Para tanto, o padrão de Toulmin é utilizado como ferramenta analítica. A identificação da estrutura argumentativa de um texto científico pode ajudar na compreensão da construção do argumento na ciência e servir de apoio à utilização da argumentação na educação científica, inclusive na elaboração de textos didáticos. A análise realizada caracterizou os argumentos apresentados no texto e mostrou como se relacionam na elaboração da explicação de Newton para o fenômeno da formação de cores devido à refração da luz em um prisma.
Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.
Weinstock, Robert
1992-01-01
Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)
Judaism in the theology of Sir Isaac Newton
Goldish, Matt
1998-01-01
This book is based on my doctoral dissertation from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1996) of the same title. As a master's student, working on an entirely different project, I was well aware that many of Newton's theological manuscripts were located in our own Jewish National and University Library, but I was under the mistaken assumption that scores of highly qualified scholars must be assiduously scouring them and publishing their results. It never occurred to me to look at them at all until, having fmished my master's, I spoke to Professor David Katz at Tel-Aviv University about an idea I had for doctoral research. Professor Katz informed me that the project I had suggested was one which he himself had just fmished, but that I might be interested in working on the famous Newton manuscripts in the context of a project being organized by him, Richard Popkin, James Force, and the late Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs, to study and publish Newton's theological material. I asked him whether he was not sending me into ...
Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.
Fara, P
1999-01-01
Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.
Newton and scholastic philosophy.
Levitin, Dmitri
2016-03-01
This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.
British physics Newton's law of funding
2007-01-01
In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science
Tucci, Pasquale
2015-01-01
Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…
Advances in telescope mirror cleaning
Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.
2004-09-01
Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.
Introducing Newton and classical physics
Rankin, William
2002-01-01
The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".
Proving Newton Right or Wrong with Blur Photography
Davidhazy, Andrew
2012-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton determined that the acceleration constant for gravity was 32 ft./per/sec/sec. This is a fact that most students become familiar with over time and through various means. This article describes how this can be demonstrated in a technology classroom using simple photographic equipment. (Contains 5 figures.)
You err, Einstein.. Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman discuss quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsch, Harald
2008-01-01
Harald Fritzsch and his star physicists Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman explain the central concept of nowadays physics, quantum mechanics, without it nothing goes in modern world. And the great Isaac newton puts the questions, which all would put
Goethe's Exposure of Newton's theory a polemic on Newton's theory of light and colour
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
2016-01-01
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although best known for his literary work, was also a keen and outspoken natural scientist. In the second polemic part of Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colours), for example, Goethe attacked Isaac Newton's ground-breaking revelation that light is heterogeneous and not immutable, as was previously thought.This polemic was unanimously rejected by the physicists of the day, and has often been omitted from compendia of Goethe's works. Indeed, although Goethe repeated all of Newton's key experiments, he was never able to achieve the same results. Many reasons have been proposed for this, ranging from the psychological — such as a blind hatred of Newtonism, self-deceit and paranoid psychosis — to accusations of incapability — Goethe simply did not understand the experiments. Yet Goethe was never to be dissuaded from this passionate conviction.This translation of Goethe's second polemic, published for the first time in English, makes it clear that Goethe did understand the thrust of Ne...
A primeira Lei de Newton: uma abordagem didática
da Silva, Saulo Luis Lima
2018-01-01
Resumo No estudo da mecânica Newtoniana o essencial é a compreensão das leis de Newton em profundidade. Se isso acontecer, ficará fácil perceber que todos os outros fenômenos a serem estudados são consequências dessas três leis básicas do movimento formuladas por Isaac Newton. Dentre elas, a primeira lei de Newton, conhecida como lei da Inércia, é a de maior complexidade filosófica e a menos compreendida pelos alunos ao saírem de um curso de física básica. Não é incomum encontrar alunos descr...
Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S
2004-10-01
The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.
2000-02-01
hectic behaviour of stars at the end of their life". The Calibration and Performance Verification phase for XMM-Newton's science instruments is to begin on 3 March, with routine science operations starting in June. (*)Pictures available on the ESA website at http://www.esa.int, then Image Gallery, then News and at http://sci.esa.int/xmm/firstimages Following in Newton's footsteps The European Space Agency has decided to honour one of the world's most illustrious scientists by giving the name of Isaac Newton to the XMM mission. The X-ray space telescope is henceforth called the XMM-Newton observatory. The work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) in the field of mathematics, optics and physics laid the foundations for modern science. He made a major impact on theoretical and practical astronomy and today one cannot evoke an apple, a reflecting telescope, a light-splitting prism and or a sextant without recalling Newton's contributions to science. "We have chosen this name because Sir Isaac Newton was the man who invented spectroscopy and XMM is a spectroscopy mission" explains Prof. Roger Bonnet ESA Director of Science. "The name of Newton is associated with the falling apple, which is the symbol of gravity and with XMM I hope that we will find a large number of black hole candidates which are of course associated with the theory of gravity. There was no better choice of name than XMM-Newton for this mission". Stargazing with XMM-Newton On the occasion of the presentation of the X-ray observatory's first images, the European Space Agency is launching "Stargazing", the third XMM-Newton competition. European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old at the end of secondary school, will be able to win observing time using the X-ray telescope. "We are extending the concept of backyard astronomy" says Prof. Bonnet. "Through this telescope's ability to be operated from the ground in a friendly way, young people will be offered a unique opportunity to learn how to operate and manage an
Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein
Sinclair, R.
2013-04-01
Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.
Newton and the origin of civilization
Buchwald, Jed Z
2012-01-01
Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an uproar that reverberated in Europe's learned circles throughout the eighteenth century and beyond. Jed Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold reveal the manner in which Newton strove for nearly half a century to rectify universal history by reading ancient texts through the lens of astronomy, and to create a tight theoretical system for interpreting the evolution of civilization on the basis of population dynamics. It was duri...
Jaeger, W
1984-04-01
Since Aristotle there have been two colour order systems: The first is according to the subjective luminosity of colours, and the second is that which is found in the rainbow. Almost all the medieval concepts of colour order were based on the subjective luminosity of colours. At the beginning of the 17th century Franciscus Aguilonius still described the traditional sequence according to subjective luminosity: white, yellow, red, blue and black in his colour order system. - Athanasius Kircher demonstrated two sequences: The first was the same as Aguilonius 's, completed by lists of symbolic qualities attributed to the respective colours; The second was the sequence of the prismatic spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Violet was still missing from his spectrum. For that reason the idea of arranging the colours in a closed circle did not occur to him. - Isaac Newton added violet to the prismatic spectrum. Hence he was able to bring the ends of the spectrum together, forming a colour circle. He completed the colours of his spectrum "with those purple hues which, although not present in the spectrum, were familiar to painters and dyers , and in this way closed up the colour-circle into a band returning on itself" (W. Ostwald). Thus he combined the perceptual concept of the colour wheel, containing pairs of complementary colours, with the physical concept of the prismatic spectrum.
Fara, Patricia
2015-04-13
Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.
Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce
2015-12-01
This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.
Spyromilio, J.; Cuby, J.; Lidman, C.; Johnson, R.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Mason, E.; Ivanov, V. D.; Schmidtobreick, L.
2014-03-01
ISAAC was switched off, almost certainly for the final time, on 12 December 2013. The last observing block executed was OB1030962, the target, Supernova 2013ct, for a programme whose principal investigator just happened to be the first instrument scientist for ISAAC. "All constraints were respected and spectra of the target detected" are the public comments in the log. A short history of ISAAC, from the instrument scientists' viewpoint, is presented.
Fara, Patricia
2015-01-01
Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750143
Newton's Investigation of Light and Color: Historical and Experimental Notes. Experiment No. 7.
Devons, Samuel
The life and work of Isaac Newton and his investigations of light and color are described in detail. Notes include preliminary observations of chromatic dispersion; dispersion by an equilateral prism; the "Experimentum Crucos" or the composite nature of white light; the nature of colored light and illumination; transmissions and reflections; and…
Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saggio, Maria Luisa
2013-01-01
Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given. (paper)
Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others
Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…
Devons, Samuel
This paper attempts to promote an understanding of physics through its history and replication of the oscillation experiments of Isaac Newton and Daniel Bernoulli from the 17th and 18th centuries. The experiments described can be treated at a level of sophistication to suit the interests and capabilities of the student. Reproductions in the…
Gilbert, Robert; Kajiwara, Joji
2000-01-01
This book is the Proceedings of the Second ISAAC Congress. ISAAC is the acronym of the International Society for Analysis, its Applications and Computation. The president of ISAAC is Professor Robert P. Gilbert, the second named editor of this book, e-mail: gilbert@math.udel.edu. The Congress is world-wide valued so highly that an application for a grant has been selected and this project has been executed with Grant No. 11-56 from *the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition (1970). The finance of the publication of this book is exclusively the said Grant No. 11-56 from *. Thus, a pair of each one copy of two volumes of this book will be sent to all contributors, who registered at the Second ISAAC Congress in Fukuoka, free of charge by the Kluwer Academic Publishers. Analysis is understood here in the broad sense of the word, includ ing differential equations, integral equations, functional analysis, and function theory. It is the purpose of ISAAC to promote analysis, its applications, and...
Westfall, Richard S
1994-01-01
Le plus célèbre des savants, Isaac Newton, est aussi celui qui a le plus de biographes. Avant même sa mort, en 1727, l'un d'eux publiait un récit de la vie du grand homme. Richard Westfall, universitaire américain, est aujourd'hui le meilleur connaisseur d'un personnage en tout point extraordinaire, dont Aldous Huxley disait : « En tant qu'homme, c'est un fiasco ; en tant que monstre, il est superbe ! » Découvrant à 24 ans la loi de la gravitation universelle, établissant peu après les lois de l'optique tout en poursuivant des études alchimiques et théologiques, cet homme capable de rester des jours entiers sans manger ni dormir, absorbé par les énigmes du savoir, connaît une grave dépression dont il réchappe de justesse... pour se consacrer à l'économie de son pays : il devient directeur de la Monnaie de Londres, organisant une impitoyable chasse aux faux-monnayeurs ! L'image d'Épinal de Newton regardant une pomme tomber sort enrichie et complexifiée de ce livre fruit d'une vie de reche...
The calculus gallery masterpieces from Newton to Lebesgue
Dunham, William
2008-01-01
More than three centuries after its creation, calculus remains a dazzling intellectual achievement and the gateway into higher mathematics. This book charts its growth and development by sampling from the work of some of its foremost practitioners, beginning with Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late seventeenth century and continuing to Henri Lebesgue at the dawn of the twentieth--mathematicians whose achievements are comparable to those of Bach in music or Shakespeare in literature. William Dunham lucidly presents the definitions, theorems, and proofs. ""Students of literat
Discovery of a Probable Nova in M81 and Photometry of Three M81 Novae
Hornoch, K.; Errmann, R.; Carlisle, Ch.; Vaduvescu, O.
2015-02-01
We report the discovery of a probable nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.6" seeing on 2015 Jan.
Cataclysmic variables from a ROSAT/2MASS selection - I. Four new intermediate polars
Gänsicke, B.T.; Marsh, T.R.; Edge, A.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Steeghs, D.; Araujo-Betancor, S.; Harlaftis, E.; Giannakis, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Aungwerojwit, A.
2005-01-01
We report the first results from a new search for cataclysmic variables (CVs) using a combined X-ray (ROSAT)/infrared (2MASS) target selection that discriminates against background active galactic nuclei. Identification spectra were obtained at the Isaac Newton Telescope for a total of 174 targets,
Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81
Hornoch, K.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Vaduvescu, O.
2015-01-01
We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~2.4" seeing on 2015 Jan. 15.126 UT.
Characterising atmospheric optical turbulence using stereo-SCIDAR
Osborn, James; Butterley, Tim; Föhring, Dora; Wilson, Richard
2015-04-01
Stereo-SCIDAR (SCIntillation Detection and Ranging) is a development to the well known SCIDAR method for characterisation of the Earth's atmospheric optical turbulence. Here we present some interesting capabilities, comparisons and results from a recent campaign on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma.
An evolutionary link between Seyfert I and II galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penston, M.V.; Perez, E.
1984-01-01
First spectra from the newly sited Isaac Newton Telescope show NGC 4151 and 3C 390.3 to have taken on a classification very close to Seyfert II. It is proposed that Seyfert II galaxies are Seyfert Is in which the continuum source is temporarily off. (author)
Westfall, Richard S
2007-01-01
Definitive, concise, and very interesting... From William Shakespeare to Winston Churchill, the Very Interesting People series provides authoritative bite-sized biographies of Britain's most fascinating historical figures - people whose influence and importance have stood the test of time. Each book in the series is based upon the biographical entry from the world-famous Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. -
Newtonian cosmology Newton would understand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemons, D.S.
1988-01-01
Isaac Newton envisioned a static, infinite, and initially uniform, zero field universe that was gravitationally unstable to local condensations of matter. By postulating the existence of such a universe and using it as a boundary condition on Newtonian gravity, a new field equation for gravity is derived, which differs from the classical one by a time-dependent cosmological term proportional to the average mass density of the universe. The new field equation not only makes Jeans' analysis of the gravitational instability of a Newtonian universe consistent, but also gives rise to a family of Newtonian evolutionary cosmologies parametrized by a time-invariant expansion velocity. This Newtonian cosmology contrasts with both 19th-century ones and with post general relativity Newtonian cosmology
INT WFC follow-up photometry of the M31 nova M31N 2017-10a
Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Arce-Tord, C.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2017-12-01
We report follow-up photometry in the Sloan g, r, and i bands, 240s per band, of the nova M31N 2017-10a ( = PNV J00423905+4123006) from observations on the night of 29 October 2017 with the Wide Field Camera of the Isaac Newton Telescope*.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: sigma Ori low-mass stars (Kenyon+, 2005)
Kenyon, M. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.
2005-04-01
We observed the field around sigma Ori with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope using Harris R and Sloan i filters on the nights of 1999 September 2730. Spectra were obtained with the Wide Field Fiber Optic Spectrograph (WYFFOS) mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope during the nights of 1999 December 11 and 12. (5 data files).
Conference | From Newton to Hawking and beyond | 28 May
2013-01-01
From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics, Dr Tom Shakespeare. Tuesday, 28 May 2013 - 11.30 am - 1 pm Main Auditorium – Room 500-1-001 Conference organised by the CERN Diversity Programme English with French interpretation According to the recent world report on disability, 15% of the world’s population is disabled. Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton and Paul Dirac, neither of whom could be classed as “neuro-typical”, and Stephen Hawking. This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially imposed barriers which disabled people face. It will also include some stories about high achieving people with disabilities. Finally, some practical suggestions will be offered on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social sci...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuch, N.J.
1983-01-01
An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)
Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Arce-Tord, C.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2017-12-01
We report the pre-discovery detection of the nova M31N 2017-11a (AT2017hvi, PTSS-17zap, TCP J00425419+4130425) with the Isaac Newton Telescope* Wide Field Camera on the night of 29 October 2017, 4.845 days before the discovery observations on 2017/11/04.695 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS).
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Probing the Local Bubble with DIBs. III. (Farhang+, 2015)
Farhang, A.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.
2015-03-01
All of the observations have been obtained with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos in La Palma; with spectra in the 5750-6040Å region at spectral resolutions of R~2000 (or a velocity resolution of Δv=150km/s). (1 data file).
Spectral properties of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits
Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; de Leon, J.; Boaca, I. L.; Gherase, R. M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; INT students, I. N. G.
2017-09-01
We studied the spectral distributions of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (NEACOs) in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among these objects. We present the spectral observations for 19 NEACOs obtained with Isaac Newton Telescope and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Although initially classified as asteroid, one of our targets - 2007 VA85 was confirmed to be active comet 333P/LINEAR on its 2016 appearance. We found that the NEACOs population is a mixing of different compositional classes.
Arce-Tord, C.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Hermosa-Muñoz, L.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Mantero-Castañeda, E. A.; Otero-Santos, J.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2017-12-01
We report photometry in the Sloan g (3x150s), r (3x100s), and i (3x100s) bands of the recurrent nova candidate M31N 1966-08a = 1968-10c (= PNV J00412371+4114594) from observations with the Wide Field Camera of the Isaac Newton Telescope* on the night of 28 October 2017.
Vaduvescu, Ovidiu; Aznar Macias, Amadeo
2018-01-01
The near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 1993 RA was observed with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in full Moon conditions for 8h total during three successive nights (2017 Oct 3-6). The composite lightcurve could be fit by a 3-order period P = 5.64 ± 0.01 h with amplitude of 0.13 mag; other solutions are possible.
The Secrets of the Nearest Starburst Cluster. I. Very Large Telescope/ISAAC Photometry of NGC 3603
Stolte, Andrea; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandl, Bernhard; Zinnecker, Hans; Grebel, Eva K.
2004-08-01
VLT/ISAAC JHKL photometry with subarcsecond resolution of the dense, massive starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC forming the core of the NGC 3603 giant molecular cloud is analyzed to reveal characteristics of the stellar population in unprecedented detail. The color-magnitude plane features a strong pre-main-sequence/main-sequence (PMS/MS) transition region, including the PMS/MS transition point, and reveals a secondary sequence for the first time in a nearby young starburst cluster. Arguments for a possible binary nature of this sequence are given. The resolved PMS/MS transition region allows isochrone fitting below the hydrogen-burning turn-on in NGC 3603 YC, yielding an independent estimate of global cluster parameters. A distance modulus of 13.9 mag, equivalent to d=6.0+/-0.3 kpc, is derived, as well as a line-of-sight extinction of AV=4.5+/-0.6 toward PMS stars in the cluster center. The interpretation of a binary candidate sequence suggests a single age of 1 Myr for NGC 3603 YC, providing evidence for a single burst of star formation without the need to employ an age spread in the PMS population, as argued for in earlier studies. Disk fractions are derived from L-band excesses, indicating a radial increase in the disk frequency from 20% to 40% from the core to the cluster outskirts. The low disk fraction in the cluster core, as compared to the 42% L-band excess fraction found for massive stars in the Trapezium cluster of a comparably young age, indicates strong photoevaporation in the cluster center. The estimated binary fraction of 30%, as well as the low disk fraction, suggest strong impacts on low-mass star formation due to stellar interactions in the dense starburst. The significant differences between NGC 3603 YC and less dense and massive young star clusters in the Milky Way reveal the importance of using local starbursts as templates for massive extragalactic star formation. Based on observations obtained at the ESO VLT on Paranal, Chile, under programs 63.I
[A case of Isaacs' syndrome associated with dextrocardia].
Torres, L; Cosentino, C; Vélez, M; Anicama, A
Isaacs syndrome is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by muscular rigidity, cramps and myokymias. Described by Isaacs in 1961 and called by him as continuous muscular activity syndrome. There are few reports in Latino american countries. A 31 year-old man with sustained muscular contractions in lower limbs and diffuse myokymias since he was eighteen-year old. Dextrocardia was disclosed on clinical examination. We report the case of a patient with Isaacs syndrome and dextrocardia.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Penha Maria Cardozo; Stuchi, T J
2013-01-01
In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing. (paper)
Cardozo Dias, Penha Maria; Stuchi, T. J.
2013-11-01
In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.
Photometry and polarimetry of AM Herculis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, J A; Jones, D H.P. [Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK); Parkes, G E; Mason, K O
1978-06-01
Some new high-speed photometric and polarmetric observations of AM Herculare is presented. These new data obtained during 1977 with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope are compared to previous observations. Several properties are noted to have changed, in particular the size and structure of the periodic linear-polarization events. There is no evidence for periodic variation of the polarization apart from the 3-hr orbital period.
CCD photometry of Cepheid sequences in four nearby galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.
1991-01-01
We present Isaac Newton Telescope B and V CCD observations of deep photometric sequences in the vicinity of Cepheid variable stars in three nearby galaxies - M31, M33 and NGC 2403. We have also checked the photometry of the brightest stars in M81 and its dwarf companion, Holmberg IX. We use our data, combined with other recent results, to re-analyse the Cepheid distances to these galaxies. (author)
Photometry and polarimetry of AM Herculis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, J.A.; Jones, D.H.P.; Parkes, G.E.; Mason, K.O.
1978-01-01
Some new high-speed photometric and polarmetric observations of AM Herculare is presented. These new data obtained during 1977 with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope are compared to previous observations. Several properties are noted to have changed, in particular the size and structure of the periodic linear-polarization events. There is no evidence for periodic variation of the polarization apart from the 3-hr orbital period. (author)
New distances to and peculiar motions of two Abell clusters -evidence for spurious motions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucey, J.R.; Terlevich, R.J.
1991-01-01
We present redshifts and central velocity dispersions (σ) from observations with the FLEX-based multi-object system on the William Herschel 4.2-m telescope for early-type galaxies in three rich clusters, Abell 194, Abell 2199 and Abell 2634. For Abell 194, the new measurements are in excellent agreement with those previously derived with the AAT's FOCAP multi-object system. Photometric diameters (D) derived from CCD observations made with the Isaac Newton 2.5-m telescope and Jacobus Kapteyn 1.0-m telescope are also presented. Relative distances to Abell 2199 and Abell 2634 are derived via the application of the D-σ relation. (author)
The ING observatory in the 2015-2025 decade
Balcells, M.
2015-05-01
The Isaac Newton Group, after nearly 30 years of productive operation of the William Herschel, Isaac Newton and Jacobus Kapteyn telescopes, is reviewing its science focus. The central goal is to respond to the changes in the astronomical landscapes in UK, the Netherlands, and especially in Spain, now a mature world-player community with access to 10-m class telescopes on La Palma and Paranal. The current model, which exploits scientific and instrumentation diversity, will continue to be offered until 2017. In the meantime, an ING-led consortium is building WEAVE, a next-generation spectroscopic facility for the WHT. WEAVE is a multi-fibre system capable of deploying either 1000 single-fibre probes, 25 mini-IFUs or a single large IFU, to feed a two-arm bench spectrograph which delivers resolving powers of either 5000 or 20,000. WEAVE will exploit a new field corrector at the WHT that enlarges the prime-focus FOV diameter from the current 40 arcmin to 2 degrees. WEAVE will be used to carry out massive surveys that exploit Gaia data in topics of Milky Way astronomy and stellar evolution; surveys that carry out galaxy evolution studies linked to various multi-wavelength surveys, including the LOFAR radio telescope; and redshift surveys of distant galaxies for cosmology. Community fibres will be available. The expectation is that these surveys will use 70% of the WHT time until at least 2022. The rest of the time will be available via normal TAC allocations, for use of facility instrumentation. Plans for the INT include involving external institutions in the provision of new instrumentation and/or telescope upgrades in exchange for significant fractions of telescope time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, M.J.; Meaburn, J.; Clayton, C.A.
1989-01-01
Optical observations of the 1-arcmin core of the complex supernova remnant CTB 80 have been made with the Manchester echelle spectrometer, in both its imaging and spectral modes, on the Isaac Newton and William Herschel telescopes. Four 'shells' (A-D) are found in the light of Hα but only the central two of these (A and B) are bright at [N II]. Ionization by shocks of shells with different velocities is implied. (author)
Programming for the Newton software development with NewtonScript
McKeehan, Julie
1994-01-01
Programming for the Newton: Software Development with NewtonScript focuses on the processes, approaches, operations, and principles involved in software development with NewtonScript.The publication first elaborates on Newton application design, views on the Newton, and protos. Discussions focus on system protos, creating and using user protos, linking and naming templates, creating the views of WaiterHelper, Newton application designs, and life cycle of an application. The text then elaborates on the fundamentals of NewtonScript, inheritance in NewtonScript, and view system and messages. Topi
VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV and [Fe/H] in 5 open clusters (Carrera+, 2015)
Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Ospina, N.; Balaguer-Nunez, L.; Jordi, C.; Monteagudo, L.
2015-05-01
Medium-resolution spectra in the region of the near-infrared CaII triplet (CaT) at ~8500Å were obtained using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) located at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain. Berkeley 23 was observed in service mode on 2013 January 17 and 18, and the other clusters were observed on 2014 July 18 and 19. (1 data file).
Teaching students about informatics and astronomy using real data for detection of asteroids
Boldea, A. L.; Vaduvescu, O.
2017-09-01
In this paper we approach the astronomy teaching process for students in computer sciences through a controlled investigation method using real astronomical data, including data reduction and quality control of the astrometry of near-Earth asteroids. The method used data collected on the Isaac Newton Telescope located at the ORM observatory on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Canary Islands and was successfully tested with a group of students in their second year of study.
First Images and Spectra from ISAAC on UT1
1998-11-01
New VLT Instrument Delivers Spectacular Infrared Views of the Southern Sky The VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) [1] was installed at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT1) on November 14, 1998, cf. ESO PR Photos 42a-h/98. ISAAC is the second major VLT instrument to be installed at the VLT and the first to be fully designed and developed at ESO within its Instrumentation Division. Following evacuation of its large vacuum vessel, cooling to cryogenic temperature and alignment with the telescope according to the planned schedule, it successfully achieved technical first light during the night between November 16 and 17, 1998. ESO PR Photo 46a/98 ESO PR Photo 46a/98 [JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 432k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3175 pix - 2.9Mb] PR Photo 46a/98 shows ISAAC as it is now mounted at the UT1 Nasmyth B adaptor-rotator (right; blue colour). The co-rotator system (left) through which the various cables are fed to the instrument, is also well visible. (Photo obtained on November 16, 1998). The first focus tests on stars yielded images of excellent sharpness, around 0.45 arcsec full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). During the following nights, even better images, as small as 0.25 arcsec in relatively short exposures, were obtained, testifying to the quality of the site as well as the optical quality of both the telescope and instrument. Observations were executed using the new VLT Control and Data Flow Systems which are driven by Observation Blocks that define all details of the required astronomical exposures. In addition to direct images in various infrared colours (selected with different optical filters), spectroscopic observations were also made during the first few nights of operation. This Press Release is accompanied by several images and spectra which illustrate some of the exceptional new astronomical capabilities offered by this instrument. Star-Forming Region RCW38 in the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 46b/98 ESO PR Photo 46b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kara, E.; Zoghbi, A.; Marinucci, A.
2015-01-01
In the past five years, a flurry of X-ray reverberation lag measurements of accreting supermassive black holes have been made using the XMM–Newton telescope in the 0.3–10 keV energy range. In this work, we use the NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) telescope to extend the lag analysis...... up to higher energies for two Seyfert galaxies, SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. X-ray reverberation lags are due to the light travel time delays between the direct continuum emission and the reprocessed emission from the inner radii of an ionized accretion disc. XMM–Newton has been particularly...... evidence for Compton reflection, known as the Compton ‘hump’. The XMM–Newton data show Fe K lags in both SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. The NuSTAR data provide independent confirmation of these Fe K lags, and also show evidence for the corresponding Compton hump lags, especially in SWIFT J2127...
[The Galenic content of Isaac Beeckman's medical ideas (1617-1629)].
Moreau, Elisabeth
2011-01-01
The Journal tenu par Isaac Beeckman de 1604 à 1634 has been studied in the history of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution following the theme of Isaac Beeckman's physical mathematical mechanistic view, his proto-molecular theory and his atomistic Lucretian influence. This article goes deeper into the medical ideas of the Journal: how Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637) settles the structure of living matter according to his intensive reading of Galen. It develops a different analysis from the traditionally triumphalist approach in the history of science, focused on the victory of Cartesian mechanism, particularly in the history of medicine taking up Galenism very briefly because of its obsolete physiology. The Galenic corpus inside Isaac Beeckman's Journal consists of the many commentaries of Galen which Beeckman has put down in writing since 1616 until 1627, after when the passages linked to Galen became fewer. Isaac Beeckman's study of Galenic medicine is analyzed according to three approaches: the teleological dimension of Galenism showing up the organic conception of human body corresponding to the divine Providence and consistent with Beeckman's Calvinist belief, the physiologic angle of Galenism, based on natural faculties, stressing the purely speculative aspect of Beeckman's commentaries, while the pathologic and therapeutic angle supports the Hippocratic humourism influence.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral types of stars in CoRoT fields (Sebastian+, 2012)
Sebastian, D.; Guenther, E. W.; Schaffenroth, V.; Gandolfi, D.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Deleuil, M.; Moutou, C.
2012-03-01
Spectroscopic classification for 2950 O-, B-, and A-type stars in the CoRoT-fields IRa01, LRa01, and LRa02. Stars are named by their CoRoT-identifier and Coordinates are given. The visual magnitudes were obtained with the Wide Field Camera filter-system of the Isaac Newton Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma and can be converted into Landolt standards, as shown in Deleuil et al. (2009AJ....138..649D). (1 data file).
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ji light curves of WTS-2 (Birkby+, 2014)
Birkby, J. L.; Cappetta, M.; Cruz, P.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Ivanyuk, O.; Mustill, A. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Pinfield, D. J.; Sipocz, B.; Kovacs, G.; Saglia, R.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barrado, D.; Bayo, A.; Campbell, D.; Catalan, S.; Fossati, L.; Galvez-Ortiz, M.-C.; Kenworthy, M.; Lillo-Box, J.; Martin, E. L.; Mislis, D.; de Mooij, E. J. W.; Nefs, S. V.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Stoev, H.; Zendejas, J.; Del Burgo, C.; Barnes, J.; Goulding, N.; Haswell, C. A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Lodieu, N.; Murgas, F.; Palle, E.; Solano, E.; Steele, P.; Tata, R.
2015-07-01
The infrared light curves of the WTS were generated from time series photometry taken with the WFCAM imager mounted at the prime focus of UKIRT. In order to confirm the transit of WTS-2 b and to help constrain the transit model, on 2010 July 18 we obtained further time series photometry in the Sloan i band using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma. (2 data files).
Stuchi, Teresa; Cardozo Dias, P.
2013-05-01
Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): On a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. How he drew the orbit may indicate how and when he developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove geometrically: Hooke’s method is a second order symplectic area preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done exploring geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first order method. A fourth order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.
Ruzhansky, Michael; Analytic Methods in Interdisciplinary Applications
2015-01-01
The book includes lectures given by the plenary and key speakers at the 9th International ISAAC Congress held 2013 in Krakow, Poland. The contributions treat recent developments in analysis and surrounding areas, concerning topics from the theory of partial differential equations, function spaces, scattering, probability theory, and others, as well as applications to biomathematics, queueing models, fractured porous media and geomechanics.
Cenarro, A. J.; Peletier, R. F.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Selam, S. O.; Toloba, E.; Cardiel, N.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Gorgas, J.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Vazdekis, A.
2007-01-01
We present a homogeneous set of stellar atmospheric parameters (T-eff, log g, [Fe/H]) for MILES, a new spectral stellar library covering the range lambda lambda 3525-7500 angstrom at 2.3 angstrom (FWHM) spectral resolution. The library consists of 985 stars spanning a large range in atmospheric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meaburn, J.; Clayton, C.A.
1987-01-01
In a previous paper the authors reported the discovery of a 'jet' of ionized gas ≅ 2 arcsec across emerging from a dark area of M17 with approaching speeds up to 115 km s -1 . The vicinity of this jet has now been observed in detail in the light of [O III] 5007 A with the Manchester echelle, with a five-element multi-slit, on the Isaac Newton Telescope. A variety of new high-speed phenomena has been discovered in the ionized gas. (author)
Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.
1980-01-01
This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Kara, E.
2014-01-01
We present a broad-band spectral analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observational campaign of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 SWIFT J2127.4+5654, consisting of 300 ks performed during three XMM-Newton orbits. We detect a relativistic broadened iron Kα line...
Westfall, Richard S.
2015-10-01
Acknowledgements; A note about dates; 1. A sober, silent, thinking lad; 2. The solitary scholar; 3. Anni Mirabilis; 4. Lucasian professor; 5. Publication and crisis; 6. Rebellion; 7. Years of silence; 8. Principia; 9. Revolution; 10. The Mint; 11. President of the Royal Society; 12. The priority dispute; 13. Years of decline; Biographical essay; Index.
Detection of the secondary star in three AM Her systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukai, K.; Charles, P.A.
1986-01-01
This paper reports low-resolution spectrophotometry in the region 6000-9500 A, of three AM Her-type systems, with the Isaac Newton Telescope, and UKIRT photometry of two of them. PG1550+191 (MR Ser) was found to be in a low state; the others, CW1103+254 (ST LMi) and E2003+225(QQ Vul), were not. In all three cases spectral features characteristic of late-M stars were detected. We also report on the infrared photometry of two of the systems, enabling us to refine the distance estimates. (author)
Discovery of Five Probable Novae in M81
Hornoch, K.; Errmann, R.; Sowicka, P.; Humphries, N.; Vaduvescu, O.
2015-10-01
We report the discovery of five probable novae in M81 on a co-added 2000-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.5" seeing on 2015 Oct. 14.198 UT. The new objects are well visible on the co-added image (see the finding charts linked below), but are not present on numerous narrow-band H-alpha archival images from the INT down to limiting magnitude as faint as H-alpha = 22.3.
McIsaac criteria for diagnosis of acute group-A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imanuel Y. Malino
2013-10-01
Conclusion A McIsaac criteria total score of <4 is favorable for excluding a diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis. A McIsaac total criteria score of ≥4 requires further examination to confirm a diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis.
'Speaking Kleinian': Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis.
Shapira, Michal
2017-10-01
How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885-1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as 'Ursula Wise', answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs' important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs' powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child's perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to 'speak Kleinian', translating Klein's intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: AIMSS Project. I. Compact Stellar Systems (Norris+, 2014)
Norris, M. A.; Kannappan, S. J.; Forbes, D. A.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Brodie, J. P.; Faifer, F. R.; Huxor, A.; Maraston, C.; Moffett, A. J.; Penny, S. J.; Pota, V.; Smith-Castelli, A.; Strader, J.; Bradley, D.; Eckert, K. D.; Fohring, D.; McBride, J.; Stark, D. V.; Vaduvescu, O.
2015-04-01
The majority of our southern spectroscopic observations to date have been obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and the Goodman spectrograph in longslit and MOS modes. We used the South African Large Telescope (SALT) to observe fainter targets requiring exposure times impractically long to be used as filler targets for SOAR observing and which cannot be observed with Keck. As part of a study examining the GCs and UCDs of the shell elliptical NGC 3923 we obtained deep Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy of three UCDs (see Norris et al., 2012MNRAS.421.1485N, Cat. J/MNRAS/421/1485 for further details). The observations were made in MOS mode. The majority of our Northern hemisphere candidates were spectroscopically confirmed using the DEIMOS and ESI instruments on the Keck telescope . We also obtained spectra of NGC 4649 UCD1 with the IDS instrument on the Isaac Newton Telescope. (2 data files).
Advanced nursing practice and Newton's three laws of motion.
Sturgeon, David
This article considers the reasons for the development of advanced practice roles among nurses and other healthcare professions. It explores the implications of financial constraints, consumer preferences and the development of new healthcare services on the reorganization of professional boundaries. It makes use of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion to demonstrate how professional development in nursing has taken place in response to a number of external influences and demands. It also considers the significance of skill mix for the nursing profession, in particular the development and likely expansion of the physician assistant role. The application of different professionals and grades within a healthcare team or organization is central to the Government's Agenda for Change proposals and nurses have successfully adopted a number of roles traditionally performed by doctors. Nurses have demonstrated that they are capable of providing high quality care and contributing directly to positive patient outcome. Advanced nursing roles should not only reflect the changing nature of healthcare work, they should also be actively engaged in reconstructing healthcare boundaries.
Gorozave-Car, Karla; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz Helena; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Blanco-Muñoz, J.; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Romieu, Isabelle
2013-01-01
Background. In Mexico, several studies have been conducted under the ISAAC methodology; nevertheless, no validation studies of the ISAAC questionnaire based on objective clinical testing in our country have been published. Aims of the Study. To validate the ISAAC questionnaire, used in a study of prevalence of allergic diseases, based on medical, respiratory, and allergic evaluations of schoolchildren being 11 to 16 years old in Mexicali, Mexico. Material and Methods. We conducted a cross-sec...
Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-like gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yu; Guo Hanying; Huang Chaoguang; Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin
2005-01-01
We focus on the dynamical aspects on Newton-Hooke space-time NH + mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric. (The term spacetime is used to denote a space with non-degenerate metric, while the term space-time is used to denote a space with degenerate metric.) We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous medium mechanics, in this framework. Then, we establish a consistent theory of gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time as a kind of Newton-Cartan-like theory, parallel to the Newton's gravity in the Galilei space-time. Finally, we give the Newton-Hooke invariant Schroedinger equation from the geometric contraction, where we can relate the conservative probability in some sense to the mass density in the Newton-Hooke continuous medium mechanics. Similar consideration may apply to the Newton-Hooke space-time NH - contracted from anti-de Sitter spacetime
BSDES IN GAMES, COUPLED WITH THE VALUE FUNCTIONS.ASSOCIATED NONLOCAL BELLMAN-ISAACS EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao HAO; Juan LI
2017-01-01
We establish a new type of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) connected with stochastic differential games (SDGs),namely,BSDEs strongly coupled with the lower and the upper value functions of SDGs,where the lower and the upper value functions are defined through this BSDE.The existence and the uniqueness theorem and comparison theorem are proved for such equations with the help of an iteration method.We also show that the lower and the upper value functions satisfy the dynamic programming principle.Moreover,we study the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs (HJB-Isaacs) equations,which are nonlocal,and strongly coupled with the lower and the upper value functions.Using a new method,we characterize the pair (W,U) consisting of the lower and the upper value functions as the unique viscosity solution of our nonlocal HJB-Isaacs equation.Furthermore,the game has a value under the Isaacs' condition.
A systematic analysis of the XMM-Newton background: III. Impact of the magnetospheric environment
Ghizzardi, Simona; Marelli, Martino; Salvetti, David; Gastaldello, Fabio; Molendi, Silvano; De Luca, Andrea; Moretti, Alberto; Rossetti, Mariachiara; Tiengo, Andrea
2017-12-01
A detailed characterization of the particle induced background is fundamental for many of the scientific objectives of the Athena X-ray telescope, thus an adequate knowledge of the background that will be encountered by Athena is desirable. Current X-ray telescopes have shown that the intensity of the particle induced background can be highly variable. Different regions of the magnetosphere can have very different environmental conditions, which can, in principle, differently affect the particle induced background detected by the instruments. We present results concerning the influence of the magnetospheric environment on the background detected by EPIC instrument onboard XMM-Newton through the estimate of the variation of the in-Field-of-View background excess along the XMM-Newton orbit. An important contribution to the XMM background, which may affect the Athena background as well, comes from soft proton flares. Along with the flaring component a low-intensity component is also present. We find that both show modest variations in the different magnetozones and that the soft proton component shows a strong trend with the distance from Earth.
Birks, J. L.
2013-03-01
In 1712 Sir Isaac Newton and Dr Edmund Halley, acting on behalf of the Royal Society, printed some 400 copies of the star catalogue Historia Coelestis under the name of John Flamsteed, including his observations of the positions of nearly 3000 stars made at Greenwich from 1676. Flamsteed had not been allowed to check the proofs of this work before it was published, and he was enraged to see what he considered to be a travesty of his life's work. This became a great scientific scandal of the early eighteenth century, which echoes down to the present day.
1378-IJBCS-Article-Isaac Bertrand Mbowou Gbambi
African Journals Online (AJOL)
hp
Ti-bearing aenigmatite from Djinga Tadorgal (Adamawa plateau) and Sao. Tomé (Cameroon Line) phonolites: geochemical implications and application of the QUILF thermobarometer for the crystallization conditions. Isaac Bertrand Gbambié MBOWOU 1*, Dagwaï NGUIHDAMA 2, Fadimatou Ngounouno. YAMGOUOT 3 ...
The Principia and its author - a physicist's viewpoint
Evans, W. A. B.
1987-11-01
The author discusses the place of Sir Isaac Newton's 'Principia' in the history of physics. He provides a short biography of Newton and his work and discusses the importance of Newton's work in modern physics teaching.
A deep narrowband survey for planetary nebulae at the outskirts of M 33
Galera-Rosillo, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.
2018-04-01
Context. Planetary nebulae (PNe) are excellent tracers of stellar populations with low surface brightness, and therefore provide a powerful method to detect and explore the rich system of substructures discovered around the main spiral galaxies of the local group. Aim. We searched the outskirts of the local group spiral galaxy M 33 (the Triangulum) for PNe to gain new insights into the extended stellar substructure on the northern side of the disc and to study the existence of a faint classical halo. Methods: The search is based on wide field imaging covering a 4.5 square degree area out to a maximum projected distance of about 40 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The PN candidates are detected by the combination of images obtained in narrowband filters selecting the [OIII]λ5007 Å and Hα + [NII] nebular lines and in the continuum g' and r' broadband filters. Results: Inside the bright optical disc of M 33, eight new PN candidates were identified, three of which were spectroscopically confirmed. No PN candidates were found outside the limits of the disc. Fourteen additional sources showing [OIII] excess were also discovered. Conclusions: The absence of bright PN candidates in the area outside the galaxy disc covered by this survey sets an upper limit to the luminosity of the underlying population of 1.6 × 107 L⊙, suggesting the lack of a massive classical halo, which is in agreement with the results obtained using the red giant branch population. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope and service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drexler, M. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.
Jorge Isaacs: El espíritu radical de un poeta y sus frustraciones políticas
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Raúl Vallejo Corral
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Jorge Isaacs es conocido por María (1867, novela cumbre del romanticismo americano. Pero Isaacs, además, fue un político liberal radical que llevó adelante una revolución, en enero de 1880, movido por sus principios ideológicos en medio de lo que él consideraba la traición de los liberales. La revolución, embebida de romanticismo, fue una empresa romántica destinada al fracaso desde un principio. Este artículo, a partir del estudio de los documentos de la época, analiza de qué manera Isaacs desarrolló sus actividades militantes, como superintendente de Educación, primero, como congresista, después, y como revolucionario, en el marco del proceso de recuperación del poder por parte de los conservadores. Asimismo, este artículo se enfoca en el espíritu romántico que animó a Isaacs y cómo se expresó a través de la palabra encendida de los manifiestos, proclamas, cartas e informes recopilados por el propio Isaacs en su libro La revolución radical en Antioquia (1880. Jorge Isaacs is well-known for Maria (1867, which is considered the most important novel of Latin American romanticism. But Isaacs was also a radical liberal politician who carried forward a revolution, in January 1880, moved by his ideological principles in the midst of what he considered to be the treason of the liberals. From the very beginning, this revolution, which was immersed in romanticism, was an enterprise destined to fail. This article, based on the study of documents from that time, analyzes the way in which Isaacs developed his militant activities firstly as an Education inspector, then as a congressman, and finally as a revolutionary in the framework of the recovery process by the conservative party. Likewise, this article focuses on the romantic spirit that inspired Isaacs and how he expressed himself through his passionate words present in manifestos, proclamations, letters, and reports compiled by Isaacs himself in The Radical Revolution in
Tradição em língua portuguesa do «Livro de Isaac»
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César Nardelli Cambraia
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Resumo: No presente trabalho examina-se a tradição em língua portuguesa do Livro de Isaac, preservada atualmente em quatro manuscritos medievais. Neste estudo, apresenta-se um estema representando a relação genética entre esses manuscritos, constituindo-se, assim, a base para a realização de uma edição crítica dessa obra.Palavras-chave: Crítica textual; estemática; língua portuguesa; Isaac de Ninive.Resumé: Dans le présent travail on examine la tradition en langue portugaise du Livro de Isaac, preservé actuellement en quatre manuscrits medievaux. Dans cette étude, on présente un stemma représentant la relation génétique entre ces manuscrits, en fixant, alors, la base pour la réalisation d´une édition critique de cette oeuvre.Mots-clés: Critique textuelle; stemmatique; langue portugaise; Isaac de Ninive.Keywords: Textual criticism; stemmatics; Portuguese; Isaac of Nineveh.
A homogeneous photometric and spectroscopic survey of open clusters in the Perseus Arm
Marco, Amparo; Negueruela, Ignacio; Monguió, Maria
2015-08-01
We are carrying out a homogeneous photometric survey of all young (Isaac Newton Telescope in La Palma. We intend to derive relative ages and distances with typical accuracies of 5 Ma and 200 pc. Our data will allow us to test the predictions of different models for the main mechanism producing the spiral structure of the Milky Way. In addition, we will enormously improve our knowledge of stellar evolution for stars in the 6-15 Msolar range. Moreover, the huge dataset of homogeneous photometry for thousands of stars (including ~2000 B-type stars) will have an enormous legacy value
A study of some Be star envelopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitchen, C.R.
1976-01-01
The envelope model and emission region radius of six Be stars have been determined from 36 lines on 15 spectra taken with the Isaac Newton telescope. The results have been compared with earlier determinations to search for changes with the time. No definite evidence for such changes has been found, although there may be an indication of a change in phi Per. A re-determination of the errors involved in the method of analysis shows that these are smaller than previously estimated and range from about 9% to 35% for both envelope model and emission region radius. (Auth.)
VizieR Online Data Catalog: ubvy photometry of NGC2419 (Frank+, 2015)
Frank, M. J.; Koch, A.; Feltzing, S.; Kacharov, N.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Irwin, M.
2015-07-01
Imaging of NGC 2419 in the intermediate-band Stromgren filters u, b, v and y was obtained in February 2012 using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain. The resulting photometric catalog containing 1197 detections in the unvignetted field of the camera, passing basic quality cuts (magnitude uncertainty, sharpness, {chi}) in all four filters is made available here. It covers NGC 2419 out to about 25 arcmin, several times beyond its tidal radius, but is incomplete in the cluster centre due to crowding. (1 data file).
A multi-frequency study of symbiotic stars: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivison, R.J.; Bode, M.F.; Roberts, J.A.
1991-01-01
The relationship between optical line flux and 5 GHz radio flux is investigated for a sample of 17 northern sky symbiotic stars. Data were obtained near-simultaneously with the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph mounted on the Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma and the Broad Band Interferometer at Jodrell Bank. Colour excesses, calculated from Balmer hydrogen line fluxes assuming Case B recombination ratios, are compared with other reddening estimates and also combined with extinction maps to provide improved distance estimates. Optical line fluxes are used in combination with radio fluxes to estimate physical parameters of these objects, including mass-loss rates. (author)
XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory Guest Observer program (AO-1) at CASA
Skinner, Stephen L.
2003-01-01
In this research program, we obtained and analyzed X-ray observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 110 (HD 165688) using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. Radio observations were also obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope located in New Mexico and operated by the Natl. Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). This star was targeted for observations primarily because it is believed to be a single WR star without a companion. Single WR stars are thought to emit X-rays from cool plasma in shocks distributed throughout their powerful stellar winds. However, there has been little observational work done to test this idea since single WR stars are relatively weak X-ray sources and have been difficult to detect with previous generation telescopes. The launch of XMM-Newton provides a new telescope that is much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing single WR stars to be studied in detail for the first time. X-ray emission was clearly detected from WR 110. Analysis of its spectrum yields a surprising result. Its X-ray emitting plasma is distributed over a range of temperatures and is dominated by relatively cool plasma with a characteristic temperature T is approximately 6 million K. Such plasma can be explained by existing theoretical wind shock models. However, the spectrum also shows hotter plasma whose temperature is uncertain but is thought to be in excess of T approximately 30 million K. The origin of this hotter plasma is yet unknown, but possible mechanisms are identified
A combined modification of Newton`s method for systems of nonlinear equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monteiro, M.T.; Fernandes, E.M.G.P. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal)
1996-12-31
To improve the performance of Newton`s method for the solution of systems of nonlinear equations a modification to the Newton iteration is implemented. The modified step is taken as a linear combination of Newton step and steepest descent directions. In the paper we describe how the coefficients of the combination can be generated to make effective use of the two component steps. Numerical results that show the usefulness of the combined modification are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arturo Laguado
1983-06-01
Full Text Available 1867 marca una fecha de importancia para la literatura sudamericana; en este año Jorge Isaacs publica la "María". Poco queda por agregar sobre esta novela, leída y releída por varias generaciones, incansablemente analizada por los críticos más autorizados de la literatura universal, pero existen ciertos aspectos anecdóticos, que pueden ayudarnos a conocer mejor las circunstancias que rodearon el nacimiento de la obra.
Evidence for CNO processed material in the accretion disk of GP Comae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsh, T.R.; Horne, K.; Rosen, S.
1991-01-01
NIR spectroscopic observations of GP Com are reported. Data obtained using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope at La Palma during April and June 1988 and with the 5-m Hale reflector at Palomar Observatory during January 1983 are presented in tables and sample spectra and discussed in detail. Number ratios H/He less than 0.00001, N/O = about 50, and N/C greater than 100 are calculated under the assumption of a uniform optically thin slab of gas in LTE. From the N overabundance it is inferred that the material observed is being extracted by Roche-lobe overflow from the secondary's H-exhausted core, at a time after most C and O have been converted to N in the CNO cycle. 33 refs
PG 0832 + 676 - An apparently normal B1 V star 18 kiloparsecs above the galactic plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, P.J.F.; Dufton, P.L.; Keenan, F.P.; Boksenberg, A.; King, D.L.
1989-01-01
Stellar equivalent widths and line profiles, measured from optical spectra obtained with the 5 m Hale telescope and the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope, are used in conjunction with model atmosphere calculations to determine the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the faint, blue, high-galactic latitude star PG 0832 + 676. The effective temperature (Teff = 25,000 K), surface gravity (log g = 3.9), and abundances of He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are similar to those of Population I OB-type stars, from which it is concluded that PG 0832 + 676 is a normal star at a distance from the galactic plane of about 18 kpc. The star's kinematics and evolutionary age suggest that it formed in the halo, possibly from galactic fountain material. 51 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio Marineli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the argumentative structure and the characteristics of arguments used in Isaac Newton’s paper where his “New theory about light and colors”, written in 1672, is described. For this purpose, we have used “Toulmin’s Argument Pattern” as an analytical tool. The identification of argumentative structure in a scientific text can help one to understand the argument construction in science and support this reasoning on science education, particularly on textbooks organization. This analysis has characterized the arguments presented in the text and shown its relation to Newton’s explanation on color in light refraction phenomenon through a prism.
The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roming, Peter; Hunsberger, S.D.; Nousek, John; Mason, Keith
2001-01-01
The Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) provides the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with the capability of quickly detecting and characterizing the optical and ultraviolet properties of gamma ray burst counterparts. The UVOT design is based on the design of the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with microchannel plate intensified charged-coupled devices (MICs) that deliver sub-arcsecond imaging. These MICs are photon-counting devices, capable of detecting low intensity signal levels. When flown above the atmosphere, the UVOT will have the sensitivity of a 4m ground based telescope, attaining a limiting magnitude of 24 for a 1000 second observation in the white light filter. A rotating filter wheel allows sensitive photometry in six bands spanning the UV and visible, which will provide photometric redshifts of objects in the 1-3.5z range. For bright counterparts, such as the 9th magnitude GRB990123, or for fainter objects down to 17th magnitude, two grisms provide low-resolution spectroscopy
ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe
2003-07-01
more tightly packed. Marguerite Pierre, CEA Saclay, France, with a European and Chilean team, used this ability to search for remote clusters of galaxies and map out their distribution. The work heralds a new era of studying the distant Universe. The optical identification of clusters shows only the galaxies themselves. However, X-rays show the gas in between the galaxies - which is where most of the matter in a cluster resides. This is like going from seeing a city at night, where you only see the lighted windows, to seeing it during the daytime, when you finally get to see the buildings themselves. Tracking down the clusters is a painstaking, multi-step process. In tandem with XMM-Newton, the team uses the four-metre Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, to take an optical snapshot of the same region of space. A tailor-made computer programme combs the XMM-Newton data looking for concentrations of X-rays that suggest large, extended structures. These are the clusters and they represent only about 10% of the detected X-ray sources (the others are mostly distant active galaxies). When the program finds a cluster, it zooms in on that region and converts the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of X-ray intensity, which it then superimposes on the CFHT optical image. The astronomers use this to check if anything is visible within the X-ray emission. If it is, the work then shifts to one of the world's largest telescopes, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope where the astronomers identify the individual galaxies in the cluster and take 'redshift' measurements. These give a measurement of the cluster's distance. In this way, Pierre and colleagues are mapping the distribution of galaxy clusters of the distant Universe, for the first time in astronomy. "Galaxy clusters are the largest concentrations of matter in the Universe and XMM-Newton is extremely efficient at finding them," says Pierre. Although the task is still a work in
Isaac Newton and Student College Completion
Tinto, Vincent
2013-01-01
Success in college is built upon classroom success, but success in the classroom does not in itself ensure college completion. Completion arises from success in a sequence of classes one after another over time. It does so most frequently when students are presented with coherent course pathways to degree completion, are able to gain degree credit…
Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a new subsystem technology for CubeSats. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) is an efficient, compact, high gain, low...
Reynolds, C.S.; Nowak, M.A.; Markoff, S.; Tueller, J.; Wilms, J.; Young, A.J.
2009-01-01
We present an X-ray study of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4258 using data from Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey. We find that signatures of X-ray reprocessing by cold gas are very weak in the spectrum of this Seyfert-2 galaxy; a weak, narrow
10th International ISAAC Congress
Rodino, Luigi
2016-01-01
This book collects lectures given by the plenary speakers at the 10th International ISAAC Congress, held in Macau, China in 2015. The contributions, authored by eminent specialists, present some of the most exciting recent developments in mathematical analysis, probability theory, and related applications. Topics include: partial differential equations in mathematical physics, Fourier analysis, probability and Brownian motion, numerical analysis, and reproducing kernels. The volume also presents a lecture on the visual exploration of complex functions using the domain coloring technique. Thanks to the accessible style used, readers only need a basic command of calculus.
Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Ospina, N.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Monteagudo, L.
2015-06-01
Context. Open clusters are key to studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, there is a deficiency of radial velocity and chemical abundance determinations for open clusters in the literature. Aims: We intend to increase the number of determinations of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for open clusters. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution spectra (R ~ 8000) in the infrared region Ca ii triplet lines (~8500 Å) for several stars in five open clusters with the long-slit IDS spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain). Radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlation fitting techniques. The relationships available in the literature between the strength of infrared Ca ii lines and metallicity were also used to derive the metallicity for each cluster. Results: We obtain ⟨Vr⟩ = 48.6 ± 3.4, -58.4 ± 6.8, 26.0 ± 4.3, and -65.3 ± 3.2 km s-1 for Berkeley 23, NGC 559, NGC 6603, and NGC 7245, respectively. We found [ Fe/H ] = -0.25 ± 0.14 and -0.15 ± 0.18 for NGC 559 and NGC 7245, respectively. Berkeley 23 has low metallicity, [ Fe/H ] = -0.42 ± 0.13, which is similar to other open clusters in the outskirts of the Galactic disc. In contrast, we derived high metallicity ([ Fe/H ] = +0.43 ± 0.15) for NGC 6603, which places this system among the most metal-rich known open clusters. To our knowledge, this is the first determination of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for these clusters, except NGC 6603, for which radial velocities had been previously determined. We have also analysed ten stars in the line of sight to King 1. Because of the large dispersion obtained in both radial velocity and metallicity, we cannot be sure that we have sampled true cluster members. Based on observations made with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the
Restless Gentleman: Jorge Isaacs in Nineteenth-Century Colombia
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Marco Palacios
2012-10-01
Full Text Available María (1867 is one of the most widely read Spanish-American novels of all times; this work compares it to the ups and downs in its author's life. Jorge Isaacs had been rich and fallen on hard times; had been a conservative Catholic and turned into an anti-clerical liberal; had been a merchant and rose up in arms; later he was exiled from his native province. The parable of his life deserves an explanation and this paper offers two clues: Isaacs' ineptitude for business and the high price he had to pay for changing his political-ideological sign into one that ten years later opposed the political regime of La Regeneración (1878-1900. Ironically, a later conservative regime (1900-1930 crafted the literary canonization of María, a nostalgic and sentimental novel, and established it as a national model of immutable private morality.
Lojasiewicz exponents and Newton polyhedra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham Tien Son
2006-07-01
In this paper we obtain the exact value of the Lojasiewicz exponent at the origin of analytic map germs on K n (K = R or C under the Newton non-degeneracy condition, using information from their Newton polyhedra. We also give some conclusions on Newton non-degenerate analytic map germs. As a consequence, we obtain a link between Newton non-degenerate ideals and their integral closures, thus leading to a simple proof of a result of Saia. Similar results are also considered to polynomial maps which are Newton non-degenerate at infinity. (author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Solution to 'On an Intriguing Limit Problem'. S C Duffa Roy. Solution to 'How Many Couples will Survive?' Soubhik Chakraborty. BOOK REVIEWS. 60 Not a Plaster Saint. Bimon Noth. REFLECTIONS. 63 Newton's Principia. D Speiser. Front Cover. Title page of Newton's Principia. Back Cover. Isaac Newton. (1642/43 - 17271.
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Julian Chaur González
2017-12-01
Full Text Available El trabajo desarrollado consiste en la formalización y comprobación ante hipótesis de carga de una bóveda axilsimétrica no construida. Esta bóveda es un proyecto utópico del arquitecto Louis Etienne Boullée, arquitecto francés con un volumen de obra muy significativo de carácter casi "surrealista". La obra de este autor alcanza normalmente unas proporciones titánicas y carentes de ornamento, basando sus formas principalmente en volúmenes geométricos sencillos. El proyecto que nos atañe será el cenotafio de Isaac Newton, una gigantesca bóveda axil simétrica con un espesor muy reducido en algunos puntos. Con el uso del programa de cálculo Maple, un programa de ánalisis matemático combinado con la tecnología CAD/CAM basada en los dibujos existentes de este proyecto comprobaremos la estabilidad geométrica y estructural de esta bóveda de proporciones titánicas. Con esto mostraremos las posibilidades de aplicación de los programas de cálculo geométrico a los modelos estructurales históricos y teóricos, como una herramienta mucho más visible y didáctica que los cálculos numéricos al uso. La visualización de los esfuerzos que resultan en las diferentes dovelas de la bóveda, conjuntamente con la comprensión y constatación del funcionamiento axil simétrico del modelo será determinante a la hora de comprender el funcionamiento de este sistema estructural y resolverá la duda que nos atañe. ¿Se podría construir el cenotafio de Newton? ¿Es una construcción estable geométrica y materialmente? Abstract The work developed in this paper consists in the formalization and verification of the load hypothesis of a non-constructed axilsymmetric vault. This vault is a utopian project by the architect Louis Etienne Boullée, French architect with a very significant volume of work of "surrealist" character. The works topic of this author usually resembles itself in buildings of titanic proportions and devoid of ornament, that
Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Rudnick, Gregory; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Rix, Hans-Walter; Moorwood, Alan; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Werf, Paul; Röttgering, Huub; van Starkenburg, Lottie; van der Wel, Arjen; Kuijken, Konrad; Daddi, Emanuele
2003-03-01
We present deep near-infrared (NIR) Js-, H-, and Ks-band ISAAC imaging of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) field of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S). The 2.5‧×2.5‧ high Galactic latitude field was observed with the Very Large Telescope under the best seeing conditions, with integration times amounting to 33.6 hr in Js, 32.3 hr in H, and 35.6 hr in Ks. We reach total AB magnitudes for point sources of 26.8, 26.2, and 26.2, respectively (3 σ), which make it the deepest ground-based NIR observation to date and the deepest Ks-band data in any field. The effective seeing of the co-added images is ~0.45" in Js, ~0.48" in H, and ~0.46" in Ks. Using published WFPC2 optical data, we constructed a Ks-limited multicolor catalog containing 833 sources down to Ktots,AB2.3 (in Johnson magnitudes). Because they are extremely faint in the observed optical, they would be missed by ultraviolet-optical selection techniques, such as the U-dropout method. Based on service mode observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Program 164.O-0612). Also based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Probing the diffuse interstellar medium with diffuse interstellar bands
Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Bailey, Mandy; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib
2015-08-01
For a century already, a large number of absorption bands have been known at optical wavelengths, called the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). While their carriers remain unidentified, the relative strengths of these bands in various environments make them interesting new probes of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We present the results from two large, dedicated campaigns to map the ISM using DIBs measured in the high signal-to-noise spectra of hundreds of early-type stars: [1] in and around the Local Bubble using ESO's New Technology Telescope and the Isaac Newton Telescope, and [2] across both Magellanic Clouds using the Very Large Telescope and the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We discuss the implications for the structure and dynamics of the ISM, as well as the constraints these maps place on the nature of the carriers of the DIBs. Partial results have appeared in the recent literature (van Loon et al. 2013; Farhang et al. 2015a,b; Bailey, PhD thesis 2014) with the remainder being prepared for publication now.
The XMM-Newton Science Archive and its integration into ESASky
Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Colomo, E.; Giordano, F.; Merín, B.; Racero, E.; Rodríguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.
2017-07-01
We describe the variety of functionalities of the XSA (XMM-Newton Science Archive) that allow to search and access the XMM-Newton data and catalogues. The web interface http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/ is very flexible allowing different kinds of searches by a single position or target name, or by a list of targets, with several selecting options (target type, text in the abstract, etc.), and with several display options. The resulting data can be easily broadcast to Virtual Observatory (VO) facilities for a first look analysis, or for cross-matching the results with info from other observatories. Direct access via URL or command line are also possible for scripts usage, or to link XMM-Newton data from other interfaces like Vizier, ADS, etc. The full metadata content of the XSA can be queried through the TAP (Table access Protocol) via ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language). We present also the roadmap for future improvements of the XSA including the integration of the Upper Limit server, the on-the-fly data analysis, and the interactive visualization of EPIC sources spectra and light curves and RGS spectra, among other advanced features. Within this modern visualization philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky (http://sky.esa.int). ESASky is the science-driven multi-wavelength discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions (Integral, HST, Herschel, Suzaku, Planck, etc.), and other space and ground telescope data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using HiPS, a new generation of HEALPix projections developed by CDS, precise footprints to connect to individual observations, and direct access to science-ready data from the underlying mission specific science archives. XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky.
Asthma prevalence among high school students in East Jakarta, 2001, based on ISAAC questionnaire
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Faisal Yunus
2003-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess asthma prevalence in children between 13-14 years of age in East Jakarta. This study is a cross sectional study which surveyed 2234 high school students between the ages of 13 and 14 years in East Jakarta in 2001 using the ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial challenge test was applied by using methacholine substance to 186 students. Reports based on the ISAAC questionnaire indicate that 7.2% of teenage have had wheezing experience, 4.1% have wheezing within the last 12 months, 1.8% have ever suffered severe asthma attack within the last 12 months, 3.3% have suffered wheezing after exercise, and 6.3% have got night cough while they were not suffering from cold. Prevalence of atopy diseases such as rhinitis and eczema were 14.2% and 3.9%, meanwhile rhinitis and eczema prevalence within the last 12 months according to this study were 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Statistically, there is a significant correlation between wheezing symptom and atopy (p < 0.05. From indepth questionnaire, a significant value of kappa 0.84 related with wheezing within the last 12 months was found. Bronchial challenge test results indicate that sensitivity was 90%, specificity 83.58%, positive predictive value 68.12% and negative predictive value was 95.73%. Asthma prevalence in East Jakarta at 2001 based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8.9%, and cumulative prevalence 11.5%. The ISAAC questionnaire can be used to study asthma prevalence in children at multicenter in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 178-86Keywords: bronchial challenge, high school student, ISAAC questionnaire, East Jakarta, asthma prevalence
Science and Society: The Case of Acceptance of Newtonian Optics in the Eighteenth Century
Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Moura, Breno Arsioli
2012-01-01
The present paper presents a historical study on the acceptance of Newton's corpuscular theory of light in the early eighteenth century. Isaac Newton first published his famous book "Opticks" in 1704. After its publication, it became quite popular and was an almost mandatory presence in cultural life of Enlightenment societies. However, Newton's…
The history of the priority di∫pute between Newton and Leibniz mathematics in history and culture
Sonar, Thomas
2018-01-01
This book provides a thrilling history of the famous priority dispute between Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Isaac Newton, presenting the episode for the first time in the context of cultural history. It introduces readers to the background of the dispute, details its escalation, and discusses the aftermath of the big divide, which extended well into recent times. One of the unique features of the book is that the mathematics behind the story is very intelligibly explained – an approach that offers general readers interested in the history of sciences and mathematics a window into the world of these two giants in their field. From the epilogue to the German edition by Eberhard Knobloch: Thomas Sonar has traced the emergence and the escalation of this conflict, which was heightened by Leibniz’s rejection of Newton’s gravitation theory, in a grandiose, excitingly written monograph. With absolute competence, he also explains the mathematical context so that non-mathematicians will also profit from the book....
Gilbert, Robert; Wen, Guo-Chun
1999-01-01
This volume of the Proceedings of the congress ISAAC '97 collects the contributions of the four sections 1. Function theoretic and functional analytic methods for pde, 2. Applications of function theory of several complex variables to pde, 3. Integral equations and boundary value problems, 4. Partial differential equations. Most but not all of the authors have participated in the congress. Unfortunately some from Eastern Europe and Asia have not managed to come because of lack of financial support. Nevertheless their manuscripts of the proposed talks are included in this volume. The majority of the papers deal with complex methods. Among them boundary value problems in particular the Riemann-Hilbert, the Riemann (Hilbert) and related problems are treated. Boundary behaviour of vector-valued functions are studied too. The Riemann-Hilbert problem is solved for elliptic complex equations, for mixed complex equations, and for several complex variables. It is considered in a general topological setting for mapping...
A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.
2015-01-01
We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband cover...
Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"
Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…
Connor, H. K.; Carter, J. A.
2017-12-01
Soft X-rays can be emitted when highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals exchange electrons. Astrophysics missions, such as XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray telescopes, have found that such solar wind charge exchange happens at the Earth's exosphere. The Earth's magnetosphere can be imaged via soft X-rays in order to understand its interaction with solar wind. Consequently, two soft X-ray telescope missions (CuPID and SMILE) are scheduled to launch in 2019 and 2021. They will provide wide field-of-view soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere. The imagers will track the location and movement of the cusps, magnetopause, and bow shock in response to solar wind variations. To support these missions, an understanding of exospheric neutral density profile is needed. The neutral density is one of the controlling factors of soft X-ray signals. Strong neutral density can help to obtain high-resolution and high-cadence of soft X-ray images. In this study, we estimate the exospheric neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point using XMM X-ray observations, Cluster plasma observations, and OpenGGCM global magnetosphere - ionosphere MHD model. XMM-Newton observes line-of-sight, narrow field-of-view, integrated soft X-ray emissions when it looks through the dayside magnetosphere. OpenGGCM reproduces soft X-ray signals seen by the XMM spacecraft, assuming exospheric neutral density as a function of the neutral density at the 10RE subsolar point and the radial distance. Cluster observations are used to confirm OpenGGCM plasma results. Finally, we deduce the neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point by adjusting the model results to the XMM-Newton soft X-ray observations.
‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis
Shapira, Michal
2017-01-01
How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872
Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norbert Schartel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.
The search for ZZ Ceti stars in the original Kepler mission
Greiss, S.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Raddi, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Breedt, E.; Ramsay, G.; Koester, D.; Carter, P. J.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.
2016-04-01
We report the discovery of 42 white dwarfs in the original Kepler mission field, including nine new confirmed pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars). Guided by the Kepler-Isaac Newton Telescope Survey, we selected white dwarf candidates on the basis of their U - g, g - r, and r - Hα photometric colours. We followed up these candidates with high-signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. Using ground-based, time series photometry, we put our sample of new spectroscopically characterized white dwarfs in the context of the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. Prior to our search, only two pulsating white dwarfs had been observed by Kepler. Ultimately, four of our new ZZ Cetis were observed from space. These rich data sets are helping initiate a rapid advancement in the asteroseismic investigation of pulsating white dwarfs, which continues with the extended Kepler mission, K2.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Circumnuclear star-forming regions (Alvarez-Alvarez+, 2015)
Alvarez-Alvarez, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.
2016-01-01
In order to achieve our scientific goals, we have studied a diverse population of galaxies with reported circumnuclear rings of SFRs in the bibliography. The data were acquired during five observing runs. For the first two runs (from 1988 to 1990), we used a blue sensitive GEC CCD at the f/15 Cassegrain focus of the 1.0m. Jacobus Kaptein Telescope of the Isaac Newton Group at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. The CCD had 578x385 pixels 22um wide. The last three observing runs were carried on from 1999 to 2000 at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman de Calar Alto, Almeria, Spain. (3 data files).
Before the beginning our universe and others
Rees, Martin
1997-01-01
"Although we cannot observe them (and they may be forever inaccessible), other universes are a natural expectation from current cosmology. Moreover, many features of our universe that otherwise seem baffling fall into place once we recognize this." Sir Martin Rees, the British Astronomer Royal, gives a vivid, occasionally acid tour of current astrophysics and cosmology, with insights into scientific politics, such as the enormous increase in the cost of the space telescope because of its association with the Space Shuttle. He also offers keen observations on personalities such as Subrahmayan Chandrasekhar and Isaac Newton, Yakov Zeldovich and Albert Einstein. Joseph Silk calls Before the Beginning "an unusual blend of wit, asperity and cosmology ... a combination of clarity and conciseness."
Emission-line widths and stellar-wind flows in T Tauri stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, C.; Lago, M.T.V.T.
1986-01-01
Spectra are reported of T Tauri stars taken with the IPCS on the Isaac Newton Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at a dispersion of l7 A mm -1 . These were taken in order to determine emission-line widths and hence flow velocities in the winds of these stars following the successful modelling of the wind from RU Lupi using such data. Line widths in RW Aur suggest a similar pattern to the wind flow as in RU Lupi with velocities rising in the inner chromosphere of the star and then entering a 'ballistic' zone. The wind from DFTau is also similar but velocities are generally much lower and the lines sharper. (author)
Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.
2015-02-01
We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ~200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ~2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID1, and Na ID2, including the uncertainties.
Newton-Cartan gravity revisited
Andringa, Roel
2016-01-01
In this research Newton's old theory of gravity is rederived using an algebraic approach known as the gauging procedure. The resulting theory is Newton's theory in the mathematical language of Einstein's General Relativity theory, in which gravity is spacetime curvature. The gauging procedure sheds
Some Peculiarities of Newton-Hooke Space-Times
Tian, Yu
2011-01-01
Newton-Hooke space-times are the non-relativistic limit of (anti-)de Sitter space-times. We investigate some peculiar facts about the Newton-Hooke space-times, among which the "extraordinary Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics" and the "anomalous Newton-Hooke space-times" are discussed in detail. Analysis on the Lagrangian/action formalism is performed in the discussion of the Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics, where the path integral point of view plays an important role, and the physically measurab...
Isaacs' syndrome in a patient with dermatomyositis: case report and review of the literature.
Lertnawapan, Ratchaya; Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat
2017-08-01
This is a case report of Isaacs' syndrome in dermatomyositis. The patient presented with proximal muscle weakness, rash, elevated muscle enzyme, myopathic electromyograph and typical muscle biopsy. Ultimately he developed typical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome which is an autoimmune channelopathy from voltage gated potassium channel antibody (anti-VGKC) leading to dysfunction of axonal discharge at neuromuscular junctions. It shares some similar characteristics with dermatomyositis such as autoimmunity, its association with malignancy and the response to treatment. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
A POPULARIZAÇÃO NA CIÊNCIA: A ÓPTICA DE NEWTON NO SÉCULO XVIII
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boniek Silva Venceslau
2009-03-01
Full Text Available RESUMO As atuais aulas de ciências, geralmente, não apresentam discussões referentes à aspectos da natureza da ciência, por exemplo, como uma teoria se desenvolve com o tempo e a influência de fatores não-racionais na sua construção. Tais aspectos são relevantes na hora do aluno desenvolver uma visão mais adequada na sua compreensão de como uma teoria ou modelo é construído. Além disso, as abordagens mais tradicionais, também, já não garantem a aprendizagem de teorias físicas. Com a inserção de discussões, que envolvam a História e a Filosofia da Ciência (HFC, os alunos poderão vivenciar o desenvolvimentos de teorias físicas e, também, realizar estudos sobre a natureza da ciência, colocando em evidência aspectos não abordados nas práticas mais tradiconais. Este estudo é baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que contempla a história da óptica, e, em especial, a controvérsia existente em relação a natureza da luz com destaque a influência newtoniana para a aceitação da teoria corpuscular no século XVIII. Neste trabalho problematizaremos uma visão ingênua do desenvolvimento histórico da ciência, onde, geralmente, ela é vista de forma contínua e fatores não-racionais são excluídos da construção de teorias físicas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: história e filosofia da ciência, popularização na ciência, Isaac Newton. THE POPULARIZATION IN SCIENCE: THE NEWTON APPROACH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ABSTRACT The current science classes generally do not have discussions concerning aspects of the nature of science, for example, as a theory developed over time, the influence of non-rational factors in its construction. These aspects are relevant at the time of the student developing a more appropriate method in their understanding of how a theory or model is built. In addition to more traditional approaches, too, no longer guaranteeing the physical theories of learning. With the insertion of discussions, involving
NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION, F=MA; EULER'S OR NEWTON'S?
Ajay Sharma
2017-01-01
Objective: F =ma is taught as Newton’s second law of motion all over the world. But it was given by Euler in 1775, forty-eight years after the death of Newton. It is debated here with scientific logic. Methods/Statistical analysis: The discussion partially deals with history of science so various aspects are quoted from original references. Newton did not give any equation in the Principia for second, third laws motion and law of gravitation. Conceptually, in Newton’s time, neither accele...
Truncated Newton-Raphson Methods for Quasicontinuum Simulations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Liang, Yu; Kanapady, Ramdev; Chung, Peter W
2006-01-01
.... In this research, we report the effectiveness of the truncated Newton-Raphson method and quasi-Newton method with low-rank Hessian update strategy that are evaluated against the full Newton-Raphson...
Supernatural Themes in Selected Children's Stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer.
Schlessinger, June H.; Vanderryst, June D.
1989-01-01
Discusses the impact of the traditional folklore theme of good versus evil on children's development and analyzes the development of this theme using magical and supernatural situations in the work of Isaac Bashevis Singer. A selected bibliography of work by and literary criticisms of Singer's writings is provided. (five references) (CLB)
Turning around Newton's Second Law
Goff, John Eric
2004-01-01
Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.
NITSOL: A Newton iterative solver for nonlinear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)
1996-12-31
Newton iterative methods, also known as truncated Newton methods, are implementations of Newton`s method in which the linear systems that characterize Newton steps are solved approximately using iterative linear algebra methods. Here, we outline a well-developed Newton iterative algorithm together with a Fortran implementation called NITSOL. The basic algorithm is an inexact Newton method globalized by backtracking, in which each initial trial step is determined by applying an iterative linear solver until an inexact Newton criterion is satisfied. In the implementation, the user can specify inexact Newton criteria in several ways and select an iterative linear solver from among several popular {open_quotes}transpose-free{close_quotes} Krylov subspace methods. Jacobian-vector products used by the Krylov solver can be either evaluated analytically with a user-supplied routine or approximated using finite differences of function values. A flexible interface permits a wide variety of preconditioning strategies and allows the user to define a preconditioner and optionally update it periodically. We give details of these and other features and demonstrate the performance of the implementation on a representative set of test problems.
Canonical understanding of the sacrifice of Isaac: The influence of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2016-07-08
Jul 8, 2016 ... Martyrdom has granted benefits to the people of ... Testament, as the authoritative text and understands the text primarily in the canonical context ... This is more significant in terms of ..... This image of the Father-Son relation recurs in the NT, ..... this passage is Abraham's obedience, not Isaac's self-sacrifice.
Huang, Chao-Guang; Guo, Han-Ying; Tian, Yu; Xu, Zhan; Zhou, Bin
2004-01-01
Based on the Beltrami-de Sitter spacetime, we present the Newton-Hooke model under the Newton-Hooke contraction of the $BdS$ spacetime with respect to the transformation group, algebra and geometry. It is shown that in Newton-Hooke space-time, there are inertial-type coordinate systems and inertial-type observers, which move along straight lines with uniform velocity. And they are invariant under the Newton-Hooke group. In order to determine uniquely the Newton-Hooke limit, we propose the Gal...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dupuis, Paul; Wang, Hui
2005-01-01
Previous papers by authors establish the connection between importance sampling algorithms for estimating rare-event probabilities, two-person zero-sum differential games, and the associated Isaacs equation...
van den Berg, M.; Verbunt, F.
2001-03-01
Optical spectra show that two proposed counterparts for X-ray sources detected near 1E 2259+58.6 are late G stars, and a proposed counterpart for a source near 4U 0142+61 is a dMe star. The X-ray luminosities are as expected for such stars. We thus confirm the optical identification of the three X-ray objects, and thereby the correctness of the accurate positions for 1E 2259+58.6 and 4U 0142+61 based on them. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: a.farhang@ipm.ir [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)
2015-02-01
We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ∼200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ∼2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID{sub 1}, and Na ID{sub 2}, including the uncertainties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; Van Loon, Jacco Th.
2015-01-01
We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ∼200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ∼2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID 1 , and Na ID 2 , including the uncertainties
Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries
Erickson, Donald C.
1990-02-01
The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.
Prevalence of asthma in Latin America. Critical look at ISAAC and other studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime Ocampo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Currently, the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood project is a global approach to assess the prevalence of asthma and other allergies in different latitudes. One of the great advantages of this project is that it compares using the same methodology, the prevalence of asthma in more than 50 cities during the same period of time, nevertheless the reproducibility of these results when compared with other studies of prevalence in each region has not been evaluated. In this review we aim to compare the epidemiological data provided by the ISAAC against the data identified in some regional cohort studies and by means of a critical evaluation to highlight the main similarities and to analyze the differences between these epidemiological data.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our slightly extended article-in-a-box and back cover portrait this time celebrate the great universalist and intellectual giant. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who was a contemporary of Isaac. Newton. The two of them independently invented the differen- tial calculus - called by Newton the "method of fluxions" - and this led to one ...
Newton flows for elliptic functions
Helminck, G.F.; Twilt, F.
2015-01-01
Newton flows are dynamical systems generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for mappings from a Euclidean space to itself. We focus on the special case of meromorphic functions on the complex plane. Inspired by the analogy between the rational (complex) and the elliptic (i.e., doubly
Sauerheber, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…
Subsampled Hessian Newton Methods for Supervised Learning.
Wang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chun-Heng; Lin, Chih-Jen
2015-08-01
Newton methods can be applied in many supervised learning approaches. However, for large-scale data, the use of the whole Hessian matrix can be time-consuming. Recently, subsampled Newton methods have been proposed to reduce the computational time by using only a subset of data for calculating an approximation of the Hessian matrix. Unfortunately, we find that in some situations, the running speed is worse than the standard Newton method because cheaper but less accurate search directions are used. In this work, we propose some novel techniques to improve the existing subsampled Hessian Newton method. The main idea is to solve a two-dimensional subproblem per iteration to adjust the search direction to better minimize the second-order approximation of the function value. We prove the theoretical convergence of the proposed method. Experiments on logistic regression, linear SVM, maximum entropy, and deep networks indicate that our techniques significantly reduce the running time of the subsampled Hessian Newton method. The resulting algorithm becomes a compelling alternative to the standard Newton method for large-scale data classification.
Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes
Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy
2017-11-01
The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin
Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change
Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.
2013-01-01
Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Follow-up photometry of M101 OT2015-1 (Blagorodnova+, 2017)
Blagorodnova, N.; Kotak, R.; Polshaw, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Cody, A. M.; Doran, G. B.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Fremling, C.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Harmanen, J.; Jencson, J.; Kankare, E.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Magnier, E.; Manulis, I.; Masci, F. J.; Mattila, S.; Nugent, P.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Reynolds, T.; Smith, K.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wozniak, P.; Zaggia, S.
2017-07-01
The location of M101-OT2015-1 has been serendipitously imaged by numerous telescopes and instruments over the last 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). Our best quality pre-discovery image (seeing of 0.55") is an r-band exposure at -3625 days pre-peak from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The historical optical data for M101-OT was retrieved from the CFHT MegaPrime and CFHT12K/Mosaic, using single and combined exposures, Pan-STARRS-1/GPC1 (PS1), Isaac Newton Telescope/Wide Field Camera (INT/WFC), and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR 10 (Ahn+ 2014, see V/147). Unfortunately, there are no HST images covering the location of the source. Post-discovery optical magnitudes were obtained from the reported followup astronomer's telegrams (ATels), Liverpool Telescope (LT), the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the Palomar P48 and P60 telescopes. The infrared data were retrieved from CFHT/WIRCam, UKIRT/WFCAM, and the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera in 3.6 and 4.5um as part of the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) (Kasliwal+, 2017ApJ...839...88K). Details of pre-discovery photometry and post-discovery optical photometry may be found in the Appendices Tables 1 and 2, respectively. We obtained spectra of M101-OT using a range of facilities in 2015 Feb-Jul. (3 data files).
A year after lift-off, XMM-Newton is impressing the X-ray astronomy community
2000-11-01
XMM-Newton was launched from Kourou on 10 December 1999 on the first Ariane-5 commercial flight. After in-orbit commissioning of the spacecraft, and calibration and performance verification of its science instruments, the observatory entered its routine operations phase on 1 July. At the press conference, ESA's Director of Science Prof. Roger-Maurice Bonnet and XMM-Newton Project Scientist Fred Jansen will present some of the many scientific results from the first eight months of the mission. Also present will be two of Europe's foremost X-ray astronomers, Prof. Johan Bleeker of the Space Research Organisation of the Netherlands, and Prof. Guenther Hasinger of the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany. Amongst the topics to be illustrated with some remarkably vivid "colour" images of the X-ray Universe, will be XMM-Newton's first examination of a cataclysmic binary star, its first insights into some enigmatic black hole systems, analysis of the morphology of a few supernovae remnants, and evidence it has collected to end the long-standing mystery over X-ray cosmic background emission... The press conference will also recap on the spacecraft's operations, the performance of its science instruments, the issue of radiation constraints and future aspects of the mission. Media representatives wishing to attend the press event are kindly invited to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office +33(0)1.53.69.7690. Note to editors XMM-Newton is ESA's second Cornerstone Mission of the Horizon 2000 programme. The spacecraft was built by a European consortium of companies led by Astrium (formerly Dornier Satellitensysteme), Friedrichshafen, Germany. Its X-ray imaging and spectrographic instruments (EPIC and RGS) and its optical telescope (OM) were provided by large consortia, whose principal investigators are from, respectively, the University of Leicester, UK, SRON University of Utrecht Netherlands, and the Mullard Space Science
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dupuis, Paul; Wang, Hui
2005-01-01
It has been established that importance sampling algorithms for estimating rare-event probabilities are intimately connected with two-person zero-sum differential games and the associated Isaacs equation...
Newton's Cradle in Physics Education
Gauld, Colin F.
2006-01-01
Newton's Cradle is a series of bifilar pendulums used in physics classrooms to demonstrate the role of the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The paper reviews the way in which textbooks use Newton's Cradle and points out the unsatisfactory nature of these treatments in almost all cases. The literature…
Leadership among people who use AAC: ISAAC's Project LEAD
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bryen, DN
2008-08-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Bryen_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 23272 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Bryen_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Leadership in ISAAC: Leading the Way... Diane Nelson Bryen, USA Sarah Lever, USA Sayomdeb Mujherjee, India Martin Pistorius, South Africa Melinda Smith, Australia Leading the Way � square6 Powerful conference title square6 Important call for leadership development Across the Globe...
Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.; Brune, P.
2013-01-01
Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)
Newton flows for elliptic functions: A pilot study
Twilt, F.; Helminck, G.F.; Snuverink, M.; van den Brug, L.
2008-01-01
Elliptic Newton flows are generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for doubly periodic meromorphic functions on the complex plane. In the special case, where the functions underlying these elliptic Newton flows are of second-order, we introduce various, closely related, concepts of
Teorías de la luz y el color en la época de las Luces. De Newton a Goethe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pimentel, Juan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This article opens with a review of Isaac Newton’s theory of light, focusing on the controversial character of his crucial experiment. It then proceeds to examine certain aspects of his legacy in a century that was perhaps more Newtonian than his own optics. We analyse some of the metaphors connected with light and the symbolic role of light as the metaphor for knowledge. The article concludes with Goethe’s colour theory, his challenge to Newtonian theory, and his reinstatement of human beings and the history of science in order to achieve a better understanding not only of light, the eye and chromatic phenomena, but also of scientific activity as a whole.En este artículo comenzamos por revisar la teoría de la luz de Isaac Newton, centrándonos en el carácter controvertido del experimento crucial. Después nos detenemos en algunos aspectos de su legado en un siglo quizás más newtoniano que su propia óptica, analizando algunas metáforas bajo las que fue entendida la luz, así como el papel simbólico de la luz, metáfora del conocimiento por excelencia. Finalmente repasamos la teoría de los colores de Goethe, su impugnación de la óptica newtoniana y su empeño en recuperar al ser humano y la historia de la ciencia para entender mejor no sólo qué son la luz, el ojo o los fenómenos cromáticos, sino la actividad científica en su conjunto.
Improvement of core degradation model in ISAAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Park, Soo Yong
2004-02-01
If water inventory in the fuel channels depletes and fuel rods are exposed to steam after uncover in the pressure tube, the decay heat generated from fuel rods is transferred to the pressure tube and to the calandria tube by radiation, and finally to the moderator in the calandria tank by conduction. During this process, the cladding will be heated first and ballooned when the fuel gap internal pressure exceeds the primary system pressure. The pressure tube will be also ballooned and will touch the calandria tube, increasing heat transfer rate to the moderator. Although these situation is not desirable, the fuel channel is expected to maintain its integrity as long as the calandria tube is submerged in the moderator, because the decay heat could be removed to the moderator through radiation and conduction. Therefore, loss of coolant and moderator inside and outside the channel may cause severe core damage including horizontal fuel channel sagging and finally loss of channel integrity. The sagged channels contact with the channels located below and lose their heat transfer area to the moderator. As the accident goes further, the disintegrated fuel channels will be heated up and relocated onto the bottom of the calandria tank. If the temperature of these relocated materials is high enough to attack the calandria tank, the calandria tank would fail and molten material would contact with the calandria vault water. Steam explosion and/or rapid steam generation from this interaction may threaten containment integrity. Though a detailed model is required to simulate the severe accident at CANDU plants, complexity of phenomena itself and inner structures as well as lack of experimental data forces to choose a simple but reasonable model as the first step. ISAAC 1.0 was developed to model the basic physicochemical phenomena during the severe accident progression. At present, ISAAC 2.0 is being developed for accident management guide development and strategy evaluation. In
Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Westfall, Richard S
1980-01-01
... Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, © Cambridge University Press 1980 USA www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521231435 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant...
Blue stragglers in open clusters - a test of the binary hypothesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manteiga, M.; Martinez, R.C.; Beckman, J.E.; Pickles, A.J.
1987-01-01
A search for binaries among 17 blue stragglers in five galactic clusters, NGC 7789, 6633, 6819, 6939, and M 67, has been performed using measurements of radial velocity variations. The spectra were obtained with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph attached to the f/15 Cassegrain focus of the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope at the Spanish Observatory of the Roque de los Muchachos. The wavelength coverage was 200 A, centered at 8510 A with a scale of 12.4 km/sec per pixel. All radial velocity determinations were made using cross-correlation techniques. A velocity resolution of about 3 km/sec/pixel was obtained for the standard radial velocity stars and the brighter program stars. For three of the blue stragglers variations in radial velocity greater than 30 km/sec are reported. 10 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.
1991-01-01
Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Y.M.; Kim, D.H.; Nijhawan, Sunil
2015-01-01
Amongst the applications of integrated severe accident analysis codes like ISAAC, the principal are to a) help develop an understanding of the severe accident progression and its consequences; b) support the design of mitigation measures by providing for them the state of the reactor following an accident; and c) to provide a training platform for accident management actions. After Fukushima accident there is an increased awareness of the need to implement effective and appropriate mitigation measures and empower the operators with training and understanding about severe accident progression and control opportunities. An updated code with reduced uncertainties can better serve these needs of the utility making decisions about mitigation measures and corrective actions. Optimal deployment of systems such as PARS and filtered containment venting require information on reactor transients for a number of critical parameters. Thus there is a greater consensus now for a demonstrated ability to perform accident progression and consequence assessment analyses with reduced uncertainties. Analyses must now provide source term transients that represent the best in available understanding and so meaningfully support mitigation measures. This requires removal of known simplifications and inclusion of all quantifiable and risk significant phenomena. Advances in understanding of CANDU6 severe accident progression reflected in the severe accident integrated code ROSHNI are being incorporated into ISAAC using CANDU specific component and system models developed and verified for Wolsong CANDU 6 reactors. A significant and comprehensive upgrade of core behavior models is being implemented in ISAAC to properly reflect the large variability amongst fuel channels in feeder geometry, fuel thermal powers and burnup. The paper summarizes the models that have been added and provides some results to illustrate code capabilities. ISAAC is being updated to meet the current requirements and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nijhawan, Sunil [Prolet Inc. 98 Burbank Drive, Toronto (Canada)
2015-05-15
Amongst the applications of integrated severe accident analysis codes like ISAAC, the principal are to a) help develop an understanding of the severe accident progression and its consequences; b) support the design of mitigation measures by providing for them the state of the reactor following an accident; and c) to provide a training platform for accident management actions. After Fukushima accident there is an increased awareness of the need to implement effective and appropriate mitigation measures and empower the operators with training and understanding about severe accident progression and control opportunities. An updated code with reduced uncertainties can better serve these needs of the utility making decisions about mitigation measures and corrective actions. Optimal deployment of systems such as PARS and filtered containment venting require information on reactor transients for a number of critical parameters. Thus there is a greater consensus now for a demonstrated ability to perform accident progression and consequence assessment analyses with reduced uncertainties. Analyses must now provide source term transients that represent the best in available understanding and so meaningfully support mitigation measures. This requires removal of known simplifications and inclusion of all quantifiable and risk significant phenomena. Advances in understanding of CANDU6 severe accident progression reflected in the severe accident integrated code ROSHNI are being incorporated into ISAAC using CANDU specific component and system models developed and verified for Wolsong CANDU 6 reactors. A significant and comprehensive upgrade of core behavior models is being implemented in ISAAC to properly reflect the large variability amongst fuel channels in feeder geometry, fuel thermal powers and burnup. The paper summarizes the models that have been added and provides some results to illustrate code capabilities. ISAAC is being updated to meet the current requirements and
Development of the focal plane PNCCD camera system for the X-ray space telescope eROSITA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Ebermayer, Stefanie; Elbs, Johannes; Haelker, Olaf; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Kimmel, Nils; Schaechner, Gabriele; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Strueder, Lothar; Weidenspointner, Georg
2010-01-01
A so-called PNCCD, a special type of CCD, was developed twenty years ago as focal plane detector for the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency ESA. Based on this detector concept and taking into account the experience of almost ten years of operation in space, a new X-ray CCD type was designed by the 'MPI semiconductor laboratory' for an upcoming X-ray space telescope, called eROSITA (extended Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). This space telescope will be equipped with seven X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven CCD cameras, placed in their foci. The instrumentation permits the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 up to 10 keV by spectroscopic measurements with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384x384 pixels. Main scientific goals are an all-sky survey and investigation of the mysterious 'Dark Energy'. The eROSITA space telescope, which is developed under the responsibility of the 'Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics', is a scientific payload on the new Russian satellite 'Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma' (SRG). The mission is already approved by the responsible Russian and German space agencies. After launch in 2012 the destination of the satellite is Lagrange point L2. The planned observational program takes about seven years. We describe the design of the eROSITA camera system and present important test results achieved recently with the eROSITA prototype PNCCD detector. This includes a comparison of the eROSITA detector with the XMM-Newton detector.
Choosing the forcing terms in an inexact Newton method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisenstat, S.C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)
1994-12-31
An inexact Newton method is a generalization of Newton`s method for solving F(x) = 0, F: {Re}{sup n} {r_arrow} {Re}{sup n}, in which each step reduces the norm of the local linear model of F. At the kth iteration, the norm reduction is usefully expressed by the inexact Newton condition where x{sub k} is the current approximate solution and s{sub k} is the step. In many applications, an {eta}{sub k} is first specified, and then an S{sub k} is found for which the inexact Newton condition holds. Thus {eta}{sub k} is often called a {open_quotes}forcing term{close_quotes}. In practice, the choice of the forcing terms is usually critical to the efficiency of the method and can affect robustness as well. Here, the authors outline several promising choices, discuss theoretical support for them, and compare their performance in a Newton iterative (truncated Newton) method applied to several large-scale problems.
77 FR 58900 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00060
2012-09-24
... 09/11/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident Period: 08/26/2012 through 09/11/2012. DATES..., Newton, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Smith, Stone, Walthall, Wayne, Wilkinson. The Interest Rates are...
Socrates Bardi, Jason
2010-01-01
In 1696 Isaac Newton made what seems like a bizarre career move. Abandoning Cambridge University and the mathematical pursuits that made him famous, the 53-year-old scientist upped sticks for London to become warden of the Royal Mint. Part administrator, part coining expert, and part criminal prosecutor, this new role would occupy Newton for the remaining three decades of his life.
Damonte, Kathleen
2004-01-01
One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…
Forces. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].
2000
Forces are all around. Without them, there would be no movement. In fact, Sir Isaac Newton theorized that a force called inertia actually works to keep things exactly as they are at any given moment! Students will learn about Newton's laws and about how forces affect many aspects of life. With clear demonstrations and a unique hands-on activity,…
Symposium on Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics : in honor of Isaac M. Daniel
2002-01-01
This book contains 71 papers presented at the symposium on “Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics” which was organized in honor of Professor Isaac M. Daniel. The symposium took place at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University on th June 23-28, 2002, in conjunction with the 14 US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. The book is a tribute to Isaac Daniel, a pioneer of experimental mechanics and composite materials, in recognition of his continuous, original, diversified and outstanding contributions for half a century. The book consists of invited papers written by leading experts in the field. It contains original contributions concerning the latest developments in experimental mechanics. It covers a wide range of subjects, including optical methods of stress analysis (photoelasticity, moiré, etc.), composite materials, sandwich construction, fracture mechanics, fatigue and damage, nondestructive evaluation, dynamic problems, fiber optic sensors, speckle metrology, digital image process...
Newton-Cartan gravity and torsion
Bergshoeff, Eric; Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Romano, Luca; Rosseel, Jan
2017-10-01
We compare the gauging of the Bargmann algebra, for the case of arbitrary torsion, with the result that one obtains from a null-reduction of General Relativity. Whereas the two procedures lead to the same result for Newton-Cartan geometry with arbitrary torsion, the null-reduction of the Einstein equations necessarily leads to Newton-Cartan gravity with zero torsion. We show, for three space-time dimensions, how Newton-Cartan gravity with arbitrary torsion can be obtained by starting from a Schrödinger field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2 for a complex compensating scalar and next coupling this field theory to a z = 2 Schrödinger geometry with arbitrary torsion. The latter theory can be obtained from either a gauging of the Schrödinger algebra, for arbitrary torsion, or from a null-reduction of conformal gravity.
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)
2016-02-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
Weisskopf, Martin
2011-01-01
NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.
THE DISCOVERY OF REMOTE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M33
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huxor, A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Barker, M. K.; Tanvir, N. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Ibata, R.; Lewis, G.
2009-01-01
We present the discovery of four remote star clusters in M33, one of which is of an extended nature. Three of the clusters were discovered using survey data from the Isaac Newton Telescope Wide-Field Camera while one was discovered serendipitously in a deep image taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys. With projected radii of 38-113 arcmin (9.6-28.5 kpc for an assumed M33 distance of 870 kpc), these clusters lie significantly beyond all but one of the currently confirmed clusters in M33. The clusters have magnitudes and colors consistent with their being old to intermediate-age globular clusters (GCs). Indeed, they bear a strong resemblance to the outer halo GC population of the Milky Way and M31 in terms (V - I) 0 color. The three outermost clusters are projected on the far side of M33 with respect to M31, an asymmetry that could suggest tidal interactions have affected M33's GC distribution at large radii.
THE SEARCH FOR SUPER-SATURATION IN CHROMOSPHERIC EMISSION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christian, Damian J.; Arias, Tersi; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Jess, David B.; Jardine, Moira
2011-01-01
We investigate if the super-saturation phenomenon observed at X-ray wavelengths for the corona exists in the chromosphere for rapidly rotating late-type stars. Moderate resolution optical spectra of fast-rotating EUV- and X-ray-selected late-type stars were obtained. Stars in α Per were observed in the northern hemisphere with the Isaac Newton 2.5 m telescope and Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph. Selected objects from IC 2391 and IC 2602 were observed in the southern hemisphere with the Blanco 4 m telescope and R-C spectrograph at CTIO. Ca II H and K fluxes were measured for all stars in our sample. We find the saturation level for Ca II K at log (L CaK /L bol ) = -4.08. The Ca II K flux does not show a decrease as a function of increased rotational velocity or smaller Rossby number as observed in the X-ray. This lack of 'super-saturation' supports the idea of coronal stripping as the cause of saturation and super-saturation in stellar chromospheres and coronae, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still under investigation.
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu
2015-06-02
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.
2015-01-01
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Newton-type methods for optimization and variational problems
Izmailov, Alexey F
2014-01-01
This book presents comprehensive state-of-the-art theoretical analysis of the fundamental Newtonian and Newtonian-related approaches to solving optimization and variational problems. A central focus is the relationship between the basic Newton scheme for a given problem and algorithms that also enjoy fast local convergence. The authors develop general perturbed Newtonian frameworks that preserve fast convergence and consider specific algorithms as particular cases within those frameworks, i.e., as perturbations of the associated basic Newton iterations. This approach yields a set of tools for the unified treatment of various algorithms, including some not of the Newton type per se. Among the new subjects addressed is the class of degenerate problems. In particular, the phenomenon of attraction of Newton iterates to critical Lagrange multipliers and its consequences as well as stabilized Newton methods for variational problems and stabilized sequential quadratic programming for optimization. This volume will b...
The Work of John Isaac Plummer at Orwell Park Observatory in the years 1874 to 1890
Whiting, P. J.
2006-12-01
This paper builds on the unpublished collation by the Orwell Astronomical Society entitled John Isaac Plummer. It takes the form of a chronology and critique of papers published by John Isaac Plummer (1844-1925) in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Astronomische Nachrichten on work undertaken at the Orwell Park Observatory, Ipswich, in the years 1874 to 1890. This work, mainly, although not exclusively, in England, took the form of measuring the positions and deriving the orbits of as many comets as could be observed from Orwell Park. Plummer also published papers in other journals, such as Nature and The Observatory, but these are to be the subject of future research.
Sunyaev-Zeldovich Predictions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope
Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, J. P.; Jimenez, R.; Barkhouse, W.; Berta, Z.; Hansen, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Kosowsky, A.; Lin, Y. T.; Moodley, K.; Ngeow, C.; Roche, N.; Spergel, D.; Tucker, D.; Verde, L.
2007-05-01
We present predictions for the microwave sky in a low-extinction region centered near RA = 23:00 and Dec = -55:12, which will be surveyed in the coming year at 145 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT, PI: Lyman Page) and in the X-ray band by XMM-Newton (PI: Hans Boehringer). The predictions are based on Sunyaev-Zeldovich distortions drawn from optical data collected by the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS). We also compare the predictions with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. The BCS (PI: Joe Mohr) is a NOAO large, wide-field survey project that has been awarded 45 nights on the CTIO Blanco 4-meter telescope to image two 50 square-degree patches of the southern sky in four bands (griz). The survey began in 2005 and has completed two (out of three) years of data taking. A preliminary automated image reduction and analysis pipeline for the BCS data is briefly summarized. Financial support was provided by the NSF under the PIRE program (OISE-0530095).
Newton's law in de Sitter brane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghoroku, Kazuo; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yahiro, Masanobu
2003-01-01
Newton potential has been evaluated for the case of dS brane embedded in Minkowski, dS 5 and AdS 5 bulks. We point out that only the AdS 5 bulk might be consistent with the Newton's law from the brane-world viewpoint when we respect a small cosmological constant observed at present universe
3, 2, 1 ... Discovering Newton's Laws
Lutz, Joe; Sylvester, Kevin; Oliver, Keith; Herrington, Deborah
2017-01-01
"For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." "Except when a bug hits your car window, the car must exert more force on the bug because Newton's laws only apply in the physics classroom, right?" Students in our classrooms were able to pick out definitions as well as examples of Newton's three laws; they could…
First evidence of multiple populations along the AGB from Strömgren photometry
Gruyters, Pieter; Casagrande, Luca; Milone, Antonino P.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Serenelli, Aldo; Feltzing, Sofia
2017-07-01
Spectroscopic studies have demonstrated that nearly all Galactic globular clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations with different chemical compositions. Moreover, colour-magnitude diagrams based exclusively on Strömgrem photometry have allowed us to identify and characterise multiple populations along the RGB of a large number of clusters. In this paper we show for the first time that Strömgren photometry is also very efficient at identifying multiple populations along the AGB, and demonstrate that the AGB of M 3, M 92, NGC 362, NGC 1851, and NGC 6752 are not consistent with a single stellar population. We also provide a catalogue of RGB and AGB stars photometrically identified in these clusters for further spectroscopic follow-up studies. We combined photometry and elemental abundances from the literature for RGB and AGB stars in NGC 6752 where the presence of multiple populations along the AGB has been widely debated. We find that, while the MS, SGB, and RGB host three stellar populations with different helium and light element abundances, only two populations of AGB stars are present in the cluster. These results are consistent with standard evolutionary theory. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A37
Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step
Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)
1996-12-31
We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.
An intrinsically asymmetric radio galaxy: 0500+630?
Saikia, D. J.; Thomasson, P.; Jackson, N.; Salter, C. J.; Junor, W.
1996-10-01
As part of a search for high-luminosity radio galaxies with one-sided structures, the radio galaxy 0500+630 has been imaged with both the VLA and MERLIN and its optical spectrum determined using the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. The galaxy is found to have a redshift of 0.290+/-0.004. The radio observations show the source to be highly asymmetric, with an overall structure which cannot be understood easily by ascribing it either to orientation and relativistic beaming effects or to an asymmetric distribution of gas in the central region. A comparison of this source with objects of similar luminosity suggests that it is one of the best examples yet of a source with possibly an intrinsic asymmetry in either the collimation of its jets or the supply of energy from the central engine to opposite sides.
The Wolf-Rayet nebula NGC 6888 as a pressure driven bubble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marston, A.P.; Meaburn, J.
1988-01-01
Profiles of the Hα and [NII] emission lines have been obtained across the major axis of the Wolf-Rayet ring nebula NGC6888 with the Manchester echelle spectrometer combined with the Isaac Newton Telescope. Although triple profiles are found, this nebula is shown to approximate to a shell of radius 3pc expanding at 85 km s -1 . The ionized mass in the shell is 3.5 ± 1.2 M solar masses . IRAS survey maps also reveal a shell of neutral material containing 40 M solar masses , assuming the far infrared continuum emission from warm dust dominates the line emission. If it is assumed that this mass is also expanding at 85 km s -1 it is shown that the nebula is a pressure driven bubble, which conserves the kinetic energy of the driving stellar wind. (author)
Radio ejection and broad forbidden emission lines in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7674
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Axon, D.J.
1988-01-01
The Seyfert nucleus in NGC7674 (Mkn533) is remarkable for its broad asymmetric forbidden line profiles, which extend 2000 kms -1 blueward of the systemic velocity. The galaxy also has a compact nuclear radio source. We have obtained new high-resolution radio observations of NGC7674, using the European VLBI network and the VLA, and optical spectroscopic observations using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The radio maps reveal a triple radio source with a total angular extent of about 0.7 arcsec, and provide evidence that the radio emission is powered by collimated ejection. In the plane of the sky, the ejection axis appears roughly perpendicular to the galactic rotation axis. Although the dominant radio components are separated by 0.5 arcsec, the broad [OIII]λ5007 line emission is confined to within about 0.25 arcsec of the continuum nucleus. (author)
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Red supergiant population in Perseus arm (Dorda+, 2018)
Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.
2018-03-01
The targets were observed during two different campaigns. The first one was done in 2011, on the nights of October 16-18. The second campaign was carried out in 2012, from September 3rd to 7th. We used the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph, mounted on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma (Spain). In total, we observed 637 unique targets, 102 in 2011 and 535 in 2012, without any overlap between epochs. As discussed above, 43 of them are CSGs with well-determined SpTs (all but one observed in the 2012 run) that were included in the calibration sample of Paper III (see appendix B in that work). These objects are not considered part of the Perseus sample studied here. This leaves 594 targets in our sample, which are detailed in perseus.dat file. (1 data file).
Síndrome de Isaacs: relato de três casos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SCOLA ROSANA HERMÍNIA
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Relatamos três casos de síndrome de Isaacs, que apresentavam mioquímia clínica, cãibras, dificuldades para o relaxamento muscular, hipertrofia muscular e aumento da sudorese. A eletromiografia de agulha mostrou atividade muscular contínua involuntária, caracterizada como descargas mioquímicas. Os estudos da condução nervosa foram normais. Biópsia de músculo, realizado nos três casos, mostrou atrofia de fibras do tipo 2. Dois casos apresentaram melhora clínica com a utilização de carbamazepina e um com prednisona.
Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods in unstructured grid Euler flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
1996-12-31
Newton-Krylov methods and Krylov-Schwarz (domain decomposition) methods have begun to become established in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) over the past decade. The former employ a Krylov method inside of Newton`s method in a Jacobian-free manner, through directional differencing. The latter employ an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition to derive a preconditioner for the Krylov accelerator that relies primarily on local information, for data-parallel concurrency. They may be composed as Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) methods, which seem particularly well suited for solving nonlinear elliptic systems in high-latency, distributed-memory environments. We give a brief description of this family of algorithms, with an emphasis on domain decomposition iterative aspects. We then describe numerical simulations with Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods on an aerodynamic application emphasizing comparisons with a standard defect-correction approach and subdomain preconditioner consistency.
Conformal mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galajinsky, Anton
2010-01-01
Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N=2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N=2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N=2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed.
A magnetic diverter for charged particle background rejection in the SIMBOL-X telescope
Spiga, D.; Fioretti, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Dell'Orto, E.; Foschini, L.; Malaguti, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tiengo, A.
2008-07-01
Minimization of charged particle background in X-ray telescopes is a well known issue. Charged particles (chiefly protons and electrons) naturally present in the cosmic environment constitute an important background source when they collide with the X-ray detector. Even worse, a serious degradation of spectroscopic performances of the X-ray detector was observed in Chandra and Newton-XMM, caused by soft protons with kinetic energies ranging between 100 keV and some MeV being collected by the grazing-incidence mirrors and funneled to the detector. For a focusing telescope like SIMBOL-X, the exposure of the soft X-ray detector to the proton flux can increase significantly the instrumental background, with a consequent loss of sensitivity. In the worst case, it can also seriously compromise the detector duration. A well-known countermeasure that can be adopted is the implementation of a properly-designed magnetic diverter, that should prevent high-energy particles from reaching the focal plane instruments of SIMBOL-X. Although Newton-XMM and Swift-XRT are equipped with magnetic diverters for electrons, the magnetic fields used are insufficient to effectively act on protons. In this paper, we simulate the behavior of a magnetic diverter for SIMBOL-X, consisting of commercially-available permanent magnets. The effects of SIMBOL-X optics is simulated through GEANT4 libraries, whereas the effect of the intense required magnetic fields is simulated along with specifically-written numerical codes in IDL.
The search for extreme asteroids in the Pan-STARRS 1 Survey
McNeill, Andrew; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jedicke, Robert; Lilly, Eva; Lacerda, Pedro; Trilling, David E.; Members of the Pan-STARRS Science Consortium
2017-10-01
Using sparse photometry of main belt asteroids obtained in the first 1.5 years of the Pan-STARRS 1 survey we identified a list of potential 'extreme lightcurve asteroids', defined as objects with either rotation period P Isaac Newton Telescope, the 3.5m ESO New Technology Telescope and the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope. 9 of these objects were found to have light curve amplitudes A > 1.0 mag, with no objects with P 1.0 mag, (49257) 1998 TJ31, was determined to have a shape model suggesting a higher amplitude than that measured from its sparse photometry light curve (A = 0.8 mag). Its spin pole axes were found to be β=6 ± 5⊙, λ=112 ± 6⊙. The high obliquity of this object could explain how we initially failed to identify this body as high amplitude from its light curve alone, when its shape solution suggests otherwise. Since the initial generation of our target list, the number of asteroid detections by Pan-STARRS has increased dramatically. Using the same criteria for the generation of this initial target list but utilising all of the data available we now have a list of 110 potential high amplitude objects which we are continuing to observe.
Newton's law of cooling revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollmer, M
2009-01-01
The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer from any object to its surrounding is not only due to conduction and convection but also due to radiation. The latter does not vary linearly with temperature difference, which leads to deviations from Newton's law. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling of objects with a small Biot number. It is shown that Newton's law of cooling, i.e. simple exponential behaviour, is mostly valid if temperature differences are below a certain threshold which depends on the experimental conditions. For any larger temperature differences appreciable deviations occur which need the complete nonlinear treatment. This is demonstrated by results of some laboratory experiments which use IR imaging to measure surface temperatures of solid cooling objects with temperature differences of up to 300 K.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank G. Bosman
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The game The Binding of Isaac is an excellent example of a game that incorporates criticism of religion. Isaac is a roguelike dungeon crawler with randomly generated dungeons. Both from the perspective of narrative and of game design, McMillen built The Binding of Isaac around the Biblical story of Genesis 22:1-19, which has the same name in Jewish and Christian tradition, but he placed it in a modern-day setting in which a young boy is endangered by a mentally disturbed mother who hears “voices from above” that instruct her to sacrifice her only child. Multiple critical references to Christianity can be found in addition to the narrative: hostile embodiments of the seven deadly sins, rosaries, Bibles, and crucifixes, and unlockable characters, such as Mary Magdalene, Judas Iscariot, Samson, and Cain, who are all depicted negatively in both Jewish and Christian traditions. McMillen’s inspiration came from his own experiences with his family, which was made up of both Catholics and born-again Christians. The game describes both the dark creativity and the mental and physical abuse associated with religion. In this article, we analyse the narrative of The Binding of Isaac by performing an intertextual comparison with the Biblical narrative of Genesis 22:1-19. We then analyse the three-fold narrative structure of the game which enhances and nuances the criticism the game directs at religion.
Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang
2016-01-01
We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain...
On the topology of the Newton boundary at infinity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham Tien Son
2007-07-01
We will be interested in a global version of Le-Ramanujam μ -constant theorem from the Newton polyhedron point of view. More precisely, we prove a stability theorem which says that the global monodromy fibration of a polynomial with Newton non-degenerate is uniquely determined by its Newton boundary at infinity. Besides, the continuity of atypical values for a family of complex polynomial functions also is considered. (author)
Verlet, Loup
1993-01-01
En 1936, une vente publique ramena au jour le contenu d'une malle où Newton avait enfermé ses manuscrits. Ô surprise, les travaux du savant y voisinaient avec les spéculations de l'exégète et de l'alchimiste. Ce n'est pas seulement la face cachée d'un exceptionnel génie scientifique qui nous était ainsi révélée, mais, au-delà du mystère d'un homme, le secret partage qui gouverne notre univers, comme le montre cette lecture originale de la naissance de la physique moderne.Dans quel monde suis-je tombé ? Pourquoi les choses sont-elles ainsi ? Comment faire avec ? Questions lancinantes de l'enfant quand la mère fait défaut, du chercheur face à la nature qui se dérobe. La réponse, Newton sait où la trouver : Dieu le Père, à jamais insaisissable, est présent «partout et toujours», Il se révèle par la bouche des prophètes, se devine dans les arcanes de l'alchimie, se manifeste par les lois admirables qui règlent le cours ordinaire des choses. Ses écrits de l'ombre l'attestent, Newton ...
Me & Isaac Newton. [Videotape and] KIDSNET Guide for Educators.
2001
This videotape records the stories of 7 scientists, 3 women and 4 men who range in age from 33 to 81. Beginning with their earliest scientific questions and including their most personal ponderings, the scientists reveal their histories and professional obligations to affect the world. Director Michael Apted allows the personal adventures of the…
Newtonian boreal forest ecology
Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko
2017-01-01
Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by...
A Construção lógica do "Estilo Newtoniano" The logical construction of the "Newtonian Style"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel Anna Sapunaru
2008-01-01
Full Text Available O historiador da ciência Isaac Bernard Cohen batizou o novo método de "fazer ciência", criado por Isaac Newton, de "estilo newtoniano". Segundo Cohen, o cerne do "estilo newtoniano"seria a adaptação sucessiva das "construções mentais" - matemáticas - às comparações com a natureza e haveria dinâmica direta entre as "construções mentais" - matemáticas - e os sistemas físicos. Uma das principais características do "estilo newtoniano", portanto, seria primeiramente a matemática e, posteriormente, uma série de experimentos - e não o contrário. Brilhantemente, enquanto escrevia os Princípios Matemáticos de Filosofia Natural, Newton teria concluído que descrever o movimento de planetas e satélites, ou o movimento em geral, com precisão absoluta era imensamente mais complicado do que seus contemporâneos e antecessores poderiam ter pensado. A solução encontrada por ele foi, partindo de simples casos idealizados, passar progressivamente para casos mais complicados, também idealizados, e depois percorrer o caminho oposto, isto é: pelo desmembramento dos casos mais complicados provar os mais simples, embora sempre em direção à verdade.The science historian, Isaac Bernard Cohen named the new method of "making science" created by Isaac Newton by the name of "newtonian style". The central point of this "newtonian style", according to the definition of Cohen himself is the successive adaptation from "mental constructions" - to mathematical - to comparisons with nature. This means that, according to Cohen, a direct dynamic between "mental constructions" - mathematical - and physical systems should exist. For this reason, one of the most important characteristics of the "newtonian style" would be, first, mathematics and, afterwards, a series of experiments - and not the other way round. Newton would have brilliantly concluded, while writing the "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", that, to describe with absolute
Newton's law in braneworlds with an infinite extra dimension
Ito, Masato
2001-01-01
We study the behavior of the four$-$dimensional Newton's law in warped braneworlds. The setup considered here is a $(3+n)$-brane embedded in $(5+n)$ dimensions, where $n$ extra dimensions are compactified and a dimension is infinite. We show that the wave function of gravity is described in terms of the Bessel functions of $(2+n/2)$-order and that estimate the correction to Newton's law. In particular, the Newton's law for $n=1$ can be exactly obtained.
Hukum Newton Tentang Gerak Dalam Ruang Fase Tak Komutatif
Purwanto, Joko
2014-01-01
In this paper, the Newton's law of motions in a noncomutative phase space has been investigated. Its show that correction to the Newton's first and second law appear if we assume that the phase space has symplectic structure consistent with the rules of comutation of the noncomutative quantum mechanics. In the free particle and harmonic oscillator case the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified Newton's second law in a noncomutative phase space.
The first planet detected in the WTS: an inflated hot Jupiter in a 3.35 d orbit around a late F star
Cappetta, M.; Saglia, R. P.; Birkby, J. L.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Pinfield, D. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Cruz, P.; Kovács, G.; Sipőcz, B.; Barrado, D.; Nefs, B.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Fossati, L.; del Burgo, C.; Martín, E. L.; Snellen, I.; Barnes, J.; Bayo, A.; Campbell, D. A.; Catalan, S.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Goulding, N.; Haswell, C.; Ivanyuk, O.; Jones, H. R.; Kuznetsov, M.; Lodieu, N.; Marocco, F.; Mislis, D.; Murgas, F.; Napiwotzki, R.; Palle, E.; Pollacco, D.; Sarro Baro, L.; Solano, E.; Steele, P.; Stoev, H.; Tata, R.; Zendejas, J.
2012-12-01
We report the discovery of WTS-1b, the first extrasolar planet found by the WFCAM Transit Survey, which began observations at the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) in 2007 August. Light curves comprising almost 1200 epochs with a photometric precision of better than 1 per cent to J ˜ 16 were constructed for ˜60 000 stars and searched for periodic transit signals. For one of the most promising transiting candidates, high-resolution spectra taken at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) allowed us to estimate the spectroscopic parameters of the host star, a late-F main-sequence dwarf (V = 16.13) with possibly slightly subsolar metallicity, and to measure its radial velocity variations. The combined analysis of the light curves and spectroscopic data resulted in an orbital period of the substellar companion of 3.35 d, a planetary mass of 4.01 ± 0.35 MJ and a planetary radius of 1.49-0.18+0.16 RJ. WTS-1b has one of the largest radius anomalies among the known hot Jupiters in the mass range 3-5 MJ. The high irradiation from the host star ranks the planet in the pM class. Based on observations collected at the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (Hawaii, USA), the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (Texas, USA), the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (La Palma, Spain), the William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain), the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre (Calar Alto, Spain), the Kitt Peak National Observatory (Arizona, USA) and the Hertfordshire's Bayfordbury Observatory.
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MR Masjedi
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: International study on asthma was conducted to study the prevalence of Asthma symptoms among 13-14 year old children using written and video questionnaires during the early 90's. The aim of the present study (ISAAC was to evaluate the agreement between the two questionnaires which were self-completed by the children. Methods: This study, which was a part of the third phase of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC and performed exactly similar to phase1, was performed by National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD in two cities of Iran; Rasht and Tehran. All stages of the study were performed in accordance with ISAAC protocol. The present study discusses data related to children of Tehran. A total of 3100 school children aged 13-14 years were questioned about asthma symptoms using written and video questionnaires of ISAAC study. For statistical analysis, initially a descriptive study of the available data was performed. Thereafter, chance corrected agreement between the two questionnaires was evaluated using Cohen’s Kappa co-efficiency. Results: Of the total of 3100 children, 52.4% were male and 47.6% female, with a mean age of 13.6 years. Although the questions discussed in the two questionnaires were not exactly similar, the results of the video questionnaires showed a statistically significant lower positive response to asthma symptoms as compared to the written version. Kappa co-efficiency ranged between 0.06- 0.21 (mean=0.12, which is considered poor for all variables. Conclusion: Positive responses to having asthma symptoms were significantly higher using the written questionnaire compared to the video questionnaire. Similar to previous studies, agreement between the two was considered poor for all variables. Although factors such as language, culture, dwelling area, e.t.c. have special effects on results of these questionnaires, results indicate that the two questionnaires
La politización en las lecturas canónicas: Miguel Antonio Caro, lector de Jorge Isaacs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Arturo López Jiménez
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The article herein shows some conceptual features of Miguel Antonio Caro’s intellectual project and its intrinsic strengths. Furthermore, it details the type of politicization which Caro imposed on some of the work of his contemporaries politicization which, in turn, was later imposed on him-self by contemporary historiography. More to the point, I evidence how Caro, when asserting that a particular text by Jorge Isaacs (The native tribes of the Magdalena basin was scientific, immediately proceeded to politicize Isaac’s work, among other things, because he (Caro did not have the relevant arguments needed to confront Isaacs’ text in its own terms and framework. Thus, in order to dismiss Isaacs’ objections raised against the government of Nuñez, Caro places the aforementioned work by the author of María, among the texts that threatened social order by presenting it as part and parcel of positivism, empiricism, liberalism, and all other intellectual efforts based on a damaging sensualism.//Aquí muestran algunos aspectos conceptuales del proyecto intelectual de Miguel Antonio Caro y su consistencia interna. Además, preciso el tipo específico de politización que este escritor impuso sobre algunos trabajos que le fueron contemporáneos –politización de la cual el mismo Caro ha sido objeto por parte de historiografía contemporánea–. Específicamente, presento cómo Miguel Antonio Caro, al afirmar que un texto de Isaacs (Las tribus indígenas del Magdalena es científico, politiza su trabajo por la imposibilidad de atacarlo dentro de los límites argumentativos del texto de Isaacs. De esta forma, para hacer a un lado las objeciones que Isaac eleva contra el gobierno de Núñez, Caro ubica el trabajo del autor de María en el grupo de escritos que amenazan el orden social, al presentarlo de la mano con el positivismo, empirismo, liberalismo y demás esfuerzos intelectuales fundados en un “nocivo” criterio sensualista.
Some Elementary Examples from Newton's Principia -R-ES ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ing both differential and integral calculus. Newton used many geometrical methods extensively to derive the re- sults in spite of his having discovered calculus. Geome- try, judiciously used with limiting procedures, was one principal strategy used by Newton in the Principia. The Principia presents an enormous range of ...
XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology
Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.
2014-05-01
We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.
Newton's Contributions to Optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
creativity is apparent, even in ideas and models in optics that were ... Around Newton's time, a number of leading figures in science ..... successive circles increased as integers, i.e. d increases by inte- ... of easy reflections and transmission".
Lithium abundances in samples of dwarf stars of population II and very old population I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molaro, P.; Beckman, J.; Rebolo, R.
1986-01-01
We have used the CCD camera and Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph of the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope to obtain high quality spectra of the 6708 A 7 Li resonance doublet in 22 dwarfs with metallicities ≤ -0.7. We find a mean constant value of Log N(Li)= 2.07 (±0.1) for highly metal deficient dwarfs ([Fe/H] ≤ -1.5) with atmospheric temperatures T eff > 5500 K, and a larger spread with values of Log N(Li) up to 2.4 for the warmer dwarfs with metallicities between -0.7 and -1.2. Our results agree with previous findings showing a highly uniform Li abundance near the inception of the galaxy. Li depletion appears to set in at higher temperatures for the moderately metal deficient stars than for the extremely metal deficient, consistent with metallicity-dependent depletion rates (low metals, low depletion)
Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Peng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Department of Information, Hangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Fang-Fang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)
2016-08-15
Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry. (orig.)
Bargmann structures and Newton-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C.; Burdet, G.; Kuenzle, H.P.; Perrin, M.
1985-01-01
It is shown that Newton-Cartan theory of gravitation can best be formulated on a five-dimensional extended space-time carrying a Lorentz metric together with a null parallel vector field. The corresponding geometry associated with the Bargmann group (nontrivially extended Galilei group) viewed as a subgroup of the affine de Sitter group AO(4,1) is thoroughly investigated. This new global formalism allows one to recast classical particle dynamics and the Schroedinger equation into a purely covariant form. The Newton-Cartan field equations are readily derived from Einstein's Lagrangian on the space-time extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saremi, E; Abedi, A; Javadi, A; Khosroshahi, H; Molaei Nezhad, A; Van Loon, J Th; Bamber, J; Hashemi, S A; Nikzat, F
2017-01-01
The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss. (paper)
Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.
2017-06-01
The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.
M13 multiple stellar populations seen with the eyes of Strömgren photometry
Savino, A.; Massari, D.; Bragaglia, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Tolstoy, E.
2018-03-01
We present a photometric study of M13 multiple stellar populations over a wide field of view, covering approximately 6.5 half-light radii, using archival Isaac Newton Telescope observations to build an accurate multiband Strömgren catalogue. The use of the Strömgren index cy permits us to separate the multiple populations of M13 on the basis of their position on the red giant branch. The comparison with medium and high resolution spectroscopic analysis confirms the robustness of our selection criterion. To determine the radial distribution of stars in M13, we complemented our data set with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the cluster core, to compensate for the effect of incompleteness affecting the most crowded regions. From the analysis of the radial distributions, we do not find any significant evidence of spatial segregation. Some residuals may be present in the external regions where we observe only a small number of stars. This finding is compatible with the short dynamical time-scale of M13 and represents, to date, one of the few examples of fully spatially mixed multiple populations in a massive globular cluster.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Extinction law in the Cep OB3b young cluster (Allen+, 2014)
Allen, T. S.; Prchlik, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Pipher, J. L.; Naylor, T.; Jeffries, R. D.
2017-06-01
We use Johnson V and Cousins Rc (hereafter called VR) band phot from the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), compiled in the catalog of Littlefair et al. (2010, J/MNRAS/403/545). The R-band photometry was obtained using the Sloan r filter. It was calibrated against photometric standard stars measured in the Cousins Rc filter with an arbitrary zero point. Moderate resolution ((λ/Δλ)~1000-2000, FWHM resolution of about 6 Å) optical spectra (covering 4000-9000 Å) were obtained for ~1700 sources toward Cep OB3b using the multi-fiber spectrograph Hectospec on the MMT telescope. About 600 sources were selected for observation because they were determined to be possible cluster members (Allen et al. 2012, J/ApJ/750/125), based on indicators of youth, such as IR emission due to circumstellar dusty material and heightened X-ray activity. We use an extinction map from Allen et al. (2012, J/ApJ/750/125) to initially estimate the extinction toward each source. This map is derived using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (Skrutskie et al. 2006AJ....131.1163S, Cat. VII/233) H and Ks band photometry of background stars. (1 data file).
Polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442
Hutsemékers, D.; Agís González, B.; Sluse, D.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Acosta Pulido, J.-A.
2017-07-01
If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization typical of type 2 quasars would be expected. We measured the polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442 in which the broad emission lines have disappeared between 2003 and 2015. We found a polarization degree compatible with null polarization. This measurement suggests that the observed change of look is not due to a change of obscuration hiding the continuum source and the broad line region, and that the quasar is seen close to the system axis. Our results thus support the idea that the vanishing of the broad emission lines in J1011+5442 is due to an intrinsic dimming of the ionizing continuum source that is most likely caused by a rapid decrease in the rate of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
The fundamental constants a mystery of physics
Fritzsch, Harald
2009-01-01
The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122115003818
X-ray telescope mirrors made of slumped glass sheets
Winter, A.; Breunig, E.; Friedrich, P.; Proserpio, L.
2017-11-01
For several decades, the field of X-ray astronomy has been playing a major role in understanding the processes in our universe. From binary stars and black holes up to galaxy clusters and dark matter, high energetic events have been observed and analysed using powerful X-ray telescopes like e.g. Rosat, Chandra, and XMM-Newton [1,2,3], giving us detailed and unprecedented views of the high-energy universe. In November 2013, the theme of "The Hot and Energetic Universe" was rated as of highest importance for future exploration and in June 2014 the ATHENA Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics was selected by ESA for the second large science mission (L2) in the ESA Cosmic Vision program, with launch foreseen in 2028 [4]. By combining a large X-ray telescope with state-of-the-art scientific instruments, ATHENA will address key questions in astrophysics, including: How and why does ordinary matter assemble into the galaxies and galactic clusters that we see today? How do black holes grow and influence their surroundings? In order to answer these questions, ATHENA needs a powerful mirror system which exceed the capabilities of current missions, especially in terms of collecting area. However, current technologies have reached the mass limits of the launching rocket, creating the need for more light-weight mirror systems in order to enhance the effective area without increasing the telescope mass. Hence new mirror technologies are being developed which aim for low-weight systems with large collecting areas. Light material like glass can be used, which are shaped to form an X-ray reflecting system via the method of thermal glass slumping.
Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diósi, Lajos
2014-01-01
The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.
INVESTIGATION OF THE MISCONCEPTION IN NEWTON II LAW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yudi Kurniawan
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This study aims to provide a comprehensive description of the level of the number of students who have misconceptions about Newton's II Law. This research is located at one State Junior High School in Kab. Pandeglang. The purposive sampling was considering used in this study because it is important to distinguish students who do not know the concept of students who experience misconception. Data were collected using a three tier-test diagnostic test and analyzed descriptively quantitatively. The results showed that the level of misconception was in the two categories of high and medium levels. It needs an innovative teaching technique for subsequent research to treat Newton's Newton misconception.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-05-04
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-01-06
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Quasi-Newton methods for implicit black-box FSI coupling
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bogaers, Alfred EJ
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new multi-vector update quasi-Newton (MVQN) method for implicit coupling of partitioned, transient FSI solvers. The new quasi-Newton method facilitates the use of 'black-box' field solvers and under certain circumstances...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Yuhua
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal
Dynamic Newton-Puiseux Theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mannaa, Bassel; Coquand, Thierry
2013-01-01
A constructive version of Newton-Puiseux theorem for computing the Puiseux expansions of algebraic curves is presented. The proof is based on a classical proof by Abhyankar. Algebraic numbers are evaluated dynamically; hence the base field need not be algebraically closed and a factorization...
Genetic Diversity in Durum Wheat in Palestine: A Comparative Study
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NNU
2012-08-16
Aug 16, 2012 ... natural habitats and field edges and landraces grown under traditional farming systems (Isaac and Gasteyer,. 1995). Morphological variation exists among these ... have become a basic and essential tool for detecting genetic variation and elucidating unknown DNA sequences (Newton and Graham, 1994).
Takahashi, Hirokatsu; Mori, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Misawa, Sonoko; Sawai, Setsu; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi
2008-12-15
Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC-Abs) are associated with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome) and related disorders such as Morvan's syndrome and some cases of limbic encephalitis. The mechanisms underlying the various phenotypes induced by VGKC-Abs are not fully understood. Recently, we reported a case of LE with VGKC-Abs accompanied by severe intestinal pseudo-obstruction and thymoma. Thymectomy and immunosuppressive therapy induced dramatic clinical improvement of LE symptoms, and VGKC-Abs titers decreased from 1254 pM to 549 pM (normal>100 pM). Seventeen months later, the patient developed progressive generalized muscle cramping, paresthesias in his lower extremities, excessive sweating, and severe constipation. There was no recurrence of the LE. Electromyography showed fasciculation potentials and myokymic discharges, and the plasma VGKC-Abs titer was again elevated to 879 pM. Here we report a case of Isaacs' syndrome after complete remission of LE with VGKC-Abs that may provide an insight into a possible link among VGKC-Abs associated syndromes.
Newton\\'s equation of motion in the gravitational field of an oblate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we derived Newton's equation of motion for a satellite in the gravitational scalar field of a uniformly rotating, oblate spheriodal Earth using spheriodal coordinates. The resulting equation is solved for the corresponding precession and the result compared with similar ones. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 279-286 ...
Coupling of partitioned physics codes with quasi-Newton methods
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2017-03-01
Full Text Available , A class of methods for solving nonlinear simultaneous equations. Math. Comp. 19, pp. 577–593 (1965) [3] C.G. Broyden, Quasi-Newton methods and their applications to function minimization. Math. Comp. 21, pp. 368–381 (1967) [4] J.E. Dennis, J.J. More...´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) [5] J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates for quasi- Newton methods. SIAM Rev. 21, pp. 443–459 (1979) [6] G. Dhondt, CalculiX CrunchiX USER’S MANUAL Version 2...
Various Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manoj Kumar
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce and investigate new ninth and seventh order convergent Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations. The ninth order convergent Newton-type iterative method is made derivative free to obtain seventh-order convergent Newton-type iterative method. These new with and without derivative methods have efficiency indices 1.5518 and 1.6266, respectively. The error equations are used to establish the order of convergence of these proposed iterative methods. Finally, various numerical comparisons are implemented by MATLAB to demonstrate the performance of the developed methods.
Non-Relativistic Twistor Theory and Newton-Cartan Geometry
Dunajski, Maciej; Gundry, James
2016-03-01
We develop a non-relativistic twistor theory, in which Newton-Cartan structures of Newtonian gravity correspond to complex three-manifolds with a four-parameter family of rational curves with normal bundle O oplus O(2)}. We show that the Newton-Cartan space-times are unstable under the general Kodaira deformation of the twistor complex structure. The Newton-Cartan connections can nevertheless be reconstructed from Merkulov's generalisation of the Kodaira map augmented by a choice of a holomorphic line bundle over the twistor space trivial on twistor lines. The Coriolis force may be incorporated by holomorphic vector bundles, which in general are non-trivial on twistor lines. The resulting geometries agree with non-relativistic limits of anti-self-dual gravitational instantons.
On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
1991-01-01
We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles
Mills, Randy K.; Woods, John C.
1996-01-01
Utilizes selections from 17th century philosophical writing as instructional material for a series of learning activities that reveal the influence of the material on early American democratic thought. Activities involve selections from Isaac Newton, John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, The Declaration of Independence, and Bishop Bossuet. (MJP)
Eigenvalue Decomposition-Based Modified Newton Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-jun Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available When the Hessian matrix is not positive, the Newton direction may not be the descending direction. A new method named eigenvalue decomposition-based modified Newton algorithm is presented, which first takes the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hessian matrix, then replaces the negative eigenvalues with their absolute values, and finally reconstructs the Hessian matrix and modifies the searching direction. The new searching direction is always the descending direction. The convergence of the algorithm is proven and the conclusion on convergence rate is presented qualitatively. Finally, a numerical experiment is given for comparing the convergence domains of the modified algorithm and the classical algorithm.
Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artibano Micali
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenwen Sui
Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A
2014-01-01
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)
Newton's Contributions to Optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.
Can Newton's Third Law Be "Derived" from the Second?
Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Harrington, James
2017-01-01
Newton's laws have engendered much discussion over several centuries. Today, the internet is awash with a plethora of information on this topic. We find many references to Newton's laws, often discussions of various types of misunderstandings and ways to explain them. Here we present an intriguing example that shows an assumption hidden in…
The POINT-AGAPE Survey I: The Variable Stars in M31
An Jun Hong; Hewett, P C; Baillon, Paul; Calchi-Novati, S; Carr, B J; Creze, M; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gould, A; Jetzer, P; Kaplan, J; Kerins, E; Paulin-Henriksson, S; Smartt, S J; Stalin, C S; Tsapras, Y; An, Jin H.; Jetzer, Ph.
2004-01-01
The POINT-AGAPE collaboration has been monitoring M31 for three seasons with the Wide Field Camera on the Isaac Newton Telescope. In each season, data are taken for one hour per night for roughly sixty nights during the six months that M31 is visible. The two fields of view straddle the central bulge, northwards and southwards. We have calculated the locations, periods and amplitudes of 35414 variable stars in M31 as a by-product of our microlensing search. The variables are classified according to their period and amplitude of variation. They are classified into population I and II Cepheids, Miras and semi-regular long-period variables. The population I Cepheids are associated with the spiral arms, while the central concentration of the Miras and long-period variables varies noticeably, the stars with brighter (and shorter) variations being much more centrally concentrated. A crucial role in the microlensing experiment is played by the asymmetry signal. It was initially assumed that the variable stars would ...
Searching for I-band variability in stars in the M/L spectral transition region
Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Doyle, J. Gerry
2015-10-01
We report on I-band photometric observations of 21 stars with spectral types between M8 and L4 made using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The total amount of time for observations which had a cadence of test for photometric variability using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and find that four sources (2MASS J10224821+5825453, 2MASS J07464256+2000321, 2MASS J16262034+3925190 and 2MASS J12464678+4027150) were found to be significantly variable at least on one epoch. Three of these sources are reported as photometrically variable for the first time. If we include sources which were deemed marginally variable, the number of variable sources is 6 (29 per cent). No flares were detected from any source. The percentage of sources which we found were variable is similar to previous studies. We summarize the mechanisms which have been put forward to explain the light curves of brown dwarfs.
PG 1700 + 518 - a low-redshift, broad absorption line QSO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettini, M.; Boksenberg, A.
1985-01-01
The first high-resolution optical spectra and lower resolution UV spectra of PG 1700 + 518, the only known broad-absorption-line (BAL) QSO at low emission redshift (0.288) are presented. The optical data were obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma and the UV data with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The outstanding feature of the optical spectrum is a strong, broad Mg II absorption trough, detached from the Mg II emission line and indicative of ejection velocities of between 7000 and 18,000 km/s. Also detected were narrow (FWHM = 350 km/s) Mg II absorption lines at absolute z = 0.2698, which are probably related to the mass ejection phenomenon. It is concluded that the emission-line spectrum is similar to that of other low-redshift QSOs although there are some obvious differences from typical BAL QSOs, most notably in the unusually low level of ionization of both emission-line and broad absorption line gas. 21 references
Smith, A. M. S.
2015-03-01
This paper presents new transit photometry from the Isaac Newton Telescope of two transiting exoplanetary systems, XO-5 and WASP-82. In each case the new transit light curve is more precise than any other of that system previously published. The new data are analyzed alongside previously-published photometry and radial velocities, resulting in an improved orbital ephemeris and a refined set of system parameters in each case. The observational baseline of XO-5 is extended by very nearly four years, resulting in a determination of the orbital period of XO-5b to a precision of just 50 ms. The mass and radius of XO-5b are 1.19±0.03 and 1.14±0.03 times those of Jupiter, respectively. The light curve of WASP-82 is only the second published for this system. The planetary mass is 1.25±0.05 MJup, and the radius is 1.71±0.08 RJup.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sulamitis and Clarissa asteroids spectra (Morate+, 2018)
Morate, D.; de, Leon J.; de Pra, M.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.
2017-11-01
A total of 97 low-resolution visible spectra were obtained for the asteroids in the Sulamitis and Clarissa families (64 and 33 objects, respectively), using the Optical System for Imaging and Low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) camera spectrograph at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), located at the El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (ORM) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. In addition, we obtained three spectra of (752) Sulamitis using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope, also located at the ORM in La Palma, as part of program C97 (2015), on July 22, 2015. All the spectra files included here are named ast_ASTEROIDNUMBER.txt, except for the spectra of (752) taken with the INT (named ast752INT.txt). The first column is the wavelength, expressed in microns, and the second column is the reflectance value (which is normalized at 1 at 0.55 microns). (3 data files).
A variational principle for Newton-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goenner, H.F.M.
1984-01-01
In the framework of a space-time theory of gravitation a variational principle is set up for the gravitational field equations and the equations of motion of matter. The general framework leads to Newton's equations of motion with an unspecified force term and, for irrotational motion, to a restriction on the propagation of the shear tensor along the streamlines of matter. The field equations obtained from the variation are weaker than the standard field equations of Newton-Cartan theory. An application to fluids with shear and bulk viscosity is given. (author)
The Celestial Mechanics of Newton
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hannes Kepler had announced his first two laws of plan- etary motion (AD 1609), ... "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" .... He provided two different sets of proofs .... the Sun. Newton then formulated a theory of tides based on the.
The Moral and Ethical Implications of Precision-Guided Munitions
2007-03-01
state was secured permanently on the world political stage. Grotius was to jurisprudence and the just-war tradition as Francis Bacon and Rene ... Descartes were to philosophy and Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton were to applied science. Grotius’ interpretation of the just-war tra- dition as it
Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
This educational guide discusses rockets and includes activities in science, mathematics, and technology. It begins with background information on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry focus on Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These laws explain…
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2013 Isaac Newton and student college completion. Journal of College Student Retention. 15, 1-7. 2012 Completing College: Rethinking institutional action. Chicago: The University of. Chicago Press. 2011 Moving from theory to action: A model of institutional action for student success. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College Student ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.
Achievements, agreements and quarrels of forefathers of mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okrouhlík M.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The presented paper is devoted to deeds of Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Robert Hooke, Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton with an intention to show their achievements in mechanics, their intellectual and scientific heritage, and also their personal vanities that sometimes led to harmful mutual relations.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton. Date of birth: 25 October 1875. Date of death: 24 March 1946. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...
NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the 2015 Outburst Decay of GX 339-4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stiele, H.; Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: hstiele@mx.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, No. 101 Sect. 2 Kuang-Fu Road, 30013, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)
2017-07-20
The extent of the accretion disk in the low/hard state of stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries remains an open question. There is some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disk is truncated and replaced by a hot flow, while the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines seems to require an accretion disk extending fully to the innermost stable circular orbit. We present comprehensive spectral and timing analyses of six Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton observations of GX 339–4 taken during outburst decay in the autumn of 2015. Using a spectral model consisting of a thermal accretion disk, Comptonized emission, and a relativistic reflection component, we obtain a decreasing photon index, consistent with an X-ray binary during outburst decay. Although we observe a discrepancy in the inner radius of the accretion disk and that of the reflector, which can be attributed to the different underlying assumptions in each model, both model components indicate a truncated accretion disk that resiles with decreasing luminosity. The evolution of the characteristic frequency in Fourier power spectra and their missing energy dependence support the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disk in the hard state. The XMM-Newton data set allowed us to study, for the first time, the evolution of the covariance spectra and ratio during outburst decay. The covariance ratio increases and steeps during outburst decay, consistent with increased disk instabilities.
Space and motion in nature and Scripture: Galileo, Descartes, Newton.
Janiak, Andrew
2015-06-01
In the Scholium to the Definitions in Principia mathematica, Newton departs from his main task of discussing space, time and motion by suddenly mentioning the proper method for interpreting Scripture. This is surprising, and it has long been ignored by scholars. In this paper, I argue that the Scripture passage in the Scholium is actually far from incidental: it reflects Newton's substantive concern, one evident in correspondence and manuscripts from the 1680s, that any general understanding of space, time and motion must enable readers to recognize the veracity of Biblical claims about natural phenomena, including the motion of the earth. This substantive concern sheds new light on an aspect of Newton's project in the Scholium. It also underscores Newton's originality in dealing with the famous problem of reconciling theological and philosophical conceptions of nature in the seventeenth century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.
Ulanowicz, R E
1999-05-01
Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.
Raju, C. K.
1991-01-01
A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)
Síndrome de Isaacs: relato de um caso
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hélio Ghizoni Teive
1988-06-01
Full Text Available Relato do caso de paciente do sexo feminino com 40 anos de idade, com quadro progressivo de diminuição de força, disfonia, disfagia, dispnéia e hiperidrose. O exame físico revelava contratura em flexão das mãos, déficit de força muscular, fasciculações, mioquimia facial e pseudomiotonia nas mãos, A eletromiografia mostrou atividade elétrica contínua em repouso. O estudo histoquímico muscular revelou atrofia de fibras do tipo II, enquanto a microscopia eletrônica mostrou dilatação importante das cisternas do retículo sarcoplasmático. O diagnóstico de síndrome de Isaacs foi firmado. Excelente resposta clínica ao emprego de carbamazepina foi observada. São discutidos e revistos vários aspectos relacionados a essa rara síndrome.
Entropic corrections to Newton's law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setare, M R; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R
2012-01-01
In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified. (paper)
Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-07-01
A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality
Smith, George
2016-03-01
Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.
1998-01-23
Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-01, Japan. t present address: University of Tokyo, Institute for Industrial Science, 7-22-1 Roppongi...Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. 3CNM, "Instituto de Microelectrönica de Madrid", Isaac Newton 8, Parque Tecnologico de Madrid, E
Drazin, Philip
1987-01-01
Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Admin
The word 'theory' is derived from the Greek theoria: a speculation or a view. ... In the context of these results Isaac Newton made certain fundamental ... This process is therefore referred to as the hypothetico-deductive method. .... theories, and however satisfactory they may seem from our perspective, one can never be.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
circles, upon which geometry is founded, belongs to mechanics. Geometry does not teach us to draw these lines, but requires them to be drawn. Sir Isaac Newton. (1643 to 1727). Figure 12. The Egyptians created right triangles from ropes divided into 12 equal segments .. 4ddress for Correspondence. Jasbir S Chahal.
ZUIDERWIJK, EJ; MARTIN, R; RAIMOND, E; VANDIEPEN, GNJ
The operation of the La Palma Data Archive is described in detail. The archive contains data taken since early 1986 with the Isaac Newton Group; 74% of the 260,000 entries are of astronomical sources. Several hundreds of queries are made on the catalog each year, resulting in approximately one
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khorunzhev, Georgii; Sazonov, Sergey; Burenin, Rodion [High Energy Astrophysics, Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Eselevich, Maxim, E-mail: horge@iki.rssi.ru [Laboratory of Infrared Methods in Astrophysics, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)
2017-11-13
We have compiled a catalog of 903 quasar candidates (including known quasars) at 3 < z < 5.5 selected among X-ray sources from the XMM-Newton serendipitous survey (3XMM-DR4 catalog). We used photometric SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data to select the objects. The surface number density of objects in our sample exceeds that in the SDSS spectroscopic quasar sample at the same redshifts by a factor of 1.5. We have performed spectroscopic observations of a subsample of new quasar candidates using a new low- and medium-resolution spectrograph at the 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope (Mondy, Russia) and demonstrated that the purity of these candidates is about 65%. We have discovered one of the most distant (z = 5.08) X-ray selected quasars.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgii Khorunzhev
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We have compiled a catalog of 903 quasar candidates (including known quasars at 3 < z < 5.5 selected among X-ray sources from the XMM-Newton serendipitous survey (3XMM-DR4 catalog. We used photometric SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data to select the objects. The surface number density of objects in our sample exceeds that in the SDSS spectroscopic quasar sample at the same redshifts by a factor of 1.5. We have performed spectroscopic observations of a subsample of new quasar candidates using a new low- and medium-resolution spectrograph at the 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope (Mondy, Russia and demonstrated that the purity of these candidates is about 65%. We have discovered one of the most distant (z = 5.08 X-ray selected quasars.
Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.
Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich
2011-02-10
We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.
Newton Binomial Formulas in Schubert Calculus
Cordovez, Jorge; Gatto, Letterio; Santiago, Taise
2008-01-01
We prove Newton's binomial formulas for Schubert Calculus to determine numbers of base point free linear series on the projective line with prescribed ramification divisor supported at given distinct points.
Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy?
2003-12-01
one knows what the dark energy might be. In the currently popular 'concordance model' of the Universe, 70% of the cosmos is thought to be dark energy, 25% dark matter and 5% normal matter. XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton's high-tech design uses over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects. Image caption The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Credits: ESA
Three lectures on Newton's laws
Kokarev, Sergey S.
2009-01-01
Three small lectures are devoted to three Newton's laws, lying in the foundation of classical mechanics. These laws are analyzed from the viewpoint of our contemporary knowledge about space, time and physical interactions. The lectures were delivered for students of YarGU in RSEC "Logos".
Newton law on the generalized singular brane with and without 4d induced gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Eylee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Park, D.K.
2003-01-01
Newton law arising due to the gravity localized on the general singular brane embedded in AdS 5 bulk is examined in the absence or presence of the 4d induced Einstein term. For the RS brane, apart from the subleading correction, Newton potential obeys 4d- and 5d-type gravitational law at long- and short-ranges if it were not for the induced Einstein term. The 4d induced Einstein term generates an intermediate range at short distance, in which the 5d Newton potential 1/r 2 emerges. For Neumann brane the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed regardless of the existence of the induced Einstein term. For Dirichlet brane the expression of Newton potential is dependent on the renormalized coupling constant v ren . At particular value of v ren Newton potential on Dirichlet brane exhibits a similar behavior to that on RS brane. For other values the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed as that in Neumann brane
XMM-Newton operations beyond the design lifetime
Parmar, Arvind N.; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Muñoz, J. Ramon; Santos-Lleo, Maria; Schartel, Norbert
2012-09-01
After more than twelve years in orbit and two years beyond the design lifetime, XMM-Newton continues its near faultless operations providing the worldwide astronomical community with an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopic X-ray capabilities together with simultaneous optical and ultra-violet monitoring. The interest from the scientific community in observing with XMM-Newton remains extremely high with the last annual Announcement of Observing Opportunity (AO-11) attracting proposals requesting 6.7 times more observing time than was available. Following recovery from a communications problem in 2008, all elements of the mission are stable and largely trouble free. The operational lifetime if currently limited by the amount of available hydrazine fuel. XMM-Newton normally uses reaction wheels for attitude control and fuel is only used when offsetting reaction wheel speed away from limiting values and for emergency Sun acquisition following an anomaly. Currently, the hydrazine is predicted to last until around 2020. However, ESA is investigating the possibility of making changes to the operations concept and the onboard software that would enable lower fuel consumption. This could allow operations to well beyond 2026.
Cats and Dogs, Hair and a Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions
Belokurov, V.; Zucker, D. B.; Evans, N. W.; Kleyna, J. T.; Koposov, S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, M. J.; Gilmore, G.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Fellhauer, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Hewett, P. C.; Vidrih, S.; De Jong, J. T. A.; Smith, J. A.; Rix, H.-W.; Bell, E. F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Newberg, H. J.; Mayeur, P. A.; Yanny, B.; Rockosi, C. M.; Gnedin, O. Y.; Schneider, D. P.; Beers, T. C.; Barentine, J. C.; Brewington, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Harvanek, M.; Kleinman, S. J.; Krzesinski, J.; Long, D.; Nitta, A.; Snedden, S. A.
2007-01-01
We present five new satellites of the Milky Way discovered in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data, four of which were followed up with either the Subaru or the Isaac Newton Telescopes. They include four probable new dwarf galaxies-one each in the constellations of Coma Berenices, Canes Venatici, Leo, and Hercules-together with one unusually extended globular cluster, Segue 1. We provide distances, absolute magnitudes, half-light radii, and color-magnitude diagrams for all five satellites. The morphological features of the color-magnitude diagrams are generally well described by the ridge line of the old, metal-poor globular cluster M92. In the past two years, a total of 10 new Milky Way satellites with effective surface brightness μv>~28 mag arcsec-2 have been discovered in SDSS data. They are less luminous, more irregular, and apparently more metal-poor than the previously known nine Milky Way dwarf spheroidals. The relationship between these objects and other populations is discussed. We note that there is a paucity of objects with half-light radii between ~40 and ~100 pc. We conjecture that this may represent the division between star clusters and dwarf galaxies. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
2016-12-01
could understand the world with flexible and deep thinking through his lessons. At last, I can understand Isaac Newton: “If I have seen further, it is...To overcome this crisis, the North Korean government got down to business with China when Wen Jiabao, who was the Premier of the People’s Republic
Reading on the Shoulders of Giants
Ben-Chaim, Michael; Riendeau, Michael
2012-01-01
Reflecting on his successful scientific career, Isaac Newton highlighted his intellectual debt to his predecessors. "If I have seen further," he wrote, "it was "only" by standing on the shoulders of giants." The authors have chosen the title of their article as a token of recognition of their debt to the teachings of…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Page 1. Resonance - December 2006. Isaac Newton. (1642/43 – 1727). Regn No. CPMG/KA/BGE-340/2006-08 WPP No.6. Posted at RT Nagar Head Post Office, Bangalore 12.12.06. Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044. Price per copy: Rs 40.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Some three and a half centuries ago, Galileo Galilei declared that the book of nature was written in the language of mathematics. Isaac Newton following after him set up a comprehensive scheme for the description of physical phenomena, and aptly called it "Mathematical Principles of. Natural Philosophy". For a couple of ...
Harder–Narasimhan filtration for rank 2 tensors and stable coverings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We call σ the Harder–Narasimhan section of the covering. Acknowledgements. The author wishes to thank Usha Bhosle, Tomás L Gómez and Peter Newstead for useful discussions, and to the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge,. United Kingdom, where part of this work was done, for hospitality.
Holisme as 'n postmodernistiese filosofie in teologiese lig
African Journals Online (AJOL)
mentation characteristic of the modern mind since René Decartes and Isaac Newton ....[T]he thirst for postmodernity is the thirst for a renewed sense of the whole'. Tog is die konsep 'postmodemisme' (maar ook 'postmoderniteit') nie maklik defmieerbaar nie (kyk Szegedy-Maszák 1987:42). Wat as verduidelikend daaroor ge-.
The frictional Schroedinger-Newton equation in models of wave function collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diosi, Lajos [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, PO Box 49 (Hungary)
2007-05-15
Replacing the Newtonian coupling G by -iG, the Schroedinger--Newton equation becomes {sup f}rictional{sup .} Instead of the reversible Schroedinger-Newton equation, we advocate its frictional version to generate the set of pointer states for macroscopic quantum bodies.
Newton's Path to Universal Gravitation: The Role of the Pendulum
Boulos, Pierre J.
2006-01-01
Much attention has been given to Newton's argument for Universal Gravitation in Book III of the "Principia". Newton brings an impressive array of phenomena, along with the three laws of motion, and his rules for reasoning to deduce Universal Gravitation. At the centre of this argument is the famous "moon test". Here it is the empirical evidence…
Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law
Nicholson, Kenneth F.
2000-01-01
Given the dimensions (including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark matter halos are required. The speed distributiions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.
N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galajinsky, Anton
2009-01-01
A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.
Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.
2007-01-01
We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10 -14 m/s 2
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727). Bikram Phookun. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 3-6. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0003-0006 ...
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 11, Issue 12. December 2006, pages 1-102. pp 1-2 Editorial. Editorial · Renuka Ravindran · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 3-6 Article-in-a-Box. Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727).
Does the Newton's world model revive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meszaros, A.
1984-03-01
Newton's world model may have a physical meaning if the gravitation has small non-zero mass and if the observable part of the universe is the interior of a giant finite body. Both possibilities are allowed theoretically. (author)
An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, Sven
2011-10-01
The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10 -10 m/s 2 . These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a 0 ∼ 1.2.10 -10 m/s 2 , where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)
What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?
Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike
1999-01-01
We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia...
Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2
Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.
2016-12-01
The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.
Gustave Flaubert, Charles Dickens, and Isaac Pulvermacher's "magic band".
Waits, Robert K
2013-01-01
Around 1850, Isaac L. Pulvermacher (1815-1884) joined the ranks of so-called "galvanists" who had, for nearly a century, been touting the shocks and sparks of electricity as a miracle cure for all ills, including neurological complaints such as palsy and hemiplegia. The famed authors, Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), in France, and Charles Dickens (1812-1870), in England, although contemporaries, apparently never met or corresponded. But during their lives, they both became aware of Pulvermacher and his patented Hydro-Electric Chains, claimed to impart vigor and cure nearly every complaint. Pulvermacher's chains made a cameo appearance in Madame Bovary (1857), Flaubert's controversial (and most successful) novel. Among Dickens's last letters (1870) was an order for I. L. Pulvermacher and Company's "magic band." Since the Victorian age, electrical and magnetic cures, for better or worse, continue to be products of both the medical profession and quackery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discovery Science: Newton All around You.
Prigo, Robert; Humphrey, Gregg
1993-01-01
Presents activities for helping elementary students learn about Newton's third law of motion. Several activity cards demonstrate the concept of the law of action and reaction. The activities require only inexpensive materials that can be found around the house. (SM)
Fundamentos kantianos dos axiomas do movimento de Newton
Vieira Coutinho Abreu Gomes, Írio
2006-01-01
Esse trabalho se insere na perspectiva fundacionista kantiana, particularmente no que diz respeito às três leis de Newton. Em sua obra de 1786, Princípios Metafísicos da Ciência da Natureza, Kant empreende a tarefa de fundamentar a física mecânica através de princípios metafísicos. Nosso objetivo nessa dissertação foi abordar essa obra especificamente em seu terceiro capítulo onde Kant trata dos axiomas do movimento de Newton. Nessa dissertação elucidamos a argumentação kantiana na fundamenta...
Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited
Vollmer, M.
2009-01-01
The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…
On-the-fly XMM-Newton Spacecraft Data Reduction on the Grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ibarra
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task, parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a Grid system. By using the Grid Way application and the XMM-Newton Science Archive system, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization (VO constituted by three different research centres: ESAC (European Space Astronomy Centre, ESTEC (the European Space research and TEchnology Centre and UCM (Complutense University of Madrid. The proposed application workflow adjusts well to the Grid environment, making use of the massive parallel resources in a flexible and adaptive fashion.
The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator
Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James
1989-01-01
The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.
Classical mechanics from Newton to Einstein : a modern introduction
McCall, Martin
2011-01-01
This new edition of Classical Mechanics, aimed at undergraduate physics and engineering students, presents in a user-friendly style an authoritative approach to the complementary subjects of classical mechanics and relativity. The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits and rigid body dynamics - are discussed after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. Examples gi
Fine, Leon G
2003-01-01
Charles Edward Isaacs (1811-1860), an anatomist working in New York, undertook a series of studies which attempted to define the microscopic structure of the nephrons in a variety of species. Given that he published his findings 15 years after William Bowman's seminal paper on the subject, he was able to add only a few of the finer details to the picture. He observed the continuity of the epithelium of the glomerular capsule with that of the proximal tubule and he demonstrated that the glomerular tuft is covered by a layer of epithelial cells. In a series of studies on human renal function he erroneously concluded that the glomerulus must have an excretory function in addition to its filtration function and that diuretics act primarily on the glomerlus. The latter conclusion was based upon observations of substances not currently categorized as being diuretic agents. The absence of a major conceptual advance in the writings of Isaacs probably accounts for that fact that his contribution has been largely forgotten.
A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lluís Garrido
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...
The Music of the Spheres: Cross-Curricular Perspectives on Music and Science
Rogers, George L.
2016-01-01
The integration of music and science is embodied in the music of the spheres, the ancient concept that the universe is ordered in a manner consistent with principles of musical harmony. This idea boasts a long history, from the teachings of Pythagoras (ca. 600 BC) through Isaac Newton in the eighteenth century, and makes a fascinating…
Measuring, Understanding, and Responding to Covert Social Networks: Passive and Active Tomography
2017-11-11
Methods for generating a random sample of networks with desired properties are important tools for the analysis of social , biological, and information...on Theoretical Foundations for Statistical Network Analysis at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge U. (organized by...Approach SOCIAL SCIENCES STATISTICS EECS Problems span three disciplines Scientific focus is needed at the interfaces
Econophysics: Past and present
de Area Leão Pereira, Eder Johnson; da Silva, Marcus Fernandes; Pereira, H. B. B.
2017-05-01
This paper provides a brief historical review of the relationship between economics and physics, beginning with Adam Smith being influenced by Isaac Newton's ideas up to the present day including the new econophysics discipline and some of the tools applied to the economy. Thus, this work is expected to motivate new researchers who are interested in this new discipline.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 76-82. Dark Matter - Dark Matter in the Universe · Bikram Phookun Biman Nath · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 3-6 Article-in-a-Box. Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727) · Bikram Phookun · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
his own failure to match the achievements of. Sir Isaac. I Raphson, an eminent scientist of his day and a friend of New- ton, published the method in his book Analysis Aequationum. Universalis in 1690. Newton described it in Method of Flux- ions written in 1671, but pub- lished in 1736 (l}. Keywords. Implicit function theorem,.
'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Test
7 Jun 2011 ... maar met die aard daarvan. Polkinghorne wil met sy boek One World (1996) presies sê wat die titel suggereer. Hiervoor kry hy die oplossing by sy mentor en latere kollega, Paul Dirac. Vir meer as 30 jaar het Dirac dieselfde leerstoel in Fisika aan Cambridge beklee as Isaac Newton (Polkinghorne 2005:34).
Sanchez Ron, Jose Manuel
2015-01-01
Lecture synopsis : Having formulated his special theory of relativity (1905), Albert Einstein set about producing a relativistic theory of gravitation that differed from the venerable theory of universal gravitation described by Isaac Newton in 1687. In 1907, he found a piece in the puzzle, the equivalence principle, that would guide him to an eventual solution in 1915: general relativity.
XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star
2004-05-01
whether the Sun's X-ray cycle is common among other solar-type stars, and in particular among those hosting potential rocky planets, can give scientists much needed clues on whether and where other forms of life might exist outside the Solar System. At the same time, understanding how typical and long-lasting is the solar behaviour will tell us more about the evolution of the climate on Earth. Further observations of HD 81809 and other similar stars are already planned with XMM-Newton. They will allow astronomers to study whether the large modulations in X-ray brightness observed in the Sun are indeed the norm for stars of its type. Understanding how other solar-like stars behave in general will give scientists better insight into the past and future of our own Sun. Note to editors The results described here were published in the April issue of the scientific journal Astronomy and Astrophysics (Vol. 418, p. L13). The authors of the paper are F. Favata, G. Micela, S. Baliunas, J. Schmitt, M. Guedel, F. Harnden Jr., S. Sciortino and R. Stern. A reprint of the paper can be found at: http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0403142 More about XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton's high-tech design uses over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects. More information on XMM-Newton can be found at: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMM8IGHZTD_1_spk.html More about SOHO SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Fourteen European countries, led by
Ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope with thermal light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng
2011-01-01
As important observation tools, telescopes are very useful in remote observations. We report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of ghost telescope scheme and show that, by measuring the intensity correlation of two light fields and only changing the position of the detector in the reference path, ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope can be obtained even if a single-pixel detector is fixed in Fresnel region of the object. Differences between conventional telescope and ghost telescope are also discussed.
Variational nature, integration, and properties of Newton reaction path.
Bofill, Josep Maria; Quapp, Wolfgang
2011-02-21
The distinguished coordinate path and the reduced gradient following path or its equivalent formulation, the Newton trajectory, are analyzed and unified using the theory of calculus of variations. It is shown that their minimum character is related to the fact that the curve is located in a valley region. In this case, we say that the Newton trajectory is a reaction path with the category of minimum energy path. In addition to these findings a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm to integrate these curves is also proposed.
Variational nature, integration, and properties of Newton reaction path
Bofill, Josep Maria; Quapp, Wolfgang
2011-02-01
The distinguished coordinate path and the reduced gradient following path or its equivalent formulation, the Newton trajectory, are analyzed and unified using the theory of calculus of variations. It is shown that their minimum character is related to the fact that the curve is located in a valley region. In this case, we say that the Newton trajectory is a reaction path with the category of minimum energy path. In addition to these findings a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm to integrate these curves is also proposed.
Newton law in DGP brane-world with semi-infinite extra dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, D.K.; Tamaryan, S.; Miao Yangang
2004-01-01
Newton potential for DGP brane-world scenario is examined when the extra dimension is semi-infinite. The final form of the potential involves a self-adjoint extension parameter α, which plays a role of an additional mass (or distance) scale. The striking feature of Newton potential in this setup is that the potential behaves as seven-dimensional in long range when α is non-zero. For small α there is an intermediate range where the potential is five-dimensional. Five-dimensional Newton constant decreases with increase of α from zero. In the short range the four-dimensional behavior is recovered. The physical implication of this result is discussed in the context of the accelerating behavior of universe
Newton's constant from a minimal length: additional models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahlmann, Hanno
2011-01-01
We follow arguments of Verlinde (2010 arXiv:1001.0785 [hep-th]) and Klinkhamer (2010 arXiv:1006.2094 [hep-th]), and construct two models of the microscopic theory of a holographic screen that allow for the thermodynamical derivation of Newton's law, with Newton's constant expressed in terms of a minimal length scale l contained in the area spectrum of the microscopic theory. One of the models is loosely related to the quantum structure of surfaces and isolated horizons in loop quantum gravity. Our investigation shows that the conclusions reached by Klinkhamer regarding the new length scale l seem to be generic in all their qualitative aspects.
A Non-smooth Newton Method for Multibody Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erleben, K.; Ortiz, R.
2008-01-01
In this paper we deal with the simulation of rigid bodies. Rigid body dynamics have become very important for simulating rigid body motion in interactive applications, such as computer games or virtual reality. We present a novel way of computing contact forces using a Newton method. The contact problem is reformulated as a system of non-linear and non-smooth equations, and we solve this system using a non-smooth version of Newton's method. One of the main contribution of this paper is the reformulation of the complementarity problems, used to model impacts, as a system of equations that can be solved using traditional methods.
Léger, A.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Barge, P.; Fridlund, M.; Samuel, B.; Ollivier, M.; Guenther, E.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Auvergne, M.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J. M.; Baglin, A.; Barbieri, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Catala, C.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Foing, B.; Fressin, F.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, Ph.; Grasset, O.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Llebaria, A.; Loeillet, B.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Renner, S.; Samadi, R.; Shporer, A.; Sotin, Ch.; Tingley, B.; Wuchterl, G.; Adda, M.; Agogu, P.; Appourchaux, T.; Ballans, H.; Baron, P.; Beaufort, T.; Bellenger, R.; Berlin, R.; Bernardi, P.; Blouin, D.; Baudin, F.; Bodin, P.; Boisnard, L.; Boit, L.; Bonneau, F.; Borzeix, S.; Briet, R.; Buey, J.-T.; Butler, B.; Cailleau, D.; Cautain, R.; Chabaud, P.-Y.; Chaintreuil, S.; Chiavassa, F.; Costes, V.; Cuna Parrho, V.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Decaudin, M.; Defise, J.-M.; Djalal, S.; Epstein, G.; Exil, G.-E.; Fauré, C.; Fenouillet, T.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gallic, A.; Gamet, P.; Gavalda, P.; Grolleau, E.; Gruneisen, R.; Gueguen, L.; Guis, V.; Guivarc'h, V.; Guterman, P.; Hallouard, D.; Hasiba, J.; Heuripeau, F.; Huntzinger, G.; Hustaix, H.; Imad, C.; Imbert, C.; Johlander, B.; Jouret, M.; Journoud, P.; Karioty, F.; Kerjean, L.; Lafaille, V.; Lafond, L.; Lam-Trong, T.; Landiech, P.; Lapeyrere, V.; Larqué, T.; Laudet, P.; Lautier, N.; Lecann, H.; Lefevre, L.; Leruyet, B.; Levacher, P.; Magnan, A.; Mazy, E.; Mertens, F.; Mesnager, J.-M.; Meunier, J.-C.; Michel, J.-P.; Monjoin, W.; Naudet, D.; Nguyen-Kim, K.; Orcesi, J.-L.; Ottacher, H.; Perez, R.; Peter, G.; Plasson, P.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Pontet, B.; Pradines, A.; Quentin, C.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rolland, G.; Rollenhagen, F.; Romagnan, R.; Russ, N.; Schmidt, R.; Schwartz, N.; Sebbag, I.; Sedes, G.; Smit, H.; Steller, M. B.; Sunter, W.; Surace, C.; Tello, M.; Tiphène, D.; Toulouse, P.; Ulmer, B.; Vandermarcq, O.; Vergnault, E.; Vuillemin, A.; Zanatta, P.
2009-10-01
December 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA, Germany, and Spain. First CoRoT data are available to the public from the CoRoT archive: http://idoc-corot.ias.u-psud.fr. The complementary observations were obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by NRC in Canada, INSU-CNRS in France, and the University of Hawaii; ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories under programme ID 081.C-0413(C), DDT 282.C-5015; the IAC80 telescope operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Tenerife at the Observatorio del Teide; the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; and at the Anglo-Australian Telescope that have been funded by the Optical Infrared Coordination network (OPTICON), a major international collaboration supported by the Research Infrastructures Programme of the European Commissions Sixth Framework Programme; Radial-velocity observations were obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the 1.93m telescope of Observatoire de Haute Provence, France.
Teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion in the Presence of Student Preconception
Poon, C. H.
2006-01-01
The concept of interaction that underlies Newton's Laws of Motion is compared with the students' commonsense ideas of force and motion. An approach to teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion is suggested that focuses on refining the student's intuitive thinking on the nature of interaction.
POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum
Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita
2010-01-01
The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…
Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Măruşter Ştefan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.
ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool
Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans
2012-09-01
The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.
Solé, D; Mallol, J; Wandalsen, G F; Aguirre, V
2010-01-01
The aim of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was to evaluate the prevalence of symptoms of eczema among children living in different parts of Latin America. Data were from centers that participated in ISAAC Phase 3. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 93,851 schoolchildren (6 to 7 years old) from 35 centers in 14 Latin American countries and 165,917 adolescents (13 to 14 years old) from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries. The mean prevalence of current flexural eczema in schoolchildren was 11.3%, ranging from 3.2% in Ciudad Victoria (Mexico) to 25.0% in Barranquilla (Colombia). For adolescents, the prevalence varied from 3.4% in Santo André (Brazil) to 30.2% in Barranquilla (mean prevalence, 10.6%). The mean prevalence of current symptoms of severe eczema among schoolchildren was 1.5%, ranging from 0.3% in Ciudad Victoria, Toluca, and Cuernavaca (Mexico) to 4.9% in La Habana (Cuba). For adolescents, the mean prevalence was 1.4%, ranging from 0.1% in Mexicali Valley (Mexico) to 4.2% in Santa Cruz (Bolivia). These prevalence values are among the highest observed during ISAAC Phase 3. In general, the prevalence of current symptoms of eczema was higher among the Spanish-speaking centers for both schoolchildren and adolescents. Environmental risk factors must be evaluated in order to identify potential causes for the differences observed, even in centers from the same country.
Stellar atmospheric parameter estimation using Gaussian process regression
Bu, Yude; Pan, Jingchang
2015-02-01
As is well known, it is necessary to derive stellar parameters from massive amounts of spectral data automatically and efficiently. However, in traditional automatic methods such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and kernel regression (KR), it is often difficult to optimize the algorithm structure and determine the optimal algorithm parameters. Gaussian process regression (GPR) is a recently developed method that has been proven to be capable of overcoming these difficulties. Here we apply GPR to derive stellar atmospheric parameters from spectra. Through evaluating the performance of GPR on Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, Medium resolution Isaac Newton Telescope Library of Empirical Spectra (MILES) spectra, ELODIE spectra and the spectra of member stars of galactic globular clusters, we conclude that GPR can derive stellar parameters accurately and precisely, especially when we use data preprocessed with principal component analysis (PCA). We then compare the performance of GPR with that of several widely used regression methods (ANNs, support-vector regression and KR) and find that with GPR it is easier to optimize structures and parameters and more efficient and accurate to extract atmospheric parameters.
The Cooling Law and the Search for a Good Temperature Scale, from Newton to Dalton
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and…
The Schrödinger–Newton equation and its foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahrami, Mohammad; Großardt, André; Donadi, Sandro; Bassi, Angelo
2014-01-01
The necessity of quantising the gravitational field is still subject to an open debate. In this paper we compare the approach of quantum gravity, with that of a fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity, in the weak-field non-relativistic limit. We show that, while in the former case the Schrödinger equation stays linear, in the latter case one ends up with the so-called Schrödinger–Newton equation, which involves a nonlinear, non-local gravitational contribution. We further discuss that the Schrödinger–Newton equation does not describe the collapse of the wave-function, although it was initially proposed for exactly this purpose. Together with the standard collapse postulate, fundamentally semi-classical gravity gives rise to superluminal signalling. A consistent fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity can therefore only be achieved together with a suitable prescription of the wave-function collapse. We further discuss, how collapse models avoid such superluminal signalling and compare the nonlinearities appearing in these models with those in the Schrödinger–Newton equation. (paper)
Leveraging Social Media Data to Understand Disaster Resilience: A Case Study of Hurricane Isaac
Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.
2017-12-01
Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.
Anisotropic harmonic oscillator, non-commutative Landau problem and exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Pedro D.; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2008-01-01
We investigate the planar anisotropic harmonic oscillator with explicit rotational symmetry as a particle model with non-commutative coordinates. It includes the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and the non-commutative Landau problem as special, isotropic and maximally anisotropic, cases. The system is described by the same (2+1)-dimensional exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry as in the isotropic case, and develops three different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The special cases of the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and non-commutative Landau problem are shown to be characterized by additional, so(3) or so(2,1) Lie symmetry, which reflects their peculiar spectral properties
Initiation and propagation of neurodegeneration.
Haass, Christian
2010-11-01
Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the molecular and pathological bases of neurodegeneration, there have been few successes in the clinic and a number of fundamental questions remain unanswered. Is this skepticism misplaced, or do the words of Sir Isaac Newton hold true, that "what we know is a drop, what we don't know is an ocean"?
Bright Not Broken: Gifted Kids, ADHD, and Autism
Kennedy, Diane M.; Banks, Rebecca S.; Grandin, Temple
2011-01-01
The future of our society depends on our gifted children--the population in which we'll find our next Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, or Virginia Woolf. Yet the gifts and talents of some of our most brilliant kids may never be recognized because these children fall into a group known as twice exceptional, or "2e." Twice exceptional kids are both…
Practical Partnerships--Standing on the Shoulders of Scientists
Thorley, Charlotte
2009-01-01
"If I have seen further, it is because I have stood upon the shoulders of giants." Whenever the author hears this quote from Isaac Newton, she thinks about the work being done by the Royal Society in schools throughout the country, bringing science to life for their students. Much of it is also cutting edge, and represents the best of…
Transforming White Light into Rainbows: Segmentation Strategies for Successful School Tax Elections
Senden, J. Bradford; Lifto, Don E.
2009-01-01
In the late 1600s, British physicist Sir Isaac Newton first demonstrated refraction and dispersion in a triangular prism. He discovered that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum. Hold a prism up to the light at the correct angle and white light magically splits into vivid colors of the rainbow! So what do prisms and rainbows have to…
2000
A force is a push or a pull. In All About Forces and Gravity, kids will join our host on a parasailing adventure to investigate how forces impact and shape everything that happens in the world around us. Learn about gravity and the work of Sir Isaac Newton, the English scientists whose scientific principles forever changed the way people looked at…
Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P
2014-11-01
The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.
Newton, Goethe and the process of perception: an approach to design
Platts, Jim
2006-06-01
Whereas Newton traced a beam of white light passing through a prism and fanning out into the colours of the rainbow as it was refracted, Goethe looked through a prism and was concerned with understanding what his eye subjectively saw. He created a sequence of experiments which produced what appeared to be anomalies in Newton's theory. What he was carefully illustrating concerns limitations accepted when following a scientifically objective approach. Newton was concerned with the description of 'facts' derived from the analysis of observations. Goethe was concerned with the synthesis of meaning. He then went on to describe subjective techniques for training 'the mind's eye' to work efficiently in the subjective world of the imagination. Derided as 'not science', what he was actually describing is the skill which is central to creative design.
One hundred years of pressure hydrostatics from Stevin to Newton
Chalmers, Alan F
2017-01-01
This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with t...
Newton Decatur AL water sample polyfluor compound discovery
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All the pertinent information for recreation of the published (hopefully) tables and figures. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Newton, S.,...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agung Wahyu Nurcahyo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the increase in problem-solving abilities Newton's laws of motion and students' perceptions of cooperative problem solving (CPS learning. Analysis of the data is based on the student's written answers to the five problems, the results of questionnaires and interviews. This study concluded that: (1 learning CPS make a strong impact (d-effect size = 1.81 to increase problem-solving ability of students Newton's laws of motion, (2 cooperation in the learning group CPS makes the problem easier to solve and misconceptions can be corrected. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton, kesulitan yang dialami, dan persepsi mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran cooperative problem solving (CPS. Analisa data didasarkan pada jawaban tertulis mahasiswa terhadap lima permasalahan, hasil angket dan wawancara. Penelitian ini berkesimpulan bahwa (1 pembelajaran CPS memberikan dampak yang kuat (d-effect size=1,81 terhadap peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton mahasiswa dan (2 kerjasama kelompok dalam pembelajaran CPS membuat permasalahan lebih mudah dipecahkan dan miskonsepsi dapat diperbaiki.
Discovery of 36 eclipsing EL CVn binaries found by the Palomar Transient Factory
van Roestel, J.; Kupfer, T.; Ruiz-Carmona, R.; Groot, P. J.; Prince, T. A.; Burdge, K.; Laher, R.; Shupe, D. L.; Bellm, E.
2018-04-01
We report on the discovery and analysis of 36 new eclipsing EL CVn-type binaries, consisting of a core helium-composition pre-white dwarf (pre-He-WD) and an early-type main-sequence companion. This more than doubles the known population of these systems. We have used supervised machine learning methods to search 0.8 million light curves from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), combined with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) colours. The new systems range in orbital periods from 0.46 to 3.8 d and in apparent brightness from ˜14 to 16 mag in the PTF R or g΄ filters. For 12 of the systems, we obtained radial velocity curves with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the Isaac Newton Telescope. We modelled the light curves, radial velocity curves and spectral energy distributions to determine the system parameters. The radii (0.3-0.7 R⊙) and effective temperatures (8000-17 000 K) of the pre-He-WDs are consistent with stellar evolution models, but the masses (0.12-0.28 M⊙) show more variance than models have predicted. This study shows that using machine learning techniques on large synoptic survey data is a powerful way to discover substantial samples of binary systems in short-lived evolutionary stages.
The molecular environment of the pillar-like features in the H II region G46.5-0.2
Paron, S.; Celis Peña, M.; Ortega, M. E.; Fariña, C.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.; Ashley, R. P.
2017-10-01
At the interface of H II regions and molecular gas, peculiar structures appear, some of them with pillar-like shapes. Understanding their origin is important for characterizing triggered star formation and the impact of massive stars on the interstellar medium. In order to study the molecular environment and influence of radiation on two pillar-like features related to the H II region G46.5-0.2, we performed molecular line observations with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment and spectroscopic optical observations with the Isaac Newton Telescope. From the optical observations, we identified the star that is exciting the H II region as spectral type O4-6. The molecular data allowed us to study the structure of the pillars and an HCO+ cloud lying between them. In this HCO+ cloud, which has no well-defined 12CO counterpart, we found direct evidence of star formation: two molecular outflows and two associated near-IR nebulosities. The outflow axis orientation is perpendicular to the direction of the radiation flow from the H II region. Several Class I sources are also embedded in this HCO+ cloud, showing that it is usual that young stellar objects (YSOs) form large associations occupying a cavity bounded by pillars. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the radiation-driven implosion (RDI) process is not occurring in one of the pillar tips.
A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pei-Chang Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.
Application of Quasi-Newton methods to the analysis of axisymmetric pressure vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parisi, D.A.C.
1987-01-01
This work studies the application of Quasi-Newton techniques to material nonlinear analysis of axisymmetrical pressure vessels by the finite element method. In the formulation the material bahavior is described by an isotropic elastoplastic model with strain hardening. The continum is discretized through triangular finite elements of axisymmetrical solids with linear interpolation of the displacement field. The incremental governing equations are derived by the virtual work. The solution of the system of simultaneous nonlinear equations is solved iteratively by the Quasi-Newton method employing the BFGS update. The numerical performance of the proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson method and some of its variants through some selected examples. (author) [pt
Magnetic Levitation and Newton's Third Law
Aguilar, Horacio Munguia
2007-01-01
Newton's third law is often misunderstood by students and even their professors, as has already been pointed out in the literature. Application of the law in the context of electromagnetism can be especially problematic, because the idea that the forces of "action" and "reaction" are equal and opposite independent of the medium through which they…
The importance of being equivalent: Newton's two models of one-body motion
Pourciau, Bruce
2004-05-01
As an undergraduate at Cambridge, Newton entered into his "Waste Book" an assumption that we have named the Equivalence Assumption (The Younger): "If a body move progressively in some crooked line [about a center of motion] ..., [then this] crooked line may bee conceived to consist of an infinite number of streight lines. Or else in any point of the croked line the motion may bee conceived to be on in the tangent". In this assumption, Newton somewhat imprecisely describes two mathematical models, a "polygonal limit model" and a "tangent deflected model", for "one-body motion", that is, for the motion of a "body in orbit about a fixed center", and then claims that these two models are equivalent. In the first part of this paper, we study the Principia to determine how the elder Newton would more carefully describe the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models. From these more careful descriptions, we then create Equivalence Assumption (The Elder), a precise interpretation of Equivalence Assumption (The Younger) as it might have been restated by Newton, after say 1687. We then review certain portions of the Waste Book and the Principia to make the case that, although Newton never restates nor even alludes to the Equivalence Assumption after his youthful Waste Book entry, still the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models, as well as an unspoken belief in their equivalence, infuse Newton's work on orbital motion. In particular, we show that the persuasiveness of the argument for the Area Property in Proposition 1 of the Principia depends crucially on the validity of Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). After this case is made, we present the mathematical analysis required to establish the validity of the Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). Finally, to illustrate the fundamental nature of the resulting theorem, the Equivalence Theorem as we call it, we present three significant applications: we use the Equivalence Theorem first to clarify and resolve questions
A comparison of different quasi-newton acceleration methods for partitioned multi-physics codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2018-02-01
Full Text Available & structures, 88/7, pp. 446–457 (2010) 8. J.E. Dennis, J.J. More´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) A Comparison of Quasi-Newton Acceleration Methods 15 9. J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates... Dois Metodos de Broyden. Mat. Apl. Comput. 1/2, pp. 135– 143 (1982) 25. J.M. Martinez, A quasi-Newton method with modification of one column per iteration. Com- puting 33, pp. 353–362 (1984) 26. J.M. Martinez, M.C. Zambaldi, An Inverse Column...
Brunwasser, Steven M; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Gold, Diane R; Turi, Kedir N; Stone, Cosby A; Datta, Soma; Gern, James E; Hartert, Tina V
2018-01-01
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Wheezing Module is commonly used to characterize pediatric asthma in epidemiological studies, including nearly all airway cohorts participating in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium. However, there is no consensus model for operationalizing wheezing severity with this instrument in explanatory research studies. Severity is typically measured using coarsely-defined categorical variables, reducing power and potentially underestimating etiological associations. More precise measurement approaches could improve testing of etiological theories of wheezing illness. We evaluated a continuous latent variable model of pediatric wheezing severity based on four ISAAC Wheezing Module items. Analyses included subgroups of children from three independent cohorts whose parents reported past wheezing: infants ages 0-2 in the INSPIRE birth cohort study (Cohort 1; n = 657), 6-7-year-old North American children from Phase One of the ISAAC study (Cohort 2; n = 2,765), and 5-6-year-old children in the EHAAS birth cohort study (Cohort 3; n = 102). Models were estimated using structural equation modeling. In all cohorts, covariance patterns implied by the latent variable model were consistent with the observed data, as indicated by non-significant χ2 goodness of fit tests (no evidence of model misspecification). Cohort 1 analyses showed that the latent factor structure was stable across time points and child sexes. In both cohorts 1 and 3, the latent wheezing severity variable was prospectively associated with wheeze-related clinical outcomes, including physician asthma diagnosis, acute corticosteroid use, and wheeze-related outpatient medical visits when adjusting for confounders. We developed an easily applicable continuous latent variable model of pediatric wheezing severity based on items from the well-validated ISAAC Wheezing Module. This model prospectively associates with
Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daszkiewicz, M.
2010-01-01
Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)
The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.
Newton solution of inviscid and viscous problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1988-01-01
The application of Newton iteration to inviscid and viscous airfoil calculations is examined. Spatial discretization is performed using upwind differences with split fluxes. The system of linear equations which arises as a result of linearization in time is solved directly using either a banded matrix solver or a sparse matrix solver. In the latter case, the solver is used in conjunction with the nested dissection strategy, whose implementation for airfoil calculations is discussed. The boundary conditions are also implemented in a fully implicit manner, thus yielding quadratic convergence. Complexities such as the ordering of cell nodes and the use of a far field vortex to correct freestream for a lifting airfoil are addressed. Various methods to accelerate convergence and improve computational efficiency while using Newton iteration are discussed. Results are presented for inviscid, transonic nonlifting and lifting airfoils and also for laminar viscous cases. 17 references
SEARCH FOR RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF GJ1214b
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Mooij, E. J. W.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brogi, M.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Hoekstra, H.; Otten, G. P. P. L.; Bekkers, D. H.; Haffert, S. Y.; Van Houdt, J. J.; De Kok, R. J.; Croll, B.
2013-01-01
We investigate the atmosphere of GJ1214b, a transiting super-Earth planet with a low mean density, by measuring its transit depth as a function of wavelength in the blue optical portion of the spectrum. It is thought that this planet is either a mini-Neptune, consisting of a rocky core with a thick, hydrogen-rich atmosphere, or a planet with a composition dominated by water. Most observations favor a water-dominated atmosphere with a small scale-height, however, some observations indicate that GJ1214b could have an extended atmosphere with a cloud layer muting the molecular features. In an atmosphere with a large scale-height, Rayleigh scattering at blue wavelengths is likely to cause a measurable increase in the apparent size of the planet toward the blue. We observed the transit of GJ1214b in the B band with the FOcal Reducing Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope and in the g band with both ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). We find a planet-to-star radius ratio in the B band of 0.1162 ± 0.0017, and in the g band 0.1180 ± 0.0009 and 0.1174 ± 0.0017 for the WHT and INT observations, respectively. These optical data do not show significant deviations from previous measurements at longer wavelengths. In fact, a flat transmission spectrum across all wavelengths best describes the combined observations. When atmospheric models are considered, a small scale-height water-dominated model fits the data best.
Searching for nova shells around cataclysmic variables
Sahman, D. I.; Dhillon, V. S.; Knigge, C.; Marsh, T. R.
2015-08-01
We present the results of a search for nova shells around 101 cataclysmic variables (CVs), using H α images taken with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS). Both telescopes are located on La Palma. We concentrated our WHT search on nova-like variables, whilst our IPHAS search covered all CVs in the IPHAS footprint. We found one shell out of the 24 nova-like variables we examined. The newly discovered shell is around V1315 Aql and has a radius of ˜2.5 arcmin, indicative of a nova eruption approximately 120 yr ago. This result is consistent with the idea that the high mass-transfer rate exhibited by nova-like variables is due to enhanced irradiation of the secondary by the hot white dwarf following a recent nova eruption. The implications of our observations for the lifetime of the nova-like variable phase are discussed. We also examined four asynchronous polars, but found no new shells around any of them, so we are unable to confirm that a recent nova eruption is the cause of the asynchronicity in the white dwarf spin. We find tentative evidence of a faint shell around the dwarf nova V1363 Cyg. In addition, we find evidence for a light echo around the nova V2275 Cyg, which erupted in 2001, indicative of an earlier nova eruption ˜300 yr ago, making V2275 Cyg a possible recurrent nova.
An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Sven
2011-10-15
The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}. These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a{sub 0} {approx} 1.2.10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}, where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)
An evaluation of nodalization/decay heat/ volatile fission product release models in ISAAC code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Yong Mann; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha
2003-03-01
An ISAAC computer code, which was developed for a Level-2 PSA during 1995, has developed mainly with fundamental models for CANDU-specific severe accident progression and also the accident-analyzing experiences are limited to Level-2 PSA purposes. Hence the system nodalization model, decay model and volatile fission product release model, which are known to affect fission product behavior directly or indirectly, are evaluated to both enhance understanding for basic models and accumulate accident-analyzing experiences. As a research strategy, sensitivity studies of model parameters and sensitivity coefficients are performed. According to the results from core nodalization sensitivity study, an original 3x3 nodalization (per loop) method which groups horizontal fuel channels into 12 representative channels, is evaluated to be sufficient for an optimal scheme because detailed nodalization methods have no large effect on fuel thermal-hydraulic behavior, total accident progression and fission product behavior. As ANSI/ANS standard model for decay heat prediction after reactor trip has no needs for further model evaluation due to both wide application on accident analysis codes and good comparison results with the ORIGEN code, ISAAC calculational results of decay heat are used as they are. In addition, fission product revaporization in a containment which is caused by the embedded decay heat, is demonstrated. The results for the volatile fission product release model are analyzed. In case of early release, the IDCOR model with an in-vessel Te release option shows the most conservative results and for the late release case, NUREG-0772 model shows the most conservative results. Considering both early and late release, the IDCOR model with an in-vessel Te bound option shows mitigated conservative results.
De las Leyes de Newton a la Guerra de Troya
Plastino, Ángel Ricardo
2014-01-01
La publicación en 1687 del libro Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica por Issac Newton marcó un importante hito en la historia del pensamiento humano. Sobre la base de tres sencillos principios de movimiento y de la ley de gravitación universal, y mediante razonamientos matemáticos, Newton logró explicar y unificar dentro de un esquema conceptual coherente una gran cantidad de fenómenos naturales: el movimiento de los planetas, las mareas, la forma de la Tierra, entre otros. Más aún, N...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murthy, M.S.S.
1995-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton is credited to have said that he stood on the shoulders of giants and hence could see farther beyond. That is the case at all times in the progress of science and technology. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen stood on the shoulders of giants and saw the invisible radiation that changed once and for all, the practice of medicine and surgery. 4 figs
Non-relativistic conformal symmetries and Newton-Cartan structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C; Horvathy, P A
2009-01-01
This paper provides us with a unifying classification of the conformal infinitesimal symmetries of non-relativistic Newton-Cartan spacetime. The Lie algebras of non-relativistic conformal transformations are introduced via the Galilei structure. They form a family of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras labeled by a rational 'dynamical exponent', z. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra of Henkel et al corresponds to z = 2. Viewed as projective Newton-Cartan symmetries, they yield, for timelike geodesics, the usual Schroedinger Lie algebra, for which z = 2. For lightlike geodesics, they yield, in turn, the Conformal Galilean Algebra (CGA) of Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski (alias 'alt' of Henkel), with z = 1. Physical systems realizing these symmetries include, e.g. classical systems of massive and massless non-relativistic particles, and also hydrodynamics, as well as Galilean electromagnetism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suci Furwati
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Students who have good conceptual acquisition will be able to represent the concept by using multi representation. This study aims to determine the improvement of students' understanding of the concept of Newton's Law material, and the quality of representation used in solving problems on Newton's Law material. The results showed that the concept acquisition of students increased from the average of 35.32 to 78.97 with an effect size of 2.66 (strong and N-gain of 0.68 (medium. The quality of each type of student representation also increased from level 1 and level 2 up to level 3. Key Words: concept aquisition, represetation quality, multi representation learning, Newton’s Law Abstrak: Siswa yang memiliki penguasaan konsep yang baik akan mampu merepresentasikan konsep dengan menggunakan multi representasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa SMP pada materi Hukum Newton, dan kualitas representasi yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah pada materi Hukum Newton. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep siswa meningkat dari rata-rata 35,32 menjadi 78,97 dengan effect size sebesar 2,66 (kuat dan N-gain sebesar 0,68 (sedang. Kualitas tiap jenis representasi siswa juga mengalami peningkatan dari level 1 dan level 2 naik menjadi level 3. Kata kunci: hukum Newton, kualitas representasi, pemahaman konsep, pembelajaran multi representasi
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm
The problem of Newton dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roman Roldan, R.
1998-01-01
The problem of the teaching of Newton's principles of dynamics at High School level is addressed. Some usages, reasoning and wording, are pointed as the responsible for the deficient results which are revealed in the background of the first year University students in Physics. A methodology based on simplifying the common vocabulary is proposed in order to provide to the students with a clearer view of the dynamic problems. Some typical examples are shown which illustrate the proposal. (Author)
Predikanten in ballingschap. De carrièrekansen van Jean en Isaac Claude in de Republiek
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David van der Linden
2012-01-01
Full Text Available After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, over 400 Huguenot ministers made their way to the Dutch Republic in search of a new pulpit. They stood a good chance, because the Huguenot exodus resulted in a corresponding demand for French preachers, while Dutch authorities offered financial support. Yet a surplus of ministers also meant fierce competition over positions. The careers of Jean and Isaac Claude show that on this highly competitive market Huguenot ministers succeeded in gaining a position in the Dutch Republic by virtue of their reputation, networks, and religious and political ideas.
Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwin Erwin
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.
EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwin Erwin
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.
The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besson, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
2011-03-15
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.
Thölken, Sophia; Schrabback, Tim; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Allen, Steven W.; Hoekstra, Henk; Applegate, Douglas; Buddendiek, Axel; Hicks, Amalia
2018-03-01
Context. Observations of relaxed, massive, and distant clusters can provide important tests of standard cosmological models, for example by using the gas mass fraction. To perform this test, the dynamical state of the cluster and its gas properties have to be investigated. X-ray analyses provide one of the best opportunities to access this information and to determine important properties such as temperature profiles, gas mass, and the total X-ray hydrostatic mass. For the last of these, weak gravitational lensing analyses are complementary independent probes that are essential in order to test whether X-ray masses could be biased. Aims: We study the very luminous, high redshift (z = 0.902) galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 using XMM-Newton data. We measure global cluster properties and study the temperature profile and the cooling time to investigate the dynamical status with respect to the presence of a cool core. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak lensing data to estimate its total mass and determine the gas mass fraction. Methods: We perform a spectral analysis using an XMM-Newton observation of 15 ks cleaned exposure time. As the treatment of the background is crucial, we use two different approaches to account for the background emission to verify our results. We account for point spread function effects and deproject our results to estimate the gas mass fraction of the cluster. We measure weak lensing galaxy shapes from mosaic HST imaging and select background galaxies photometrically in combination with imaging data from the William Herschel Telescope. Results: The X-ray luminosity of Cl J120958.9+495352 in the 0.1-2.4 keV band estimated from our XMM-Newton data is LX = (13.4+1.2-1.0) × 1044 erg/s and thus it is one of the most X-ray luminous clusters known at similarly high redshift. We find clear indications for the presence of a cool core from the temperature profile and the central cooling time, which is very rare at such high redshifts. Based
Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception
Low, David; Wilson, Kate
2017-01-01
On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…
DE NEWTON A EINSTEIN: A DEBATE EL DESTINO DEL UNIVERSO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ROGELIO PARREIRA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la historia del pensamiento científico en términos de las teorías de la inercia, el espacio absoluto, la relatividad y la gravitación; de cómo Newton utilizó el trabajo de los primeros investigadores en sus teorías, y Einstein las teorías de Newton en la suya, para tratar de explicar el destino del universo. Es la descripción de un proceso revolucionario del conocimiento científico, y sus aportes al desarrollo de muchos otros campos del saber
Designing stellarator coils by a modified Newton method using FOCUS
Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi
2018-06-01
To find the optimal coils for stellarators, nonlinear optimization algorithms are applied in existing coil design codes. However, none of these codes have used the information from the second-order derivatives. In this paper, we present a modified Newton method in the recently developed code FOCUS. The Hessian matrix is calculated with analytically derived equations. Its inverse is approximated by a modified Cholesky factorization and applied in the iterative scheme of a classical Newton method. Using this method, FOCUS is able to recover the W7-X modular coils starting from a simple initial guess. Results demonstrate significant advantages.
Quasi-Newton methods for the acceleration of multi-physics codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2017-08-01
Full Text Available .E. Dennis, J.J. More´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) [11] J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates for quasi- Newton methods. SIAM Rev. 21, pp. 443–459 (1979) [12] G. Dhondt, CalculiX CrunchiX USER...) [25] J.M. Martinez, M.C. Zambaldi, An Inverse Column-Updating Method for solving large-scale nonlinear systems of equations. Optim. Methods Softw. 1, pp. 129–140 (1992) [26] J.M. Martinez, On the convergence of the column-updating method. Comp. Appl...
Convergence and Applications of a Gossip-Based Gauss-Newton Algorithm
Li, Xiao; Scaglione, Anna
2013-11-01
The Gauss-Newton algorithm is a popular and efficient centralized method for solving non-linear least squares problems. In this paper, we propose a multi-agent distributed version of this algorithm, named Gossip-based Gauss-Newton (GGN) algorithm, which can be applied in general problems with non-convex objectives. Furthermore, we analyze and present sufficient conditions for its convergence and show numerically that the GGN algorithm achieves performance comparable to the centralized algorithm, with graceful degradation in case of network failures. More importantly, the GGN algorithm provides significant performance gains compared to other distributed first order methods.
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case
On deviations from Newton's law and the proposal for a 'Fifth Force'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.
1986-01-01
The results of geophysical and laboratory measurements of Newton's constant of gravitation, seem to disagree by one percent. Attempts to explain this have led to the revival of the proposal for a fifth interaction in Nature. The experimental results on measurements of G and tests of Newton's inverse square law are reviewed. The recent reanalysis of the Eoetvoes experiment and proposals for new experiments are discussed. (Author) [pt
Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law, version 1.1
Nicholson, Kenneth F.
2000-01-01
Given the dimensions(including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark-matter halos are required. The speed distributions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.
A Newton-type neural network learning algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, V.V.; Puzynin, I.V.; Purehvdorzh, B.
1993-01-01
First- and second-order learning methods for feed-forward multilayer networks are considered. A Newton-type algorithm is proposed and compared with the common back-propagation algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm provides better learning quality. Some recommendations for their usage are given. 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....
A Newton Algorithm for Multivariate Total Least Squares Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Leyang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In order to improve calculation efficiency of parameter estimation, an algorithm for multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Newton method is derived. The relationship between the solution of this algorithm and that of multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Lagrange multipliers method is analyzed. According to propagation of cofactor, 16 computational formulae of cofactor matrices of multivariate total least squares adjustment are also listed. The new algorithm could solve adjustment problems containing correlation between observation matrix and coefficient matrix. And it can also deal with their stochastic elements and deterministic elements with only one cofactor matrix. The results illustrate that the Newton algorithm for multivariate total least squares problems could be practiced and have higher convergence rate.
Running Newton constant, improved gravitational actions, and galaxy rotation curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, M.; Weyer, H.
2004-01-01
A renormalization group (RG) improvement of the Einstein-Hilbert action is performed which promotes Newton's constant and the cosmological constant to scalar functions on spacetime. They arise from solutions of an exact RG equation by means of a 'cutoff identification' which associates RG scales to the points of spacetime. The resulting modified Einstein equations for spherically symmetric, static spacetimes are derived and analyzed in detail. The modifications of the Newtonian limit due to the RG evolution are obtained for the general case. As an application, the viability of a scenario is investigated where strong quantum effects in the infrared cause Newton's constant to grow at large (astrophysical) distances. For two specific RG trajectories exact vacuum spacetimes modifying the Schwarzschild metric are obtained by means of a solution-generating Weyl transformation. Their possible relevance to the problem of the observed approximately flat galaxy rotation curves is discussed. It is found that a power law running of Newton's constant with a small exponent of the order 10 -6 would account for their non-Keplerian behavior without having to postulate the presence of any dark matter in the galactic halo
Camera-pose estimation via projective Newton optimization on the manifold.
Sarkis, Michel; Diepold, Klaus
2012-04-01
Determining the pose of a moving camera is an important task in computer vision. In this paper, we derive a projective Newton algorithm on the manifold to refine the pose estimate of a camera. The main idea is to benefit from the fact that the 3-D rigid motion is described by the special Euclidean group, which is a Riemannian manifold. The latter is equipped with a tangent space defined by the corresponding Lie algebra. This enables us to compute the optimization direction, i.e., the gradient and the Hessian, at each iteration of the projective Newton scheme on the tangent space of the manifold. Then, the motion is updated by projecting back the variables on the manifold itself. We also derive another version of the algorithm that employs homeomorphic parameterization to the special Euclidean group. We test the algorithm on several simulated and real image data sets. Compared with the standard Newton minimization scheme, we are now able to obtain the full numerical formula of the Hessian with a 60% decrease in computational complexity. Compared with Levenberg-Marquardt, the results obtained are more accurate while having a rather similar complexity.
MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules via Newton-Like Extremum Seeking Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramon Leyva
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The paper adapts the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control technique to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic panels. This technique uses the gradient and Hessian of the panel characteristic in order to approximate the operating point to its optimum. The paper describes in detail the gradient and Hessian estimations carried out by means of sinusoidal dithering signals. Furthermore, we compare the proposed technique with the common Extremum Seeking Control that only uses the gradient. The comparison is done by means of PSIM simulations and it shows the different transient behaviors and the faster response of the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control solution.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrödinger supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2015-01-01
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The “superconformal” theory that we start with is Schrödinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrödinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call “old minimal” and “new minimal” Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrödinger supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zojer, Thomas [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2015-11-25
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The “superconformal” theory that we start with is Schrödinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrödinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call “old minimal” and “new minimal” Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrodinger supergravity
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2015-01-01
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N - 2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The "superconformal" theory that we start with is Schrodinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrodinger superalgebra. We present
Torsional Newton-Cartan geometry and the Schrodinger algebra
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Rosseel, Jan
2015-01-01
We show that by gauging the Schrodinger algebra with critical exponent z and imposing suitable curvature constraints, that make diffeomorphisms equivalent to time and space translations, one obtains a geometric structure known as (twistless) torsional Newton-Cartan geometry (TTNC). This is a version
Emilie du Châtelet between Leibniz and Newton
Hagengruber, Ruth
2012-01-01
This book describes Emilie du Chatelet known as "Emilia Newtonmania", and her innovative and outstanding position within the controversy between Newton and Leibniz, one of the fundamental scientific discourses of her time.
3D CSEM data inversion using Newton and Halley class methods
Amaya, M.; Hansen, K. R.; Morten, J. P.
2016-05-01
For the first time in 3D controlled source electromagnetic data inversion, we explore the use of the Newton and the Halley optimization methods, which may show their potential when the cost function has a complex topology. The inversion is formulated as a constrained nonlinear least-squares problem which is solved by iterative optimization. These methods require the derivatives up to second order of the residuals with respect to model parameters. We show how Green's functions determine the high-order derivatives, and develop a diagrammatical representation of the residual derivatives. The Green's functions are efficiently calculated on-the-fly, making use of a finite-difference frequency-domain forward modelling code based on a multi-frontal sparse direct solver. This allow us to build the second-order derivatives of the residuals keeping the memory cost in the same order as in a Gauss-Newton (GN) scheme. Model updates are computed with a trust-region based conjugate-gradient solver which does not require the computation of a stabilizer. We present inversion results for a synthetic survey and compare the GN, Newton, and super-Halley optimization schemes, and consider two different approaches to set the initial trust-region radius. Our analysis shows that the Newton and super-Halley schemes, using the same regularization configuration, add significant information to the inversion so that the convergence is reached by different paths. In our simple resistivity model examples, the convergence speed of the Newton and the super-Halley schemes are either similar or slightly superior with respect to the convergence speed of the GN scheme, close to the minimum of the cost function. Due to the current noise levels and other measurement inaccuracies in geophysical investigations, this advantageous behaviour is at present of low consequence, but may, with the further improvement of geophysical data acquisition, be an argument for more accurate higher-order methods like those
Modified Block Newton method for the lambda modes problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
González-Pintor, S., E-mail: segonpin@isirym.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D., E-mail: dginestar@mat.upv.es [Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdú, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2013-06-15
Highlights: ► The Modal Method is based on expanding the solution in a set of dominant modes. ► Updating the set of dominant modes improve its performance. ► A Modified Block Newton Method, which use previous calculated modes, is proposed. ► The method exhibits a very good local convergence with few iterations. ► Good performance results are also obtained for heavy perturbations. -- Abstract: To study the behaviour of nuclear power reactors it is necessary to solve the time dependent neutron diffusion equation using either a rectangular mesh for PWR and BWR reactors or a hexagonal mesh for VVER reactors. This problem can be solved by means of a modal method, which uses a set of dominant modes to expand the neutron flux. For the transient calculations using the modal method with a moderate number of modes, these modes must be updated each time step to maintain the accuracy of the solution. The updating modes process is also interesting to study perturbed configurations of a reactor. A Modified Block Newton method is studied to update the modes. The performance of the Newton method has been tested for a steady state perturbation analysis of two 2D hexagonal reactors, a perturbed configuration of the IAEA PWR 3D reactor and two configurations associated with a boron dilution transient in a BWR reactor.
A smooth generalized Newton method for a class of non-smooth equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uko, L. U.
1995-10-01
This paper presents a Newton-type iterative scheme for finding the zero of the sum of a differentiable function and a multivalued maximal monotone function. Local and semi-local convergence results are proved for the Newton scheme, and an analogue of the Kantorovich theorem is proved for the associated modified scheme that uses only one Jacobian evaluation for the entire iteration. Applications in variational inequalities are discussed, and an illustrative numerical example is given. (author). 24 refs
FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF PSR J1836+5925
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.
2010-01-01
The discovery of the γ-ray pulsar PSR J1836+5925, powering the formerly unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1835+5918, was one of the early accomplishments of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Sitting 25 0 off the Galactic plane, PSR J1836+5925 is a 173 ms pulsar with a characteristic age of 1.8 million years, a spindown luminosity of 1.1 x 10 34 erg s -1 , and a large off-peak (OP) emission component, making it quite unusual among the known γ-ray pulsar population. We present an analysis of one year of LAT data, including an updated timing solution, detailed spectral results, and a long-term light curve showing no indication of variability. No evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen and the spectral characteristics of the OP emission indicate it is likely magnetospheric. Analysis of recent XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray counterpart yields a detailed characterization of its spectrum, which, like Geminga, is consistent with that of a neutron star showing evidence for both magnetospheric and thermal emission.
Heat kernel for Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia, 06123 (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, Università di Trento,c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Povo, TN, 38123 (Italy)
2016-07-11
We compute the leading part of the trace anomaly for a free non-relativistic scalar in 2+1 dimensions coupled to a background Newton-Cartan metric. The anomaly is proportional to 1/m, where m is the mass of the scalar. We comment on the implications of a conjectured a-theorem for non-relativistic theories with boost invariance.
Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach
McCarthy, Deborah
2005-01-01
To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…
CAIXA: a catalogue of AGN in the XMM-Newton archive. III. Excess variance analysis
Ponti, G.; Papadakis, I.; Bianchi, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Matt, G.; Uttley, P.; Bonilla, N.F.
2012-01-01
Context. We report on the results of the first XMM-Newton systematic "excess variance" study of all the radio quiet, X-ray un-obscured AGN. The entire sample consist of 161 sources observed by XMM-Newton for more than 10 ks in pointed observations, which is the largest sample used so far to study
Improved Quasi-Newton method via PSB update for solving systems of nonlinear equations
Mamat, Mustafa; Dauda, M. K.; Waziri, M. Y.; Ahmad, Fadhilah; Mohamad, Fatma Susilawati
2016-10-01
The Newton method has some shortcomings which includes computation of the Jacobian matrix which may be difficult or even impossible to compute and solving the Newton system in every iteration. Also, the common setback with some quasi-Newton methods is that they need to compute and store an n × n matrix at each iteration, this is computationally costly for large scale problems. To overcome such drawbacks, an improved Method for solving systems of nonlinear equations via PSB (Powell-Symmetric-Broyden) update is proposed. In the proposed method, the approximate Jacobian inverse Hk of PSB is updated and its efficiency has improved thereby require low memory storage, hence the main aim of this paper. The preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is practically efficient when applied on some benchmark problems.
Newton-Hooke spacetimes, Hpp-waves and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G W; Patricot, C E
2003-01-01
We show explicitly how the Newton-Hooke groups N ± 10 act as symmetries of the equations of motion of non-relativistic cosmological models with a cosmological constant. We give the action on the associated non-relativistic spacetimes M ± 4 and show how these may be obtained from a null reduction of five-dimensional homogeneous pp-wave Lorentzian spacetimes M ± 5 . This allows us to realize the Newton-Hooke groups and their Bargmann-type central extensions as subgroups of the isometry groups of M ± 5 . The extended Schroedinger-type conformal group is identified and its action on the equations of motion given. The non-relativistic conformal symmetries also have applications to time-dependent harmonic oscillators. Finally we comment on a possible application to Gao's generalization of the matrix model
Study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation of NURBS curve and simulation
Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng
2017-04-01
In order to solve the problems of Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS Curve, Such as interpolation time bigger, calculation more complicated, and NURBS curve step error are not easy changed and so on. This paper proposed a study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS curve and simulation. We can use Newton-Rapson iterative that calculate (xi, yi, zi). Simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished. The simulation results show that the algorithm is correct; it is consistent with a NURBS curve interpolation requirements.
Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes
Pugh, Philip
2007-01-01
The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...
The continuous, desingularized Newton method for meromorphic functions
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
For any (nonconstant) meromorphic function, we present a real analytic dynamical system, which may be interpreted as an infinitesimal version of Newton's method for finding its zeros. A fairly complete description of the local and global features of the phase portrait of such a system is obtained
Easy XMM-Newton Data Analysis with the Streamlined ABC Guide!
Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, Steven L.; Pence, William D.
2016-01-01
The US XMM-Newton GOF has streamlined the time-honored XMM-Newton ABC Guide, making it easier to find and use what users may need to analyze their data. It takes into account what type of data a user might have, if they want to reduce the data on their own machine or over the internet with Web Hera, and if they prefer to use the command window or a GUI. The GOF has also included an introduction to analyzing EPIC and RGS spectra, and PN Timing mode data. The guide is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes. Try it out at: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xmm/sl/intro.html
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mylonakis, Antonios G.; Varvayanni, M.; Catsaros, N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: •A Newton-based Jacobian-free Monte Carlo/thermal-hydraulic coupling approach is introduced. •OpenMC is coupled with COBRA-EN with a Newton-based approach. •The introduced coupling approach is tested in numerical experiments. •The performance of the new approach is compared with the traditional “serial” coupling approach. -- Abstract: In the field of nuclear reactor analysis, multi-physics calculations that account for the bonded nature of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic phenomena are of major importance for both reactor safety and design. So far in the context of Monte-Carlo neutronic analysis a kind of “serial” algorithm has been mainly used for coupling with thermal-hydraulics. The main motivation of this work is the interest for an algorithm that could maintain the distinct treatment of the involved fields within a tight coupling context that could be translated into higher convergence rates and more stable behaviour. This work investigates the possibility of replacing the usually used “serial” iteration with an approximate Newton algorithm. The selected algorithm, called Approximate Block Newton, is actually a version of the Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method suitably modified for coupling mono-disciplinary solvers. Within this Newton scheme the linearised system is solved with a Krylov solver in order to avoid the creation of the Jacobian matrix. A coupling algorithm between Monte-Carlo neutronics and thermal-hydraulics based on the above-mentioned methodology is developed and its performance is analysed. More specifically, OpenMC, a Monte-Carlo neutronics code and COBRA-EN, a thermal-hydraulics code for sub-channel and core analysis, are merged in a coupling scheme using the Approximate Block Newton method aiming to examine the performance of this scheme and compare with that of the “traditional” serial iterative scheme. First results show a clear improvement of the convergence especially in problems where significant
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A.
2015-01-01
Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartong, Jelle [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Obers, Niels A. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)
2015-07-29
Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1
Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng
2018-01-01
In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.
The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction
Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.
2015-05-01
The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.
Physics-based preconditioning and the Newton-Krylov method for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mousseau, V.A.; Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.
2000-01-01
An algorithm is presented for the solution of the time dependent reaction-diffusion systems which arise in non-equilibrium radiation diffusion applications. This system of nonlinear equations is solved by coupling three numerical methods, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov, operator splitting, and multigrid linear solvers. An inexact Newton's method is used to solve the system of nonlinear equations. Since building the Jacobian matrix for problems of interest can be challenging, the authors employ a Jacobian-free implementation of Newton's method, where the action of the Jacobian matrix on a vector is approximated by a first order Taylor series expansion. Preconditioned generalized minimal residual (PGMRES) is the Krylov method used to solve the linear systems that come from the iterations of Newton's method. The preconditioner in this solution method is constructed using a physics-based divide and conquer approach, often referred to as operator splitting. This solution procedure inverts the scalar elliptic systems that make up the preconditioner using simple multigrid methods. The preconditioner also addresses the strong coupling between equations with local 2 x 2 block solves. The intra-cell coupling is applied after the inter-cell coupling has already been addressed by the elliptic solves. Results are presented using this solution procedure that demonstrate its efficiency while incurring minimal memory requirements
Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India
Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan
2010-01-01
We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...
DYNAMICS OF THIN VISCOUS LAYERS
ROJAS, NICOLAS
2011-01-01
As Isaac Newton discovered in Mechanics, and published in his Principia Mathematica in 1687, inertial effects are essential to describe natural phenomena. In the case of Fluid Dynamics, inertia was included by Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes almost two centuries after in 1822 when calculating the mass and momentum conservation of au infinitesimal fluid elemeut. Although Navier-Stokes equations are very useful for describing any event of any liquid or gas and there...
The 1974 Type I supernova in NGC 4414
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patchett, B.; Wood, R.
1976-01-01
Spectra of Miss Burgat's supernova in NGC 4414 were taken with the Isaac Newton 2.5-m reflector during 1974 April and May. The spectra cover the period from just before maximum light to 20 days post-maximum, and show many features typical of Type I supernovae. In addition secondary features in the spectrum indicate the presence of thin shell or filamentary structure. A photographic light curve and direct plate are presented. (author)
Demonstrating Kinematics and Newton's Laws in a Jump
Kamela, Martin
2007-01-01
When students begin the study of Newton's laws they are generally comfortable with static equilibrium type problems, but dynamic examples where forces are not constant are more challenging. The class exercise presented here helps students to develop an intuitive grasp of both the position-velocity-acceleration relation and the force-acceleration…
Gamow on Newton: Another Look at Centripetal Acceleration
Corrao, Christian
2012-01-01
Presented here is an adaptation of George Gamow's derivation of the centripetal acceleration formula as it applies to Earth's orbiting Moon. The derivation appears in Gamows short but engaging book "Gravity", first published in 1962, and is essentially a distillation of Newton's work. While "TPT" contributors have offered several insightful…
Solé, Dirceu; Mallol, Javier; Camelo-Nunes, Inês C; Wandalsen, Gustavo F
2010-02-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of rhinitis-related symptoms among children living in different parts of Latin America (LA) considering all centers involved in ISAAC Phase Three (Ph3). 93,851 children (6-7 yr-old) from 35 centers in 14 LA countries and 165,917 adolescents (13-14 yr-old) from 56 centers in 17 LA countries were enrolled. The mean prevalence rate of current rhinoconjunctivitis was 12.7% and ranged from 5.5% in Rosario City (Argentina) to 21.2% in Caracas (Venezuela) for the schoolchildren. The mean prevalence rate of current rhinoconjunctivitis was 18.5% and ranged from 7.1% in Cuernavaca (México) to 45.1% in Asunción (Paraguay) for the adolescents. These indexes were among the higher observed during ISAAC Ph3. In general the prevalence of rhinitis-related symptoms was higher among the Spanish speaking centers. Environmental risk factors must be evaluated in order to explain the differences observed even in centers from the same country. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Self-adaptive Newton-based iteration strategy for the LES of turbulent multi-scale flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daude, F.; Mary, I.; Comte, P.
2014-01-01
An improvement of the efficiency of implicit schemes based on Newton-like methods for the simulation of turbulent flows by compressible LES or DNS is proposed. It hinges on a zonal Self-Adaptive Newton method (hereafter denoted SAN), capable of taking advantage of Newton convergence rate heterogeneities in multi-scale flow configurations due to a strong spatial variation of the mesh resolution, such as transitional or turbulent flows controlled by small actuators or passive devices. Thanks to a predictor of the local Newton convergence rate, SAN provides computational savings by allocating resources in regions where they are most needed. The consistency with explicit time integration and the efficiency of the method are checked in three test cases: - The standard test-case of 2-D linear advection of a vortex, on three different two-block grids. - Transition to 3-D turbulence on the lee-side of an airfoil at high angle of attack, which features a challenging laminar separation bubble with a turbulent reattachment. - A passively-controlled turbulent transonic cavity flow, for which the CPU time is reduced by a factor of 10 with respect to the baseline algorithm, illustrates the interest of the proposed algorithm. (authors)
On topological modifications of Newton's law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K.
2012-01-01
Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R 2 × S 1 topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S 1 radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r 2 to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level
Special relativity, electrodynamics, and general relativity from Newton to Einstein
Kogut, John B
2018-01-01
Special Relativity, Electrodynamics and General Relativity: From Newton to Einstein, Second Edition, is intended to teach (astro)physics, astronomy, and cosmology students how to think about special and general relativity in a fundamental, but accessible, way. Designed to render any reader a "master of relativity," everything on the subject is comprehensible and derivable from first principles. The book emphasizes problem solving, contains abundant problem sets, and is conveniently organized to meet the needs of both student and instructor. Fully revised, updated and expanded second edition Includes new chapters on magnetism as a consequence of relativity and electromagnetism Contains many improved and more engaging figures Uses less algebra resulting in more efficient derivations Enlarged discussion of dynamics and the relativistic version of Newton's second law
Newton's Law: Not so Simple after All
Robertson, William C.; Gallagher, Jeremiah; Miller, William
2004-01-01
One of the most basic concepts related to force and motion is Newton's first law, which essentially states, "An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion in a straight line tends to remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force." Judging by the time and space…
Laurent Guiraud
2000-01-01
A CD with the wishes for the 21st century from thousands of readers of the science magazine "Newton", was buried at the Atlas construction site on 16.03.2000 (handling the CD: Giorgio Riviecco, Editor of "Newton")
Newton's 'Principia Mathematica Philosophia' and Planck's elementary constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rompe, R.; Treder, H.J.
1987-01-01
Together with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and 'exact' sciences of all directions. The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voß Rebekka
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This special section examines Isaac Wetzlar‘s Love Letter, a Yiddish proposal for the improvement of Jewish society, written in 1748/49 in Northern Germany. The articles concentrate on the links between Libes briv and the contours of German Pietism in order to initiate exploration of the complex relationship between Central European Judaism and eighteenth-century Pietism. This largely unrecognized arena of Jewish-Christian encounter is presented as a significant factor in a century that promoted modernity
Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids
Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio
2016-05-01
We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
Gauld, Colin F.
2009-01-01
Books I and III of Newton's "Principia" develop Newton's dynamical theory and show how it explains a number of celestial phenomena. Book II has received little attention from historians or educators because it does not play a major role in Newton's argument. However, it is in Book II that we see most clearly Newton both as a theoretician and an…
Decentralized Quasi-Newton Methods
Eisen, Mark; Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro
2017-05-01
We introduce the decentralized Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (D-BFGS) method as a variation of the BFGS quasi-Newton method for solving decentralized optimization problems. The D-BFGS method is of interest in problems that are not well conditioned, making first order decentralized methods ineffective, and in which second order information is not readily available, making second order decentralized methods impossible. D-BFGS is a fully distributed algorithm in which nodes approximate curvature information of themselves and their neighbors through the satisfaction of a secant condition. We additionally provide a formulation of the algorithm in asynchronous settings. Convergence of D-BFGS is established formally in both the synchronous and asynchronous settings and strong performance advantages relative to first order methods are shown numerically.
Female body as a fetish in Helmut Newton's photography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pantović Katarina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper illuminates some of the principles by which Helmut Newton's photographic poetics functions. It is examined from the perspectives of recent art history, feminist critique and psychoanalytic theory. His photographs came to a standstill not far from pornography, yet they stayed within the jet-set community, reflecting at the same time the sexual revolution in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century and the rising of the fashion and film industries and other Western emancipatory movements. Newton's obscure photojournalism provoked conventions, presenting the female body as a fetish and object of erotic pleasure, affirming, nonetheless, a new feminine self-consciousness and freedom. Thus, he constituted modern eroticism by connecting fetishism, voyeurism and sadomasochism, creating a provocative hybrid photography that embraced fashion, eroticism and portrait, hence documenting, in highly stylistic manner, the decadency and eccentricity of the lifestyle of the rich.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.goedecker@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Alireza Ghasemi, S. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, IR-Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roy, Shantanu [Computational and Systems Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
On Newton's third law and its symmetry-breaking effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, Mario J
2011-01-01
The law of action-reaction, considered by Ernst Mach as the cornerstone of physics, is thoroughly used to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum. However, the conflict between momentum conservation law and Newton's third law, on experimental and theoretical grounds, calls for more attention. We give a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law and, in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework for clarifying the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. Then, in the framework of statistical mechanics, using a maximizing entropy procedure, we obtain an expression for the general linear momentum of a body particle. The new approach presented here shows that Newton's third law is not verified in systems out of equilibrium due to an additional entropic gradient term present in the particle's momentum.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu
2015-01-01
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods
Newton, Isaac
1995-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) (1687) is considered to be among the finest scientific works ever published. His grand unifying idea of gravitation, with effects extending throughout the solar system, explains by one principle such diverse phenomena as the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and the irregularities of the moon's motion. Newton's brilliant and revolutionary contributions to science explained the workings of a large part of inanimate nature mathematically and suggested that the remainder might be understood in a similar fashion. By taking known facts, forming a theory that explained them in mathematical terms, deducing consequences from the theory, and comparing the results with observed and experimental facts, Newton united, for the first time, the explication of physical phenomena with the means of prediction. By beginning with the physical axioms of the laws of motion and gravitation, he converted physics from a mere science of explanation into a genera...
The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances
Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.
2016-07-01
Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.
Newton's second law in a non-commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Juan M.; Santiago, J.A.; Vergara, J. David
2003-01-01
In this Letter we show that corrections to Newton's second law appear if we assume a symplectic structure consistent with the commutation rules of the non-commutative quantum mechanics. For central field we find that the correction term breaks the rotational symmetry. For the Kepler problem, this term is similar to a Coriolis force
When Newton's cooling law doesn't hold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarnow, E.
1994-01-01
What is the fastest way to cool something? If the object is macroscopic it is to lower the surrounding temperature as much as possible and let Newton's cooling law take effect. If we enter the microscopic world where quantum mechanics rules, this procedure may no longer be the best. This is shown in a simple example where we calculate the optimum cooling rate for an asymmetric two-state system
Newton's laws through a science adventure
Šuštar, Sara
2013-01-01
The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...
Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Nustar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.
2014-01-01
MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using...... Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above...
Listening in the Silences for Fred Newton Scott
Mastrangelo, Lisa
2009-01-01
As part of her recent sabbatical, the author proposed going to the University of Michigan Bentley Archives to do research on Fred Newton Scott, founder and chair of the Department of Rhetoric and teacher from 1889 to 1926 at the University of Michigan. Scott ran the only graduate program in rhetoric and composition in the country between those…
Dramatic (and Simple!) Demonstration of Newton's Third Law
Feldman, Gerald
2011-01-01
An operational understanding of Newton's third law is often elusive for students. Typical examples of this concept are given for contact forces that are closer to the students' everyday experience. While this is a good thing in general, the reaction force can sometimes be taken for granted, and the students can miss the opportunity to really think…
The flight of Newton's cannonball
Pesnell, W. Dean
2018-05-01
Newton's Cannon is a thought experiment used to motivate orbital motion. Cannonballs were fired from a high mountain at increasing muzzle velocity until they orbit the Earth. We will use the trajectories of these cannonballs to describe the shape of orbital tunnels that allow a cannonball fired from a high mountain to pass through the Earth. A sphere of constant density is used as the model of the Earth to take advantage of the analytic solutions for the interior trajectories that exist for that model. For the example shown, the cannonball trajectories that pass through the Earth intersect near the antipodal point of the cannon.
Earth Science Data Usages & Diverse Applications based on “User Tickets” at GES DISC
Shie, Chung-Lin; Greene, Mary; Acker, James; Lei, Guang-Dih; Al-Jazrawi, Atheer F.; Meyer, David J.
2018-01-01
Motivation: Arguably the most renowned anecdote in the history of science could be: Young Isaac Newton was hit on his head by a falling apple (the Data!) when he sat in his garden, which inspired Newton’s brilliant insight and his eventual understanding and demonstrating of gravitational force (the Science!). This well-known coupling of “Data & Science” was the trigger for this “data analysis” study. Background: This “Data & Science” analysis was mainly based on avai...
Atomic Pioneers Book 1 From Ancient Greece to the 19th Century
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn
1970-01-01
This brief booklet gives a snapshot view of 25 men, each of whom contributed an important building block to the foundations of atomic science. The 25 men are: Anaxagoras; Archimedes; Avogadro, Amedeo; Berthollet, Claude Louis; Berzelius, Jons Jakob; Boyle, Robert; Bruno, Giordano; Copernicus; Dalton, John; Davy, Humphry; Democritus; Descartes, Rene; Empedocles; Fpicurus; Franklin, Benjamin; Galilei, Galileo; Gassendi, Pierre; Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis; Lavoisier, Antoine; Leucippus; Lucretius; Newton, Isaac; Proust, Joseph Louis; Pythagoras; and Wollaston, William Hyde.
Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.
Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others
1988-01-01
Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)
Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in Gravitational Fields of Static Homogeneous Spherical Massive Bodies. ... is perfectly in agreement with the physical fact that gravitational scalar potential is negative and increase in recession leads to decrease in kinetic energy and hence decrease in frequency.
The large binocular telescope.
Hill, John M
2010-06-01
The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.
How Pressure Became a Scalar, Not a Vector
Chalmers, Alan
2018-04-01
The gradual emergence of a science of hydrostatics during the course of the seventeenth century is testament to the fact that a technical concept of pressure that was up to the task was far from obvious. The first published version of a theory of hydrostatics containing the essentials of the modern theory appeared in book 2 of Isaac Newton's Principia. Newton derived the propositions of hydrostatics from a definition of a fluid as a medium unable to withstand a distorting force. Newton's reasoning required that pressure be understood as a force per unit area acting on either side of imaginary planes within the body of a fluid. For a fluid in equilibrium, the forces at some location within a fluid are independent of the orientation of such planes. As Newton came to realize, within the body of a liquid, pressure acts equally in all directions so that there is no resultant pressing in any direction. Pressure has an intensity but not a direction. In modern terms, it is a scalar, not a vector. Although earlier scholars such as Simon Stevin, Blaise Pascal, and Robert Boyle helped set the scene for Newton's innovations, they were unable to transcend the common sense of pressure as a directed force acting on the solid surfaces bounding a fluid.
The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST
Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L
2004-01-01
The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...
Dark Matter Search Using XMM-Newton Observations of Willman 1
Lowenstein, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander
2012-01-01
We report the results of a search for an emission line from radiatively decaying dark matter in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Willman 1 based on analysis of spectra extracted from XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory data. The observation follows up our analysis of Chandra data of Willman 1that resulted in line flux upper limits over the Chandra bandpass and evidence of a 2.5 keY feature at a significance below the 99% confidence threshold used to define the limits. The higher effective area of the XMM-Newton detectors, combined with application of recently developing methods for extended-source analysis, allow us to derive improved constraints on the combination of mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We do not confirm the Chandra evidence for a 2.5 keV emission line.
Efficient management of high level XMM-Newton science data products
Zolotukhin, Ivan
2015-12-01
Like it is the case for many large projects, XMM-Newton data have been used by the community to produce many valuable higher level data products. However, even after 15 years of the successful mission operation, the potential of these data is not yet fully uncovered, mostly due to the logistical and data management issues. We present a web application, http://xmm-catalog.irap.omp.eu, to highlight an idea that existing public high level data collections generate significant added research value when organized and exposed properly. Several application features such as access to the all-time XMM-Newton photon database and online fitting of extracted sources spectra were never available before. In this talk we share best practices we worked out during the development of this website and discuss their potential use for other large projects generating astrophysical data.
Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya
2016-01-01
Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-05-28
Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
The Jewish modernist: Isaac Grünewald in Bertel Hintze’s art history
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ludwig Qvarnström
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In the Finland-Swedish art historian and chef curator Bertel Hintze’s art historical handbook Modern konst: 1900-talet (Modern Art: Twentieth century, published in 1930, he introduce the Swedish artist Isaac Grünewald with a racial and anti-Semitic rhetoric. In this article Hintze’s rhetoric is analyzed in relation to a widespread everyday anti-Semitism and the language used in earlier art critical discussion on Grünewald’s art. The article concludes that earlier anti-Semitic expressions, visible in the negative and nationalistically oriented criticism, have been incorporated into Hintze’s ambivalent, but basically positive, characterization of Grünewald. In doing so Hintze translocate the anti-Semitic rhetoric from a negative and disparaging criticism into ‘normal’ art history, an example of how the voice of anti-Semitism have been built into the language and structure of Swedish art historiography, even where anti-Semitism was not the object.
A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission
Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.
2010-01-01
Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.
Q-Step methods for Newton-Jacobi operator equation | Uwasmusi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper considers the Newton-Jacobi operator equation for the solution of nonlinear systems of equations. Special attention is paid to the computational part of this method with particular reference to the q-step methods. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 237-241 ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dournaux, J.L., E-mail: jean-laurent.dournaux@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); De Franco, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Laporte, P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); White, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Greenshaw, T. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Sol, H. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Abchiche, A. [CNRS, Division technique DT-INSU, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92190 Meudon (France); Allan, D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Amans, J.P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Armstrong, T.P. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Balzer, A.; Berge, D. [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); and others
2017-02-11
The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) consortium aims to build the next-generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory. The array will feature different sizes of telescopes allowing it to cover a wide gamma-ray energy band from about 20 GeV to above 100 TeV. The highest energies, above 5 TeV, will be covered by a large number of Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) with a field-of-view of around 9°. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT), based on Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror optics, is one of the three proposed SST designs. The GCT is described in this contribution and the first images of Cherenkov showers obtained using the telescope and its camera are presented. These were obtained in November 2015 in Meudon, France.
Fast and exact Newton and Bidirectional fitting of Active Appearance Models.
Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Yorgos; Pantic, Maja
2016-12-21
Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative models of shape and appearance that have proven very attractive for their ability to handle wide changes in illumination, pose and occlusion when trained in the wild, while not requiring large training dataset like regression-based or deep learning methods. The problem of fitting an AAM is usually formulated as a non-linear least squares one and the main way of solving it is a standard Gauss-Newton algorithm. In this paper we extend Active Appearance Models in two ways: we first extend the Gauss-Newton framework by formulating a bidirectional fitting method that deforms both the image and the template to fit a new instance. We then formulate a second order method by deriving an efficient Newton method for AAMs fitting. We derive both methods in a unified framework for two types of Active Appearance Models, holistic and part-based, and additionally show how to exploit the structure in the problem to derive fast yet exact solutions. We perform a thorough evaluation of all algorithms on three challenging and recently annotated inthe- wild datasets, and investigate fitting accuracy, convergence properties and the influence of noise in the initialisation. We compare our proposed methods to other algorithms and show that they yield state-of-the-art results, out-performing other methods while having superior convergence properties.
The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishaleck, T.; White, R.B.
2008-01-01
The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.
Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light
Whitaker, Stephen
2009-01-01
Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…
The role of competing knowledge structures in undermining learning: Newton's second and third laws
Low, David J.; Wilson, Kate F.
2017-01-01
We investigate the development of student understanding of Newton's laws using a pre-instruction test (the Force Concept Inventory), followed by a series of post-instruction tests and interviews. While some students' somewhat naive, pre-existing models of Newton's third law are largely eliminated following a semester of teaching, we find that a particular inconsistent model is highly resilient to, and may even be strengthened by, instruction. If test items contain words that cue students to think of Newton's second law, then students are more likely to apply a "net force" approach to solving problems, even if it is inappropriate to do so. Additional instruction, reinforcing physical concepts in multiple settings and from multiple sources, appears to help students develop a more connected and consistent level of understanding. We recommend explicitly encouraging students to check their work for consistency with physical principles, along with the standard checks for dimensionality and order of magnitude, to encourage reflective and rigorous problem solving.
Pires, A. M.; Motch, C.; Turolla, R.; Schwope, A.; Pilia, M.; Treves, A.; Popov, S. B.; Janot-Pacheco, E.
2012-08-01
While fewer in number than the dominant rotation-powered radio pulsar population, peculiar classes of isolated neutron stars (INSs) - which include magnetars, the ROSAT-discovered "Magnificent Seven" (M7), rotating radio transients (RRATs), and central compact objects in supernova remnants (CCOs) - represent a key element in understanding the neutron star phenomenology. We report the results of an observational campaign to study the properties of the source 2XMM J104608.7-594306, a newly discovered thermally emitting INS. The evolutionary state of the neutron star is investigated by means of deep dedicated observations obtained with the XMM-Newton Observatory, the ESO Very Large Telescope, as well as publicly available γ-ray data from the Fermi Space Telescope and the AGILE Mission. The observations confirm previous expectations and reveal a unique type of object. The source, which is likely within the Carina Nebula (NH = 2.6 × 1021 cm-2), has a spectrum that is both thermal and soft, with kT∞ = 135 eV. Non-thermal (magnetospheric) emission is not detected down to 1% (3σ, 0.1-12 keV) of the source luminosity. Significant deviations (absorption features) from a simple blackbody model are identified in the spectrum of the source around energies 0.6 keV and 1.35 keV. While the former deviation is likely related to a local oxygen overabundance in the Carina Nebula, the latter can only be accounted for by an additional spectral component, which is modelled as a Gaussian line in absorption with EW = 91 eV and σ = 0.14 keV (1σ). Furthermore, the optical counterpart is fainter than mV = 27 (2σ) and no γ-ray emission is significantly detected by either the Fermi or AGILE missions. Very interestingly, while these characteristics are remarkably similar to those of the M7 or the only RRAT so far detected in X-rays, which all have spin periods of a few seconds, we found intriguing evidence of very rapid rotation, P = 18.6 ms, at the 4σ confidence level. We interpret
Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de newton
Barragán, Daniel
2010-01-01
Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conex...
HIGH-RESOLUTION XMM-NEWTON SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW CLUSTER A3112
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cottam, Jean; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Shafer, Richard, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2012-03-01
We examine high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations to determine the physical characteristics of the gas in the cool core and outskirts of the nearby rich cluster A3112. The XMM-Newton Extended Source Analysis Software data reduction and background modeling methods were used to analyze the XMM-Newton EPIC data. From the EPIC data, we find that the iron and silicon abundance gradients show significant increase toward the center of the cluster while the oxygen abundance profile is centrally peaked but has a shallower distribution than that of iron. The X-ray mass modeling is based on the temperature and deprojected density distributions of the intracluster medium determined from EPIC observations. The total mass of A3112 obeys the M-T scaling relations found using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of massive clusters at r{sub 500}. The gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.149{sup +0.036}{sub -0.032} at r{sub 500} is consistent with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results. The comparisons of line fluxes and flux limits on the Fe XVII and Fe XVIII lines obtained from high-resolution RGS spectra indicate that there is no spectral evidence for cooler gas associated with the cluster with temperature below 1.0 keV in the central <38'' ({approx}52 kpc) region of A3112. High-resolution RGS spectra also yield an upper limit to the turbulent motions in the compact core of A3112 (206 km s{sup -1}). We find that the contribution of turbulence to total energy is less than 6%. This upper limit is consistent with the energy contribution measured in recent high-resolution simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters.
Should Research Always be OPEN
Taylor, Mike
2014-01-01
"If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants", said Isaac Newton. Since the earliest days of science, progress has always been achieved by the free exchange and re-use of ideas. Understanding this, scientists have always leaned in the direction of openness. Science outside of trade secrets and state secrets has a natural tendency to be open. Until recently, the principle barrier to sharing science has been the logistic difficulty of printing and distributing copies...
On the revolution of heavenly spheres
Copernicus, Nicolaus
1995-01-01
The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.
A direct Newton-Raphson economic dispatch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, C.E.; Chen, S.T.; Huang, C.L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a new method to solve the real-time economic dispatch problem using an alternative Jacobian matrix considering system constraints. The transition loss is approximately expressed in terms of generating powers and the generalized generation shift distribution factor. Based on this expression, a set of simultaneous equations of Jacobian matrix is formulated and solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The proposed method eliminates the penalty factor calculation, and solves the economic dispatch directly. The proposed method obtains very fast solution speed and maintains good accuracy from test examples. It is good approach to solve the economic dispatch problem
Gauld, Colin F.
2010-01-01
Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…
An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory
Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle
2014-07-01
SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.
Quantum Mechanics from Newton's Second Law and the Canonical Commutation Relation [X,P]=i
Palenik, Mark C.
2014-01-01
Despite the fact that it has been known since the time of Heisenberg that quantum operators obey a quantum version of Newton's laws, students are often told that derivations of quantum mechanics must necessarily follow from the Hamiltonian or Lagrangian formulations of mechanics. Here, we first derive the existing Heisenberg equations of motion from Newton's laws and the uncertainty principle using only the equations $F=\\frac{dP}{dt}$, $P=m\\frac{dV}{dt}$, and $\\left[X,P\\right]=i$. Then, a new...