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Sample records for irt interval elapsed

  1. Heat Generation on Implant Surface During Abutment Preparation at Different Elapsed Time Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Keraidis, Abdullah; Aleisa, Khalil; Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Al-Tahawi, Hamdi; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Lynch, Edward; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate heat generation at the implant surface caused by abutment preparation using a diamond bur in a high-speed dental turbine in vitro at 2 different water-coolant temperatures. Thirty-two titanium-alloy abutments were connected to a titanium-alloy implant embedded in an acrylic resin placed within a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37°C. The specimens were equally distributed into 2 groups (16 each). Group 1: the temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C; and group 2: the temperature was maintained at 32 ± 1°C. Each abutment was prepared in the axial plane for 1 minute and in the occlusal plane for 1 minute. The temperature of the heat generated from abutment preparation was recorded and measured at 3 distinct time intervals. Water-coolant temperature (20°C vs 32°C) had a statistically significant effect on the implant's temperature change during preparation of the abutment (P water-coolant temperature of 20 ± 1°C during preparation of the implant abutment decreased the temperature recorded at the implant surface to 34.46°C, whereas the coolant temperature of 32 ± 1°C increased the implant surface temperature to 40.94°C.

  2. Forty-year follow up of bilateral breast cancer treated with mastectomy: the prognostic value of elapsed interval between the two breast primaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Ibrahim; Ferguson, Donald; Powers, Claire; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Hellman, Samuel; Heimann, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients who developed bilateral breast cancer(synchronous or metachronous), to assess their long-term outcome and compare it to patients with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 2136 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated by mastectomy between 1927 and 1987, we analyzed 115 patients who had bilateral breast cancer (BBC). Synchronous BBC was found in 10 patients while 105 had metachronous BBC at median interval between the two breast primaries of 54 months (range : 0-391 months). The age range at the time of first diagnosis was (29-77 year, median of 51). The majority of patients underwent radical mastectomy (used in 66% of the first cancer and 59% of the second cancer) followed by modified and extended radical mastectomy. Adjuvant therapy after the first mastectomy was as follows: 30% radiotherapy (RT), 23% endocrine therapy and 10% had chemotherapy (CT). Adjuvant therapy for the second primary was as follows: 9% RT, 12% endocrine and 6% had CT. The median follow-up was 160 months for all patients, range: 1-653 months (233 months, range:27-446 for surviving patients). The median follow-up for surviving patients after developing the second cancer was 119 months (range : 1-380). The disease-specific survival (DSS) was calculated from the diagnosis date of the first breast cancer to date of distant metastasis or death of breast cancer. Comparing BBC to UBC is confounded by the fact that BBC represents a selected subgroup that have already survived long enough without recurrence to develop contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The analysis below does not compensate for this, however further analysis will be presented. RESULTS: In comparison with the second breast cancer, the first cancer had a larger tumor size (median of 3 cm vs 2 cm, p=0.001) and higher percentage of positive axillary lymph nodes (55.8% vs 45.1%, p=0.001). When we compared the BBC patients

  3. IRT i pomiar edukacyjny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kondratek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pod nazwą „item response theory” kryje się rodzina narzędzi statystycznych wykorzystywanych do modelowania odpowiedzi na rozwiązywane zadania oraz umiejętności uczniów. Modele IRT czynią to poprzez wprowadzenie parametryzacji, która określa: właściwości zadań oraz rozkład poziomu umiejętności uczniów. W artykule przedstawiony zostanie ogólny opis jednowymiarowego modelu IRT, przybliżone zostaną najczęściej stosowane modele dla zadań ocenianych dwupunktowo (2PLM, 3PLM, 1PLM oraz wielopunktowo (GPCM, a także zarysowana zostanie problematyka estymacji poziomu umiejętności. Artykuł ma za zadanie wprowadzić czytelnika w techniczne szczegóły związane z modelowaniem IRT oraz przedstawić wybrane zastosowania praktyczne w pomiarze edukacyjnym. Wśród zastosowań praktycznych omówiono wykorzystanie IRT w analizie skomplikowanych schematów badawczych, zrównywaniu/łączeniu wyników testowych, adaptatywnym testowaniu oraz przy tworzeniu map zadań.

  4. equateIRT: An R Package for IRT Test Equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Battauz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The R package equateIRT implements item response theory (IRT methods for equating different forms composed of dichotomous items. In particular, the IRT models included are the three-parameter logistic model, the two-parameter logistic model, the one-parameter logistic model and the Rasch model. Forms can be equated when they present common items (direct equating or when they can be linked through a chain of forms that present common items in pairs (indirect or chain equating. When two forms can be equated through different paths, a single conversion can be obtained by averaging the equating coefficients. The package calculates direct and chain equating coefficients. The averaging of direct and chain coefficients that link the same two forms is performed through the bisector method. Furthermore, the package provides analytic standard errors of direct, chain and average equating coefficients.

  5. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-7 - Elapsed time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elapsed time. 1.410(a)-7 Section 1.410(a)-7...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-7 Elapsed time. (a) In general—(1) Introduction to elapsed time method of crediting service. (i) 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 sets forth the...

  6. Elapsed Time: Why Is It So Difficult to Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Russell, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Piaget's theory of logico-mathematical knowledge, 126 students in grades 2-5 were asked 6 questions about elapsed time. The main reason found for difficulty with elapsed time is children's inability to coordinate hierarchical units (hours and minutes). The educational implications drawn are that students must be encouraged to think about…

  7. IRT-based test construction

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Theunissen, T.J.J.M.; Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen; Kelderman, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Four discussions of test construction based on item response theory (IRT) are presented. The first discussion, "Test Design as Model Building in Mathematical Programming" (T.J.J.M. Theunissen), presents test design as a decision process under certainty. A natural way of modeling this process leads to mathematical programming. General models of test construction are discussed, with information about algorithms and heuristics; ideas about the analysis and refinement of test constraints are also...

  8. Study of the ultrasonic technique of elapsed time of notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.C.F.L.; Rebello, J.M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the ultrasonic technique of elapsed time in the dimensionment of notch inclined of 15 and 30 degree and of depth of 5 and 10 mm using the superficial Rayleigh wave and the mode conversion, with a headstock transmitter and other receiver. The dimensionment of notch and of the binding of the piece were made with headstock in different positions. Between the various results obtained can be mentioned the increase of the dimensionment, by two techniques, with the increase of the angle and/or of the depth. (V.R.B.)

  9. An elapsed time-temperature monitor for blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G E; Cloud, S; Myhre, B A

    1977-01-01

    Blood should not be allowed to exceed 10 C while being stored or transported. However, one cannot test the internal temperature of a unit of blood without contaminating it. Most blood banks have established an arbitrary time limit beyond which a blood unit cannot be kept out of the refrigerator. This method is ineffective if blood is stored in a satellite refrigerator, since the blood may be moved in and out of the refrigerator and the blood bank personnel will be unaware of it. An elapsed time indicator is described which employs a small condenser (E-Cell-Plessey Electronics) charged with a known amount of electricity. If the device is removed from the refrigerator, it begins to discharge at a known rate. The amount of time subsequently can be determined by the loss of charge. The prototype of this instrument has been found to be quite accurate and small (2 inches X 2 inches X 1 inch). It would be rather inexpensive if made in considerable numbers.

  10. Nuclear Research Center IRT reactor dynamics calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman Fernandez, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The main features of the code DIRT, for dynamical calculations are described in the paper. With the results obtained by the program, an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the Research Reactor IRT of the Nuclear Research Center (CIN) is performed. Different transitories were considered such as variation of the system reactivity, coolant inlet temperature variation and also variations of the coolant velocity through the reactor core. 3 refs

  11. Influence of bleaching regimen and time elapsed on microtensile bond strength of resin composite to enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Toksoy Topcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of time elapsed since bleaching and different bleaching regimens on the microtensile bond strength of resin composite to enamel. Methodology: Forty flattened buccal enamel surfaces were divided into four groups: An unbleached (control group and three bleaching groups. Control group specimens were not subjected to a bleaching regimen (Group 1, while those in the bleaching groups were bleached as follows: opalescence 10% (Group 2, whiteness perfect 16% (Group 3, and whiteness hydrogen peroxide 35% (Group 4. Thereafter, the bleached specimens were divided into three subgroups (n = 4 teeth each for restoration according to predetermined posttreatment time intervals (immediately, 1 week, and 2 weeks. Bonded specimens were then sectioned and subjected to μTBS testing. The data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests at α = 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in the μTBS of the resin composite to enamel in groups that were bonded immediately after bleaching and in the control group (P 0.05. Conclusions: Adhesive restorative procedures could not be performed immediately or after 1 week irrespective of the type or concentration of bleaching system used. Composite restorations on bleached enamel surfaces should be performed after an interval of at least 2 weeks.

  12. IRT - Sofia conversion feasibility study experience 2002-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S.I.; Apostolov, T.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of Bulgarian Academy of Science, Tsarigradsko 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-01

    A joint conversion feasibility study concerning the IRT - Sofia research reactor between INRNE and the RERTR Program at ANL was initiated in 2002. The initial steps studies (up to 2006) were mainly focused on neutronics properties significant for reactor application and safety analyses. Thermal hydraulic, accident analyses as well as additional neutronics study required were performed after that (up to 2010). The obtained results show that the IRT-4M LEU fuel assemblies (19.75% {sup 235}U enrichment) are appropriate for IRT-Sofia conversion (IRT-Sofia was initially designed for the IRT-2M HEU fuel assemblies with 36% {sup 235}U enrichment). The results obtained in the frames of the joint study show that the IRT-Sofia operation even with usage of only one pump in the primary circuit meets all safety requirements at power level up to 1000 kW and that safety is maintained for accident transients. Presented results of analyses (neutronics, thermal hydraulic, and accident) and accumulated experience for the IRT-Sofia will be useful for other research reactors where conversion from IRT-2M (HEU) to IRT-4M (LEU) fuel is underway and/or foreseen. (authors)

  13. A Bayesian Beta-Mixture Model for Nonparametric IRT (BBM-IRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, Ethan A.; Karabatsos, George

    2017-01-01

    Item response models typically assume that the item characteristic (step) curves follow a logistic or normal cumulative distribution function, which are strictly monotone functions of person test ability. Such assumptions can be overly-restrictive for real item response data. We propose a simple and more flexible Bayesian nonparametric IRT model…

  14. A comparison of ambient casino sound and music: effects on dissociation and on perceptions of elapsed time while playing slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Theodore J; Finlay, Karen

    2009-09-01

    This research examined the effects of a casino's auditory character on estimates of elapsed time while gambling. More specifically, this study varied whether the sound heard while gambling was ambient casino sound alone or ambient casino sound accompanied by music. The tempo and volume of both the music and ambient sound were varied to manipulate temporal engagement and introspection. One hundred and sixty (males = 91) individuals played slot machines in groups of 5-8, after which they provided estimates of elapsed time. The findings showed that the typical ambient casino auditive environment, which characterizes the majority of gaming venues, promotes understated estimates of elapsed duration of play. In contrast, when music is introduced into the ambient casino environment, it appears to provide a cue of interval from which players can more accurately reconstruct elapsed duration of play. This is particularly the case when the tempo of the music is slow and the volume is high. Moreover, the confidence with which time estimates are held (as reflected by latency of response) is higher in an auditive environment with music than in an environment that is comprised of ambient casino sounds alone. Implications for casino management are discussed.

  15. Application of multidimensional IRT models to longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Marvelde, J.M.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Van Landeghem, Georges; Van Damme, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The application of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to longitudinal educational surveys where students are repeatedly measured is discussed and exemplified. A marginal maximum likelihood (MML) method to estimate the parameters of a multidimensional generalized partial credit model

  16. Explanatory IRT Analysis Using the SPIRIT Macro in SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiTrapani, Jack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Item Response Theory (IRT is a modeling framework that can be applied to a large variety of research questions spanning several disciplines. To make IRT models more accessible for the general researcher, a free tool has been created that can easily conduct one-parameter logistic IRT (1PL analyses using the convenient point-and-click interface in SPSS without any required downloads or add-ons. This tool, the SPIRIT macro, can fit 1PL models with person and item covariates, DIF analyses, multidimensional models, multigroup models, rating scale models, and several other variations. Example explanatory models are presented with an applied dataset containing responses to an ADHD rating scale. Illustrations of how to fit basic 1PL models as well as two more complicated analyses using SPIRIT are given.

  17. A neutron radiography facility on the IRT-2000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadduri, I.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron radiography facility has been constructed on the thermal neutron channel of the IRT-2000 reactor. A collimated thermal neutron beam exposure area of 10 cm diameter is obtained with an L/D ratio of 48.8. The film used is cellulose nitrate coated with lithium tetraborate which is insensitive to gamma and beta radiation. Some pictures with good contrast and resolution have been obtained. Pictures of parts of an IRT-2000 reactor fuel pin have also been recorded. (orig) [de

  18. A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…

  19. IRT-Estimated Reliability for Tests Containing Mixed Item Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lianghua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    As a global measure of precision, item response theory (IRT) estimated reliability is derived for four coefficients (Cronbach's a, Feldt-Raju, stratified a, and marginal reliability). Models with different underlying assumptions concerning test-part similarity are discussed. A detailed computational example is presented for the targeted…

  20. Loglinear multidimensional IRT models for polytomously scired Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk

    1988-01-01

    A loglinear item response theory (IRT) model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. Each item may have a different response function where each item response may be explained by one or more latent traits. Item response functions may follow a

  1. Loglinear multidimensional IRT models for polytomously scored items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk; Rijkes, Carl P.M.; Rijkes, Carl

    1994-01-01

    A loglinear IRT model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. The analyst may specify a response function for each response, indicating which latent abilities are necessary to arrive at that response. Each item may have a different number of

  2. Bayesian Estimation of the Logistic Positive Exponent IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfarine, Heleno; Bazan, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    A Bayesian inference approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is developed for the logistic positive exponent (LPE) model proposed by Samejima and for a new skewed Logistic Item Response Theory (IRT) model, named Reflection LPE model. Both models lead to asymmetric item characteristic curves (ICC) and can be appropriate because a symmetric…

  3. Elapsed decision time affects the weighting of prior probability in a perceptual decision task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Timothy D.; Mazurek, Mark E.; Kiani, Roozbeh; Hopp, Elizabeth; Shadlen, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions are often based on a combination of new evidence with prior knowledge of the probable best choice. Optimal combination requires knowledge about the reliability of evidence, but in many realistic situations, this is unknown. Here we propose and test a novel theory: the brain exploits elapsed time during decision formation to combine sensory evidence with prior probability. Elapsed time is useful because (i) decisions that linger tend to arise from less reliable evidence, and (ii) the expected accuracy at a given decision time depends on the reliability of the evidence gathered up to that point. These regularities allow the brain to combine prior information with sensory evidence by weighting the latter in accordance with reliability. To test this theory, we manipulated the prior probability of the rewarded choice while subjects performed a reaction-time discrimination of motion direction using a range of stimulus reliabilities that varied from trial to trial. The theory explains the effect of prior probability on choice and reaction time over a wide range of stimulus strengths. We found that prior probability was incorporated into the decision process as a dynamic bias signal that increases as a function of decision time. This bias signal depends on the speed-accuracy setting of human subjects, and it is reflected in the firing rates of neurons in the lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) of rhesus monkeys performing this task. PMID:21525274

  4. Implications for would healing of patient age and time elapsed since burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, E M; Blight, A; Cheshire, I M

    1995-01-01

    To determine the relationship between growth potential in culture and the age of the patient, skin biopsies were obtained from over 60 patients of varying ages. The relationship between the length of time elapsed since burn injury and growth potential was also examined, using biopsies obtained from patients with burns during their treatment. Keratinocytes were extracted from biopsies and assessed for colony-forming ability by standard methods. Repeated subculture of cells was undertaken to determine the reproductive capacity of cells in vitro. Age had no effect on the colony-forming ability of keratinocytes in primary culture; however age did affect the total number of generations achieved by these cells. The growth potential of keratinocytes from patients with severe burns showed considerable variation according to the amount of time which had elapsed since the injury. This was most apparent around one week post-burn. These results need to be investigated further to understand their clinical implications. The study provides an insight into the influence of age and physiological response on the wound healing process in burn injuries.

  5. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  6. Interval timing under a behavioral microscope: Dissociating motivational and timing processes in fixed-interval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Carter W; Sanabria, Federico

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of latencies and interresponse times (IRTs) of rats was compared between two fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement (FI 30 s and FI 90 s), and between two levels of food deprivation. Computational modeling revealed that latencies and IRTs were well described by mixture probability distributions embodying two-state Markov chains. Analysis of these models revealed that only a subset of latencies is sensitive to the periodicity of reinforcement, and prefeeding only reduces the size of this subset. The distribution of IRTs suggests that behavior in FI schedules is organized in bouts that lengthen and ramp up in frequency with proximity to reinforcement. Prefeeding slowed down the lengthening of bouts and increased the time between bouts. When concatenated, latency and IRT models adequately reproduced sigmoidal FI response functions. These findings suggest that behavior in FI schedules fluctuates in and out of schedule control; an account of such fluctuation suggests that timing and motivation are dissociable components of FI performance. These mixture-distribution models also provide novel insights on the motivational, associative, and timing processes expressed in FI performance. These processes may be obscured, however, when performance in timing tasks is analyzed in terms of mean response rates.

  7. Crime seriousness and participation in restorative justice: The role of time elapsed since the offense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebel, Sven; Schreurs, Wendy; Ufkes, Elze G

    2017-08-01

    Restorative justice policies and programs aimed at facilitating victim-offender mediation (VOM) are part of many criminal justice systems around the world. Given its voluntary nature and potential for positive outcomes, the appropriateness and feasibility of VOM after serious offenses is subject to debate in the literature. In light of this discussion, this study first aimed to unravel the prevalence of serious offenses in cases registered for VOM and examined whether crime seriousness predicts whether mediated contact is reached between victims and offenders. Second, it tested the hypothesis that victims of increasingly serious, harmful crimes are more willing to participate when more time has elapsed since the offense-in contrast to victims of less serious, harmful crimes. We analyzed 199 cases registered for VOM in the Netherlands and coded the perceived wrongfulness, harmfulness, and average duration of incarceration of an offense as 3 distinct indicators of crime seriousness in these cases. The findings revealed that cases registered for VOM (a) are, in terms of the incarceration duration, on average more serious than all offenses in the population, and (b) resulted in mediated contact (or not) independently of the 3 seriousness indicators. In addition, empirical support was found for the hypothesis that victims' willingness to participate in VOM increased over time after more harmful offenses, whereas it decreased when offenses inflicted less harm. These findings suggest that when VOM programs operate irrespectively of the time elapsed after crime, mediated contact between parties may be as likely after minor and serious offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy can be captured quickly with 12 items using the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Jonason and Webster, 2010. Previous Item Response Theory (IRT analyses of the original English Dark Triad Dirty Dozen have shown that all three subscales adequately tap into the dark domains of personality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen using IRT. Method: 570 individuals (nmales = 326, nfemales = 242, and 2 unreported, including university students and white-collar workers with an age range between 19 and 65 years, responded to the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Garcia et al., 2017a,b. Results: Contrary to previous research, we found that the narcissism scale provided most information, followed by psychopathy, and finally Machiavellianism. Moreover, the psychopathy scale required a higher level of the latent trait for endorsement of its items than the narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Overall, all items provided reasonable amounts of information and are thus effective for discriminating between individuals. The mean item discriminations (alphas were 1.92 for Machiavellianism, 2.31 for narcissism, and 1.99 for psychopathy. Conclusion: This is the first study to provide IRT analyses of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Our findings add to a growing literature on the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen scale in different cultures and highlight psychometric characteristics, which can be used for comparative studies. Items tapping into psychopathy showed higher thresholds for endorsement than the other two scales. Importantly, the narcissism scale seems to provide more information about a lack of narcissism, perhaps mirroring cultural conditions. Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Clinical psychology

  9. Experiments in power distribution control on the IRT-2000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipchuk, E.V.; Potapenko, P.T.; Trofimov, A.P.; Kosilov, A.N.; Neboyan, V.T.; Timokhin, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The results from the experimental investigations of a system for regulating the neutron field on a research reactor IRT-2000 are shown. The right of such experiments on a reactor with a little active zone is substantiated. A successful attempt was made in this work to apply primary elements of straight charging in the neutron field regulating system. A system with independent instrumentally local regulators, a system with hard cross connections and a structure with a ''floating'' installation are studied. Serial common industrial regulators BRT-2 were used

  10. Measurement Invariance in Careers Research: Using IRT to Study Gender Differences in Medical Students' Specialization Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Tara S.; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W.; Newton, Dale A.; Grayson, Martha S.

    2008-01-01

    The current study demonstrates the use of item response theory (IRT) to conduct measurement invariance analyses in careers research. A self-report survey was used to assess the importance 1,363 fourth-year medical students placed on opportunities to provide comprehensive patient care when choosing a career specialty. IRT analyses supported…

  11. Using the Item Response Theory (IRT) for Educational Evaluation through Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzébio Batista, Marcelo Henrique; Victória Barbosa, Jorge Luis; da Rosa Tavares, João Elison; Hackenhaar, Jonathan Luis

    2013-01-01

    This article shows the application of Item Response Theory (IRT) for educational evaluation using games. The article proposes a computational model to create user profiles, called Psychometric Profile Generator (PPG). PPG uses the IRT mathematical model for exploring the levels of skills and behaviors in the form of items and/or stimuli. The model…

  12. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual

  13. Comparing of four IRT models when analyzing two tests for inductive reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, E.; Sijtsma, K.; Hamers, J.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the nonparametric IRT Mokken models of monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity and the parametric Rasch and Verhelst models for the analysis of binary test data. First, the four IRT models are discussed and compared at the theoretical level, and for each model,

  14. Detection of Differential Item Functioning with Nonlinear Regression: A Non-IRT Approach Accounting for Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabinová, Adéla; Martinková, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a general approach not relying on item response theory models (non-IRT) to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items with presence of guessing. The proposed nonlinear regression (NLR) procedure for DIF detection is an extension of method based on logistic regression. As a non-IRT approach, NLR can…

  15. Estimation of total Effort and Effort Elapsed in Each Step of Software Development Using Optimal Bayesian Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zare Baghiabad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy in estimating the needed effort for software development caused software effort estimation to be a challenging issue. Beside estimation of total effort, determining the effort elapsed in each software development step is very important because any mistakes in enterprise resource planning can lead to project failure. In this paper, a Bayesian belief network was proposed based on effective components and software development process. In this model, the feedback loops are considered between development steps provided that the return rates are different for each project. Different return rates help us determine the percentages of the elapsed effort in each software development step, distinctively. Moreover, the error measurement resulted from optimized effort estimation and the optimal coefficients to modify the model are sought. The results of the comparison between the proposed model and other models showed that the model has the capability to highly accurately estimate the total effort (with the marginal error of about 0.114 and to estimate the effort elapsed in each software development step.

  16. Decommissioning of the research nuclear reactor IRT-M and problems connected with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramidze, S.P.; Katamadze, N.M.; Kiknadze, G.G.; Saralidze, Z.K.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear research reactor IRT-2000 is described, along with modifications and upgrades made over the past three decades. Considerations are outlined which followed a decision to shut-down the reactor and to dismantle it. (author)

  17. A new network of faint calibration stars from the near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) on the IRTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Minoru M.; Matsuura, Mikako; Murakami, Hiroshi; Cohen, Martin; Noda, Manabu; Matsuura, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    1997-01-01

    The point source extraction and calibration of the near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) onboard the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is described. About 7 percent of the sky was observed during a one month mission in the range of 1.4 micrometers to 4 micrometers. The accuracy of the spectral shape and absolute values of calibration stars provided by the NIRS/IRTS were validated.

  18. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  19. Strategy for Sustainable Utilization of IRT-Sofia Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, M.; Apostolov, T.; Ilieva, K.; Belousov, S.; Nonova, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Research Reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia is in process of reconstruction into a low-power reactor of 200 kW under the decision of the Council of Ministers of Republic of Bulgaria from 2001. The reactor will be utilized for development and preservation of nuclear science, skills, and knowledge; implementation of applied methods and research; education of students and training of graduated physicists and engineers in the field of nuclear science and nuclear energy; development of radiation therapy facility. Nuclear energy has a strategic place within the structure of the country’s energy system. In that aspect, the research reactor as a material base, and its scientific and technical personnel, represent a solid basis for the development of nuclear energy in our country. The acquired scientific experience and qualification in reactor operation are a precondition for the equal in rights participation of the country in the international cooperation and the approaching to the European structures, and assurance of the national interests. Therefore, the operation and use of the research reactor brings significant economic benefits for the country. For education of students in nuclear energy, reactor physics experiments for measurements of static and kinetic reactor parameters will be carried out on the research reactor. The research reactor as a national base will support training and applied research, keep up the good practice and the preparation of specialists who are able to monitor radioactivity sources, to develop new methods for detection of low quantities of radioactive isotopes which are hard to find, for deactivation and personal protection. The reactor will be used for production of isotopes needed for medical therapy and diagnostics; it will be the neutron source in element activation analysis having a number of applications in industrial production, medicine, chemistry, criminology, etc. The reactor operation will increase the public understanding, confidence

  20. Clinical Effect of IRT-5 Probiotics on Immune Modulation of Autoimmunity or Alloimmunity in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the relation of the gut microbiota to a development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been investigated in various animal models, there are limited studies that evaluate the effect of probiotics in the autoimmune eye disease. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of IRT-5 probiotics consisting of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Streptococcus thermophilus on the autoimmunity of uveitis and dry eye and alloimmunity of corneal transplantation. Methods: Experimental autoimmune uveitis was induced by subcutaneous immunization with interphotoreceptor-binding protein and intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin in C57BL/6 (B6 mice. For an autoimmune dry eye model, 12-weeks-old NOD.B10.H2b mice were used. Donor cornea of B6 mice was transplanted into BALB/C mice. IRT-5 probiotics or phosphate buffered saline (PBS were administered for three weeks immediately after induction of uveitis or transplantation. The inflammation score of the retinal tissues, dry eye manifestations (corneal staining and tear secretion, and graft survival were measured in each model. The changes of T cells were evaluated in drainage lymph nodes using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results: Retinal histology score in IRT-5 group of uveitis was lower than that in PBS group (p = 0.045. Ocular staining score was lower (p < 0.0001 and tear secretion was higher (p < 0.0001 in the IRT-5 group of NOD.B10.H2b mice than that in the PBS group. However, the graft survival in the IRT-5 group was not different from those of PBS group. The percentage of regulatory T cells was increased in the IRT-5-treated dry eye models (p = 0.032. The percentage of CD8+IL-17hi (p = 0.027 and CD8+ interferon gamma (IFNγhi cells (p = 0.022 were significantly decreased in the IRT-5-treated uveitis models and the percentage of CD8+IFNγhi cells was markedly reduced (p = 0.036 in IRT-5-treated dry

  1. Preliminary Analysis on the Management Options of IRT-DPRK Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Minsoo; Hwang, Yongsoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Although IRT-DPRK was upgraded several times, operation lifetime was already exhausted and thus management policy is needed to deal with the aging of IRT-DPRK. For example, IRT- 2000 type nuclear reactors in Georgia and Bulgaria had been shut down to refurbish or decommissioned to establish new low power facilities. However, the existing negotiations and agreements related to the nuclear issues on North Korea have been focused on the 'denuclearization', and thus the issues on the IRTDPRK were not handled. In recent, a group of USA scientists has suggested that IRT-DPRK should be refurbished to establish the 'Scientific cent for excellence' like the Cooperative Threat Reduction program applied in Russia and the former Soviet Union (FSU). In this paper, we examined the several options to manage the IRT-DPRK through the study of similar foreign cases. Due to the lack of the detailed and standardized information, it is impossible to suggest the best option at this moment. In order to do that, the further research on the detailed procedures, radioactive wastes, the standards of safety and security are needed.

  2. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy after acquired brain injury in Argentina: psychosocial outcomes in connection with the time elapsed before treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saux, Gastón; Demey, Ignacio; Rojas, Galeno; Feldberg, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) on psychosocial outcomes in Argentinean patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), in connection with the time elapsed between injury and treatment initiation. Self-reported data from patients in a naturalistic setting was collected before and after CRT. An outpatient sample of 75 Spanish-speaking patients with cognitive disturbances secondary to ABI (49 male/26 female, age: 50.2 ± 20.1 years; education 14.3 ± 3.2 years) completed a set of scales on their daily living activities, memory self-perception, quality-of-life and mood. Single and multi-group analyses were conducted, considering pre- and post- responses and the time elapsed between injury and treatment initiation. The influence of socio-demographic moderators was controlled during comparisons. Results suggest an improvement in several psychosocial indicators after treatment. Additionally, correlations and group comparisons showed greater improvement in subjective memory and quality-of-life self-reports in patients who began treatment earlier than those who began treatment after a longer time period. Overall, results suggest that CRT is associated with positive results in different areas of the psychosocial domain and that post-injury time can mediate this effect.

  3. General plan for the partial dismantling of the IRT-Sofia research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolov Tihomir G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After the decision of the Bulgarian Government to reconstruct it, the strategy concerning the IRT-Sofia Research Reactor is to partially dismantle the old systems and equipment. The removal of the reactor core and replacement of old equipment will not pose any significant problems. For a more efficient use of existing resources, there is a need for an engineering project which has been already prepared under the title "General Plan for the Partial Dismantling of Equipment at the IRT-Sofia as a Part of the Reconstruction into a Low Power RR".

  4. Comparison of IRT Likelihood Ratio Test and Logistic Regression DIF Detection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Burcu; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    The Type I error rates and the power of IRT likelihood ratio test and cumulative logit ordinal logistic regression procedures in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomously scored items were investigated in this Monte Carlo simulation study. For this purpose, 54 simulation conditions (combinations of 3 sample sizes, 2 sample…

  5. Finite Mixture Multilevel Multidimensional Ordinal IRT Models for Large Scale Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups of countries have different measurement operations, while…

  6. Distinguishing Continuous and Discrete Approaches to Multilevel Mixture IRT Models: A Model Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoshu

    2013-01-01

    The current study introduced a general modeling framework, multilevel mixture IRT (MMIRT) which detects and describes characteristics of population heterogeneity, while accommodating the hierarchical data structure. In addition to introducing both continuous and discrete approaches to MMIRT, the main focus of the current study was to distinguish…

  7. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  8. Comparing the IRT Pre-equating and Section Pre-equating: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-en; Cleary, T. Anne

    The results obtained from two basic types of pre-equatings of tests were compared: the item response theory (IRT) pre-equating and section pre-equating (SPE). The simulated data were generated from a modified three-parameter logistic model with a constant guessing parameter. Responses of two replication samples of 3000 examinees on two 72-item…

  9. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  10. IRT-LR-DIF with Estimation of the Focal-Group Density as an Empirical Histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    Item response theory-likelihood ratio-differential item functioning (IRT-LR-DIF) is used to evaluate the degree to which items on a test or questionnaire have different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of group-mean differences on the construct. Usually, the latent distribution is presumed normal for both…

  11. IRT Item Parameter Recovery with Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation Using Loglinear Smoothing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lewis, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Loglinear smoothing (LLS) estimates the latent trait distribution while making fewer assumptions about its form and maintaining parsimony, thus leading to more precise item response theory (IRT) item parameter estimates than standard marginal maximum likelihood (MML). This article provides the expectation-maximization algorithm for MML estimation…

  12. Conscientiousness at the workplace: Applying mixture IRT to investigate scalability and predictive validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, I.J.L.; Meijer, R.R.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2010-01-01

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models have been used to assess multidimensionality of the construct being measured and to detect different response styles for different groups. In this study a mixture version of the graded response model was applied to investigate scalability and predictive

  13. Conscientiousness in the workplace : Applying mixture IRT to investigate scalability and predictive validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, I.J.L.; Meijer, R.R.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models have been used to assess multidimensionality of the construct being measured and to detect different response styles for different groups. In this study a mixture version of the graded response model was applied to investigate scalability and predictive

  14. Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

  15. Radiation monitoring program at nuclear scientific experimental and educational center - IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, A.; Stankov, D.; Marinov, K.; Nonova, T.; Krezhov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring minimal risk of personnel exposure without exceeding the dose limits is the main task of the General Program for Radiation Monitoring of Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Education Centre (NSEEC) with research reactor IRT. Since 2006 the IRT-Sofia is equipped with a new and modern Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). All RMS detectors are connected to the server RAMSYS. They have online (real-time) visualization in two workstations with RAMVISION software. The RMS allows the implementation of technological and environmental monitoring at the nuclear facility site. Environmental monitoring with the RMS external system includes monitoring of dose rate; alpha and beta activity; radon activity; Po-218, Po-214, Po-212 activity; gamma control of vehicles. Technological control of reactor gases includes: Alpha beta particulate monitor; Iodine monitor; Noble gases monitor; Stack flow monitor. The General Program based on the radiation monitoring system allows real-time monitoring and control of radiation parameters in the controlled area and provides for a high level of radiation protection of IRT staff and users of its facilities. This paper presents the technical and functional parameters of the radiation monitoring system and radiation protection activities within the restricted zone in IRT facilities. (authors)

  16. Improvement of visual debugging tool. Shortening the elapsed time for getting data and adding new functions to compare/combine a set of visualized data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    The visual debugging tool 'vdebug' has been improved, which was designed for the debugging of programs for scientific computing. Improved were the following two points; (1) shortening the elapsed time required for getting appropriate data to visualize; (2) adding new functions which enable to compare and/or combine a set of visualized data originated from two or more different programs. As for shortening elapsed time for getting data, with the improved version of 'vdebug', we could achieve the following results; over hundred times shortening the elapsed time with dbx, pdbx of SX-4 and over ten times with ndb of SR2201. As for the new functions to compare/combine visualized data, it was confirmed that we could easily checked the consistency between the computational results obtained in each calculational steps on two different computers: SP and ONYX. In this report, we illustrate how the tool 'vdebug' has been improved with an example. (author)

  17. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M

    2009-01-01

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P Q (r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W Q (t; Δt) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next Δt heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  18. The development of the nuclear physics in Latvia II. The building of the Research Nuclear Reactor IRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmanis, U.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear research reactor IRT of the Academy of Sciences was built near Riga in Salaspils. IRT is pool aqueous - aqueous reactor with nuclear fuel U-235 contained elements, located in the core at a depth of ∼ 7 m under distilled water. Ten horizontal and 10-15 vertical experimental channels are employed in experimental research with the use of neutron fluxes. For the research with gamma rays is constructed radiation loop facility with liquid In-Ga-SN solid solution as intensive gamma-ray sources. Main activities of IRT are to conduct research in nuclear spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, neutron diffraction and radiation physics, chemistry and biology. (authors)

  19. New tests of the common calibration context for ISO, IRTS, and MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The work carried out in order to test, verify and validate the accuracy of the calibration spectra provided to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), to the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) and to the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) for external calibration support of instruments, is reviewed. The techniques, used to vindicate the accuracy of the absolute spectra, are discussed. The work planned for comparing far infrared spectra of Mars and some of the bright stellar calibrators with long wavelength spectrometer data are summarized.

  20. Tests to control the power distribution in the IRT-2,000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipcuk, E.V.; Potapenko, P.T.; Krjukov, A.P.; Trofimov, A.P.; Kosilov, A.N.; Nebojan, V.T.; Timochin, E.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the investigations of a few structures of such control systems carried out with the help of the IRT 2,000 MIFI reactor in the years 1973/74 are presented in the present work. Within the framework of this study, the successful test of using the transmitter of the direct loading in equipment to control the neutron field was carried out. (orig./TK) [de

  1. Management and inspection of integrity of spent fuel from IRT MEPhI research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Y.; Sokolov, A.V.; Bushuev, A.V.; Redkin, A.F.; Portnov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The information on wet storage and dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of the IRT MEPhI reactor and experience from SNF shipment for reprocessing are presented. The procedure and a facility for nondestructive inspection of local power density fields and the burnup of fuel assemblies based on studying the γ-activity of some fission products generated in U 235 and procedure for inspection of the fuel element cladding leak tightness are described. (author)

  2. Future development of the research nuclear reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper presents a short description of the research reactor IRT-2000 Sofia, started in 1961 and operated for 28 years. Some items are considered, connected to the improvements made in the contemporary safety requirements and the unrealized project for modernization to 5 MW. Proposals are considered for reconstruction of reactor site to a 'reactor of low power' for education purposes and as a basis for the country's nuclear technology development. (author)

  3. Future development of the research nuclear reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolov, T.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1999-07-01

    The present paper presents a short description of the research reactor IRT-2000 Sofia, started in 1961 and operated for 28 years. Some items are considered, connected to the improvements made in the contemporary safety requirements and the unrealized project for modernization to 5 MW. Proposals are considered for reconstruction of reactor site to a 'reactor of low power' for education purposes and as a basis for the country's nuclear technology development. (author)

  4. Structural versus electronic distortions of symmetry-broken IrTe$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yang, Junjie; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate atomic and electronic structures of the intriguing low temperature phase of IrTe2 using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We confirm various stripe superstructures such as $\\times$3, $\\times$5, and $\\times$8. The strong vertical and lateral distortions of the lattice for the stripe structures are observed in agreement with recent calculations. The spatial modulations of electronic density of states are clearly identified as separated from the struc...

  5. Licensing activities for the partial decommissioning of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Ilieva, Kr.; Papukchiev, A.; Kalchev, B.

    2001-01-01

    The project for refurbishment of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia into low-power reactor (200 kW) is based on the retention of some IRT-2000 buildings, facilities and equipment. The activities, which determine the partial decommissioning should be realized in accordance with preliminary developed licensing documents as General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact assessment Report. The goal of these documents is to provide and guarantee safe and effective activities with radioactive materials, to define strictly the dismantling procedures, and in the same time to minimize their influence on the environment. The Technical Tasks for General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report have been prepared and will be presented as preliminary licensing documents to the National Regulatory Body for approval before their application. A Quality Management system is being developed nowadays at INRNE. After its certification some requirements of the regulatory body will be completed. This certified QA system is a major part of the licensing procedure for the reconstruction of IRT-2000 research reactor. (author)

  6. The design, construction, and operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) Drum Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, B.; Russillo, A.; Frank, D.; Garland, D.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and the operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment Systems (IRTS) Drum Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The IRTS Drum Cell was designed to provide a shielded, secure storage area for the remote handling and placement of low-level Class C radioactive waste produced in the IRTS. The Drum Cell was designed to contain up to approximately 8,804 drums from decontaminated supernatant processing. This waste is to be poured into 0.27m 3 in a temperature controlled environment to ensure the cement will not be subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. A Temporary Weather Structure (TWS), a pre-engineered building, now encloses the Drum Cell and associated equipment so that remote waste-handling and placement operations can continue without regard to weather conditions. The Drum Cell was designed so that this TWS could be removed and the low-level waste entombed in place. Final disposition of this low-level waste is currently being evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. Indium-Gallium Radiation Contour of the IRT Nuclear Reactor; Circuit d'activation d'indium-gallium dans le reacteur nucleaire IRT; Indij-gallievyj radiatsionnyj kontur yadernogo reaktora IRT; Circuito de radiaciones de indio-galio del reactor IRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, A K; Ryabukin, Y S; Tulkes, S G; Volkov, E N

    1960-07-15

    Following on theoretical work already published, an indium-gallium radiation contour of the IRT nuclear reactor has been prepared, and represents a powerful new source of gamma-radiation. The first contour of this type ''RK-1'' was prepared on the IRT reactor at the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR. The paper gives the activation calculations for indium-gallium alloy; the structural components of RK-1 and their arrangement in the reactor tank and the hot cell; the devise for feeding liquid and gaseous substances into the irradiation zone; and the conveyor for solid substances to be irradiated. When the IRT reactor is at a power of 2000 kW, the radiation strength of the contour is equivalent to that of a gamma-emitter having an activity of 20,000 g. Ra equivalent. The prospects for the use of the indium-gallium radiation contour for research and semi-industrial purposes are discussed. (author) [French] A la suite de la publication d'un ouvrage theorique, on a etabli autour du reacteur nucleaire IRT un circuit d'activation d'indium-gallium qui represente une nouvelle source de rayonnements gamma de grande intensite. Le premier circuit de ce type ''RK-1'' a ete etabli sur le reacteur IRT a l'Institut de physique de l'Academie des sciences de la RSS de Georgie. Les auteurs donnent les calculs de l'activation pour l'alliage indium-gallium; ils indiquent les elements structurels du RK-1 et leur disposition dans le reservoir et dans la cellule de haute activite du reacteur; ils decrivent le dispositif permettant d'introduire des substances liquides et gazeuses dans la zone d'irradiation et le systeme qui transporte les substances solides a irradier. Lorsque le reacteur IRT fonctionne a 2 000 kW, la puissance de rayonnement du circuit equivaut a celle d'un emetteur gamma ayant une activite equivalente a 20 000 grammes de radium. Les auteurs examinent les perspectives d'emploi de ce processus pour la recherche et a des fins semi

  8. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  9. Solution of operational problems utilization of an EX-IRT-2000 heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, Abdu

    1986-01-01

    The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been successfully operated for 21 years, especially in low power operation or as neutron sources for various experiments. Most of the operating time, approximately 80% of routine operation, was dedicated for radio-isotope production. During routine operation for radio-isotope production, the reactor could not be operated at full power. The reactor was operated at 60% of the maximum power (1 MWth) due to the inability of the original heat exchanger to operate properly. The reason is that slack deposition was built-up on the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Therefore, it reduced the coefficient of heat transfer considerably. To solve the problems, a set of heat exchanger including the pump was installed In parallel with the original unit. The heat exchanger was an IRT-2000 Reactor Heat exchanger which was collected from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project. The heat exchanger has capacity of 1.25 MW. The new heat exchanger could reduced the outlet temperature of the primary coolant Into 42 deg. C. While the original-heat exchanger at the worst condition and at 600 kW of power reach outlet temperature 49 deg. C. The IRT Heat Exchanger is a counter flow heat exchanger. (author)

  10. Solution of operational problems utilization of an EX-IRT-2000 heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razak, Abdu [Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques, National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    1986-07-01

    The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been successfully operated for 21 years, especially in low power operation or as neutron sources for various experiments. Most of the operating time, approximately 80% of routine operation, was dedicated for radio-isotope production. During routine operation for radio-isotope production, the reactor could not be operated at full power. The reactor was operated at 60% of the maximum power (1 MWth) due to the inability of the original heat exchanger to operate properly. The reason is that slack deposition was built-up on the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Therefore, it reduced the coefficient of heat transfer considerably. To solve the problems, a set of heat exchanger including the pump was installed In parallel with the original unit. The heat exchanger was an IRT-2000 Reactor Heat exchanger which was collected from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project. The heat exchanger has capacity of 1.25 MW. The new heat exchanger could reduced the outlet temperature of the primary coolant Into 42 deg. C. While the original-heat exchanger at the worst condition and at 600 kW of power reach outlet temperature 49 deg. C. The IRT Heat Exchanger is a counter flow heat exchanger. (author)

  11. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. ► GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. ► GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. ► Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. ► Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd 2+ , GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd 2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd 2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd 2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  12. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  13. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  14. Dimensional accuracy of digital dental models from cone-beam computed tomography scans of alginate impressions according to time elapsed after the impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mi; Hou, Yanan; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models obtained from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of alginate impressions according to the time elapsed after the impressions were taken. Alginate impressions were obtained of 20 adults using 2 alginate materials: Alginoplast (Heraeus Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) and Cavex (Cavex Holland, Haarlem, The Netherlands). These impressions were stored in wet conditions and scanned by CBCT immediately after impression-taking and after storage times of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours. After reconstruction of the 3-dimensional digital dental models, the models were measured, and the data were analyzed to determine the dimensional changes according to the time elapsed. The changes within the measurement error were regarded as clinically acceptable in this study. The measurement errors ranged from 0.27 to 0.29 mm in the digital dental models obtained from CBCT scans of the alginate impressions. All measurements showed decreasing accuracy with greater elapsed time after the impressions were taken. Changes above the measurement error occurred at 24 and 36 hours for Cavex and Alginoplast, respectively. Digital dental models can be obtained from CBCT scans of alginate impressions without sending them to a remote laboratory. However, the impressions need to be scanned within 24 hours; otherwise, dimensional changes lead to errors that exceed the error of measurement. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interval selection with machine-dependent intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Bohmova K.; Disser Y.; Mihalak M.; Widmayer P.

    2013-01-01

    We study an offline interval scheduling problem where every job has exactly one associated interval on every machine. To schedule a set of jobs, exactly one of the intervals associated with each job must be selected, and the intervals selected on the same machine must not intersect.We show that deciding whether all jobs can be scheduled is NP-complete already in various simple cases. In particular, by showing the NP-completeness for the case when all the intervals associated with the same job...

  16. Inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense produces abscisic acid that reduces IRT1-mediated cadmium uptake of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianru; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Ranran; Lu, Qi; Xue, Wanlei; Wu, Cainan; Song, Bixiu; Du, Shaoting

    2018-05-08

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of agricultural soils represents a serious risk to crop safety. A new strategy using abscisic acid (ABA)-generating bacteria, Bacillus subtilis or Azospirillum brasilense, was developed to reduce the Cd accumulation in plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil. Inoculation with either bacterium resulted in a pronounced increase in the ABA level in wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 plants, accompanied by a decrease in Cd levels in plant tissues, which mitigated the Cd toxicity. As a consequence, the growth of plants exposed to Cd was improved. Nevertheless, B. subtilis and A. brasilense inoculation had little effect on Cd levels and toxicity in the ABA-insensitive mutant snrk 2.2/2.3, indicating that the action of ABA is required for these bacteria to reduce Cd accumulation in plants. Furthermore, inoculation with either B. subtilis or A. brasilense down-regulated the expression of IRT1 (IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1) in the roots of wild-type plants and had little effect on Cd levels in the IRT1-knockout mutants irt1-1 and irt1-2. In summary, we conclude that B. subtilis and A. brasilense can reduce Cd levels in plants via an IRT1-dependent ABA-mediated mechanism.

  17. Investigation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatzadeh, R; Ghoranneviss, M; Salem, M K [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), PO Box 14665-678, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emami, M, E-mail: rezashariatzadeh@gmail.com [Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuation is considered extremely important for understanding cross-field anomalous transport. In this paper, two arrays of Langmuir probes are used to analyze electrostatic fluctuations in the edge of IR-T1 tokamak plasma in both the radial and the poloidal directions. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analyzed by the two-point correlation technique. The wavenumber spectrum shows that there is a net radially outward propagation of turbulent fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Hence, edge turbulence presumably originates from core fluctuations.

  18. Investigation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatzadeh, R; Ghoranneviss, M; Salem, M K; Emami, M

    2011-01-01

    The radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuation is considered extremely important for understanding cross-field anomalous transport. In this paper, two arrays of Langmuir probes are used to analyze electrostatic fluctuations in the edge of IR-T1 tokamak plasma in both the radial and the poloidal directions. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analyzed by the two-point correlation technique. The wavenumber spectrum shows that there is a net radially outward propagation of turbulent fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Hence, edge turbulence presumably originates from core fluctuations.

  19. RIBD-IRT, Isotope Buildup and Isotope Decay from Fission Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RIBD-IRT calculates isotopic concentrations resulting from two fission sources with normal down- chain decay by beta emission and isomeric transfers and inter-chain coupling resulting from (n,gamma) reactions. Calculations can be made to follow an irradiation history through an unlimited number of step changes of unrestricted duration and variability including shutdown periods, restarts at different power levels and/or any other level changes. In addition, the program permits to track and modify the concentration of individual elements as they decay with time following reactor shutdown. Tracking individual elements enables one to estimate time-dependent source terms for a hypothetical LOCA based on known or postulated fission product release mechanisms. 2 - Method of solution: RIBD-IRT is a grid processor. It organizes the various members described by the fission product library data into a grid with the various linkages established from chain branching data, yield data, and neutron capture cross sections with their branching ratios. Radioactive decay includes not only the simple member-to-member cascade but also the more complex forms where branching may be partially or completely skip one or two intervening members

  20. Effect of Item Response Theory (IRT) Model Selection on Testlet-Based Test Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-14-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Lu, Ru; Tao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The local item independence assumption underlying traditional item response theory (IRT) models is often not met for tests composed of testlets. There are 3 major approaches to addressing this issue: (a) ignore the violation and use a dichotomous IRT model (e.g., the 2-parameter logistic [2PL] model), (b) combine the interdependent items to form a…

  1. Brown bear sperm double freezing: Effect of elapsed time and use of PureSperm(®) gradient between freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Alvarez, Mercedes; López-Urueña, Elena; Martínez-Rodriguez, Carmen; Borragan, Santiago; Anel-López, Luis; de Paz, Paulino; Anel, Luis

    2013-12-01

    The use of sexed spermatozoa has great potential to captive population management in endangered wildlife. The problem is that the sex-sorting facility is a long distance from the semen collection place and to overcome this difficulty two freeze-thaw cycles may be necessary. In this study, effects of refreezing on brown bear electroejaculated spermatozoa were analyzed. We carried out two experiments: (1) to assess the effects of the two freezing-thawing cycles on sperm quality and to analyze three different elapsed times between freezing-thawing cycles (30, 90 and 180 min), and (2) to analyze the use of PureSperm between freezing-thawing cycles to select a more motile and viable sperm subpopulation which better survived first freezing. The motility, viability and undamaged acrosomes were significantly reduced after the second thawing respect to first thawing into each elapsed time group, but the elapsed times did not significantly affect the viability and acrosome status although motility was damaged. Our results with the PureSperm gradient showed higher values of viability in freezability of select sample (pellet) respect to the rest of the groups and it also showed a significant decrease in the number of acrosome damaged. In summary, the double freezing of bear semen selected by gradient centrifugation is qualitatively efficient, and thus could be useful to carry out a sex-sorting of frozen-thawed bear spermatozoa before to send the cryopreserved sample to a biobank. Given the low recovery of spermatozoa after applying a selection gradient, further studies will be needed to increase the recovery rate without damaging of the cell quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, convex interval games are introduced and some characterizations are given. Some economic situations leading to convex interval games are discussed. The Weber set and the Shapley value are defined for a suitable class of interval games and their relations with the interval core for

  3. Psychometric properties for the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding: dichotomous versus polytomous conventional and IRT scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Kim, Han Yi

    2014-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 26(3) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2014-16017-001). The mean, standard deviation and alpha coefficient originally reported in Table 1 should be 74.317, 10.214 and .802, respectively. The validity coefficients in the last column of Table 4 are affected as well. Correcting this error did not change the substantive interpretations of the results, but did increase the mean, standard deviation, alpha coefficient, and validity coefficients reported for the Honesty subscale in the text and in Tables 1 and 4. The corrected versions of Tables 1 and Table 4 are shown in the erratum.] Item response theory (IRT) models were applied to dichotomous and polytomous scoring of the Self-Deceptive Enhancement and Impression Management subscales of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1991, 1999). Two dichotomous scoring methods reflecting exaggerated endorsement and exaggerated denial of socially desirable behaviors were examined. The 1- and 2-parameter logistic models (1PLM, 2PLM, respectively) were applied to dichotomous responses, and the partial credit model (PCM) and graded response model (GRM) were applied to polytomous responses. For both subscales, the 2PLM fit dichotomous responses better than did the 1PLM, and the GRM fit polytomous responses better than did the PCM. Polytomous GRM and raw scores for both subscales yielded higher test-retest and convergent validity coefficients than did PCM, 1PLM, 2PLM, and dichotomous raw scores. Information plots showed that the GRM provided consistently high measurement precision that was superior to that of all other IRT models over the full range of both construct continuums. Dichotomous scores reflecting exaggerated endorsement of socially desirable behaviors provided noticeably weak precision at low levels of the construct continuums, calling into question the use of such scores for detecting instances of "faking bad." Dichotomous

  4. Comparing Different Approaches of Bias Correction for Ability Estimation in IRT Models. Research Report. ETS RR-08-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2008-01-01

    The method of maximum-likelihood is typically applied to item response theory (IRT) models when the ability parameter is estimated while conditioning on the true item parameters. In practice, the item parameters are unknown and need to be estimated first from a calibration sample. Lewis (1985) and Zhang and Lu (2007) proposed the expected response…

  5. Effectiveness of Item Response Theory (IRT) Proficiency Estimation Methods under Adaptive Multistage Testing. Research Report. ETS RR-15-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim; Yoo, Hanwook Henry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to investigate the effectiveness of item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimators in terms of estimation bias and error under multistage testing (MST). We chose a 2-stage MST design in which 1 adaptation to the examinees' ability levels takes place. It includes 4 modules (1 at Stage 1, 3 at Stage 2) and 3 paths…

  6. Pretest-Posttest-Posttest Multilevel IRT Modeling of Competence Growth of Students in Higher Education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Fox, Gerardus J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal research in higher education faces several challenges. Appropriate methods of analyzing competence growth of students are needed to deal with those challenges and thereby obtain valid results. In this article, a pretest-posttest-posttest multivariate multilevel IRT model for repeated

  7. Measuring Anxiety in Visually-Impaired People: A Comparison between the Linear and the Nonlinear IRT Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Pallero, Rafael; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The present study has two main interests. First, some pending issues about the psychometric properties of the CTAC (an anxiety questionnaire for blind and visually-impaired people) are assessed using item response theory (IRT). Second, the linear model is compared to the graded response model (GRM) in terms of measurement precision, sensitivity…

  8. Time evolution of the energy confinement time, internal inductance and effective edge safety factor on IR-T1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salar Elahi, A; Ghoranneviss, M

    2010-01-01

    An attempt is made to investigate the time evolution of the energy confinement time, internal inductance and effective edge safety factor on IR-T1 tokamak. For this purpose, four magnetic pickup coils were designed, constructed and installed on the outer surface of the IR-T1 and then the Shafranov parameter (asymmetry factor) was obtained from them. On the other hand, also a diamagnetic loop was designed and installed on IR-T1 and poloidal beta was determined from it. Therefore, the internal inductance and effective edge safety factor were measured. Also, the time evolution of the energy confinement time was measured using the diamagnetic loop. Experimental results on IR-T1 show that the maximum energy confinement time (which corresponds to minimum collisions, minimum microinstabilities and minimum transport) is at low values of the effective edge safety factor (2.5 eff (a) i <0.72). The results obtained are in agreement with those obtained with the theoretical approach [1-5].

  9. Designing a Sine-Coil for Measurement of Plasma Displacements in IR-T1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorshid, Pejman; Razavi, M.; Molaii, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; TalebiTaher, A.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; NikMohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the plasma position in the IR-T1 tokamak in toroidal coordinates is developed. A sine-coil, which is a Rogowski coil with a variable wiring density is designed and fabricated for this purpose. An analytic solution of the Biot-Savart law, which is used to calculate magnetic fields created by toroidal plasma current, is presented. Results of calculations are compared with the experimental data obtained in no-plasma shots with a toroidal current-carrying coil positioned inside the vessel to simulate the plasma movements. The results are shown a good linear behavior of plasma position measurements. The error is less than 2.5% and it is compared with other methods of measurements of the plasma position. This method will be used in the feedback position control system and tests of feedback controller parameters are ongoing

  10. A MATLAB Package for Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a Multi-Unidimensional IRT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unidimensional item response theory (IRT models are useful when each item is designed to measure some facet of a unified latent trait. In practical applications, items are not necessarily measuring the same underlying trait, and hence the more general multi-unidimensional model should be considered. This paper provides the requisite information and description of software that implements the Gibbs sampler for such models with two item parameters and a normal ogive form. The software developed is written in the MATLAB package IRTmu2no. The package is flexible enough to allow a user the choice to simulate binary response data with multiple dimensions, set the number of total or burn-in iterations, specify starting values or prior distributions for model parameters, check convergence of the Markov chain, as well as obtain Bayesian fit statistics. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate and validate the use of the software package.

  11. Radiation conditions at the training IRT-2000 and IR-100 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorin, Eh.V.; Bronshtejn, I.Eh; Martynov, Yu.N.; Chistyakov, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The experience is reviewed of radiation hygiene surveys and radiation safety provision during instructional processes on two training and research nuclear reactors of the IRT-2000 type (No. 1 and No. 2) and on an IR-200 reactor. From an analysis of individual dosimetry data the conclusion is made that the trainees and personnel are exposed mainly to external gamma-radiation and also, to a minor degree, to thermal neutrons and beta-radiation. It has been found that a high level of radiation safety is ensured on the training and research so that research and instruction activities are conducted at annual levels of exposure substantially lower than 0.5 rem in the case of trainees and 5 rem in the case of personnel

  12. Neutron polarizing set-up of the Sofia IRT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezhov, K.; Mikhajlova, V.; Okorokov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron polarizing set-up of one of the horizontal beam tubes of the IRT-200 research reactor of the Bulgarian Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is presented. Neutron mirrors are extensively used in an effort to compensate the moderate reactor beam intensity by the high reflected intensity and wide-band transmittance of the mirror neutron guides. Time-to-flight technique using a slotted neutron absorbing chopper with a horizontal rotation axis has been applied to obtain the exit neutron spectra. Beam polarization and flipping ratios have been determined. Cadmium ratio in the polarized beam has been found almost 10 4 and the average polarization has been measured to be higher than 96%. 3 figs, 3 refs

  13. Propofol for pediatric tracheal intubation with deep anesthesia during sevoflurane induction: dosing according to elapsed time for two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, George D; Stemland, Christopher J; Balireddy, Ravi K; Brockhaus, Julie; Hughes, Kevin R; Goins, Matthew D; McMurry, Timothy L

    2014-02-01

    To determine, for two different age groups, the effect of duration of sevoflurane administration on the amount of propofol needed when performing tracheal intubation. Classic Dixon's Up-and-Down sequential method. University based operating rooms. 106 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients aged one to 11 years. Patients were allocated to the 1-6 year (≥ 12 and age groups. Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg was given orally to the 1-6 year group, and all patients were induced with 8% dialed sevoflurane and 67% nitrous oxide (N2O), with N2O discontinued and sevoflurane dialed to 5% after one minute and 1.5 minutes for the younger and older age groups, respectively. Intravenous access was obtained and propofol was promptly administered. Propofol dose was determined according to age group and whether propofol was given 2-4, 4-6, or 6-8 minutes after the start of sevoflurane induction, with Dixon's Up and Down Method used separately for each specific age/time group. Tracheal intubation conditions one minute after propofol were evaluated. Isotonic regression determined propofol ED50 estimates for excellent tracheal intubation conditions, and linear regression determined the effect of propofol dose on change in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Estimated propofol ED50 doses for 1-6 year olds, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were 1.48 mg/kg (0.80, 2.03), 0.00 mg/kg (0.00, 0.38), and 0.07 mg/kg (0.00, 0.68) in the 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 minute groups, respectively, with estimated differences between the 2-4 minute group versus the 4-6 and 6-8 minute groups being 1.47 mg/kg (95% CI = 1.04, 2.06) and 1.41 mg/kg (95% CI = 0.74, 2.04), respectively. Estimated propofol ED50 doses for 6-11 year olds, with 95% CIs, were 2.35 mg/kg (1.97, 2.45) and 2.33 mg/kg (1.59, 2.45) in the 2-4 and 4-6 minute groups, respectively. Diminutions in SBP at one minute and two minutes after propofol administration were dose dependent for children 1-6 years of age, decreasing 5.3% and 8.1% for each 1 mg/kg of propofol

  14. Programming with Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  15. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  16. Design and Preliminary Results of a Feedback Circuit for Plasma Displacement Control in IR-T1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TalebiTaher, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Tarkeshian, R.; Salem, M. K.; Khorshid, P.

    2008-01-01

    Since displacement is very important for plasma position control, in IR-T1 tokamak a combination of two cosine coils and two saddle sine coils is used for horizontal displacement measurement. According to the multiple moment theory, the output of these coils linearly depends to radial displacement of plasma column. A new circuit for adding these signals to feedback system designed and unwanted effects of other fields in final output compensated. After compensation and calibration of the system, the output of horizontal displacement circuits applied to feedback control system. By considers the required auxiliary vertical field, a proportional amplifier and driver circuit are constructed to drive power transistors these power transistors switch the feedback bank capacitors. In the experiment, a good linear proportionality between displacement and output observed by applying an appropriate feedback field, the linger confinement time in IR-T1 tokamak obtained, applying this system to discharge increased the plasma duration and realizes repetitive discharges

  17. Developing a Screening Inventory Reading Test (IRT for the Isfahanian Students of the First to Fifth Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Shafiei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Reading is one of the most essential skills in this century. Reading disorders can cause several problems for the person who has reading disorder. Early assessment and diagnosis play an important role in treatment of this disorder. The main purpose of this study was to develope a screening inventory reading test (IRT for first to fifth grade student in Isfahan in order to early diagnosis of reading disorder.Materials and Methods: The test, consisting of 100 words context and four comprehension questions, named Inventory Reading Test (IRT, was evaluated by several speech therapists. It was standardized by testing on one thousand boys and girls, 200 students in every grade, that were selected through a multi-stage random sampling method. Test was performed on two other groups, a normal and a reading-disordered.Results: Scores of reading accuracy and velocity were highly correlated with the test total score. Test reliability was calculated as 0.77 by Cronbach`s alpha measure. There was significant difference between two groups mean score (p=0.01.Conclusion: IRT seems to be an appropriate tool for screening reading disorder of first to fifth grade students.

  18. Mathematical Ability and Socio-Economic Background: IRT Modeling to Estimate Genotype by Environment Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Inga; Boomsma, Dorret I; van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2017-12-01

    Genotype by environment interaction in behavioral traits may be assessed by estimating the proportion of variance that is explained by genetic and environmental influences conditional on a measured moderating variable, such as a known environmental exposure. Behavioral traits of interest are often measured by questionnaires and analyzed as sum scores on the items. However, statistical results on genotype by environment interaction based on sum scores can be biased due to the properties of a scale. This article presents a method that makes it possible to analyze the actually observed (phenotypic) item data rather than a sum score by simultaneously estimating the genetic model and an item response theory (IRT) model. In the proposed model, the estimation of genotype by environment interaction is based on an alternative parametrization that is uniquely identified and therefore to be preferred over standard parametrizations. A simulation study shows good performance of our method compared to analyzing sum scores in terms of bias. Next, we analyzed data of 2,110 12-year-old Dutch twin pairs on mathematical ability. Genetic models were evaluated and genetic and environmental variance components estimated as a function of a family's socio-economic status (SES). Results suggested that common environmental influences are less important in creating individual differences in mathematical ability in families with a high SES than in creating individual differences in mathematical ability in twin pairs with a low or average SES.

  19. Combined application of OGTT, IRT and CPRT for diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun; Yang Xiaoli; Tian Zhufang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of combined clinical application of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin release test (IRT) and C-peptide release test (CPRT) for the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods: Retrospect analysis of the data of the results of these three tests in 217 subjects examined was performed. Results: (1) Among the 217 subjects, 71 of them were not diagnosed as diabetics. However, upon further scrutinization of the data, 49 (69%) should be classified as diabetics. Fasting blood sugar (FPG) levels were normal in 53% of the 49, but 2h PG levels were mostly elevated with the exception of only 4 (4/49, 8%), Therefore, 2h PG levels were much more useful for screening of diabetes than FPG levels were. (2) Treatment result in these patients was not very satisfactory: only 24% of the patients (35/146) had their disease well-controlled. Conclusion: Combined clinical application of OGTT, ITR and CPRT would enhance the diagnostic accuracy of diabetes with fewer cases missed. (authors)

  20. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewska Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  1. Robustness of the charge-ordered phases in IrTe2 against photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monney, C.; Schuler, A.; Jaouen, T.; Mottas, M.-L.; Wolf, Th.; Merz, M.; Muntwiler, M.; Castiglioni, L.; Aebi, P.; Weber, F.; Hengsberger, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a time-resolved angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy study of IrTe2, which undergoes two first-order structural and charge-ordered phase transitions on cooling below 270 K and below 180 K. The possibility of inducing a phase transition by photoexcitation with near-infrared femtosecond pulses is investigated in the charge-ordered phases. We observe changes of the spectral function occurring within a few hundreds of femtoseconds and persisting up to several picoseconds, which we interpret as a partial photoinduced phase transition (PIPT). The necessary time for photoinducing these spectral changes increases with increasing photoexcitation density and reaches time scales longer than the rise time of the transient electronic temperature. We conclude that the PIPT is driven by a transient increase of the lattice temperature following the energy transfer from the electrons. However, the photoinduced changes of the spectral function are small, which indicates that the low-temperature phase is particularly robust against photoexcitation. We suggest that the system might be trapped in an out-of-equilibrium state, for which only a partial structural transition is achieved.

  2. Magnetic evaluation of hydrogen pressures changes on MHD fluctuations in IR-T1 tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Ramin; Ghanbari, Mohamad R.

    2018-04-01

    Identification of tokamak plasma parameters and investigation on the effects of each parameter on the plasma characteristics is important for the better understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities in the tokamak plasma. The effect of different hydrogen pressures of 1.9, 2.5 and 2.9 Torr on MHD fluctuations of the IR-T1 tokamak plasma was investigated by using of 12 Mirnov coils, singular value decomposition and wavelet analysis. The parameters such as plasma current, loop voltage, power spectrum density, energy percent of poloidal modes, dominant spatial structures and temporal structures of poloidal modes at different plasma pressures are plotted. The results indicate that the MHD activities at the pressure of 2.5 Torr are less than them at other pressures. It also has been shown that in the stable area of plasma and at the pressure of 2.5 Torr, the magnetic force and the force of plasma pressure are in balance with each other and the MHD activities are at their lowest level.

  3. Landslide Mapping and Characterization through Infrared Thermography (IRT: Suggestions for a Methodological Approach from Some Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Frodella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the potential of Infrared Thermography (IRT as a novel operational tool for landslide surveying, mapping and characterization was tested and demonstrated in different case studies, by analyzing various types of instability processes (rock slide/fall, roto-translational slide-flow. In particular, IRT was applied, both from terrestrial and airborne platforms, in an integrated methodology with other geomatcs methods, such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and global positioning systems (GPS, for the detection and mapping of landslides’ potentially hazardous structural and morphological features (structural discontinuities and open fractures, scarps, seepage and moisture zones, landslide drainage network and ponds. Depending on the study areas’ hazard context, the collected remotely sensed data were validated through field inspections, with the purpose of studying and verifying the causes of mass movements. The challenge of this work is to go beyond the current state of the art of IRT in landslide studies, with the aim of improving and extending the investigative capacity of the analyzed technique, in the framework of a growing demand for effective Civil Protection procedures in landslide geo-hydrological disaster managing activities. The proposed methodology proved to be an effective tool for landslide analysis, especially in the field of emergency management, when it is often necessary to gather all the required information in dangerous environments as fast as possible, to be used for the planning of mitigation measures and the evaluation of hazardous scenarios. Advantages and limitations of the proposed method in the field of the explored applications were evaluated, as well as general operative recommendations and future perspectives.

  4. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PIROLO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E and lightness (∆L variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001. All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L. The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively. Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching.

  5. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

  6. Annual report of the working group 'fuel pin and fuel element mechanics' of the Institut fuer Reaktortechnik (IRT) of the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt for the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, H.; Humbach, W.; Lassmann, K.; Mueller, J.J.; Preusser, T.; Schmelz, K.

    1978-09-01

    This report comprises six single lectures given at an information meeting organized by the Institut fuer Reaktortechnik der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt (IRT) in Darmstadt on April 24, 1978. The lectures are an account of work performed at IRT on the mechanics of fuel pins and fuel elements and supported by the Fast Breeder Project (PSB) of KfK. These activities can be broken down into studies of the integral fuel pin (URANUS computer code) and into multidimensional studies of the fuel pin using the finite-element method (FINEL and ZIDRIG computer codes). Moreover, a report is presented of the status of the test facility for simulation of out-of-pile cladding tube loads and of the IRT project on the simulation and analysis of radiation damage. (orig./GL) [de

  7. The first critical experiment with a new type of fuel assemblies IRT-3M on the training reactor VR-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, Karel; Sklenka, Lubomir

    1997-01-01

    The paper 'The first critical experiment with a new type of fuel assemblies IRT-3M on training reactor VR-1 presents basic information about the replacement of fuel on the reactor VR-1 run on FJFI CVUT in Prague. In spring 1997 the IRT-2M fuel type used till then was replaced by the IRT-3M type. When the fuel was replaced, no change in its enrichment was made, i.e. its level remained as 36% 235 U. The replacement itself was carried out in tight co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., as related to the operation of the research reactor LVR-15. The fuel replacement on the VR-I reactor is a part of the international program RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) in which the Czech Republic participates. (author)

  8. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  9. Potential application of thermography (IRT in animal production and for animal welfare. A case report of working dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Redaelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The authors describe the thermography technique in animal production and in veterinary medicine applications. The thermographic technique lends itself to countless applications in biology, thanks to its characteristics of versatility, lack of invasiveness and high sensitivity. Probably the major limitation to most important aspects for its application in the animal lies in the ease of use and in its extreme sensitivity. Materials and methods. This review provides an overview of the possible applications of the technique of thermo visual inspection, but it is clear that every phenomenon connected to temperature variations can be identified with this technique. Then the operator has to identify the best experimental context to obtain as much information as possible, concerning the physiopathological problems considered. Furthermore, we reported an experimental study about the thermography (IRT as a noninvasive technique to assess the state of wellbeing in working dogs. RESULTS. The first results showed the relationship between superficial temperatures and scores obtained by the animal during the behavioral test. This result suggests an interesting application of infrared thermography (IRT to measure the state of wellbeing of animals in a noninvasive way.

  10. Improving ability measurement in surveys by following the principles of IRT: The Wordsum vocabulary test in the General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken; Haertel, Edward; Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Survey researchers often administer batteries of questions to measure respondents' abilities, but these batteries are not always designed in keeping with the principles of optimal test construction. This paper illustrates one instance in which following these principles can improve a measurement tool used widely in the social and behavioral sciences: the GSS's vocabulary test called "Wordsum". This ten-item test is composed of very difficult items and very easy items, and item response theory (IRT) suggests that the omission of moderately difficult items is likely to have handicapped Wordsum's effectiveness. Analyses of data from national samples of thousands of American adults show that after adding four moderately difficult items to create a 14-item battery, "Wordsumplus" (1) outperformed the original battery in terms of quality indicators suggested by classical test theory; (2) reduced the standard error of IRT ability estimates in the middle of the latent ability dimension; and (3) exhibited higher concurrent validity. These findings show how to improve Wordsum and suggest that analysts should use a score based on all 14 items instead of using the summary score provided by the GSS, which is based on only the original 10 items. These results also show more generally how surveys measuring abilities (and other constructs) can benefit from careful application of insights from the contemporary educational testing literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    Technical specifications have been developed on the bases of deterministic analyses, engineering judgment, and expert opinion. This paper introduces our risk-based approach to surveillance test interval (STI) optimization. This approach consists of three main levels. The first level is the component level, which serves as a rough estimation of the optimal STI and can be calculated analytically by a differentiating equation for mean unavailability. The second and third levels give more representative results. They take into account the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculated by a personal computer (PC) based code and are based on system unavailability at the system level and on core damage frequency at the plant level

  12. Chaos on the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruette, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to survey the relations between the various kinds of chaos and related notions for continuous interval maps from a topological point of view. The papers on this topic are numerous and widely scattered in the literature; some of them are little known, difficult to find, or originally published in Russian, Ukrainian, or Chinese. Dynamical systems given by the iteration of a continuous map on an interval have been broadly studied because they are simple but nevertheless exhibit complex behaviors. They also allow numerical simulations, which enabled the discovery of some chaotic phenomena. Moreover, the "most interesting" part of some higher-dimensional systems can be of lower dimension, which allows, in some cases, boiling it down to systems in dimension one. Some of the more recent developments such as distributional chaos, the relation between entropy and Li-Yorke chaos, sequence entropy, and maps with infinitely many branches are presented in book form for the first time. The author gi...

  13. Methodological issues regarding power of classical test theory (CTT and item response theory (IRT-based approaches for the comparison of patient-reported outcomes in two groups of patients - a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer François

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT based on the observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT. However, whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to analyse PRO data remains unknown. The statistical properties of CTT and IRT, regarding power and corresponding effect sizes, were compared. Methods Two-group cross-sectional studies were simulated for the comparison of PRO data using IRT or CTT-based analysis. For IRT, different scenarios were investigated according to whether items or person parameters were assumed to be known, to a certain extent for item parameters, from good to poor precision, or unknown and therefore had to be estimated. The powers obtained with IRT or CTT were compared and parameters having the strongest impact on them were identified. Results When person parameters were assumed to be unknown and items parameters to be either known or not, the power achieved using IRT or CTT were similar and always lower than the expected power using the well-known sample size formula for normally distributed endpoints. The number of items had a substantial impact on power for both methods. Conclusion Without any missing data, IRT and CTT seem to provide comparable power. The classical sample size formula for CTT seems to be adequate under some conditions but is not appropriate for IRT. In IRT, it seems important to take account of the number of items to obtain an accurate formula.

  14. Establishing Lower Developmental Thresholds for a Common BlowFly: For Use in Estimating Elapsed Time since Death Using Entomologyical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Abstract …….. Forensic entomology is a science used to estimate a post-mortem interval (PMI). Larvae develop at predictable rates and the time interval...Warren,Jodie; DRDC CSS CR 2011-23; Defence R&D Canada – CSS; October 2011. Introduction or background: Forensic entomology is the study of insects...in Europe since the 1850’s. Forensic entomology is now an integral part of a death investigation when estimating a time since death beyond 72 hours

  15. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...... the potential for solving increasingly difficult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. A main concern of HPC is the development of software that optimizes the performance of a given computer....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...

  16. Multichannel interval timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.

    1983-10-01

    A CAMAC based modular multichannel interval timer is described. The timer comprises twelve high resolution time digitizers with a common start enabling twelve independent stop inputs. Ten time ranges from 2.5 μs to 1.3 μs can be preset. Time can be read out in twelve 24-bit words either via CAMAC Crate Controller or an external FIFO register. LSB time calibration is 78.125 ps. An additional word reads out the operational status of twelve stop channels. The system consists of two modules. The analog module contains a reference clock and 13 analog time stretchers. The digital module contains counters, logic and interface circuits. The timer has an excellent differential linearity, thermal stability and crosstalk free performance

  17. Experimenting with musical intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

  18. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C): Assessing Item Recovery and Differential Item Functioning for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…

  19. A Comparison between Linear IRT Observed-Score Equating and Levine Observed-Score Equating under the Generalized Kernel Equating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…

  20. A review of the effects on IRT item parameter estimates with a focus on misbehaving common items in test equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis P Michaelides

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of Item Response Theory. Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  1. Fitting Diffusion Item Response Theory Models for Responses and Response Times Using the R Package diffIRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Molenaar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the psychometric literature, item response theory models have been proposed that explicitly take the decision process underlying the responses of subjects to psychometric test items into account. Application of these models is however hampered by the absence of general and flexible software to fit these models. In this paper, we present diffIRT, an R package that can be used to fit item response theory models that are based on a diffusion process. We discuss parameter estimation and model fit assessment, show the viability of the package in a simulation study, and illustrate the use of the package with two datasets pertaining to extraversion and mental rotation. In addition, we illustrate how the package can be used to fit the traditional diffusion model (as it has been originally developed in experimental psychology to data.

  2. Does guessing matter? Differences between ability estimates from 2PL and 3PL IRT models in case of guessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Żółtak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to measuring cognitive ability and testing knowledge frequently use multiple-choice items. These can be simply and rapidly scored without problems associated with rater subjectivity. Nevertheless, multiple-choice tests are often criticized owing to their vulnerability to guessing. In this paper the impact of guessing was examined using simulation. Ability estimates were obtained from the two IRT models commonly used for binary-scored items: the two-parameter logistic model and the three-parameter logistic model. The latter approach explicitly models guessing, whilst the former does not. Rather counter-intuitively, little difference was identified for point estimates of ability from the 2PLM and 3PLM. Nevertheless, it should be noted that difficulty and discrimination parameters are severely downwardly biased if a 2PLM is used to calibrate data generated by processes involving guessing. Estimated standard errors for ability estimates also differ considerably between these models.

  3. High dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) interstitial irradiation (IRT) of the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Lucas A.M.; Plas, Mirjam van der; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Hanssen, Alex E.J.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a newly developed technique to study radiation tolerance of rat spinal cord to continuous interstitial irradiation (IRT) at different dose rates. Material and methods: Two parallel catheters are inserted just laterally on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of Th 10 to L 4 . These catheters are afterloaded with two 192 Ir wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1-2.3 mCi/cm) for the low dose rate (LDR) IRT or connected to the HDR micro-Selectron for the high dose rate (HDR) IRT. Spinal cord target volume is located at the level of Th 12 -L 2 . Due to the rapid dose fall-off around the implanted sources, a dose inhomogeneity across the spinal cord thickness is obtained in the dorso-ventral direction. Using the 100% reference dose (rate) at the ventral side of the spinal cord to prescribe the dose, experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at average dose rates of 0.49, 0.96 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hind-legs after 5-6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each irradiated rat are used as experimental endpoints. Results: The histopathological damage seen after irradiation is clearly reflected the inhomogeneous dose distribution around the implanted catheters, with the damage predominantly located in the dorsal tract of the cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction in average dose rate, spinal cord radiation tolerance is significantly increased. When the dose is prescribed at the 100% reference dose rate, the ED 50 (induction of paresis in 50% of the animals) for the HDR-IRT is 17.3 Gy. If the average dose rate is reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.96 or 0.49 Gy/h, a 2.9- or 4.7-fold increase in the ED 50 values to 50.3 Gy and 80.9 Gy is observed; for the dose prescribed at the 150% reference dose rate (dorsal side of cord) ED 50 values are 26.0, 75.5 and 121.4 Gy, respectively. Using different types of analysis and in dependence of the dose prescription and reference dose rate, the

  4. Structure of chaotic magnetic field lines in IR-T1 tokamak due to ergodic magnetic limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghorannevis, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we have studied an Ergodic Magnetic Limiter (EML) based chaotic magnetic field for transport control in the edge plasma of IR-T1 tokamak. The resonance created by the EML causes perturbation of the equilibrium field line in tokamak and as a result, the field lines are chaotic in the vicinity of the dimerized island chains. Transport barriers are formed in the chaotic field line and actually observe in tokamak with reverse magnetic shear. We used area-preserving non-twist (and twist) Poincaré maps to describe the formation of transport barriers, which are actually features of Hamiltonian systems. This transport barrier is useful in reducing radial diffusion of the field line and thus improving the plasma confinement.

  5. Structure of chaotic magnetic field lines in IR-T1 tokamak due to ergodic magnetic limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied an Ergodic Magnetic Limiter (EML based chaotic magnetic field for transport control in the edge plasma of IR-T1 tokamak. The resonance created by the EML causes perturbation of the equilibrium field line in tokamak and as a result, the field lines are chaotic in the vicinity of the dimerized island chains. Transport barriers are formed in the chaotic field line and actually observe in tokamak with reverse magnetic shear. We used area-preserving non-twist (and twist Poincaré maps to describe the formation of transport barriers, which are actually features of Hamiltonian systems. This transport barrier is useful in reducing radial diffusion of the field line and thus improving the plasma confinement.

  6. Influence of core-finishing intervals on tensile strength of cast posts-and-cores luted with zinc phosphate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Andrea Lopes Iglesias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The core finishing of cast posts-and-cores after luting is routine in dental practice. However, the effects of the vibrations produced by the rotary cutting instruments over the luting cements are not well-documented. This study evaluated the influence of the time intervals that elapsed between the cementation and the core-finishing procedures on the tensile strength of cast posts-and-cores luted with zinc phosphate cement. Forty-eight bovine incisor roots were selected, endodontically treated, and divided into four groups (n = 12: GA, control (without finishing; GB, GC, and GD, subjected to finishing at 20 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours after cementation, respectively. Root canals were molded, and the resin patterns were cast in copper-aluminum alloy. Cast posts-and-cores were luted with zinc phosphate cement, and the core-finishing procedures were applied according to the groups. The tensile tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min for all groups, 24 hours after the core-finishing procedures. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in the tensile strengths between the control and experimental groups, regardless of the time interval that elapsed between the luting and finishing steps. Within the limitations of the present study, it was demonstrated that the core-finishing procedures and time intervals that elapsed after luting did not appear to affect the retention of cast posts-and-cores when zinc phosphate cement was used.

  7. TWO-PARAMETER IRT MODEL APPLICATION TO ASSESS PROBABILISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROHIBITED ITEMS DETECTION BY AVIATION SECURITY SCREENERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the aviation security screeners’ efficiency have been analyzedand, certain drawbacks have been considered. The main drawback is the complexity of ICAO recommendations implementation concerning taking into account of shadow x-ray image complexity factors during preparation and evaluation of prohibited items detection efficiency by aviation security screeners. Х-ray image based factors are the specific properties of the x-ray image that in- fluence the ability to detect prohibited items by aviation security screeners. The most important complexity factors are: geometric characteristics of a prohibited item; view difficulty of prohibited items; superposition of prohibited items byother objects in the bag; bag content complexity; the color similarity of prohibited and usual items in the luggage.The one-dimensional two-parameter IRT model and the related criterion of aviation security screeners’ qualification have been suggested. Within the suggested model the probabilistic detection characteristics of aviation security screeners are considered as functions of such parameters as the difference between level of qualification and level of x-ray images com- plexity, and also between the aviation security screeners’ responsibility and structure of their professional knowledge. On the basis of the given model it is possible to consider two characteristic functions: first of all, characteristic function of qualifica- tion level which describes multi-complexity level of x-ray image interpretation competency of the aviation security screener; secondly, characteristic function of the x-ray image complexity which describes the range of x-ray image interpretation com- petency of the aviation security screeners having various training levels to interpret the x-ray image of a certain level of com- plexity. The suggested complex criterion to assess the level of the aviation security screener qualification allows to evaluate his or

  8. Reconstructing the Roman Site “Aquis Querquennis” (Bande, Spain from GPR, T-LiDAR and IRT Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Puente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of one of the most important archaeological sites in Galicia: “Aquis Querquennis” (Bande, Spain using in-situ non-invasive ground-penetrating radar (GPR and Terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (T-LiDAR techniques, complemented with infrared thermography. T-LiDAR is used for the recording of the 3D surface of this particular case and provides high resolution 3D digital models. GPR data processing is performed through the novel software tool “toGPRi”, developed by the authors, which allows the creation of a 3D model of the sub-surface and the subsequent XY images or time-slices at different depths. All these products are georeferenced, in such a way that the GPR orthoimages can be combined with the orthoimages from the T-LiDAR for a complete interpretation of the site. In this way, the GPR technique allows for the detection of the structures of the barracks that are buried, and their distribution is completed with the structure measured by the T-LiDAR on the surface. In addition, the detection of buried elements made possible the identification and labelling of the structures of the surface and their uses. These structures are additionally inspected with infrared thermography (IRT to determine their conservation condition and distinguish between original and subsequent constructions.

  9. Interval stability for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Kirillov, Sergey; Kurths, Jürgen; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Stability of dynamical systems against strong perturbations is an important problem of nonlinear dynamics relevant to many applications in various areas. Here, we develop a novel concept of interval stability, referring to the behavior of the perturbed system during a finite time interval. Based on this concept, we suggest new measures of stability, namely interval basin stability (IBS) and interval stability threshold (IST). IBS characterizes the likelihood that the perturbed system returns to the stable regime (attractor) in a given time. IST provides the minimal magnitude of the perturbation capable to disrupt the stable regime for a given interval of time. The suggested measures provide important information about the system susceptibility to external perturbations which may be useful for practical applications. Moreover, from a theoretical viewpoint the interval stability measures are shown to bridge the gap between linear and asymptotic stability. We also suggest numerical algorithms for quantification of the interval stability characteristics and demonstrate their potential for several dynamical systems of various nature, such as power grids and neural networks.

  10. International Review Team (IRT) Safety Case Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Supporting the Site Recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2004-01-01

    The session started with Abe Van Luik (IGSC Chair, US-DOE-YM, USA) who presented the feedback of the international peer review of the US-DOE Yucca Mountain TSPA (Total System Performance Assessment) supporting the successful designation of the site by the Congress and the President of the U.S. In particular, he listed key implications of the IRT (International Review team) recommendations on the forthcoming US-DOE documentation of its case for safety to be submitted to the regulator, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mainly: - The documentation submitted to the licensing authority should address technical aspects and compliance with regulatory criteria. - That documentation should reflect sound science and good engineering practice; it should present detailed and rigorous modelling. - In addition, it should present both quantitative and qualitative arguments, make a statement on why there can be confidence in the face of uncertainty, acknowledge remaining issues and provide the strategy to resolve them. - Demonstrating understanding is as important as demonstrating compliance. - There is a need to provide a clear explanation of the case made to the regulator for more general audiences to complement the large amount of technical documents that will be produced. The US-DOE response to these recommendations for the License Application, which is under preparation, is that the recommendations will be implemented to the maximum extent possible. In subsequent discussion, with respect to the License Application, it was acknowledged that detailed guidance from the U.S. regulator was very useful, and guidance of this type would be generally useful. At the current time, the words 'safety case' are not mentioned in U.S. regulations, but if one reads both the regulation and guidance documents it becomes evident that all aspects of a safety case need to be provided in the License Application and its accompanying documents

  11. Evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in screening stroke patients for symptoms: Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayis, Salma A; Ayerbe, Luis; Ashworth, Mark; DA Wolfe, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Variations have been reported in the number of underlying constructs and choice of thresholds that determine caseness of anxiety and /or depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). This study examined the properties of each item of HADS as perceived by stroke patients, and assessed the information these items convey about anxiety and depression between 3 months to 5 years after stroke. The study included 1443 stroke patients from the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). The dimensionality of HADS was examined using factor analysis methods, and items' properties up to 5 years after stroke were tested using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, including graded response models (GRMs). The presence of two dimensions of HADS (anxiety and depression) for stroke patients was confirmed. Items that accurately inferred about the severity of anxiety and depression, and offered good discrimination of caseness were identified as "I can laugh and see the funny side of things" (Q4) and "I get sudden feelings of panic" (Q13), discrimination 2.44 (se = 0.26), and 3.34 (se = 0.35), respectively. Items that shared properties, hence replicate inference were: "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" (Q3), "I get a sort of frightened feeling like butterflies in my stomach" (Q6), and "Worrying thoughts go through my mind" (Q9). Item properties were maintained over time. Approximately 20% of patients were lost to follow up. A more concise selection of items based on their properties, would provide a precise approach for screening patients and for an optimal allocation of patients into clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus: Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B Hart

    Full Text Available Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., time factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05, and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL. To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34 had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time were not observed in the current project (p<0.05. Also, approximately 16% of

  13. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay

  14. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Bebu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT, and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates.

  15. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  16. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  17. Approaching the Type-II Dirac Point and Concomitant Superconductivity in Pt-doping Stabilized Metastable 1T-phase IrTe2

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Fucong; Bo, Xiangyan; Wang, Pengdong; Ying, Jianghua; Chen, Bo; Liu, Qianqian; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Zhe; Qu, Fanming; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian; Song, Fengqi; Wan, Xiangang; Wang, Baigeng; Wang, Guanghou

    2017-01-01

    Topological semimetal is a topic of general interest in material science. Recently, a new kind of topological semimetal called type-II Dirac semimetal with tilted Dirac cones is discovered in PtSe2 family. However, the further investigation is hindered due to the huge energy difference from Dirac points to Fermi level and the irrelevant conducting pockets at Fermi surface. Here we characterize the optimized type-II Dirac dispersions in a metastable 1T phase of IrTe2. Our strategy of Pt doping...

  18. Plasma column displacement measurements by modified Rogowski sine-coil and Biot-Savart/magnetic flux equation solution on IR-T1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Khorshid, P.; Nedzelskiy, I.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2010-01-01

    The modified Rogowski sine-coil (MRSC) has been designed and implemented for the plasma column horizontal displacement measurements on small IR-T1 tokamak. MRSC operation has been examined on test assembly and tokamak. Obtained results show high sensitivity to the plasma column horizontal displacement and negligible sensitivity to the vertical displacement; linearity in wide, ±0.1 m, range of the displacements; and excellent, 1.5%, agreement with the results of numerical solution of Biot-Savart and magnetic flux equations.

  19. Possible use of dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future storage of spent nuclear fuel from IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, L.; Baltiyski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the present paper is related to one of the priority goals stipulated in Bulgarian Governmental Decision No.332 from May 17, 1999 - removal of SNF from IRT-Sofia site and its exporting for reprocessing and/or for temporary storage at Kozloduy NPP site. The variant of using dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future temporary storage of SNF from IRT-Sofia aims to find out a reasonable alternative of the existing till now variant for temporary SNF storage under water in the existing Kozloduy NPP Spent Fuel Storage Facility until its export for reprocessing. Results: Based on the given data for the condition of 73 Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies (SNFA) stored in the storage pool and technical data as well as data for available equipment and IRT-Sofia layout the following framework are specified: draft technical features of dual purpose dry storage casks and their overall dimensions; the suitability of the available equipment for safety and reliable performance of transportation and handling operations of assemblies from storage pool to dual purpose dry storage casks; the necessity of new equipment for performance of the above mentioned operations; Assemblies' transportation and handling operations are described; requirements to and conditions for future safety and reliable storage of SNFA loaded casks are determined. When selecting the technical solutions for safety assurance during performance of site handling operations of IRT-Sofia and for description of the exemplary casks the Effective Bulgarian Regulations are considered. The experience of other countries in performance of transfer and transportation of SNFA from such types of research reactors is taken into account. Also, Kozloduy NPP experience in SNF handling operations is taken into account. Conclusions: The Decision of Council of Minister for refurbishment of research reactor into a low power one and its future utilization for experimental and training

  20. The Experience of Storage and Shipment for Reprocessing of HEU Nuclear Fuel Irradiated in the IRT-M Research Reactor and Pamir-630 Mobile Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorin, S. N.; Polazau, S. A.; Luneu, A. N.; Hrigarovich, T. K. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research–Sosny of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-08-15

    At the end of 2010 under the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research–“Sosny” (JIPNR–Sosny) of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus repatriated HEU spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent nuclear fuel was from the decommissioned Pamir-630D mobile reactor and IRT-M research reactor. The paper discusses the Pamir-630D spent nuclear fuel; experience and problems of spent nuclear fuel storage; and various aspects of the shipment including legal framework, preparation activities and shipment logistics. The conceptual project of a new research reactor for Belarus is also presented.

  1. Dynamic Properties of QT Intervals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Vondra, Vlastimil; Lipoldová, J.; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Kára, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), s. 517-520 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/1129; GA MŠk ME09050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT Intervals * arrhythmia diagnosis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2009/pdf/0517.pdf

  2. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  3. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  4. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  5. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov expone...

  6. Large Sample Confidence Intervals for Item Response Theory Reliability Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Björn; Xin, Tao

    2018-01-01

    In applications of item response theory (IRT), an estimate of the reliability of the ability estimates or sum scores is often reported. However, analytical expressions for the standard errors of the estimators of the reliability coefficients are not available in the literature and therefore the variability associated with the estimated reliability…

  7. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  8. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  9. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others

  10. Some Characterizations of Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on new characterizations of convex interval games using the notions of exactness and superadditivity. We also relate big boss interval games with concave interval games and obtain characterizations of big boss interval games in terms of exactness and subadditivity.

  11. IRT-Based Measurement of Short-Term Changes of Ability, with an Application to Assessing the "Mozart Effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittler, Georg; Fischer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The article extends and applies previous approaches by Klauer and Fischer to the statistical evaluation of ability changes in tests conforming to the Rasch model (RM). Exact uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) hypothesis tests and uniformly most accurate (UMA) confidence intervals (CIs) for the amount of change can be constructed for each…

  12. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Re-evaluating a vision-related quality of life questionnaire with item response theory (IRT and differential item functioning (DIF analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knol Dirk L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the Low Vision Quality Of Life questionnaire (LVQOL it is unknown whether the psychometric properties are satisfactory when an item response theory (IRT perspective is considered. This study evaluates some essential psychometric properties of the LVQOL questionnaire in an IRT model, and investigates differential item functioning (DIF. Methods Cross-sectional data were used from an observational study among visually-impaired patients (n = 296. Calibration was performed for every dimension of the LVQOL in the graded response model. Item goodness-of-fit was assessed with the S-X2-test. DIF was assessed on relevant background variables (i.e. age, gender, visual acuity, eye condition, rehabilitation type and administration type with likelihood-ratio tests for DIF. The magnitude of DIF was interpreted by assessing the largest difference in expected scores between subgroups. Measurement precision was assessed by presenting test information curves; reliability with the index of subject separation. Results All items of the LVQOL dimensions fitted the model. There was significant DIF on several items. For two items the maximum difference between expected scores exceeded one point, and DIF was found on multiple relevant background variables. Item 1 'Vision in general' from the "Adjustment" dimension and item 24 'Using tools' from the "Reading and fine work" dimension were removed. Test information was highest for the "Reading and fine work" dimension. Indices for subject separation ranged from 0.83 to 0.94. Conclusions The items of the LVQOL showed satisfactory item fit to the graded response model; however, two items were removed because of DIF. The adapted LVQOL with 21 items is DIF-free and therefore seems highly appropriate for use in heterogeneous populations of visually impaired patients.

  14. Fetal Growth in Pregnancies Conceived after Gastric Bypass Surgery in Relation to Surgery-to-Conception Interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lone Nikoline; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Kirkegaard, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Medicine Database). Main outcome measures were early and late fetal growth in relation to time from bariatric surgery to conception of the pregnancy. Early fetal growth was expressed as "Fetal Growth Index": the ratio between the estimated number of days from first trimester ultrasound to second trimester......OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton...... ultrasound biometries and the actual calender time elapsed in days. Late fetal growth was expressed as the observed versus expected birthweight according to gestational age (GA). RESULTS: The surgery-to-conception interval ranged from 3 to 1851 days with a mean value of 502 (SD, 351) days. The mean "fetal...

  15. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard D; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more useful alternative to NHST, and their use is strongly encouraged in the APA Manual. Nevertheless, little is known about how researchers interpret CIs. In this study, 120 researchers and 442 students-all in the field of psychology-were asked to assess the truth value of six particular statements involving different interpretations of a CI. Although all six statements were false, both researchers and students endorsed, on average, more than three statements, indicating a gross misunderstanding of CIs. Self-declared experience with statistics was not related to researchers' performance, and, even more surprisingly, researchers hardly outperformed the students, even though the students had not received any education on statistical inference whatsoever. Our findings suggest that many researchers do not know the correct interpretation of a CI. The misunderstandings surrounding p-values and CIs are particularly unfortunate because they constitute the main tools by which psychologists draw conclusions from data.

  16. Using the confidence interval confidently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Avijit

    2017-10-01

    Biomedical research is seldom done with entire populations but rather with samples drawn from a population. Although we work with samples, our goal is to describe and draw inferences regarding the underlying population. It is possible to use a sample statistic and estimates of error in the sample to get a fair idea of the population parameter, not as a single value, but as a range of values. This range is the confidence interval (CI) which is estimated on the basis of a desired confidence level. Calculation of the CI of a sample statistic takes the general form: CI = Point estimate ± Margin of error, where the margin of error is given by the product of a critical value (z) derived from the standard normal curve and the standard error of point estimate. Calculation of the standard error varies depending on whether the sample statistic of interest is a mean, proportion, odds ratio (OR), and so on. The factors affecting the width of the CI include the desired confidence level, the sample size and the variability in the sample. Although the 95% CI is most often used in biomedical research, a CI can be calculated for any level of confidence. A 99% CI will be wider than 95% CI for the same sample. Conflict between clinical importance and statistical significance is an important issue in biomedical research. Clinical importance is best inferred by looking at the effect size, that is how much is the actual change or difference. However, statistical significance in terms of P only suggests whether there is any difference in probability terms. Use of the CI supplements the P value by providing an estimate of actual clinical effect. Of late, clinical trials are being designed specifically as superiority, non-inferiority or equivalence studies. The conclusions from these alternative trial designs are based on CI values rather than the P value from intergroup comparison.

  17. Direct Interval Forecasting of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness...

  18. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  19. Optimal Data Interval for Estimating Advertising Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard J. Tellis; Philip Hans Franses

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of highly disaggregate data (e.g., at five-second intervals) raises the question of the optimal data interval to estimate advertising carryover. The literature assumes that (1) the optimal data interval is the interpurchase time, (2) too disaggregate data causes a disaggregation bias, and (3) recovery of true parameters requires assumption of the underlying advertising process. In contrast, we show that (1) the optimal data interval is what we call , (2) too disaggregate data do...

  20. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  1. Consistency and refinement for Interval Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahaye, Benoit; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Interval Markov Chains (IMC), or Markov Chains with probability intervals in the transition matrix, are the base of a classic specification theory for probabilistic systems [18]. The standard semantics of IMCs assigns to a specification the set of all Markov Chains that satisfy its interval...

  2. Multivariate interval-censored survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Interval censoring means that an event time is only known to lie in an interval (L,R], with L the last examination time before the event, and R the first after. In the univariate case, parametric models are easily fitted, whereas for non-parametric models, the mass is placed on some intervals, de...

  3. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  4. Correct Bayesian and frequentist intervals are similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper argues that Bayesians and frequentists will normally reach numerically similar conclusions, when dealing with vague data or sparse data. It is shown that both statistical methodologies can deal reasonably with vague data. With sparse data, in many important practical cases Bayesian interval estimates and frequentist confidence intervals are approximately equal, although with discrete data the frequentist intervals are somewhat longer. This is not to say that the two methodologies are equally easy to use: The construction of a frequentist confidence interval may require new theoretical development. Bayesians methods typically require numerical integration, perhaps over many variables. Also, Bayesian can easily fall into the trap of over-optimism about their amount of prior knowledge. But in cases where both intervals are found correctly, the two intervals are usually not very different. (orig.)

  5. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  6. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Blair

    Full Text Available At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI. The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity.

  7. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  8. Differences in symptom expression between unipolar and bipolar spectrum depression: Results from a nationally representative sample using item response theory (IRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Nicolas; Blanco, Carlos; Peyre, Hugo; Wall, Melanie M; McMahon, Kibby; Gorwood, Philip; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of subsyndromal forms of bipolarity in the fifth edition of the DSM has major implications for the way in which we approach the diagnosis of individuals with depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine whether, when equating for levels of depression severity, there are differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) between subjects with and without a lifetime history of manic symptoms. We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample from the USA (n=34,653), the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The items sadness, appetite disturbance and psychomotor symptoms were better indicators of depression severity in participants without a lifetime history of manic symptoms, in a clinically meaningful way. DSM-IV symptoms of MDE were substantially less informative in participants with a lifetime history of manic symptoms than in those without such history. Clinical information on DSM-IV depressive and manic symptoms was based on retrospective self-report The clinical presentation of depressive symptoms may substantially differ in individuals with and without a lifetime history of manic symptoms. These findings alert to the possibility of atypical symptomatic presentations among individuals with co-occurring symptoms or disorders and highlight the importance of continued research into specific pathophysiology differentiating unipolar and bipolar depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  10. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2002-01-01

    of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...

  11. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  12. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  13. Confidence Interval Approximation For Treatment Variance In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a random effects model with a single factor, variation is partitioned into two as residual error variance and treatment variance. While a confidence interval can be imposed on the residual error variance, it is not possible to construct an exact confidence interval for the treatment variance. This is because the treatment ...

  14. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  15. Expressing Intervals in Automated Service Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

    During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

  16. Reviewing interval cancers: Time well spent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower-Thomas, Kate; Fielder, Hilary M.P.; Branston, Lucy; Greening, Sarah; Beer, Helen; Rogers, Cerilan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To categorize interval cancers, and thus identify false-negatives, following prevalent and incident screens in the Welsh breast screening programme. SETTING: Breast Test Wales (BTW) Llandudno, Cardiff and Swansea breast screening units. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty interval breast cancers identified following negative mammographic screening between 1989 and 1997 were reviewed by eight screening radiologists. The blind review was achieved by mixing the screening films of women who subsequently developed an interval cancer with screen negative films of women who did not develop cancer, in a ratio of 4:1. Another radiologist used patients' symptomatic films to record a reference against which the reviewers' reports of the screening films were compared. Interval cancers were categorized as 'true', 'occult', 'false-negative' or 'unclassified' interval cancers or interval cancers with minimal signs, based on the National Health Service breast screening programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the classifiable interval films, 32% were false-negatives, 55% were true intervals and 12% occult. The proportion of false-negatives following incident screens was half that following prevalent screens (P = 0.004). Forty percent of the seed films were recalled by the panel. CONCLUSIONS: Low false-negative interval cancer rates following incident screens (18%) versus prevalent screens (36%) suggest that lower cancer detection rates at incident screens may have resulted from fewer cancers than expected being present, rather than from a failure to detect tumours. The panel method for categorizing interval cancers has significant flaws as the results vary markedly with different protocol and is no more accurate than other, quicker and more timely methods. Gower-Thomas, K. et al. (2002)

  17. Auditory proactive interference in monkeys: the roles of stimulus set size and intertrial interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2013-09-01

    We conducted two experiments to examine the influences of stimulus set size (the number of stimuli that are used throughout the session) and intertrial interval (ITI, the elapsed time between trials) in auditory short-term memory in monkeys. We used an auditory delayed matching-to-sample task wherein the animals had to indicate whether two sounds separated by a 5-s retention interval were the same (match trials) or different (nonmatch trials). In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned stimulus set sizes of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 192 (trial-unique) for each session of 128 trials. Consistent with previous visual studies, overall accuracy was consistently lower when smaller stimulus set sizes were used. Further analyses revealed that these effects were primarily caused by an increase in incorrect "same" responses on nonmatch trials. In Experiment 2, we held the stimulus set size constant at four for each session and alternately set the ITI at 5, 10, or 20 s. Overall accuracy improved when the ITI was increased from 5 to 10 s, but it was the same across the 10- and 20-s conditions. As in Experiment 1, the overall decrease in accuracy during the 5-s condition was caused by a greater number of false "match" responses on nonmatch trials. Taken together, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that auditory short-term memory in monkeys is highly susceptible to proactive interference caused by stimulus repetition. Additional analyses of the data from Experiment 1 suggested that monkeys may make same-different judgments on the basis of a familiarity criterion that is adjusted by error-related feedback.

  18. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  20. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  1. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  2. Reconstruction of dynamical systems from interspike intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.

    1994-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction from interspike interval (ISI) data is described, in rough analogy with Taken's theorem for attractor reconstruction from time series. Assuming a generic integrate-and-fire model coupling the dynamical system to the spike train, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the system states and interspike interval vectors of sufficiently large dimension. The correspondence has an important implication: interspike intervals can be forecast from past history. We show that deterministically driven ISI series can be distinguished from stochastically driven ISI series on the basis of prediction error

  3. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coninx

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree’s Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus. Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  4. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein) Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Laura; Thoonen, Anneleen; Slenders, Eli; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arnauts, Natascha; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Kohler, Annegret; Ruytinx, Joske; Colpaert, Jan V

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree's Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus , a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein) family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus . Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  5. Are symptom features of depression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period distinct? Results from a nationally representative sample using item response theory (IRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Nicolas; López, Saioa; Peyre, Hugo; Wall, Melanie M; González-Pinto, Ana; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Whether there are systematic differences in depression symptom expression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside these periods (i.e., outside the peripartum period) remains debated. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine, after equating for depression severity, differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) in women of childbearing age (i.e., aged 18-50) during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample of women of childbearing age from the United States (n = 11,256) who participated in the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The overall 12-month prevalence of all depressive criteria (except for worthlessness/guilt) was significantly lower in pregnant women than in women of childbearing age outside the peripartum period, whereas the prevalence of all symptoms (except for "psychomotor symptoms") was not significantly different between the postpartum and the nonperipartum group. There were no clinically significant differences in the endorsement rates of symptoms of MDE by pregnancy status when equating for levels of depression severity. This study suggests that the clinical presentation of depressive symptoms in women of childbearing age does not differ during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. These findings do not provide psychometric support for the inclusion of the peripartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  7. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  8. Socioeconomic position and the primary care interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Anders

    2018-01-01

    to the easiness to interpret the symptoms of the underlying cancer. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study using survey data on time intervals linked at an individually level to routine collected data on demographics from Danish registries. Using logistic regression we estimated the odds......Introduction. Diagnostic delays affect cancer survival negatively. Thus, the time interval from symptomatic presentation to a GP until referral to secondary care (i.e. primary care interval (PCI)), should be as short as possible. Lower socioeconomic position seems associated with poorer cancer...... younger than 45 years of age and older than 54 years of age had longer primary care interval than patients aged ‘45-54’ years. No other associations for SEP characteristics were observed. The findings may imply that GPs are referring patients regardless of SEP, although some room for improvement prevails...

  9. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  10. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  11. Impact of sampling interval in training data acquisition on intrafractional predictive accuracy of indirect dynamic tumor-tracking radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Akimoto, Mami; Miyabe, Yuki; Yokota, Kenji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To explore the effect of sampling interval of training data acquisition on the intrafractional prediction error of surrogate signal-based dynamic tumor-tracking using a gimbal-mounted linac. Twenty pairs of respiratory motions were acquired from 20 patients (ten lung, five liver, and five pancreatic cancer patients) who underwent dynamic tumor-tracking with the Vero4DRT. First, respiratory motions were acquired as training data for an initial construction of the prediction model before the irradiation. Next, additional respiratory motions were acquired for an update of the prediction model due to the change of the respiratory pattern during the irradiation. The time elapsed prior to the second acquisition of the respiratory motion was 12.6 ± 3.1 min. A four-axis moving phantom reproduced patients' three dimensional (3D) target motions and one dimensional surrogate motions. To predict the future internal target motion from the external surrogate motion, prediction models were constructed by minimizing residual prediction errors for training data acquired at 80 and 320 ms sampling intervals for 20 s, and at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms sampling intervals for 60 s using orthogonal kV x-ray imaging systems. The accuracies of prediction models trained with various sampling intervals were estimated based on training data with each sampling interval during the training process. The intrafractional prediction errors for various prediction models were then calculated on intrafractional monitoring images taken for 30 s at the constant sampling interval of a 500 ms fairly to evaluate the prediction accuracy for the same motion pattern. In addition, the first respiratory motion was used for the training and the second respiratory motion was used for the evaluation of the intrafractional prediction errors for the changed respiratory motion to evaluate the robustness of the prediction models. The training error of the prediction model was 1.7 ± 0.7 mm in 3D for all sampling

  12. Establishing a minimum postmortem interval of human remains in an advanced state of skeletonization using the growth rate of bryophytes and plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, H F V; Santos, A; Dias, R; Garcia, C; Pinto, M; Sérgio, C; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    This paper illustrates the usefulness and efficiency of botanical evidence in establishing a minimum postmortem interval (PMI). The case under analysis refers to the remains of an adult male in an advanced state of skeletonization recovered from a wooded area in northern Portugal. The skeleton showed several taphonomical changes, which included the presence of green algae, bryophytes, and growing shrub roots in, around, and through the remains. By determining the age of both the bryophytes and shrub roots, it was concluded that the minimum amount of time elapsed since death was 3 years, to which several months or a few years have to be added to account for the complete decomposition of the remains. The disappearance of the presumptive individual had occurred 6 years before and is fully consistent with the estimate of the PMI. This report illustrates a novel use of bryophytes in a forensic setting.

  13. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2004-01-01

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  14. Interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnes, Nina; Surén, Pål; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hornig, Mady; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W Ian; Magnus, Per; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra Saul; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    A recent California study reported increased risk of autistic disorder in children conceived within a year after the birth of a sibling. We assessed the association between interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder using nationwide registry data on pairs of singleton full siblings born in Norway. We defined interpregnancy interval as the time from birth of the first-born child to conception of the second-born child in a sibship. The outcome of interest was autistic disorder in the second-born child. Analyses were restricted to sibships in which the second-born child was born in 1990-2004. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by fitting ordinary logistic models and logistic generalized additive models. The study sample included 223,476 singleton full-sibling pairs. In sibships with interpregnancy intervals autistic disorder, compared with 0.13% in the reference category (≥ 36 months). For interpregnancy intervals shorter than 9 months, the adjusted OR of autistic disorder in the second-born child was 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.42-3.26). The risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child was also increased for interpregnancy intervals of 9-11 months in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.71 [95% CI = 1.07-2.64]). Consistent with a previous report from California, interpregnancy intervals shorter than 1 year were associated with increased risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child. A possible explanation is depletion of micronutrients in mothers with closely spaced pregnancies.

  15. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  16. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  17. Chosen interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    The paper is devoted to chosen direct interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix. This kind of matrix: band matrix with a parameter, from finite difference problem is obtained. Such linear systems occur while solving one dimensional wave equation (Partial Differential Equations of hyperbolic type) by using the central difference interval method of the second order. Interval methods are constructed so as the errors of method are enclosed in obtained results, therefore presented linear interval systems contain elements that determining the errors of difference method. The chosen direct algorithms have been applied for solving linear systems because they have no errors of method. All calculations were performed in floating-point interval arithmetic.

  18. POSTMORTAL CHANGES AND ASSESSMENT OF POSTMORTEM INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in a simple way the changes that occur in the body after death.They develop in a specific order, and the speed of their development and their expression are strongly influenced by various endogenous and exogenous factors. The aim of the authors is to indicate the characteristics of the postmortem changes, and their significance in establishing time since death, which can be established precisely within 72 hours. Accurate evaluation of the age of the corpse based on the common changes is not possible with longer postmortem intervals, so the entomological findings become the most significant change on the corpse for determination of the postmortem interval (PMI.

  19. A sequent calculus for signed interval logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2001-01-01

    We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL....... We present a mechanization of SIL in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and consider techniques for automated reasoning. Many of the results and ideas of this report are also applicable to traditional (non-signed) interval logic and, hence, to Duration Calculus....

  20. Interval Continuous Plant Identification from Value Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to obtain the values of the numerator and denominator Kharitonov polynomials of an interval plant from its value set at a given frequency. Moreover, it is proven that given a value set, all the assigned polynomials of the vertices can be determined if and only if there is a complete edge or a complete arc lying on a quadrant. This algorithm is nonconservative in the sense that if the value-set boundary of an interval plant is exactly known, and particularly its vertices, then the Kharitonov rectangles are exactly those used to obtain these value sets.

  1. On interval and cyclic interval edge colorings of (3,5)-biregular graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casselgren, Carl Johan; Petrosyan, Petros; Toft, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    A proper edge coloring f of a graph G with colors 1,2,3,…,t is called an interval coloring if the colors on the edges incident to every vertex of G form an interval of integers. The coloring f is cyclic interval if for every vertex v of G, the colors on the edges incident to v either form an inte...

  2. Circadian profile of QT interval and QT interval variability in 172 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Wiegand, Uwe K H; Braasch, Wiebke

    2003-01-01

    of sleep. QT and R-R intervals revealed a characteristic day-night-pattern. Diurnal profiles of QT interval variability exhibited a significant increase in the morning hours (6-9 AM; P ... lower at day- and nighttime. Aging was associated with an increase of QT interval mainly at daytime and a significant shift of the T wave apex towards the end of the T wave. The circadian profile of ventricular repolarization is strongly related to the mean R-R interval, however, there are significant...

  3. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  4. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  5. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  6. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  7. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study w...

  8. The Total Interval of a Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    about them in a mathematical con- text. A thorough treatment of multiple interval representations, including applications, is given by Roberts [21...8217-. -- + .".-)’""- +_ .. ,_ _ CA6 46 operation applied to a member of .4 U 3 T U.) U.3 UU- T T i Figure 11.2.18 I Fieure 11.2.19 ,* This completes the proof

  9. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  10. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The QT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  11. Linear chord diagrams on two intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, Christian

    generating function ${\\bf C}_g(z)=z^{2g}R_g(z)/(1-4z)^{3g-{1\\over 2}}$ for chords attached to a single interval is algebraic, for $g\\geq 1$, where the polynomial $R_g(z)$ with degree at most $g-1$ has integer coefficients and satisfies $R_g(1/4)\

  12. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  13. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  14. The possibility of creating a new low power nuclear facility with slightly enriched nuclear fuel on the basis of the decommissioned IRT-M reactor intended for applied purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramidze, Sh.P.; Katamadze, N.M.; Kiknadze, G.G.; Rostomashvili, Z.I.; Saralidze, Z.K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly 50 years have passed since the appearance of the first nuclear research reactors. Most of them have completed their operating life and must be dismantled. But it is known that the dismantling of permanently shut down nuclear reactors is a very complex process, full realization that it generates a lot of radioactive waste (both solid and liquid), it is connected with high financial expenditures, and its solution is apparently beyond the possibilities of many countries, including Georgia In the given paper we consider a radiologically safe, ecologically clean and economically beneficial version of the decommissioning of the IRT-M nuclear research reactor and the stages of its implementation that are not connected with the dismantling of its highly radioactive technological components. We justify the possibility of creating a new Low Power Nuclear Facility on the basis of the decommissioned IRT-M reactor to solve the problems of applied nature in different fields of science and technology being very important for Georgia. (author)

  15. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  16. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  17. Understanding Confidence Intervals With Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz, Bilgin; Delen, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed how confidence intervals (CIs) are valuable and useful in research studies when they are used in the correct form with correct interpretations. The sixth edition of the APA (2010) Publication Manual strongly recommended reporting CIs in research studies, and it was described as “the best reporting strategy” (p. 34). Misconceptions and correct interpretations of CIs were presented from several textbooks. In addition, limitations of the null hypothesis statistica...

  18. Early diastolic time intervals during hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, L; Ferro, G; Nappi, C; Farace, M J; Talarico, G; Cinquegrana, G; Condorelli, M

    1987-10-01

    Early diastolic time intervals have been assessed by means of the echopolycardiographic method in 17 pregnant women who developed hypertension during pregnancy (HP) and in 14 normal pregnant women (N). Systolic time intervals (STI), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and mean velocity of myocardial fiber shortening (VCF) were also evaluated. Recordings were performed in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) and then in the supine decubitus (SD). In LLD, isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was prolonged in the hypertensive pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women (HP 51 +/- 12.5 ms, N 32.4 +/- 15 ms p less than 0.05), whereas time of the mitral valve maximum opening (DE) was not different in the groups. There was no difference in SV, EF, and mean VCF, whereas STI showed only a significant (p less than 0.05) lengthening of pre-ejection period (PEP) in HP. When the subjects shifted from the left lateral to the supine decubitus position, left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) and SV decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in both normotensive hypertensive pregnant women. IRP and PEP lengthened significantly (p less than 0.05) only in normals, whereas they were unchanged in HP. DE time did not vary in either group. In conclusion, hypertension superimposed on pregnancy induces lengthening of IRP, as well as of PEP, and minimizes the effects of the postural changes in preload on the above-mentioned time intervals.

  19. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  20. Intervención familiar: programa EDUCA

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Sibajas, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este taller será el de presentar un programa de escuela de padres protocolizado en grupo para la prevención primaria y secundaria de los trastornos del comportamiento perturbador (el trastorno negativista desafiante y el trastorno disocial) en la infancia y la adolescencia. Se describirán las principales estrategias y dinámicas de intervención con el objetivo de que el taller sea eminentemente práctico, incidiendo en no sólo “ qué hacer", sino en "cómo podemos hace...

  1. Approximation of the semi-infinite interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. McD. Mercer

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.

  2. Confidence intervals for the lognormal probability distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Naberejnev, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    The present communication addresses the topic of symmetric confidence intervals for the lognormal probability distribution. This distribution is frequently utilized to characterize inherently positive, continuous random variables that are selected to represent many physical quantities in applied nuclear science and technology. The basic formalism is outlined herein and a conjured numerical example is provided for illustration. It is demonstrated that when the uncertainty reflected in a lognormal probability distribution is large, the use of a confidence interval provides much more useful information about the variable used to represent a particular physical quantity than can be had by adhering to the notion that the mean value and standard deviation of the distribution ought to be interpreted as best value and corresponding error, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that if the uncertainty is very large a disturbing anomaly can arise when one insists on interpreting the mean value and standard deviation as the best value and corresponding error, respectively. Reliance on using the mode and median as alternative parameters to represent the best available knowledge of a variable with large uncertainties is also shown to entail limitations. Finally, a realistic physical example involving the decay of radioactivity over a time period that spans many half-lives is presented and analyzed to further illustrate the concepts discussed in this communication

  3. una experiencia de intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Villarreal Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume la experiencia de intervención con una familia de la escuela de Villa Esperanza de Pavas. Se trata de un matrimonio con dificultades para disciplinar a sus tres hijos varones de ocho, seis, y cuatro años. En primer lugar, se exponen los principios teóricos y metodológicos, para luego mostrar la aplicación de ellos en el proceso vivido por la familia. Se aplica el modelo de intervención estructural, que busca que la misma familia logre realizar, paso a paso, los cambios requeridos en la dinámica y estructura familiar. En la situación específica de esta familia, se observa el fortalecimiento de la pareja como tal y como madre y padre en la medida que van logrando asumir la autoridad en forma compartida para disciplinar a los hijos. Al compartir esta experiencia, la autora pretende estimular a profesionales en Orientación a asumir el reto de considerar a las familias de la comunidad estudiantil, de las instituciones educativas donde laboran, como parte importante en el quehacer orientador.

  4. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  5. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  6. Interval-based reconstruction for uncertainty quantification in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczak, Florentin; Loquin, Kevin; Buvat, Irène; Strauss, Olivier; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2018-02-01

    A new directed interval-based tomographic reconstruction algorithm, called non-additive interval based expectation maximization (NIBEM) is presented. It uses non-additive modeling of the forward operator that provides intervals instead of single-valued projections. The detailed approach is an extension of the maximum likelihood—expectation maximization algorithm based on intervals. The main motivation for this extension is that the resulting intervals have appealing properties for estimating the statistical uncertainty associated with the reconstructed activity values. After reviewing previously published theoretical concepts related to interval-based projectors, this paper describes the NIBEM algorithm and gives examples that highlight the properties and advantages of this interval valued reconstruction.

  7. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  8. Tracking gauge symmetry factorizability on intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc-Khanh Tran

    2006-01-01

    We track the gauge symmetry breaking pattern by boundary conditions on fifth and higher-dimensional intervals. It is found that, with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions, the Kaluza-Klein decomposition in five-dimension for arbitrary gauge group can always be factorized into that for separate subsets of at most two gauge symmetries, and so is completely solvable. Accordingly, we present a simple and systematic geometric method to unambiguously identify the gauge breaking/mixing content by general set of Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions. We then formulate a limit theorem on gauge symmetry factorizability to recapitulate this interesting feature. Albeit the breaking/mixing, a particularly simple check of orthogonality and normalization of fields' modes in effective 4-dim picture is explicitly obtained. An interesting chained-mixing of gauge symmetries in higher dimensions by Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is also explicitly constructed. This study has direct applications to higgsless/GUT model building

  9. Intervals between multiple fractions per day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the linear quadratic model for dose-response curves enables the proportion of repairable damage to be calculated for any size of dose per fraction. It is given by the beta (dose squared) term, and represents a larger proportion of the total damage for larger doses per fraction, but also for late-reacting than for early-reacting tissues. For example at 2 Gy per fraction, repairable damage could represent nearly half the total damage in late-reacting tissues but only one fifth in early-reacting tissues. Even if repair occurs at the same rate in both tissues, it will obviously take longer for 50% of the damage to fade to an undetectable level (3 or 5%) than for 20% to do so. This means that late reactions require longer intervals than early reactions when multiple fraction per day radiotherapy is planned, even if the half-lives of repair are not different. (orig.)

  10. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Min

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  11. Modal interval analysis new tools for numerical information

    CERN Document Server

    Sainz, Miguel A; Calm, Remei; Herrero, Pau; Jorba, Lambert; Vehi, Josep

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals by means of the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.

  12. Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.

  13. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  14. para la intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Parada Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas de fertilidad y concepción han sido tratados habitualmente en sus dimensiones biomédicas. Sin embargo, estos problemas reclaman cada día mayor intervención de equipos interdisciplinarios que permitan una atención integral, pues la imposibilidad de concepción no sólo está asociada a limitaciones biofísicas. Este artículo se desarrolla en torno a tres cuestiones: la primera, sobre la infertilidad, su dimensión biomédica y las aproximaciones que ha propuesto la Psicología para comprender las implicaciones de este fenómeno; la segunda, sobre la pareja, resaltando las posturas orientadas a discernir su naturaleza, sus formas de funcionamiento y las condiciones que las mueven al cambio; la tercera, relacionada con la narrativa como posibilidad para comprender e interpretar los fenómenos clínicos, entre ellos, las experiencias de las parejas en procesos de fertilidad asistida.

  15. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Restricted Interval Guelph permeameter: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    A constant head permeameter system has been developed for use in small diameter boreholes with any orientation. It is based upon the original Guelph permeameter concept of using a Mariotte siphon reservoir to control the applied head. The new tool, called a Restricted Interval Guelph (RIG) permeameter uses either a single pneumatic packer or straddle packer to restrict the area through which water is allowed to flow so that the borehole wetted area is independent of the applied head. The RIG permeameter has been used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the nonwelded rhyolitic Paintbrush Tuff. Analysis of the acquired data is based upon saturated-unsaturated flow theory that relies upon the quasi-linear approximation to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and the a parameter (sorptive number) of the exponential relative hydraulic conductivity pressure head relationship. These results are compared with a numerical model based upon the solution of the Richards equation using a van Genuchten capillary pressure-saturation formulation. The numerical model incorporates laboratory capillary pressure versus saturation functions measured from cores taken from nearby boreholes. Comparison between the analytical and numerical approaches shows that the simple analytic model is valid for analyzing the data collected. Sensitivity analysis performed with the numerical model shows that the RIG permeameter is an effective tool for estimating permeability and sorptive number for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff

  17. Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Lucena

    Full Text Available The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.

  18. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... whereby time instants (points) and time periods (intervals) are considered on a par, and the perspective can shift between them within the formal discourse. We focus on fragments involving only modal operators that correspond to the inter-sort relations between points and intervals. We analyze...

  19. Confidence Intervals from Normalized Data: A correction to Cousineau (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Morey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Presenting confidence intervals around means is a common method of expressing uncertainty in data. Loftus and Masson (1994 describe confidence intervals for means in within-subjects designs. These confidence intervals are based on the ANOVA mean squared error. Cousineau (2005 presents an alternative to the Loftus and Masson method, but his method produces confidence intervals that are smaller than those of Loftus and Masson. I show why this is the case and offer a simple correction that makes the expected size of Cousineau confidence intervals the same as that of Loftus and Masson confidence intervals.

  20. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  1. Traces of times past : Representations of temporal intervals in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2011-01-01

    Theories of time perception typically assume that some sort of memory represents time intervals. This memory component is typically underdeveloped in theories of time perception. Following earlier work that suggested that representations of different time intervals contaminate each other (Grondin,

  2. VT Mile Points - 1/10-Mile Intervals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The mile points data layer is comprised of discrete locations based on specific measured intervals along a route. These intervals are represented along a...

  3. Effect of interval training programme on pulse pressure in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... The exercise (work: rest ratio of 1:1) groups involved in an 8-weeks interval training programs of ... Conclusion: Moderate intensity interval training programs is effective in the non-pharmacological management of

  4. Short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition of TMS-evoked EEG potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premoli, Isabella; Király, Julia; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Zipser, Carl M; Rossini, Pierre; Zrenner, Christoph; Ziemann, Ulf; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    Inhibition in the human motor cortex can be probed by means of paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) at interstimulus intervals of 2-3 ms (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) or ∼100 ms (long-interval intracortical inhibition, LICI). Conventionally, SICI and LICI are recorded as motor evoked potential (MEP) inhibition in the hand muscle. Pharmacological experiments indicate that they are mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors, respectively. SICI and LICI of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) and their pharmacological properties have not been systematically studied. Here, we sought to examine SICI by ppTMS-evoked compared to single-pulse TMS-evoked TEPs, to investigate its pharmacological manipulation and to compare SICI with our previous results on LICI. PpTMS-EEG was applied to the left motor cortex in 16 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, testing the effects of a single oral dose 20 mg of diazepam, a positive modulator at the GABAA receptor, vs. 50 mg of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on SICI of TEPs. We found significant SICI of the N100 and P180 TEPs prior to drug intake. Diazepam reduced SICI of the N100 TEP, while baclofen enhanced it. Compared to our previous ppTMS-EEG results on LICI, the SICI effects on TEPs, including their drug modulation, were largely analogous. Findings suggest a similar interaction of paired-pulse effects on TEPs irrespective of the interstimulus interval. Therefore, SICI and LICI as measured with TEPs cannot be directly derived from SICI and LICI measured with MEPs, but may offer novel insight into paired-pulse responses recorded directly from the brain rather than muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Interval Bound Algorithm of optimizing reactor core loading pattern by using reactivity interval schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhaohu; Wang Kan; Yao Dong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We present a new Loading Pattern Optimization method - Interval Bound Algorithm (IBA). → IBA directly uses the reactivity of fuel assemblies and burnable poison. → IBA can optimize fuel assembly orientation in a coupled way. → Numerical experiment shows that IBA outperforms genetic algorithm and engineers. → We devise DDWF technique to deal with multiple objectives and constraints. - Abstract: In order to optimize the core loading pattern in Nuclear Power Plants, the paper presents a new optimization method - Interval Bound Algorithm (IBA). Similar to the typical population based algorithms, e.g. genetic algorithm, IBA maintains a population of solutions and evolves them during the optimization process. IBA acquires the solution by statistical learning and sampling the control variable intervals of the population in each iteration. The control variables are the transforms of the reactivity of fuel assemblies or the worth of burnable poisons, which are the crucial heuristic information for loading pattern optimization problems. IBA can deal with the relationship between the dependent variables by defining the control variables. Based on the IBA algorithm, a parallel Loading Pattern Optimization code, named IBALPO, has been developed. To deal with multiple objectives and constraints, the Dynamic Discontinuous Weight Factors (DDWF) for the fitness function have been used in IBALPO. Finally, the code system has been used to solve a realistic reloading problem and a better pattern has been obtained compared with the ones searched by engineers and genetic algorithm, thus the performance of the code is proved.

  6. Application of the entropic coefficient for interval number optimization during interval assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynynyka A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In solving many statistical problems, the most precise choice of the distribution law of a random variable is required, the sample of which the authors observe. This choice requires the construction of an interval series. Therefore, the problem arises of assigning an optimal number of intervals, and this study proposes a number of formulas for solving it. Which of these formulas solves the problem more accurately? In [9], this question is investigated using the Pearson criterion. This article describes the procedure and on its basis gives formulas available in literature and proposed new formulas using the entropy coefficient. A comparison is made with the previously published results of applying Pearson's concord criterion for these purposes. Differences in the estimates of the accuracy of the formulas are found. The proposed new formulas for calculating the number of intervals showed the best results. Calculations have been made to compare the work of the same formulas for the distribution of sample data according to the normal law and the Rayleigh law.

  7. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  8. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...

  9. 46 CFR 176.675 - Extension of examination intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extension of examination intervals. 176.675 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.675 Extension of examination intervals. The intervals between drydock examinations and internal structural examinations...

  10. 46 CFR 61.20-17 - Examination intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination intervals. 61.20-17 Section 61.20-17... INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-17 Examination intervals. (a) A lubricant that... examination interval. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section, each tailshaft on...

  11. Rigorous Verification for the Solution of Nonlinear Interval System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We survey a general method for solving nonlinear interval systems of equations. In particular, we paid special attention to the computational aspects of linear interval systems since the bulk of computations are done during the stage of computing outer estimation of the including linear interval systems. The height of our ...

  12. DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT TRANSFER PRICING BY APPLICATION OF THE INTERVAL ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of the method of interval estimation of conformity of the transaction price the market price. A comparative analysis of interval and point estimate. Identified the positive and negative effects of using interval estimation.

  13. Learning about confidence intervals with software R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariela Gonçalves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 202 1111 USAL 9 2 1311 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This work was to study the feasibility of implementing a teaching method that employs software, in a Computational Mathematics course, involving students and teachers through the use of the statistical software R in carrying out practical work, such as strengthening the traditional teaching. The statistical inference, namely the determination of confidence intervals, was the content selected for this experience. It was intended show, first of all, that it is possible to promote, through the proposal methodology, the acquisition of basic skills in statistical inference and to promote the positive relationships between teachers and students. It presents also a comparative study between the methodologies used and their quantitative and qualitative results on two consecutive school years, in several indicators. The data used in the study were obtained from the students to the exam questions in the years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, from the achievement of a working group in 2011/2012 and via the responses to a questionnaire (optional and anonymous also applied in 2011 / 2012. In terms of results, we emphasize a better performance of students in the examination questions in 2011/2012, the year that students used the software R, and a very favorable student’s perspective about

  14. A Characterization of 2-Tree Probe Interval Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A graph is a probe interval graph if its vertices correspond to some set of intervals of the real line and can be partitioned into sets P and N so that vertices are adjacent if and only if their corresponding intervals intersect and at least one belongs to P. We characterize the 2-trees which are probe interval graphs and extend a list of forbidden induced subgraphs for such graphs created by Pržulj and Corneil in [2-tree probe interval graphs have a large obstruction set, Discrete Appl. Math. 150 (2005 216-231

  15. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  16. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean . We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  17. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  18. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  19. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  20. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, F.; Papachristos, E. B.; Gallistel, C. R.; Brunner, D.; Gibson, J.; Shumyatsky, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout ...

  1. One-sided interval edge-colorings of bipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casselgren, Carl Johan; Toft, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a bipartite graph with parts X and Y . An X-interval coloring of G is a proper edge coloring of G by integers such that the colors on the edges incident to any vertex in X form an interval. Denote by χ′int(G,X) the minimum k such that G has an X-interval coloring with k colors. In this p...

  2. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  3. How to Avoid Errors in Error Propagation: Prediction Intervals and Confidence Intervals in Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, P.; Yanai, R. D.; Buckley, H. L.; Case, B. S.; Woollons, R. C.; Holdaway, R. J.; Johnson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Calculations of forest biomass and elemental content require many measurements and models, each contributing uncertainty to the final estimates. While sampling error is commonly reported, based on replicate plots, error due to uncertainty in the regression used to estimate biomass from tree diameter is usually not quantified. Some published estimates of uncertainty due to the regression models have used the uncertainty in the prediction of individuals, ignoring uncertainty in the mean, while others have propagated uncertainty in the mean while ignoring individual variation. Using the simple case of the calcium concentration of sugar maple leaves, we compare the variation among individuals (the standard deviation) to the uncertainty in the mean (the standard error) and illustrate the declining importance in the prediction of individual concentrations as the number of individuals increases. For allometric models, the analogous statistics are the prediction interval (or the residual variation in the model fit) and the confidence interval (describing the uncertainty in the best fit model). The effect of propagating these two sources of error is illustrated using the mass of sugar maple foliage. The uncertainty in individual tree predictions was large for plots with few trees; for plots with 30 trees or more, the uncertainty in individuals was less important than the uncertainty in the mean. Authors of previously published analyses have reanalyzed their data to show the magnitude of these two sources of uncertainty in scales ranging from experimental plots to entire countries. The most correct analysis will take both sources of uncertainty into account, but for practical purposes, country-level reports of uncertainty in carbon stocks, as required by the IPCC, can ignore the uncertainty in individuals. Ignoring the uncertainty in the mean will lead to exaggerated estimates of confidence in estimates of forest biomass and carbon and nutrient contents.

  4. Indirect methods for reference interval determination - review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Haeckel, Rainer; Loh, Tze Ping; Sikaris, Ken; Streichert, Thomas; Katayev, Alex; Barth, Julian H; Ozarda, Yesim

    2018-04-19

    Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals. This is known as the indirect approach. This paper from a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) aims to summarize current thinking on indirect approaches to reference intervals. The indirect approach has some major potential advantages compared with direct methods. The processes are faster, cheaper and do not involve patient inconvenience, discomfort or the risks associated with generating new patient health information. Indirect methods also use the same preanalytical and analytical techniques used for patient management and can provide very large numbers for assessment. Limitations to the indirect methods include possible effects of diseased subpopulations on the derived interval. The IFCC C-RIDL aims to encourage the use of indirect methods to establish and verify reference intervals, to promote publication of such intervals with clear explanation of the process used and also to support the development of improved statistical techniques for these studies.

  5. The Interval Stability of an Electricity Market Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the electric power market dynamic model put forward by Alvarado, an interval model of electricity markets is established and investigated in this paper pertaining to the range of demand elasticity with suppliers and consumers. The stability of an electricity market framework with demand elasticity interval is analyzed. The conclusions characterizing the interval model provided are derived by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function and using the theory of interval dynamical system in differential equations and matrix inequality theory and so forth. Applying the corollary obtained can judge the system stability by available data about demand elasticity. The obtained results are validated and illustrated by a case example.

  6. INTRINSIC TOPOLOGY AND REFINEMENT OF HUTTON UNIT INTERVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国俊; 徐罗山

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of continuous lattices to the study of the Hutton unit interval I(L). some theorems related to I(L) are pithily proved. A kind of intrinsic topologies is applied to refining the topology of I(L),and a new fuzzy unit interval,called the H(λ) unit interval,is defined.Based on the H(λ) unit interval the H(λ)-complete regularity is introduced.Also,the theory of. H(λ)-stone-ech compactifications is established

  7. Estimation of individual reference intervals in small sample sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2007-01-01

    In occupational health studies, the study groups most often comprise healthy subjects performing their work. Sampling is often planned in the most practical way, e.g., sampling of blood in the morning at the work site just after the work starts. Optimal use of reference intervals requires...... from various variables such as gender, age, BMI, alcohol, smoking, and menopause. The reference intervals were compared to reference intervals calculated using IFCC recommendations. Where comparable, the IFCC calculated reference intervals had a wider range compared to the variance component models...

  8. Electrocardiographic PR-interval duration and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Skov, Morten Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Because of ambiguous reports in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between PR interval and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, heart failure, and pacemaker implantation, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. MethodsWe included 293,111 individuals...... into 7 groups based on the population PR interval distribution. Cox models were used, with reference to a PR interval between 152 and 161 ms (40th to heart failure...... adjustment. A long PR interval conferred an increased risk of heart failure ( > 200 ms; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22-1.42; P 200 ms (HR, 3...

  9. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the “mean sojourn time.” It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer.

  10. Increasing accuracy in the interval analysis by the improved format of interval extension based on the first order Taylor series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yan Long

    2018-05-01

    When the dependence of the function on uncertain variables is non-monotonic in interval, the interval of function obtained by the classic interval extension based on the first order Taylor series will exhibit significant errors. In order to reduce theses errors, the improved format of the interval extension with the first order Taylor series is developed here considering the monotonicity of function. Two typical mathematic examples are given to illustrate this methodology. The vibration of a beam with lumped masses is studied to demonstrate the usefulness of this method in the practical application, and the necessary input data of which are only the function value at the central point of interval, sensitivity and deviation of function. The results of above examples show that the interval of function from the method developed by this paper is more accurate than the ones obtained by the classic method.

  11. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  12. A probabilistic approach for representation of interval uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Kais; Rangavajhala, Sirisha; McDonald, Mark P.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to represent interval data for input variables in reliability and uncertainty analysis problems, using flexible families of continuous Johnson distributions. Such a probabilistic representation of interval data facilitates a unified framework for handling aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. For fitting probability distributions, methods such as moment matching are commonly used in the literature. However, unlike point data where single estimates for the moments of data can be calculated, moments of interval data can only be computed in terms of upper and lower bounds. Finding bounds on the moments of interval data has been generally considered an NP-hard problem because it includes a search among the combinations of multiple values of the variables, including interval endpoints. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms based on continuous optimization to find the bounds on second and higher moments of interval data. With numerical examples, we show that the proposed bounding algorithms are scalable in polynomial time with respect to increasing number of intervals. Using the bounds on moments computed using the proposed approach, we fit a family of Johnson distributions to interval data. Furthermore, using an optimization approach based on percentiles, we find the bounding envelopes of the family of distributions, termed as a Johnson p-box. The idea of bounding envelopes for the family of Johnson distributions is analogous to the notion of empirical p-box in the literature. Several sets of interval data with different numbers of intervals and type of overlap are presented to demonstrate the proposed methods. As against the computationally expensive nested analysis that is typically required in the presence of interval variables, the proposed probabilistic representation enables inexpensive optimization-based strategies to estimate bounds on an output quantity of interest.

  13. An optimal dynamic interval preventive maintenance scheduling for series systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Zhang, Zixian; Tan, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies preventive maintenance (PM) with dynamic interval for a multi-component system. Instead of equal interval, the time of PM period in the proposed dynamic interval model is not a fixed constant, which varies from interval-down to interval-up. It is helpful to reduce the outage loss on frequent repair parts and avoid lack of maintenance of the equipment by controlling the equipment maintenance frequency, when compared to a periodic PM scheme. According to the definition of dynamic interval, the reliability of system is analyzed from the failure mechanisms of its components and the different effects of non-periodic PM actions on the reliability of the components. Following the proposed model of reliability, a novel framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule with dynamic interval based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed. The framework denotes the strategies include updating strategy, deleting strategy, inserting strategy and moving strategy, which is set to correct the invalid population individuals of the algorithm. The values of the dynamic interval and the selections of PM action for the components on every PM stage are determined by achieving a certain level of system availability with the minimum total PM-related cost. Finally, a typical rotary table system of NC machine tool is used as an example to describe the proposed method. - Highlights: • A non-periodic preventive maintenance scheduling model is proposed. • A framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule problem is developed. • The interval of non-periodic PM is flexible and schedule can be better adjusted. • Dynamic interval leads to more efficient solutions than fixed interval does

  14. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  15. Evaluation of Healing Intervals of Incisional Skin Wounds of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the healing intervals among simple interrupted (SI), ford interlocking (FI) and subcuticular (SC) suture patterns in goats. We hypothesized that these common suture patterns used for closure of incisional skin wounds may have effect on the healing interval. To test this hypothesis, two ...

  16. Robotic fish tracking method based on suboptimal interval Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohong; Tang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) research focused on tracking and positioning, precise guidance and return to dock and other fields. The robotic fish of AUV has become a hot application in intelligent education, civil and military etc. In nonlinear tracking analysis of robotic fish, which was found that the interval Kalman filter algorithm contains all possible filter results, but the range is wide, relatively conservative, and the interval data vector is uncertain before implementation. This paper proposes a ptimization algorithm of suboptimal interval Kalman filter. Suboptimal interval Kalman filter scheme used the interval inverse matrix with its worst inverse instead, is more approximate nonlinear state equation and measurement equation than the standard interval Kalman filter, increases the accuracy of the nominal dynamic system model, improves the speed and precision of tracking system. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the optimal trajectory of sub optimal interval Kalman filter algorithm is better than that of the interval Kalman filter method and the standard method of the filter.

  17. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  18. Verified Interval Orbit Propagation in Satellite Collision Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, B.A.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verified interval integration methods enclose a solution set corresponding to interval initial values and parameters, and bound integration and rounding errors. Verified methods suffer from overestimation of the solution, i.e., non-solutions are also included in the solution enclosure. Two verified

  19. Optimization of Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking using Interval Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies interval optimization to the fixed-time multiple impulse rendezvous and docking problem. Current methods for solving this type of optimization problem include for example genetic algorithms and gradient based optimization. Unlike these methods, interval methods can guarantee that

  20. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Abstract. Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the ... Calving Interval (CI), Days Open and Pregnancy Rate. The last group of ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA. VanRaden ...

  1. T(peak)T(end) interval in long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, Jørgen Kim; Haarmark, Christian; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The T(peak)T(end) (T(p)T(e)) interval is believed to reflect the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Accordingly, it should be a risk factor in long QT syndrome (LQTS). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype on T(p)T(e) interval and test whether it was relat...

  2. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short inter- pregnancy interval among HIV- positive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at.

  3. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  4. INTERVAL STATE ESTIMATION FOR SINGULAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SYSTEMS WITH DELAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linear differential equation systems with algebraic restrictions (singular systems and a method of interval observer design for this kind of systems. The systems contain constant time delay, measurement noise and disturbances. Interval observer synthesis is based on monotone and cooperative systems technique, linear matrix inequations, Lyapunov function theory and interval arithmetic. The set of conditions that gives the possibility for interval observer synthesis is proposed. Results of synthesized observer operation are shown on the example of dynamical interindustry balance model. The advantages of proposed method are that it is adapted to observer design for uncertain systems, if the intervals of admissible values for uncertain parameters are given. The designed observer is capable to provide asymptotically definite limits on the estimation accuracy, since the interval of admissible values for the object state is defined at every instant. The obtained result provides an opportunity to develop the interval estimation theory for complex systems that contain parametric uncertainty, varying delay and nonlinear elements. Interval observers increasingly find applications in economics, electrical engineering, mechanical systems with constraints and optimal flow control.

  5. Frequency Interval Cross Gramians for Linear and Bilinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jazlan, Ahmad; Sreeram, Victor; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    In many control engineering problems, it is desired to analyze the systems at particular frequency intervals of interest. This paper focuses on the development of frequency interval cross gramians for both linear and bilinear systems. New generalized Sylvester equations for calculating the freque...

  6. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  7. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short interpregnancy interval among HIVpositive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at r i s k o f mo t h e r ...

  8. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-30

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...

  9. An Analysis Of QRS Interval Of The Electrocardiogram In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was undertaken to establish the normal QRS interval of the adult Nigerian from Jos; to find significant correlation coefficients for QRS interval and the various anthropometric measurements and also to establish prediction equations for the QRS ...

  10. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  11. Numerical calculation of economic uncertainty by intervals and fuzzy numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This paper emphasizes that numerically correct calculation of economic uncertainty with intervals and fuzzy numbers requires implementation of global optimization techniques in contrast to straightforward application of interval arithmetic. This is demonstrated by both a simple case from managerial...... World Academic Press, UK. All rights reserved....

  12. Estabilização química do subleito de estradas: influência do tempo decorrido entre a mistura e a compactação na resistência mecânica de misturas solo-RBI Grade 81 Chemical stabilization of road subgrade: influence of elapsed time between mixture and compaction on mechanical strength of soil-RBI Grade 81 mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pinto da Trindade

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o estudo da influência do tempo decorrido entre mistura e compactação na resistência mecânica de três solos da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, quando estabilizados com 4% de RBI Grade 81, em relação ao peso de solo seco. Um solo residual maduro (solo 1 e dois solos residuais jovens (solos 2 e 3 de gnáisse foram utilizados no presente estudo. O programa de ensaios de laboratório englobou: (i tempos decorridos entre mistura e compactação: 0, 4, 8 e 24 horas; (ii energia de compactação: Proctor Modificado; (iii período de cura das misturas: 7 dias; e (iv determinação da resistência mecânica: média de três determinações da resistência à compressão não-confinada. Os resultados desta pesquisa indicam que: (i o tempo decorrido entre mistura e compactação dos corpos-de-prova influenciou significativamente o parâmetro resistência à compressão não confinada das misturas; (ii 4 horas foi o tempo ótimo entre mistura e compactação para as misturas dos solos 1 e 2 com RBI Grade 81; e (iii no solo 3, foi observado um melhor resultado para a compactação imediatamente após a mistura.This paper describes the study of the influence of time between mixture and compaction in the mechanical strength of three soils from ";Zona da Mata Norte";, Minas Gerais, Brazil, stabilized with 4% of RBI Grade 81. One mature (soil 1 and two young (soils 2 and 3 gneiss residual soils were used throughout the study. The laboratory testing program consisted of the following steps: (i elapsed times between mixture and compaction: 0, 4, 8 and 24 hours; (ii mixture specimen compaction effort: Modified Proctor; (iii mixture specimen curing time: 7 days in acclimatized room; (iv determination of mechanical strength: average of three determinations of unconfined compression strength. The testing data supported that: (i the elapsed time between mixture and specimen compaction affected significantly the mixture mechanical

  13. Timing intervals using population synchrony and spike timing dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model by which ensembles of regularly spiking neurons can encode different time intervals through synchronous firing. We show that a neuron responding to a large population of convergent inputs has the potential to learn to produce an appropriately-timed output via spike-time dependent plasticity. We explain why temporal variability of this population synchrony increases with increasing time intervals. We also show that the scalar property of timing and its violation at short intervals can be explained by the spike-wise accumulation of jitter in the inter-spike intervals of timing neurons. We explore how the challenge of encoding longer time intervals can be overcome and conclude that this may involve a switch to a different population of neurons with lower firing rate, with the added effect of producing an earlier bias in response. Experimental data on human timing performance show features in agreement with the model’s output.

  14. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  16. Fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to surgery-to-conception interval: a Danish national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Nikoline Nørgaard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton pregnancy in which first trimester screening was performed between January 2008 and June 2011. Data were derived from national registers (Danish National Registry of Patients and Danish National Birth Registry, Pregnancy Complications and Abortion-clinical quality database (PreCAb and the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. Main outcome measures were early and late fetal growth in relation to time from bariatric surgery to conception of the pregnancy. Early fetal growth was expressed as "Fetal Growth Index": the ratio between the estimated number of days from first trimester ultrasound to second trimester ultrasound biometries and the actual calender time elapsed in days. Late fetal growth was expressed as the observed versus expected birthweight according to gestational age (GA. RESULTS: The surgery-to-conception interval ranged from 3 to 1851 days with a mean value of 502 (SD, 351 days. The mean "fetal growth index" was 0.99 (SD, 0.02 days/day and thus significantly lower than in the background population (mean, 1.04 (SD, 0.09 days/day, p<0.0001. The proportion of infants being small for gestational age was 18.8% and the proportion of large for gestational age infants was 6.7%. The correlation coefficients between surgery-to-conception time and "fetal growth index" and birthweight according to GA were 0.01 (p = 0.8 and 0.04 (p = 0.4, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fetal growth index was lower than reported in the background population. No correlation was found between the surgery-to-conception interval and early or late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery.

  17. Study on risk insight for additional ILRT interval extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M. R.; Hong, S. Y.; Kim, M. K.; Chung, B. S.; Oh, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In U.S., the containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT) interval was extended from 3 times per 10 years to once per 10 years based on NUREG-1493 'Performance-Based Containment Leak-Test Program' in 1995. In September, 2001, ILRT interval was extended up to once per 15 years based on Nuclear Energy Industry (NEI) provisional guidance 'Interim Guidance for Performing Risk Impact Assessments In Support of One-Time Extensions for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test Surveillance Intervals'. In Korea, the containment ILRT was performed with 5 year interval. But, in MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology) Notice 2004-15 'Standard for the Leak- Rate Test of the Nuclear Reactor Containment', the extension of the ILRT interval to once per 10 year can be allowed if some conditions are met. So, the safety analysis for the extension of Yonggwang Nuclear (YGN) Unit 1 and 2 ILRT interval extension to once per 10 years was completed based on the methodology in NUREG-1493. But, during review process by regulatory body, KINS, it was required that some various risk insight or index for risk analysis should be developed. So, we began to study NEI interim report for 15 year ILRT interval extension. As previous analysis based on NUREG-1493, MACCS II (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) computer code was used for the risk analysis of the population, and the population dose was selected as a reference index for the risk evaluation

  18. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  19. Confidence intervals for correlations when data are not normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B

    2017-02-01

    With nonnormal data, the typical confidence interval of the correlation (Fisher z') may be inaccurate. The literature has been unclear as to which of several alternative methods should be used instead, and how extreme a violation of normality is needed to justify an alternative. Through Monte Carlo simulation, 11 confidence interval methods were compared, including Fisher z', two Spearman rank-order methods, the Box-Cox transformation, rank-based inverse normal (RIN) transformation, and various bootstrap methods. Nonnormality often distorted the Fisher z' confidence interval-for example, leading to a 95 % confidence interval that had actual coverage as low as 68 %. Increasing the sample size sometimes worsened this problem. Inaccurate Fisher z' intervals could be predicted by a sample kurtosis of at least 2, an absolute sample skewness of at least 1, or significant violations of normality hypothesis tests. Only the Spearman rank-order and RIN transformation methods were universally robust to nonnormality. Among the bootstrap methods, an observed imposed bootstrap came closest to accurate coverage, though it often resulted in an overly long interval. The results suggest that sample nonnormality can justify avoidance of the Fisher z' interval in favor of a more robust alternative. R code for the relevant methods is provided in supplementary materials.

  20. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.J.R.; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.C.; Lee, A.H.S.; Chakrabarti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups

  1. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garethporter@doctors.org.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Burrell, H.C. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chakrabarti, J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups.

  2. Sonographic Characteristics and Interval Changes of Subacute Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the sonographic characteristics and interval changes of subacute thyroiditis using follow-up sonography. From January 2008 to December 2014, 85 patients with clinically suspected subacute thyroiditis underwent sonographic examinations by a single radiologist. Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the clinical, sonographic, and cytohistopathologic findings. On the initial and follow-up sonograms, the individual sonographic findings and interval changes were retrospectively investigated by the same radiologist. According to the sonographic configuration, subacute thyroiditis lesions were categorized as nodular or non-nodular. The interval changes in the lesions were classified as follows: "disappeared," "decreased," "increased," "eventually smaller," "eventually larger," or "no interval change." Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed in 64 of the 85 patients. In these 64 patients, nodular (n = 39) and non-nodular (n = 35) lesions were found; 10 patients had both nodular and non-nodular lesions. Of the 64 patients, 41 underwent sonographic follow-up. In both nodular and non-nodular lesions, the common interval changes included disappeared, decreased, and eventually smaller patterns. Although the increased pattern was found only in 4 nodular lesions, there was no significant difference in the interval changes between nodular and non-nodular lesions. On follow-up sonography, a new lesion was detected in 6 patients. The prevalence rate of nodular subacute thyroiditis lesions on sonography was high, and the interval changes in the lesions were variable.

  3. MRI of the rotator interval of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Guy, S.; Connell, D.; Saifuddin, A.; Lambert, S.

    2007-01-01

    The rotator interval of the shoulder joint is located between the distal edges of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons and contains the insertions of the coracohumeral and superior glenohumeral ligaments. These structures form a complex pulley system that stabilizes the long head of the biceps tendon as it enters the bicipital groove of the humeral head. The rotator interval is the site of a variety of pathological processes including biceps tendon lesions, adhesive capsulitis and anterosuperior internal impingement. This article describes the anatomy, function and pathology of the rotator interval using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  4. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  5. Unpacking a time interval lengthens its perceived temporal distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In quantity estimation, people often perceive that the whole is less than the sum of its parts. The current study investigated such an unpacking effect in temporal distance judgment. Our results showed that participants in the unpacked condition judged a given time interval longer than those in the packed condition, even the time interval was kept constant between the two conditions. Furthermore, this unpacking effect persists regardless of the unpacking ways we employed. Results suggest that unpacking a time interval may be a good strategy for lengthening its perceived temporal distance.

  6. The Role of Higher Harmonics In Musical Interval Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Using an alternative parameterization of the roughness curve we make direct use of critical band results to investigate the role of higher harmonics on the perception of tonal consonance. We scale the spectral amplitudes in the complex home tone and complex interval tone to simulate acoustic signals of constant energy. Our analysis reveals that even with a relatively small addition of higher harmonics the perfect fifth emerges as a consonant interval with more, musically important, just intervals emerging as consonant as more and more energy is shifted into higher frequencies.

  7. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    electrocardiograms from 173 529 primary care patients aged 50-90 years were collected during 2001-11. The Framingham formula was used for heart rate-correction of the QT interval. Data on medication, comorbidity, and outcomes were retrieved from administrative registries. During a median follow-up period of 6......AIMS: Using a large, contemporary primary care population we aimed to provide absolute long-term risks of cardiovascular death (CVD) based on the QTc interval and to test whether the QTc interval is of value in risk prediction of CVD on an individual level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Digital...

  8. Time interval measurement between two emissions: Ar + Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Hamdani, T.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Ar + Au system was studied at two bombarding energies, 30 and 60 A.MeV. The comparison of the distributions of fragment emission angles in central collisions was carried out by means of a simulation allowing the emission time interval variation. It was found that this interval depends on the bombarding energy (i.e. deposed excitation energy).For 30 A.MeV this interval is 500 fm/c (0.33 · 10 -23 s), while for 60 A.MeV it is so short that the multifragmentation concept can be used

  9. Time interval approach to the pulsed neutron logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Su Weining

    1994-01-01

    The time interval of neighbouring neutrons emitted from a steady state neutron source can be treated as that from a time-dependent neutron source. In the rock space, the neutron flux is given by the neutron diffusion equation and is composed of an infinite terms. Each term s composed of two die-away curves. The delay action is discussed and used to measure the time interval with only one detector in the experiment. Nuclear reactions with the time distribution due to different types of radiations observed in the neutron well-logging methods are presented with a view to getting the rock nuclear parameters from the time interval technique

  10. Zero entropy continuous interval maps and MMLS-MMA property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunping

    2018-06-01

    We prove that the flow generated by any continuous interval map with zero topological entropy is minimally mean-attractable and minimally mean-L-stable. One of the consequences is that any oscillating sequence is linearly disjoint from all flows generated by all continuous interval maps with zero topological entropy. In particular, the Möbius function is linearly disjoint from all flows generated by all continuous interval maps with zero topological entropy (Sarnak’s conjecture for continuous interval maps). Another consequence is a non-trivial example of a flow having discrete spectrum. We also define a log-uniform oscillating sequence and show a result in ergodic theory for comparison. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation. It is also partially supported by a collaboration grant from the Simons Foundation (grant number 523341) and PSC-CUNY awards and a grant from NSFC (grant number 11571122).

  11. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  12. Foundation for a Time Interval Access Control Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afinidad, Francis B; Levin, Timothy E; Irvine, Cynthia E; Nguyen, Thuy D

    2005-01-01

    A new model for representing temporal access control policies is introduced. In this model, temporal authorizations are represented by time attributes associated with both subjects and objects, and a time interval access graph...

  13. Spectral of electrocardiographic RR intervals to indicate atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, Nuryani; Satrio Nugroho, Anto

    2017-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart diseases, which is associated on the risk of death, and thus an early detection of atrial fibrillation is necessary. We have investigated spectral pattern of electrocardiogram in relation to atrial fibrillation. The utilized feature of electrocardiogram is RR interval. RR interval is the time interval between a two-consecutive R peaks. A series of RR intervals in a time segment is converted to a signal with a frequency domain. The frequency components are investigated to find the components which significantly associate to atrial fibrillation. A segment is defined as atrial fibrillation or normal segments by considering a defined number of atrial fibrillation RR in the segment. Using clinical data of 23 patients with atrial fibrillation, we find that the frequency components could be used to indicate atrial fibrillation.

  14. A Statistical Approach for Interval Forecasting of the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jun Hua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Xu, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    the prediction interval is essential for estimating the uncertainty involved in the price and thus is highly useful for making generation bidding strategies and investment decisions. In this paper, a novel data mining-based approach is proposed to achieve two major objectives: 1) to accurately forecast the value......Electricity price forecasting is a difficult yet essential task for market participants in a deregulated electricity market. Rather than forecasting the value, market participants are sometimes more interested in forecasting the prediction interval of the electricity price. Forecasting...... of the electricity price series, which is widely accepted as a nonlinear time series; 2) to accurately estimate the prediction interval of the electricity price series. In the proposed approach, support vector machine (SVM) is employed to forecast the value of the price. To forecast the prediction interval, we...

  15. From special relativity to quantum mechanics through interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcor, R.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is an optics with one more spatial dimension, the angle of phase. Wave-particle duality is nothing else than geometric tangent-point duality. The 'interval' of special relativity is proportional to the phase

  16. Experimental uncertainty estimation and statistics for data having interval uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreinovich, Vladik (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Oberkampf, William Louis (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ginzburg, Lev (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York)

    2007-05-01

    This report addresses the characterization of measurements that include epistemic uncertainties in the form of intervals. It reviews the application of basic descriptive statistics to data sets which contain intervals rather than exclusively point estimates. It describes algorithms to compute various means, the median and other percentiles, variance, interquartile range, moments, confidence limits, and other important statistics and summarizes the computability of these statistics as a function of sample size and characteristics of the intervals in the data (degree of overlap, size and regularity of widths, etc.). It also reviews the prospects for analyzing such data sets with the methods of inferential statistics such as outlier detection and regressions. The report explores the tradeoff between measurement precision and sample size in statistical results that are sensitive to both. It also argues that an approach based on interval statistics could be a reasonable alternative to current standard methods for evaluating, expressing and propagating measurement uncertainties.

  17. Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems.

  18. Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M. (Inventor); Hinedi, Sami M. (Inventor); Shah, Biren N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.

  19. Discrete-time optimal control and games on large intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2017-01-01

    Devoted to the structure of approximate solutions of discrete-time optimal control problems and approximate solutions of dynamic discrete-time two-player zero-sum games, this book presents results on properties of approximate solutions in an interval that is independent lengthwise, for all sufficiently large intervals. Results concerning the so-called turnpike property of optimal control problems and zero-sum games in the regions close to the endpoints of the time intervals are the main focus of this book. The description of the structure of approximate solutions on sufficiently large intervals and its stability will interest graduate students and mathematicians in optimal control and game theory, engineering, and economics. This book begins with a brief overview and moves on to analyze the structure of approximate solutions of autonomous nonconcave discrete-time optimal control Lagrange problems.Next the structures of approximate solutions of autonomous discrete-time optimal control problems that are discret...

  20. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  1. A Neural Network-Based Interval Pattern Matcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles in the machine learning area is to classify, and neural networks are very important classifiers. However, traditional neural networks cannot identify intervals, let alone classify them. To improve their identification ability, we propose a neural network-based interval matcher in our paper. After summarizing the theoretical construction of the model, we take a simple and a practical weather forecasting experiment, which show that the recognizer accuracy reaches 100% and that is promising.

  2. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  3. Hybrid Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics with Interval Length Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the question of how much hybrid machinery can be added to the interval neighbourhood logic PNL and its metric extension MPNL without losing the decidability of their satisfiability problem in N. In particular, we consider the natural hybrid extension of MPNL obtained by adding...... over interval lengths. These results show that MPNL itself is, in this sense, a maximal decidable (weakly) hybrid extension of PNL. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Estimating reliable paediatric reference intervals in clinical chemistry and haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hellberg, Dan; Aldrimer, Mattias; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Very few high-quality studies on paediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and haematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The present review summarises current reference interval studies for common clinical chemistry and haematology analyses. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Voltage interval mappings for an elliptic bursting model

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Jeremy; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    We employed Poincar\\'e return mappings for a parameter interval to an exemplary elliptic bursting model, the FitzHugh-Nagumo-Rinzel model. Using the interval mappings, we were able to examine in detail the bifurcations that underlie the complex activity transitions between: tonic spiking and bursting, bursting and mixed-mode oscillations, and finally, mixed-mode oscillations and quiescence in the FitzHugh-Nagumo-Rinzel model. We illustrate the wealth of information, qualitative and quantitati...

  6. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz.

  7. The second birth interval in Egypt: the role of contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Baschieri, Angela

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses problems of model specification in birth interval analysis. Using Bongaarts’s conceptual framework on the proximate determinants on fertility, the paper tests the hypothesis that all important variation in fertility is captured by differences in marriage, breastfeeding, contraception and induced abortion. The paper applies a discrete time hazard model to study the second birth interval using data from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey 2000 (EDHS), and the month by...

  8. Differentially Private Confidence Intervals for Empirical Risk Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue; Kifer, Daniel; Lee, Jaewoo

    2018-01-01

    The process of data mining with differential privacy produces results that are affected by two types of noise: sampling noise due to data collection and privacy noise that is designed to prevent the reconstruction of sensitive information. In this paper, we consider the problem of designing confidence intervals for the parameters of a variety of differentially private machine learning models. The algorithms can provide confidence intervals that satisfy differential privacy (as well as the mor...

  9. Influence Of Inspection Intervals On Mechanical System Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a methodology of reliability analysis of mechanical systems with latent failures is described. Reliability analysis of such systems must include appropriate usage of check intervals for latent failure detection. The methodology suggests, that based on system logic the analyst decides at the beginning if a system can fail actively or latently and propagates this approach through all system levels. All inspections are assumed to be perfect (all failures are detected and repaired and no new failures are introduced as a result of the maintenance). Additional assumptions are that mission time is much smaller, than check intervals and all components have constant failure rates. Analytical expressions for reliability calculates are provided, based on fault tree and Markov modeling techniques (for two and three redundant systems with inspection intervals). The proposed methodology yields more accurate results than are obtained by not using check intervals or using half check interval times. The conventional analysis assuming that at the beginning of each mission system is as new, give an optimistic prediction of system reliability. Some examples of reliability calculations of mechanical systems with latent failures and establishing optimum check intervals are provided

  10. Sex Hormones and the QT Interval: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A prolonged QT interval is a marker for an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Both endogenous and exogenous sex hormones have been shown to affect the QT interval. Endogenous testosterone and progesterone shorten the action potential, and estrogen lengthens the QT interval. During a single menstrual cycle, progesterone levels, but not estrogen levels, have the dominant effect on ventricular repolarization in women. Studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in the form of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) have suggested a counterbalancing effect of exogenous estrogen and progesterone on the QT. Specifically, ET lengthens the QT, whereas EPT has no effect. To date, there are no studies on oral contraception (OC) and the QT interval, and future research is needed. This review outlines the current literature on sex hormones and QT interval, including the endogenous effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone and the exogenous effects of estrogen and progesterone therapy in the forms of MHT and hormone contraception. Further, we review the potential mechanisms and pathophysiology of sex hormones on the QT interval. PMID:22663191

  11. Extraction and LOD control of colored interval volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Hiroko N.; Takeshima, Yuriko; Fujishiro, Issei; Saito, Takafumi

    2005-03-01

    Interval volume serves as a generalized isosurface and represents a three-dimensional subvolume for which the associated scalar filed values lie within a user-specified closed interval. In general, it is not an easy task for novices to specify the scalar field interval corresponding to their ROIs. In order to extract interval volumes from which desirable geometric features can be mined effectively, we propose a suggestive technique which extracts interval volumes automatically based on the global examination of the field contrast structure. Also proposed here is a simplification scheme for decimating resultant triangle patches to realize efficient transmission and rendition of large-scale interval volumes. Color distributions as well as geometric features are taken into account to select best edges to be collapsed. In addition, when a user wants to selectively display and analyze the original dataset, the simplified dataset is restructured to the original quality. Several simulated and acquired datasets are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present methods.

  12. Identification of atrial fibrillation using electrocardiographic RR-interval difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliana, M.; Nuryani, N.

    2017-11-01

    Automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an interesting topic. It is an account of very dangerous, not only as a trigger of embolic stroke, but it’s also related to some else chronical disease. In this study, we analyse the presence of AF by determining irregularities of RR-interval. We utilize the interval comparison to measure the degree of irregularities of RR-interval in a defined segment. The series of RR-interval is segmented with the length of 10 of them. In this study, we use interval comparison for the method. We were comparing all of the intervals there each other. Then we put the threshold to define the low difference and high difference (δ). A segment is defined as AF or Normal Sinus by the number of high δ, so we put the tolerance (β) of high δ there. We have used this method to test the 23 patients data from MIT-BIH. Using the approach and the clinical data we find accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 84.98%, 91.99%, and 77.85% respectively.

  13. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and QTc Interval in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Nie

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the primary causes of mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. Prolonged QTc interval is associated with increased rate of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this article is to assess the abnormalities found in electrocardiograms (ECGs, and to explore factors that can influence the QTc interval.A total of 141 conventional HD patients were enrolled in this study. ECG tests were conducted on each patient before a single dialysis session and 15 minutes before the end of dialysis session (at peak stress. Echocardiography tests were conducted before dialysis session began. Blood samples were drawn by phlebotomy immediately before and after the dialysis session.Before dialysis, 93.62% of the patients were in sinus rhythm, and approximately 65% of the patients showed a prolonged QTc interval (i.e., a QTc interval above 440 ms in males and above 460ms in females. A comparison of ECG parameters before dialysis and at peak stress showed increases in heart rate (77.45±11.92 vs. 80.38±14.65 bpm, p = 0.001 and QTc interval (460.05±24.53 ms vs. 470.93±24.92 ms, p<0.001. After dividing patients into two groups according to the QTc interval, lower pre-dialysis serum concentrations of potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, phosphorus, calcium* phosphorus (Ca*P, and higher concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP were found in the group with prolonged QTc intervals. Patients in this group also had a larger left atrial diameter (LAD and a thicker interventricular septum, and they tended to be older than patients in the other group. Then patients were divided into two groups according to ΔQTc (ΔQTc = QTc peak-stress- QTc pre-HD. When analyzing the patients whose QTc intervals were longer at peak stress than before HD, we found that they had higher concentrations of Ca2+ and P5+ and lower concentrations of K+, ferritin, UA, and BNP. They were also more likely to be female. In addition, more cardiac construction

  14. Event- and interval-based measurement of stuttering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Jesus, Luis M T; Hall, Andreia; Leahy, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Event- and interval-based measurements are two different ways of computing frequency of stuttering. Interval-based methodology emerged as an alternative measure to overcome problems associated with reproducibility in the event-based methodology. No review has been made to study the effect of methodological factors in interval-based absolute reliability data or to compute the agreement between the two methodologies in terms of inter-judge, intra-judge and accuracy (i.e., correspondence between raters' scores and an established criterion). To provide a review related to reproducibility of event-based and time-interval measurement, and to verify the effect of methodological factors (training, experience, interval duration, sample presentation order and judgment conditions) on agreement of time-interval measurement; in addition, to determine if it is possible to quantify the agreement between the two methodologies The first two authors searched for articles on ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, B-on, CENTRAL and Dissertation Abstracts during January-February 2013 and retrieved 495 articles. Forty-eight articles were selected for review. Content tables were constructed with the main findings. Articles related to event-based measurements revealed values of inter- and intra-judge greater than 0.70 and agreement percentages beyond 80%. The articles related to time-interval measures revealed that, in general, judges with more experience with stuttering presented significantly higher levels of intra- and inter-judge agreement. Inter- and intra-judge values were beyond the references for high reproducibility values for both methodologies. Accuracy (regarding the closeness of raters' judgements with an established criterion), intra- and inter-judge agreement were higher for trained groups when compared with non-trained groups. Sample presentation order and audio/video conditions did not result in differences in inter- or intra-judge results. A duration of 5 s for an interval appears to be

  15. Interval MULTIMOORA method with target values of attributes based on interval distance and preference degree: biomaterials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Arian; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2017-06-01

    A target-based MADM method covers beneficial and non-beneficial attributes besides target values for some attributes. Such techniques are considered as the comprehensive forms of MADM approaches. Target-based MADM methods can also be used in traditional decision-making problems in which beneficial and non-beneficial attributes only exist. In many practical selection problems, some attributes have given target values. The values of decision matrix and target-based attributes can be provided as intervals in some of such problems. Some target-based decision-making methods have recently been developed; however, a research gap exists in the area of MADM techniques with target-based attributes under uncertainty of information. We extend the MULTIMOORA method for solving practical material selection problems in which material properties and their target values are given as interval numbers. We employ various concepts of interval computations to reduce degeneration of uncertain data. In this regard, we use interval arithmetic and introduce innovative formula for interval distance of interval numbers to create interval target-based normalization technique. Furthermore, we use a pairwise preference matrix based on the concept of degree of preference of interval numbers to calculate the maximum, minimum, and ranking of these numbers. Two decision-making problems regarding biomaterials selection of hip and knee prostheses are discussed. Preference degree-based ranking lists for subordinate parts of the extended MULTIMOORA method are generated by calculating the relative degrees of preference for the arranged assessment values of the biomaterials. The resultant rankings for the problem are compared with the outcomes of other target-based models in the literature.

  16. Evaluation of test intervals strategies with a risk monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerman, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power utility Oskarshamn Power Group (OKG), is investigating how the use of a risk monitor can facilitate and improve risk-informed decision-making at their nuclear power plants. The intent is to evaluate if risk-informed decision-making can be accepted. A pilot project was initiated and carried out in 2004. The project included investigating if a risk monitor can be used for optimising test intervals for diesel- and gas turbine generators with regard to risk level. The Oskarhamn 2 (O2), PSA Level 1 model was converted into a risk monitor using RiskSpectrum RiskWatcher (RSRW) software. The converted PSA model included the complete PSA model for the power operation mode. RSRW then performs a complete requantification for every analysis. Time dependent reliability data are taken into account, i.e. a shorter test interval will increases the components availability (possibility to e.g. start on demand). The converted O2 model was then used to investigate whether it would be possible to balance longer test intervals for diesel generators, gas turbine generators and high pressure injection system with shorter test intervals for the low pressure injection system, while maintaining a low risk level at the plant. The results show that a new mixture of test intervals can be implemented with only marginally changes in the risk calculated with the risk monitor model. The results indicate that the total number of test activities for the systems included in the pilot study could be reduced by 20% with a maintained level of risk. A risk monitor taking into account the impact from test intervals in availability calculations for components is well suited for evaluation of test interval strategies. It also enables the analyst to evaluate the risk level over a period of time including the impact the actual status of the plant may have on the risk level. (author)

  17. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Megan; Guo, Tiedong; Soldin, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The clinical value of free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) analysis depends on the reference intervals with which they are compared. We determined age- and sex-specific reference intervals for neonates, infants, and children 0–18 years of age for FT4 and FT3 using tandem mass spectrometry. Methods Reference intervals were calculated for serum FT4 (n = 1426) and FT3 (n = 1107) obtained from healthy children between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2008, from Children's National Medical Center and Georgetown University Medical Center Bioanalytical Core Laboratory, Washington, DC. Serum samples were analyzed using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with deuterium-labeled internal standards. Results FT4 reference intervals were very similar for males and females of all ages and ranged between 1.3 and 2.4 ng/dL for children 1 to 18 years old. FT4 reference intervals for 1- to 12-month-old infants were 1.3–2.8 ng/dL. These 2.5 to 97.5 percentile intervals were much tighter than reference intervals obtained using immunoassay platforms 0.48–2.78 ng/dL for males and 0.85–2.09 ng/dL for females. Similarly, FT3 intervals were consistent and similar for males and females and for all ages, ranging between 1.5 pg/mL and approximately 6.0 pg/mL for children 1 month of age to 18 years old. Conclusions This is the first study to provide pediatric reference intervals of FT4 and FT3 for children from birth to 18 years of age using LC/MS/MS. Analysis using LC/MS/MS provides more specific quantification of thyroid hormones. A comparison of the ultrafiltration tandem mass spectrometric method with equilibrium dialysis showed very good correlation. PMID:19583487

  18. EFFECT OF INTERPREGNANCY INTERVAL ON SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY FOLLOWING A MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasooya Parail Sankaran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Primary Objective of this study was to determine the effect on interpregnancy interval on subsequent pregnancies after a miscarriage. Secondary Objective was to study the maternal and foetal complications following shorter interpregnancy interval. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done in OBG Department, Government TD Medical College, Alappuzha, during 2011 to 2013. A total of 347 cases were studied who have had a miscarriage before the current pregnancy. RESULTS Compared with women with an interpregnancy interval of 6-12 months, those who conceived again within six months were more likely to have another miscarriage and ectopic gestation (odds ratio 0.106, p value 0.000.. Compared with women with interpregnancy interval of <6 months, women who conceived again in 6-12 months went on to have a vaginal delivery in the second pregnancy (Odd’s ratio 0.79 and p value in is significant.Lower segment caesarean section (LSCS is significantly high in women whose interpregnancy interval is more than 12 months (Odds ratio 0.64 and p value 0.000. Maternal complications like APH, PPH, preeclampsia, hypertension, etc. were significantly seen higher in women whose interpregnancy interval is more than 12 months (odds ratio 0.41 p value- 0.000. The women with interpregnancy interval less than 6 months didn’t develop any significant foetal complications. Most of the complications like premature rupture of membrane (PROM, meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF, oligamnios, foetal growth restriction (FGR, etc. are seen more in the women with interpregnancy interval 6 to 12 months odds ratio (0.30 p value significant, but breech and foetal distress are seen significantly higher in women with interpregnancy interval more than 12 months (Odds ratio 0.29 p value 0.000. Induction of labour was not significantly raised in any group. CONCLUSION Women who conceive within 6 months of an initial miscarriage have the best reproductive outcomes and lower

  19. Interval Management: Development and Implementation of an Airborne Spacing Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Penhallegon, William J.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Bone, Randall S.; Levitt, Ian; Flores Kriegsfeld, Julia A.; Arbuckle, Doug; Johnson, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management is a suite of ADS-B-enabled applications that allows the air traffic controller to instruct a flight crew to achieve and maintain a desired spacing relative to another aircraft. The flight crew, assisted by automation, manages the speed of their aircraft to deliver more precise inter-aircraft spacing than is otherwise possible, which increases traffic throughput at the same or higher levels of safety. Interval Management has evolved from a long history of research and is now seen as a core NextGen capability. With avionics standards recently published, completion of an Investment Analysis Readiness Decision by the FAA, and multiple flight tests planned, Interval Management will soon be part of everyday use in the National Airspace System. Second generation, Advanced Interval Management capabilities are being planned to provide a wider range of operations and improved performance and benefits. This paper briefly reviews the evolution of Interval Management and describes current development and deployment plans. It also reviews concepts under development as the next generation of applications.

  20. Application of Interval Predictor Models to Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy,Daniel P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for predicting the uncertainty range of an output variable given input-output data. These models are called Interval Predictor Models (IPM) because they yield an interval valued function of the input. This paper develops IPMs having a radial basis structure. This structure enables the formal description of (i) the uncertainty in the models parameters, (ii) the predicted output interval, and (iii) the probability that a future observation would fall in such an interval. In contrast to other metamodeling techniques, this probabilistic certi cate of correctness does not require making any assumptions on the structure of the mechanism from which data are drawn. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs having minimal spread while containing all the data are developed. Constraints for bounding the minimum interval spread over the continuum of inputs, regulating the IPMs variation/oscillation, and centering its spread about a target point, are used to prevent data over tting. Furthermore, we develop an approach for using expert opinion during extrapolation. This metamodeling technique is illustrated using a radiation shielding application for space exploration. In this application, we use IPMs to describe the error incurred in predicting the ux of particles resulting from the interaction between a high-energy incident beam and a target.

  1. Interval forecasting of cyber-attacks on industrial control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyo, Y. M.; Krakovsky, Y. M.; Luzgin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    At present, cyber-security issues of industrial control systems occupy one of the key niches in a state system of planning and management Functional disruption of these systems via cyber-attacks may lead to emergencies related to loss of life, environmental disasters, major financial and economic damage, or disrupted activities of cities and settlements. There is then an urgent need to develop protection methods against cyber-attacks. This paper studied the results of cyber-attack interval forecasting with a pre-set intensity level of cyber-attacks. Interval forecasting is the forecasting of one interval from two predetermined ones in which a future value of the indicator will be obtained. For this, probability estimates of these events were used. For interval forecasting, a probabilistic neural network with a dynamic updating value of the smoothing parameter was used. A dividing bound of these intervals was determined by a calculation method based on statistical characteristics of the indicator. The number of cyber-attacks per hour that were received through a honeypot from March to September 2013 for the group ‘zeppo-norcal’ was selected as the indicator.

  2. Avaliação de atitudes de estudantes de psicologia via modelo de crédito parcial da TRI Assessment of psychology students' attitudes through credit partial model of IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette Maria Medeiros Vendramini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as atitudes de estudantes de Psicologia em relação a estatística, via modelo de créditos parciais da TRI, e suas relações com a autopercepção e desempenho em estatística. Uma amostra não aleatória de 361 estudantes de Psicologia, com idades de 18 a 65 anos, 81% mulheres e 53% do noturno, respondeu a um questionário de identificação e uma escala de atitudes. A escala é do tipo likert de quatro pontos e composta de 20 itens que expressam os sentimentos em relação a estatística, sendo dez positivos e dez negativos, e um item complementar, que verifica a autopercepção do universitário em relação ao próprio desempenho em estatística. Observou-se que a escala é fidedigna e válida para medir as atitudes. Os participantes apresentaram atitudes ligeiramente mais negativas do que positivas. Constatou-se a existência de correlações positivas e significativas entre atitude, desempenho acadêmico e autopercepção de desempenho.The aim of this work was to assess psychology students' attitudes toward statistics trough credit partial model of IRT, and to identify the association among the students' attitudes, academic performance, and self-perception in Statistics. A not random sample of 361 Psychology students answered the identification questionnaire and the attitudes scale towards Statistics. The students aged 18-65, 81% were female and 53% from evening classes. The likert scale is composed of 20 items, ten positives and ten negatives, which express the feelings towards Statistics. There is one item which verifies the university student's self-perception towards its own performance in Statistics. It was observed that the scale was reliable and valid to measure attitudes. The students presented their attitudes slightly more negative than positive. It was noticed the existence of positive and significant correlations among attitudes, academic performance and performance self-perception.

  3. Rationalizing method of replacement intervals by using Bayesian statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Notoya, Junichi; Kusakari, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study represents the formulations for rationalizing the replacement intervals of equipments and/or parts taking into account the probability density functions (PDF) of the parameters of failure distribution functions (FDF) and compares the optimized intervals by our formulations with those by conventional formulations which uses only representative values of the parameters of FDF instead of using these PDFs. The failure data are generated by Monte Carlo simulations since the real failure data can not be available for us. The PDF of PDF parameters are obtained by Bayesian method and the representative values are obtained by likelihood estimation and Bayesian method. We found that the method using PDF by Bayesian method brings longer replacement intervals than one using the representative of the parameters. (author)

  4. Short interval expansion of Rényi entropy on torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Jun-Bao [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jia-ju [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-23

    We investigate the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy for two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) on a torus. We require the length of the interval ℓ to be small with respect to the spatial and temporal sizes of the torus. The operator product expansion of the twist operators allows us to compute the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy at any temperature. In particular, we pay special attention to the large c CFTs dual to the AdS{sub 3} gravity and its cousins. At both low and high temperature limits, we read the Rényi entropies to order ℓ{sup 6}, and find good agreements with holographic results. Moreover, the expansion allows us to read 1/c contribution, which is hard to get by expanding the thermal density matrix. We generalize the study to the case with the chemical potential as well.

  5. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise

    2013-01-01

    healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL...... values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method...... employed. The data were compared to previous studies and to those obtained from the youngest age group in the NORIP study. Marked age differences were observed for most of the properties. Several properties also showed gender-related differences, mainly at the onset of puberty. Data are presented...

  6. Trajectory Optimization Based on Multi-Interval Mesh Refinement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningbo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the optimization accuracy and convergence rate for trajectory optimization of the air-to-air missile, a multi-interval mesh refinement Radau pseudospectral method was introduced. This method made the mesh endpoints converge to the practical nonsmooth points and decreased the overall collocation points to improve convergence rate and computational efficiency. The trajectory was divided into four phases according to the working time of engine and handover of midcourse and terminal guidance, and then the optimization model was built. The multi-interval mesh refinement Radau pseudospectral method with different collocation points in each mesh interval was used to solve the trajectory optimization model. Moreover, this method was compared with traditional h method. Simulation results show that this method can decrease the dimensionality of nonlinear programming (NLP problem and therefore improve the efficiency of pseudospectral methods for solving trajectory optimization problems.

  7. INTERVALS OF ACTIVE PLAY AND BREAK IN BASKETBALL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.

  8. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Marmelat

    Full Text Available Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  9. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  10. Interpregnancy intervals: impact of postpartum contraceptive effectiveness and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Chang, Richard; Howell, Mike; Darney, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of contraceptive methods, which was defined by effectiveness, length of coverage, and their association with short interpregnancy intervals, when controlling for provider type and client demographics. We identified a cohort of 117,644 women from the 2008 California Birth Statistical Master file with second or higher order birth and at least 1 Medicaid (Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment [Family PACT] program or Medi-Cal) claim within 18 months after index birth. We explored the effect of contraceptive method provision on the odds of having an optimal interpregnancy interval and controlled for covariates. The average length of contraceptive coverage was 3.81 months (SD = 4.84). Most women received user-dependent hormonal contraceptives as their most effective contraceptive method (55%; n = 65,103 women) and one-third (33%; n = 39,090 women) had no contraceptive claim. Women who used long-acting reversible contraceptive methods had 3.89 times the odds and women who used user-dependent hormonal methods had 1.89 times the odds of achieving an optimal birth interval compared with women who used barrier methods only; women with no method had 0.66 times the odds. When user-dependent methods are considered, the odds of having an optimal birth interval increased for each additional month of contraceptive coverage by 8% (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.09). Women who were seen by Family PACT or by both Family PACT and Medi-Cal providers had significantly higher odds of optimal birth intervals compared with women who were served by Medi-Cal only. To achieve optimal birth spacing and ultimately to improve birth outcomes, attention should be given to contraceptive counseling and access to contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiangdong.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs

  12. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  13. An interval-valued reliability model with bounded failure rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures described in this paper is distinctive from other imprecise reliability models in that it overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure. It rests on the presupposition that a constant interval-valued failure...... rate is known possibly along with other reliability measures, precise or imprecise. The Lagrange method is used to solve the constrained optimization problem to derive new reliability measures of interest. The obtained results call for an exponential-wise approximation of failure probability density...

  14. New Inner Product Quasilinear Spaces on Interval Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primarily we examine the new example of quasilinear spaces, namely, “IRn interval space.” We obtain some new theorems and results related to this new quasilinear space. After giving some new notions of quasilinear dependence-independence and basis on quasilinear functional analysis, we obtain some results on IRn interval space related to these concepts. Secondly, we present Is,Ic0,Il∞, and Il2 quasilinear spaces and we research some algebraic properties of these spaces. We obtain some new results and provide an important contribution to the improvement of quasilinear functional analysis.

  15. Robust Control with Enlaeged Interval of Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Keresturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust control is advantageous for systems with defined interval of uncertain parameters. This can be substantially enlarged dividing it into a few sub-intervals. Corresponding controllers for each of them may be set after approximate identification of some uncertain plant parameters. The paper deals with application of the pole region assignment method for position control of the crane crab. The same track form is required for uncertain burden mass and approximate value of rope length. Measurement of crab position and speed is supposed, burden deviation angle is observed. Simulation results have verified feasibility of this design procedure.

  16. Infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations with continuous coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhaojun; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions to a class of 1-dimensional infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) under the conditions that the coefficients are continuous and have linear growths. We also obtain the existence of a minimal solution. Furthermore, we study the existence and uniqueness theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions of infinite time interval BSDEs with non-uniformly Lipschitz coefficients. It should be pointed out that the assumptions of this result is weaker than that of Theorem 3.1 in Zong (Turkish J Math 37:704-718, 2013).

  17. Interval-Valued Vague Soft Sets and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleed Alhazaymeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov has introduced the concept of soft sets and the application of soft sets in decision making and medical diagnosis problems. The basic properties of vague soft sets are presented. In this paper, we introduce the concept of interval-valued vague soft sets which are an extension of the soft set and its operations such as equality, subset, intersection, union, AND operation, OR operation, complement, and null while further studying some properties. We give examples for these concepts, and we give a number of applications on interval-valued vague soft sets.

  18. Liver scanning in short interval autopsy material of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelqvist, P.; Salmo, M.; Kostiainen, S.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of liverscanning alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase in the detection of the hepatic metastases was studied in short interval autopsy material of 243 cancer patients. The highest percentage of correct diagnosis was by 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase was the second, and scanning third. The overall accuracy of liver scan was 68 per cent. It was the better the shorter the time interval between scanning and autopsy. The higher percentage of incorrect diagnoses of the scan was related to a larger number of false positives, the causes of which were to be verified only in half of the cases. (orig.) [de

  19. Specifying real-time systems with interval logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    Pure temporal logic makes no reference to time. An interval temporal logic and an extension to that logic which includes real time constraints are described. The application of this logic by giving a specification for the well-known lift (elevator) example is demonstrated. It is shown how interval logic can be extended to include a notion of process. How the specification language and verification environment of EHDM could be enhanced to support this logic is described. A specification of the alternating bit protocol in this extended version of the specification language of EHDM is given.

  20. Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.

  1. Measurement of subcritical multiplication by the interval distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The prompt decay constant or the subcritical neutron multiplication may be determined by measuring the distribution of the time intervals between successive neutron counts. The distribution data is analyzed by least-squares fitting to a theoretical distribution function derived from a point reactor probability model. Published results of measurements with one- and two-detector systems are discussed. Data collection times are shorter, and statistical errors are smaller the nearer the system is to delayed critical. Several of the measurements indicate that a shorter data collection time and higher accuracy are possible with the interval distribution method than with the Feynman variance method

  2. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals...... of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used...

  3. Fuzzy Investment Portfolio Selection Models Based on Interval Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs fuzzy set theory to solve the unintuitive problem of the Markowitz mean-variance (MV portfolio model and extend it to a fuzzy investment portfolio selection model. Our model establishes intervals for expected returns and risk preference, which can take into account investors' different investment appetite and thus can find the optimal resolution for each interval. In the empirical part, we test this model in Chinese stocks investment and find that this model can fulfill different kinds of investors’ objectives. Finally, investment risk can be decreased when we add investment limit to each stock in the portfolio, which indicates our model is useful in practice.

  4. Estimation and interpretation of keff confidence intervals in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbatsch, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    MCNP's criticality methodology and some basic statistics are reviewed. Confidence intervals are discussed, as well as how to build them and their importance in the presentation of a Monte Carlo result. The combination of MCNP's three k eff estimators is shown, theoretically and empirically, by statistical studies and examples, to be the best k eff estimator. The method of combining estimators is based on a solid theoretical foundation, namely, the Gauss-Markov Theorem in regard to the least squares method. The confidence intervals of the combined estimator are also shown to have correct coverage rates for the examples considered

  5. Explicit Inverse of an Interval Matrix with Unit Midpoint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 138-150 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * unit midpoint * inverse interval matrix * regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol22_pp138-150.pdf

  6. Frequency interval balanced truncation of discrete-time bilinear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jazlan, Ahmad; Sreeram, Victor; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new model reduction method for discrete-time bilinear systems based on the balanced truncation framework. In many model reduction applications, it is advantageous to analyze the characteristics of the system with emphasis on particular frequency intervals...... are the solution to a pair of new generalized Lyapunov equations. The conditions for solvability of these new generalized Lyapunov equations are derived and a numerical solution method for solving these generalized Lyapunov equations is presented. Numerical examples which illustrate the usage of the new...... generalized frequency interval controllability and observability gramians as part of the balanced truncation framework are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method....

  7. Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

  8. The lucid interval associated with epidural bleeding: evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the evolution of our understanding of the term "lucid interval." A number of texts were reviewed to assess their suitability for analysis. The primary requirement was that the text contain detailed descriptions of a series of patients. Details of the clinical course, the findings and timing of surgery, and, when relevant, the time of death and postmortem findings were required. Books written by Henri-François Le Dran, Percival Pott, and James Hill fulfilled these criteria. Surgical findings included the presence and type of fractures, changes in the bone, separation of periosteum, malodorous or purulent material, tense brain, and hematoma. Postmortem findings supplemented and/or complemented the surgical findings. The courses of the patients were then tabulated, and the correlation between different clinical and operative findings was thereby determined. Our understanding of a lucid interval began in the early 18th century with the work of Henri-François Le Dran and Percival Pott in London. They did not, however, demonstrate an interval without symptoms between trauma and deterioration in patients with epidural hematomas (EDHs). The interval they described was longer than usually expected with EDHs and occurred exclusively in patients who had a posttraumatic infection. In 1751, James Hill, from Dumfries, Scotland, described the first hematoma-related lucid interval in a patient with a subdural hematoma. The first case of a lucid interval associated with an EDH was described by John Abernethy. In the 19th century, Jonathan Hutchinson and Walter Jacobson described the interval as it is known today, in cases of EDH. The most recent work on the topic came from studies in Cincinnati and Oslo, where it was demonstrated that bleeding can separate dura mater and that hemorrhage into the epidural space can be shunted out via the veins. This shunting could delay the accumulation of a hematoma and thus the rise in intracranial pressure

  9. Item selection via Bayesian IRT models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Serena

    2015-02-10

    With reference to a questionnaire that aimed to assess the quality of life for dysarthric speakers, we investigate the usefulness of a model-based procedure for reducing the number of items. We propose a mixed cumulative logit model, which is known in the psychometrics literature as the graded response model: responses to different items are modelled as a function of individual latent traits and as a function of item characteristics, such as their difficulty and their discrimination power. We jointly model the discrimination and the difficulty parameters by using a k-component mixture of normal distributions. Mixture components correspond to disjoint groups of items. Items that belong to the same groups can be considered equivalent in terms of both difficulty and discrimination power. According to decision criteria, we select a subset of items such that the reduced questionnaire is able to provide the same information that the complete questionnaire provides. The model is estimated by using a Bayesian approach, and the choice of the number of mixture components is justified according to information criteria. We illustrate the proposed approach on the basis of data that are collected for 104 dysarthric patients by local health authorities in Lecce and in Milan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. MCMC estimation of multidimensional IRT models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguin, Anton; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure to estimate the three-parameter normal ogive model and a generalization to a model with multidimensional ability parameters are discussed. The procedure is a generalization of a procedure by J. Albert (1992) for estimating the two-parameter normal ogive model. The procedure will

  11. A note on Nonparametric Confidence Interval for a Shift Parameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method is illustrated using the Cauchy distribution as a location model. The kernel-based method is found to have a shorter interval for the shift parameter between two Cauchy distributions than the one based on the Mann-Whitney test statistic. Keywords: Best Asymptotic Normal; Cauchy distribution; Kernel estimates; ...

  12. Approximation by Müntz spaces on positive intervals

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-11-01

    The so-called Bernstein operators were introduced by S.N. Bernstein in 1912 to give a constructive proof of Weierstrass\\' theorem. We show how to extend his result to Müntz spaces on positive intervals. © 2013 Académie des sciences.

  13. Time-variant random interval natural frequency analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binhua; Wu, Di; Gao, Wei; Song, Chongmin

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new robust method namely, unified interval Chebyshev-based random perturbation method, to tackle hybrid random interval structural natural frequency problem. In the proposed approach, random perturbation method is implemented to furnish the statistical features (i.e., mean and standard deviation) and Chebyshev surrogate model strategy is incorporated to formulate the statistical information of natural frequency with regards to the interval inputs. The comprehensive analysis framework combines the superiority of both methods in a way that computational cost is dramatically reduced. This presented method is thus capable of investigating the day-to-day based time-variant natural frequency of structures accurately and efficiently under concrete intrinsic creep effect with probabilistic and interval uncertain variables. The extreme bounds of the mean and standard deviation of natural frequency are captured through the embedded optimization strategy within the analysis procedure. Three particularly motivated numerical examples with progressive relationship in perspective of both structure type and uncertainty variables are demonstrated to justify the computational applicability, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Interval endurance capacity of talented youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C; Elferink-Gemser, MT; Lemmink, KAPM

    The purpose of this study, in which 113 talented Youth soccer players (M = 16.0 yr., SD = 15), selected by their age and level of performance participated, was to investigate interval endurance capacity needed to play at the highest level of competition in the age-category 12 through 18.

  15. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    productivity gains in dairy herds is recombinant bovine somatotropin ... intervals of 14 days can increase milk production from 3 to 5 kg/day, on ... blood flow and improving the efficiency in the use of .... The total increase in liters of milk produced within 30 days .... maintenance on production throughout the experimental.

  16. Optimal time interval for induction of immunologic adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guizhi; Song Chunhua; Liu Shuzheng

    1994-01-01

    The optimal time interval between prior dose (D1) and challenge dose (D2) for the induction of immunologic adaptive response was investigated. Kunming mice were exposed to 75 mGy X-rays at a dose rate of 12.5 mGy/min. 3, 6, 12, 24 or 60 h after the prior irradiation the mice were challenged with a dose of 1.5 Gy at a dose rate of 0.33 Gy/min. 18h after D2, the mice were sacrificed for examination of immunological parameters. The results showed that with an interval of 6 h between D1 and D2, the adaptive response of the reaction of splenocytes to LPS was induced, and with an interval of 12 h the adaptive responses of spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes and the reaction of splenocytes to Con A and LPS were induced with 75 mGy prior irradiation. The data suggested that the optimal time intervals between D1 and D2 for the induction of immunologic adaptive response were 6 h and 12 h with a D1 of 75 mGy and a D2 of 1.5 Gy. The mechanism of immunologic adaptation following low dose radiation is discussed

  17. Time Interval to Initiation of Contraceptive Methods Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... interval between a woman's last childbirth and the initiation of contraception. Materials and ..... DF=Degree of freedom; χ2=Chi‑square test ..... practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban ...

  18. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  19. The space of colored interval exchange transformations with flips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaw, Myint

    2002-04-01

    We study the space Cr(2h, c) of c-colored exchange transformations with flips on 2h-intervals. We describe its relation to the moduli space M g,c *c of non-orientable Riemann surfaces of genus g≥0 with one boundary curve and c≥0 extra points where g=h-c-1. (author)

  20. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging ...

  1. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the

  2. A model of interval timing by neural integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Balci, Fuat; de Souza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D; Holmes, Philip

    2011-06-22

    We show that simple assumptions about neural processing lead to a model of interval timing as a temporal integration process, in which a noisy firing-rate representation of time rises linearly on average toward a response threshold over the course of an interval. Our assumptions include: that neural spike trains are approximately independent Poisson processes, that correlations among them can be largely cancelled by balancing excitation and inhibition, that neural populations can act as integrators, and that the objective of timed behavior is maximal accuracy and minimal variance. The model accounts for a variety of physiological and behavioral findings in rodents, monkeys, and humans, including ramping firing rates between the onset of reward-predicting cues and the receipt of delayed rewards, and universally scale-invariant response time distributions in interval timing tasks. It furthermore makes specific, well-supported predictions about the skewness of these distributions, a feature of timing data that is usually ignored. The model also incorporates a rapid (potentially one-shot) duration-learning procedure. Human behavioral data support the learning rule's predictions regarding learning speed in sequences of timed responses. These results suggest that simple, integration-based models should play as prominent a role in interval timing theory as they do in theories of perceptual decision making, and that a common neural mechanism may underlie both types of behavior.

  3. Interval algebra: an effective means of scheduling surveillance radar networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval Algebra provides an effective means to schedule surveillance radar networks, as it is a temporal ordering constraint language. Thus it provides a solution to a part of resource management, which is included in the revised Data Fusion...

  4. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  5. Correlates of emergency response interval and mortality from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study to determine the influence of blood transfusion emergency response interval on Mortality from childhood severe anemia was carried out. An admission record of all children with severe anemia over a 5-year period was reviewed. Those who either died before transfusion or got discharged against ...

  6. On the Recognition of Fuzzy Circular Interval Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Oriolo, Gianpaolo; Pietropaoli, Ugo; Stauffer, Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy circular interval graphs are a generalization of proper circular arc graphs and have been recently introduced by Chudnovsky and Seymour as a fundamental subclass of claw-free graphs. In this paper, we provide a polynomial-time algorithm for recognizing such graphs, and more importantly for building a suitable representation.

  7. Comparing confidence intervals for Goodman and Kruskal's gamma coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ark, L.A.; van Aert, R.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was motivated by the question which type of confidence interval (CI) one should use to summarize sample variance of Goodman and Kruskal's coefficient gamma. In a Monte-Carlo study, we investigated the coverage and computation time of the Goodman-Kruskal CI, the Cliff-consistent CI, the

  8. The use of relative coupling intervals in horses during walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    Walking speed varies between over-ground trials and a speed-independent gait-parameter does not exist for use in horses. We introduce relative (R) lateral (L) and diagonal (D) coupling intervals (CI) and hypothesize that both are independent of walking speed. Four horses were walked over 8 Kistler...

  9. The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria

    2011-01-01

    useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.

  10. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  11. Interval algebra - an effective means of scheduling surveillance radar networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval Algebra provides an effective means to schedule surveillance radar networks, as it is a temporal ordering constraint language. Thus it provides a solution to a part of resource management, which is included in the revised Data Fusion...

  12. Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum flow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and flows. This problem can be solved using two minimum flow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and flows.

  13. Quantifying uncertainty on sediment loads using bootstrap confidence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaets, Johanna I. F.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, Thomas; Cadisch, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Load estimates are more informative than constituent concentrations alone, as they allow quantification of on- and off-site impacts of environmental processes concerning pollutants, nutrients and sediment, such as soil fertility loss, reservoir sedimentation and irrigation channel siltation. While statistical models used to predict constituent concentrations have been developed considerably over the last few years, measures of uncertainty on constituent loads are rarely reported. Loads are the product of two predictions, constituent concentration and discharge, integrated over a time period, which does not make it straightforward to produce a standard error or a confidence interval. In this paper, a linear mixed model is used to estimate sediment concentrations. A bootstrap method is then developed that accounts for the uncertainty in the concentration and discharge predictions, allowing temporal correlation in the constituent data, and can be used when data transformations are required. The method was tested for a small watershed in Northwest Vietnam for the period 2010-2011. The results showed that confidence intervals were asymmetric, with the highest uncertainty in the upper limit, and that a load of 6262 Mg year-1 had a 95 % confidence interval of (4331, 12 267) in 2010 and a load of 5543 Mg an interval of (3593, 8975) in 2011. Additionally, the approach demonstrated that direct estimates from the data were biased downwards compared to bootstrap median estimates. These results imply that constituent loads predicted from regression-type water quality models could frequently be underestimating sediment yields and their environmental impact.

  14. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, F; Papachristos, E B; Gallistel, C R; Brunner, D; Gibson, J; Shumyatsky, G P

    2008-04-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout of the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide that show enhanced (i.e. prolonged) freezing in fear conditioning. We have tested the hypothesis that the mutants freeze longer because they are more uncertain than wild types about when to expect the electric shock. The knockouts however show normal accuracy and precision in timing, so we have rejected this alternative hypothesis. Last, we conduct the pharmacological validation of our behavioral screen using d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. We suggest including the analysis of interval timing and temporal memory in tests of genetically modified mice for learning and memory and argue that our paradigm allows this to be done simply and efficiently.

  15. On The Problem of Variability of Interval Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Finěk, V.; Matonoha, Ctirad

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2012), s. 76-84 ISSN 1803-9782 Grant - others:ESF(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/09.0155 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval data * computation of variance * theoretical analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. High-low search for a point in an interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the high-low search game for a point on an interval. By limiting the number of guesses for the searcher, it is possible to study the game numerically. The principal motivation for this analysis is an old and open question due to Baston, Bostock and Alpern: is the optimal strategy for the

  17. The effects of thioridazine on the QTc interval — cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Thioridazine has long been used as a first-line antipsychotic in South Africa without any apparent problems. Recently the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Novartis have warned of potentially lethal arrhythmias that may result from the use of thioridazine. Abnormal QT-interval prolongation on ...

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  19. Time Interval to Initiation of Contraceptive Methods Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine factors affecting the interval between a woman's last childbirth and the initiation of contraception. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. Family planning clinic records of the Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital Kaduna from January 2000 to March 2014 ...

  20. Parametric change point estimation, testing and confidence interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many applications like finance, industry and medicine, it is important to consider that the model parameters may undergo changes at unknown moment in time. This paper deals with estimation, testing and confidence interval of a change point for a univariate variable which is assumed to be normally distributed. To detect ...

  1. Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be derived from milk recording data, therefore this fertility trait can easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. The aim of this ...

  2. Ovarian follicular dynamics during the interovulatory interval in Najdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated the presence of either four (n = 2 estrus cycles) or five (n = 3 estrus cycles) waves of follicular growth during the interovulatory interval. Each wave was characterized by the development of at least 1 large follicle (dominant) and a variable number of small follicles (subordinate). The mean number of follicular ...

  3. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  4. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic correlations between first calving interval (CI) and linear type traits in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle were estimated to assess the possibility of using type information as selection criteria for CI. All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for Jersey and 17 ...

  5. Reference interval of thyroxine and thyrotropin of healthyterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish a local Reference Interval of Serum Thyroxine (T4) and Serum Thyroid stimulating Hormone(TSH) of healthy Nigerian Newborns in Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty healthy term Nigerian Newborns who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were ...

  6. Integers without Large Prime Factors in Short Intervals: Conditional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 5. Integers without Large Prime Factors in Short Intervals: Conditional Results. Goutam Pal Satadal Ganguly. Volume 120 Issue 5 November 2010 pp 515-524 ...

  7. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1220 records ... Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic improvement in Friesian vs Arsi crossbred cows in the highlands of south eastern. Ethiopia. Dumar Wabe1 and Kassahun Asmare2. 1Allage Agricultural Technical, Vocational Education Training College, P.O. Box 077. 2School of Veterinary ...

  8. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at moderately high altitude (1890 m in Erzurum, Turkey) with those of women living at sea level (31 m in İstanbul, Turkey). Materials and Methods: One‑hundred ten women (n = 55, for each group) with full‑term and single ...

  9. Prognostic Significance Of QT Interval Prolongation In Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic survival studies for heart-rate corrected QT interval in patients with chronic heart failure are few; although these patients are known to have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. This study was aimed at determining the mortality risk associated with prolonged QTc in Nigerians with heart failure. Ninety-six ...

  10. Delayed interval delivery in twin pregnancy without cerclage: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the loss of the first foetus, delayed delivery in multiple pregnancies can be successful in selected cases as exemplified by the case presentation. In well prepared perinatal centers, with physically and psychologically balanced patients who are well informed about the risks and benefits of the procedure, delayed interval ...

  11. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining...

  12. Some simple applications of probability models to birth intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1987-07-01

    An attempt has been made in this paper to apply some simple probability models to birth intervals under the assumption of constant fecundability and varying fecundability among women. The parameters of the probability models are estimated by using the method of moments and the method of maximum likelihood. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Approximation by Müntz spaces on positive intervals

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Mazure, Marie Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The so-called Bernstein operators were introduced by S.N. Bernstein in 1912 to give a constructive proof of Weierstrass' theorem. We show how to extend his result to Müntz spaces on positive intervals. © 2013 Académie des sciences.

  14. Bootstrap confidence intervals for three-way methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.

    Results from exploratory three-way analysis techniques such as CANDECOMP/PARAFAC and Tucker3 analysis are usually presented without giving insight into uncertainties due to sampling. Here a bootstrap procedure is proposed that produces percentile intervals for all output parameters. Special

  15. The prognostic value of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion in all-cause and cardiac mortality and morbidity in a population of Danish citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, H; Holm, E; Jun, L

    1998-01-01

    with a prolonged QT interval (430 ms or more) or prolonged QT interval dispersion (80 ms or more) were at higher risk of cardiovascular death and cardiac morbidity than subjects whose QT interval was less than 360 ms, or whose QT interval dispersion was less than 30 ms. Cardiovascular death relative risk ratios...

  16. Predicting restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure is common in critically ill patients and frequently requires continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. CRRT is discontinued at regular intervals for routine changes of the disposable equipment or for replacing clogged filter membrane assemblies. The present study was conducted to determine if the necessity to continue CRRT could be predicted during the CRRT-free period. Materials and methods In the period from 2003 to 2006, 605 patients were treated with CRRT in our ICU. A total of 222 patients with 448 CRRT-free intervals had complete data sets and were used for analysis. Of the total CRRT-free periods, 225 served as an evaluation group. Twenty-nine parameters with an assumed influence on kidney function were analyzed with regard to their potential to predict the restoration of kidney function during the CRRT-free interval. Using univariate analysis and logistic regression, a prospective index was developed and validated in the remaining 223 CRRT-free periods to establish its prognostic strength. Results Only three parameters showed an independent influence on the restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals: the number of previous CRRT cycles (medians in the two outcome groups: 1 vs. 2, the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment"-score (means in the two outcome groups: 8.3 vs. 9.2 and urinary output after the cessation of CRRT (medians in two outcome groups: 66 ml/h vs. 10 ml/h. The prognostic index, which was calculated from these three variables, showed a satisfactory potential to predict the kidney function during the CRRT-free intervals; Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.798. Conclusion Restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free periods can be predicted with an index calculated from three variables. Prospective trials in other hospitals must clarify whether our results are generally transferable to other patient populations.

  17. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  18. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost H∞ Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongke Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost H∞ control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  19. The prognostic value of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion in all-cause and cardiac mortality and morbidity in a population of Danish citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elming, H; Holm, E; Jun, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Kircshoff, M; Malik, M; Camm, J

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion in total and in cardiovascular mortality, as well as in cardiac morbidity, in a general population. The QT interval was measured in all leads from a standard 12-lead ECG in a random sample of 1658 women and 1797 men aged 30-60 years. QT interval dispersion was calculated from the maximal difference between QT intervals in any two leads. All cause mortality over 13 years, and cardiovascular mortality as well as cardiac morbidity over 11 years, were the main outcome parameters. Subjects with a prolonged QT interval (430 ms or more) or prolonged QT interval dispersion (80 ms or more) were at higher risk of cardiovascular death and cardiac morbidity than subjects whose QT interval was less than 360 ms, or whose QT interval dispersion was less than 30 ms. Cardiovascular death relative risk ratios, adjusted for age, gender, myocardial infarct, angina pectoris, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, smoking habits, serum cholesterol level, and heart rate were 2.9 for the QT interval (95% confidence interval 1.1-7.8) and 4.4 for QT interval dispersion (95% confidence interval 1.0-19-1). Fatal and non-fatal cardiac morbidity relative risk ratios were similar, at 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.4-5.5) for the QT interval and 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.1-4.0) for QT interval dispersion. Prolongation of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion independently affected the prognosis of cardiovascular mortality and cardiac fatal and non-fatal morbidity in a general population over 11 years.

  20. On Bayesian treatment of systematic uncertainties in confidence interval calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Tegenfeldt, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    In high energy physics, a widely used method to treat systematic uncertainties in confidence interval calculations is based on combining a frequentist construction of confidence belts with a Bayesian treatment of systematic uncertainties. In this note we present a study of the coverage of this method for the standard Likelihood Ratio (aka Feldman & Cousins) construction for a Poisson process with known background and Gaussian or log-Normal distributed uncertainties in the background or signal efficiency. For uncertainties in the signal efficiency of upto 40 % we find over-coverage on the level of 2 to 4 % depending on the size of uncertainties and the region in signal space. Uncertainties in the background generally have smaller effect on the coverage. A considerable smoothing of the coverage curves is observed. A software package is presented which allows fast calculation of the confidence intervals for a variety of assumptions on shape and size of systematic uncertainties for different nuisance paramete...

  1. Efectividad de la intervención cambiaria en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Castillo Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de las intervenciones cambiarias de compra y de venta de dólares del Banco de Guatemala se analiza en el contexto de un modelo ACT-GARCH. Con información diaria para el periodo 1996-2008, se concluye que solamente las intervenciones de compra produjeron una disminución de la volatilidad de largo plazo del tipo de cambio quetzal/dólar, pero que ambos tipos de intervención afectaron el quetzal. En relación con los objetivos establecidos por el banco central, la intervención cambiaria fue efectiva cuando se orientó a moderar el tipo de cambio, pero careció de efectividad cuando ésta se limitó a moderar la volatilidad cambiaria sin afectar su tendencia.

  2. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  3. Integral equations with difference kernels on finite intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Sakhnovich, Lev A

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on solving integral equations with difference kernels on finite intervals. The corresponding problem on the semiaxis was previously solved by N. Wiener–E. Hopf and by M.G. Krein. The problem on finite intervals, though significantly more difficult, may be solved using our method of operator identities. This method is also actively employed in inverse spectral problems, operator factorization and nonlinear integral equations. Applications of the obtained results to optimal synthesis, light scattering, diffraction, and hydrodynamics problems are discussed in this book, which also describes how the theory of operators with difference kernels is applied to stable processes and used to solve the famous M. Kac problems on stable processes. In this second edition these results are extensively generalized and include the case of all Levy processes. We present the convolution expression for the well-known Ito formula of the generator operator, a convolution expression that has proven to be fruitful...

  4. Single interval Rényi entropy at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we calculate the Rényi entropy of one single interval on a circle at finite temperature in 2D CFT. In the low temperature limit, we expand the thermal density matrix level by level in the vacuum Verma module, and calculate the first few leading terms in e -π/ T L explicitly. On the other hand, we compute the same Rényi entropy holographically. After considering the dependence of the Rényi entropy on the temperature, we manage to fix the interval-independent constant terms in the classical part of holographic Rényi entropy. We furthermore extend the analysis in [9] to higher orders and find exact agreement between the results from field theory and bulk computations in the large central charge limit. Our work provides another piece of evidence to support holographic computation of Rényi entropy in AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, even with thermal effect.

  5. Comparison of Bootstrap Confidence Intervals Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Flowers-Cano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Design of hydraulic works requires the estimation of design hydrological events by statistical inference from a probability distribution. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compared coverage of confidence intervals constructed with four bootstrap techniques: percentile bootstrap (BP, bias-corrected bootstrap (BC, accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap (BCA and a modified version of the standard bootstrap (MSB. Different simulation scenarios were analyzed. In some cases, the mother distribution function was fit to the random samples that were generated. In other cases, a distribution function different to the mother distribution was fit to the samples. When the fitted distribution had three parameters, and was the same as the mother distribution, the intervals constructed with the four techniques had acceptable coverage. However, the bootstrap techniques failed in several of the cases in which the fitted distribution had two parameters.

  6. Computation of robustly stabilizing PID controllers for interval systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matušů, Radek; Prokop, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The paper is focused on the computation of all possible robustly stabilizing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers for plants with interval uncertainty. The main idea of the proposed method is based on Tan's (et al.) technique for calculation of (nominally) stabilizing PI and PID controllers or robustly stabilizing PI controllers by means of plotting the stability boundary locus in either P-I plane or P-I-D space. Refinement of the existing method by consideration of 16 segment plants instead of 16 Kharitonov plants provides an elegant and efficient tool for finding all robustly stabilizing PID controllers for an interval system. The validity and relatively effortless application of presented theoretical concepts are demonstrated through a computation and simulation example in which the uncertain mathematical model of an experimental oblique wing aircraft is robustly stabilized.

  7. Relativistic rise measurements with very fine sampling intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Platner, E.D.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Teramoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The motivation of this work was to determine whether the technique of charged particle identification via the relativistic rise in the ionization loss can be significantly improved by virtue of very small sampling intervals. A fast-sampling ADC and a longitudinal drift geometry were used to provide a large number of samples from a single drift chamber gap, achieving sampling intervals roughly 10 times smaller than any previous study. A single layer drift chamber was used, and tracks of 1 meter length were simulated by combining together samples from many identified particles in this detector. These data were used to study the resolving power for particle identification as a function of sample size, averaging technique, and the number of discrimination levels (ADC bits) used for pulse height measurements

  8. Global robust exponential stability analysis for interval recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shengyuan; Lam, James; Ho, Daniel W.C.; Zou Yun

    2004-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of robust global exponential stability analysis for interval recurrent neural networks (RNNs) via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The values of the time-invariant uncertain parameters are assumed to be bounded within given compact sets. An improved condition for the existence of a unique equilibrium point and its global exponential stability of RNNs with known parameters is proposed. Based on this, a sufficient condition for the global robust exponential stability for interval RNNs is obtained. Both of the conditions are expressed in terms of LMIs, which can be checked easily by various recently developed convex optimization algorithms. Examples are provided to demonstrate the reduced conservatism of the proposed exponential stability condition

  9. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Profile-likelihood Confidence Intervals in Item Response Theory Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, R Philip; Pek, Jolynn; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) are fundamental inferential devices which quantify the sampling variability of parameter estimates. In item response theory, CIs have been primarily obtained from large-sample Wald-type approaches based on standard error estimates, derived from the observed or expected information matrix, after parameters have been estimated via maximum likelihood. An alternative approach to constructing CIs is to quantify sampling variability directly from the likelihood function with a technique known as profile-likelihood confidence intervals (PL CIs). In this article, we introduce PL CIs for item response theory models, compare PL CIs to classical large-sample Wald-type CIs, and demonstrate important distinctions among these CIs. CIs are then constructed for parameters directly estimated in the specified model and for transformed parameters which are often obtained post-estimation. Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that PL CIs perform consistently better than Wald-type CIs for both non-transformed and transformed parameters.

  11. Patterns of interval correlations in neural oscillators with adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eSchwalger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural firing is often subject to negative feedback by adaptationcurrents. These currents can induce strong correlations among the timeintervals between spikes. Here we study analytically the intervalcorrelations of a broad class of noisy neural oscillators withspike-triggered adaptation of arbitrary strength and time scale. Ourweak-noise theory provides a general relation between the correlationsand the phase-response curve (PRC of the oscillator, provesanti-correlations between neighboring intervals for adapting neuronswith type I PRC and identifies a single order parameter thatdetermines the qualitative pattern of correlations. Monotonicallydecaying or oscillating correlation structures can be related toqualitatively different voltage traces after spiking, which can beexplained by the phase plane geometry. At high firing rates, thelong-term variability of the spike train associated with thecumulative interval correlations becomes small, independent of modeldetails. Our results are verified by comparison with stochasticsimulations of the exponential, leaky, and generalizedintegrate-and-fire models with adaptation.

  12. Recommended Changes to Interval Management to Achieve Operational Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian; Swieringa, Kurt; Roper, Roy; Hubbs, Clay; Goess, Paul; Shay, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A 19-day flight test of an Interval Management (IM) avionics prototype was conducted in Washington State using three aircraft to precisely achieve and maintain a spacing interval behind the preceding aircraft. NASA contracted with Boeing, Honeywell, and United Airlines to build this prototype, and then worked closely with them, the FAA, and other industry partners to test this prototype in flight. Four different IM operation types were investigated during this test in the en route, arrival, and final approach phases of flight. Many of the IM operations met or exceeded the design goals established prior to the test. However, there were issues discovered throughout the flight test, including the rate and magnitude of IM commanded speed changes and the difference between expected and actual aircraft deceleration rates.

  13. Chaoticity of interval self-maps with positive entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jincheng.

    1988-12-01

    Li and Yorke originally introduced the notion of chaos for continuous self-map of the interval I = (0,1). In the present paper we show that an interval self-map with positive topological entropy has a chaoticity more complicated than the chaoticity in the sense of Li and Yorke. The main result is that if f:I → I is continuous and has a periodic point with odd period > 1 then there exists a closed subset K of I invariant with respect to f such that the periodic points are dense in K, the periods of periodic points in K form an infinite set and f|K is topologically mixing. (author). 9 refs

  14. Process control and optimization with simple interval calculation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerantsev, A.; Rodionova, O.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2006-01-01

    for the quality improvement in the course of production. The latter is an active quality optimization, which takes into account the actual history of the process. The advocate approach is allied to the conventional method of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) as it also employs the historical process......Methods of process control and optimization are presented and illustrated with a real world example. The optimization methods are based on the PLS block modeling as well as on the simple interval calculation methods of interval prediction and object status classification. It is proposed to employ...... the series of expanding PLS/SIC models in order to support the on-line process improvements. This method helps to predict the effect of planned actions on the product quality and thus enables passive quality control. We have also considered an optimization approach that proposes the correcting actions...

  15. Parameter identification for structural dynamics based on interval analysis algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Lu, Zixing; Yang, Zhenyu; Liang, Ke

    2018-04-01

    A parameter identification method using interval analysis algorithm for structural dynamics is presented in this paper. The proposed uncertain identification method is investigated by using central difference method and ARMA system. With the help of the fixed memory least square method and matrix inverse lemma, a set-membership identification technology is applied to obtain the best estimation of the identified parameters in a tight and accurate region. To overcome the lack of insufficient statistical description of the uncertain parameters, this paper treats uncertainties as non-probabilistic intervals. As long as we know the bounds of uncertainties, this algorithm can obtain not only the center estimations of parameters, but also the bounds of errors. To improve the efficiency of the proposed method, a time-saving algorithm is presented by recursive formula. At last, to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, two numerical examples are applied and evaluated by three identification criteria respectively.

  16. Confidence interval procedures for Monte Carlo transport simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of obtaining valid confidence intervals based on estimates from sampled distributions using Monte Carlo particle transport simulation codes such as MCNP is examined. Such intervals can cover the true parameter of interest at a lower than nominal rate if the sampled distribution is extremely right-skewed by large tallies. Modifications to the standard theory of confidence intervals are discussed and compared with some existing heuristics, including batched means normality tests. Two new types of diagnostics are introduced to assess whether the conditions of central limit theorem-type results are satisfied: the relative variance of the variance determines whether the sample size is sufficiently large, and estimators of the slope of the right tail of the distribution are used to indicate the number of moments that exist. A simulation study is conducted to quantify the relationship between various diagnostics and coverage rates and to find sample-based quantities useful in indicating when intervals are expected to be valid. Simulated tally distributions are chosen to emulate behavior seen in difficult particle transport problems. Measures of variation in the sample variance s 2 are found to be much more effective than existing methods in predicting when coverage will be near nominal rates. Batched means tests are found to be overly conservative in this regard. A simple but pathological MCNP problem is presented as an example of false convergence using existing heuristics. The new methods readily detect the false convergence and show that the results of the problem, which are a factor of 4 too small, should not be used. Recommendations are made for applying these techniques in practice, using the statistical output currently produced by MCNP

  17. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kathryn Abel

    Full Text Available Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  18. Verification-Based Interval-Passing Algorithm for Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaofu; Yang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We propose a verification-based Interval-Passing (IP) algorithm for iteratively reconstruction of nonnegative sparse signals using parity check matrices of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes as measurement matrices. The proposed algorithm can be considered as an improved IP algorithm by further incorporation of the mechanism of verification algorithm. It is proved that the proposed algorithm performs always better than either the IP algorithm or the verification algorithm. Simulation resul...

  19. Interval among childbirths in livestock Chinese Creole Santandereano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, A.C; Munar Gonzalez, A.R; Hernandez Boada, G.

    1989-01-01

    All project of rescue of the Creole races should include the study of its productive characteristics. One of them, the fertility of the cows is, without a doubt, that of more economic importance. This characteristic is measured, among other forms, by means of the interval among childbirths, which is very affected by environmental factors. Therefore, it is of a lot of interest to study the effect of this factor with the purpose of making a strategic handling of the reproduction of the herd. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the year of childbirth, time of the childbirth, age of the cow, sex of the calf; race of the bull and insemination type (natural or artificial) in the interval among childbirths of a herd of cattle of cows Chinese Creoles Santandereano. The data were analyzed by the minimum squares method (G.L.M. of S.A.S. with sum of square type III). It was found that the effects of year of the childbirth, age of the cow and insemination type were significant (smaller P that 0.01) the general average of interval among childbirths was of 435.4 days; while it stops artificial insemination it was of 534.1 days. With a single exception, one observes a continuous decrease of the intervals among childbirths from the cows smaller than 3 years (525.4 days) until those smaller than 10 years (432.8 days). The exception, the cows of 3 to 4 years showed an average of 530.4 day

  20. PR Interval Prolongation and Cryptogenic Stroke: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Mayra; Tadi, Prasanna; Merkler, Alexander; Gialdini, Gino; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Navalkele, Digvijaya; Samai, Alyana; Nouh, Amre; Hussain, Mohammad; Goldblatt, Steven; Hemendinger, Morgan; Chu, Antony; Song, Christopher; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" has been recently proposed as a mechanism in cryptogenic stroke. A prolonged PR interval may reflect impaired atrial conduction and thus may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy. We aim to compare the prevalence of PR interval prolongation in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) when compared with known non-cryptogenic non-cardioembolic stroke (NCNCS) subtypes. We used prospective ischemic stroke databases of 3 comprehensive stroke centers to identify patients 18 years or older with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke between December 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015. The main outcome was ischemic stroke subtype (CS versus NCNCS). We compared PR intervals as a continuous and categorical variable (PR interval prolongation and CS. We identified 644 patients with ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke (224 CS and 420 NCNCS). Patients with CS were more likely to have a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater when compared with those with NCNCS (23.2% versus 13.8%, P = .009). After adjusting for factors that were significant in univariate analyses, a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater was independently associated with CS (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70). The association was more pronounced when excluding patients on atrioventricular nodal blocking agents (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.44-4.83). A PR of 200 milliseconds or greater is associated with CS and may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interval mellem operation for ovariecancer og kemoterapi--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erling Peter; Blaakaer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, much effort goes into performing optimal surgery in treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the optimal timing (TI) of postoperative chemotherapy for ovarian cancer remains poorly defined. The relevant literature comprises seven studies with varying characteristics and i...... and includes different prognostic factors. The general supposition is that the time interval does not have a prognostic influence, but experimental studies have shown that it does affect cancer prognosis. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Nov-2...

  2. Recurrence determinism and Li-Yorke chaos for interval maps

    OpenAIRE

    Špitalský, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Recurrence determinism, one of the fundamental characteristics of recurrence quantification analysis, measures predictability of a trajectory of a dynamical system. It is tightly connected with the conditional probability that, given a recurrence, following states of the trajectory will be recurrences. In this paper we study recurrence determinism of interval dynamical systems. We show that recurrence determinism distinguishes three main types of $\\omega$-limit sets of zero entropy maps: fini...

  3. A general method for enclosing solutions of interval linear equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-717 ISSN 1862-4472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval linear equations * solution set * enclosure * absolute value inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2012

  4. Intervención de trabajo social con adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesica Rodríguez Montañez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta las metodologías de intervención del Trabajo Social con adultos mayores realizando un recorrido por los términos envejecimiento y vejez, haciendo énfasis en la importancia de la pérdida en la concepción de la misma . Se realiza un aná

  5. The effect of different rest intervals between multiple bench press ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the training volume completed during a workout, 15 male bodybuilders served as subjects (Mean SD, age=25.28±2.01; mass=73.06±8.33 kg; height=176.33±6.30 cm). All the subjects performed a minimum of three strength workouts per week for a ...

  6. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H Charles; Russo, Frank A; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  7. Integers without large prime factors in short intervals: Conditional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    α > 0 the interval (X, X +. √. X(log X)1/2+o(1)] contains an integer having no prime factor exceeding Xα for all X sufficiently large. Keywords. Smooth numbers; Riemann zeta function. 1. Introduction. Suppose P (n) denotes the largest prime factor of an integer n > 1 and let us declare. P(1) = 1. Given a positive real number y, ...

  8. Multiplicative Consistency for Interval Valued Reciprocal Preference Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian; Chiclana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The multiplicative consistency (MC) property of interval additive reciprocal preference relations (IARPRs) is explored, and then the consistency index is quantified by the multiplicative consistency estimated IARPR. The MC property is used to measure the level of consistency of the information provided by the experts and also to propose the consistency index induced ordered weighted averaging (CI-IOWA) operator. The novelty of this operator is that it aggregates individual IARPRs in such ...

  9. Evaluating FOMC forecast ranges: an interval data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Fischer; Marta García-Bárzana; Peter Tillmann; Peter Winker

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) of the U.S. Federal Reserve publishes the range of members' forecasts for key macroeconomic variables, but not the distribution of forecasts within this range. To evaluate these projections, previous papers compare the midpoint of the ranges with the realized outcome. This paper proposes a new approach to forecast evaluation that takes account of the interval nature of projections. It is shown that using the conventional Mincer-Zarnowitz approach to ev...

  10. Time interval measurement between to emission: a systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Meslin, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study of the evolution of intervals of fragment emission times as a function of the energy deposited in the compound system was performed. Several measurements, Ne at 60 MeV/u, Ar at 30 and 60 MeV/u and two measurements for Kr at 60 MeV/u (central and semi-peripheral collisions) are presented. In all the experiments the target was Au and the mass of the compounds system was around A = 200. The excitation energies per nucleon reached in the case of these heavy systems cover the range of 3 to 5.5 MeV/u. The method used to determine the emission time intervals is based on the correlation functions associated to the relative angle distributions. The gaps between the data and simulations allow to evaluate the emission times. A rapid decrease of these time intervals was observed when the excitation energy increased. This variation starts at 500 fm/c which corresponds to a sequential emission. This relatively long time which indicates a weak interaction between fragments, corresponds practically to the measurement threshold. The shortest intervals (about 50 fm/c) are associated to a spontaneous multifragmentation and were observed in the case of central collisions at Ar+Au and Kr+Au at 60 MeV/u. Two interpretations are possible. The multifragmentation process might be viewed as a sequential process of very short time-separation or else, one can separate two zones heaving in mind that the multifragmentation is predominant from 4,5 MeV/u excitation energy upwards. This question is still open and its study is under way at LPC. An answer could come from the study of the rupture process of an excited nucleus, notably by the determination of its life-time

  11. Translating QT interval prolongation from conscious dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent F S; Smania, Giovanni; Yu, Huixin; Graf, Ramona; Chain, Anne S Y; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    In spite of screening procedures in early drug development, uncertainty remains about the propensity of new chemical entities (NCEs) to prolong the QT/QTc interval. The evaluation of proarrhythmic activity using a comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay does not fully account for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) differences in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between drug-specific parameters describing QT interval prolongation in dogs and in humans. Using estimates of the drug-specific parameter, data on the slopes of the PKPD relationships of nine compounds with varying QT-prolonging effects (cisapride, sotalol, moxifloxacin, carabersat, GSK945237, SB237376 and GSK618334, and two anonymized NCEs) were analysed. Mean slope estimates varied between -0.98 ms μM -1 and 6.1 ms μM -1 in dogs and -10 ms μM -1 and 90 ms μM -1 in humans, indicating a wide range of effects on the QT interval. Linear regression techniques were then applied to characterize the correlation between the parameter estimates across species. For compounds without a mixed ion channel block, a correlation was observed between the drug-specific parameter in dogs and humans (y = -1.709 + 11.6x; R 2  = 0.989). These results show that per unit concentration, the drug effect on the QT interval in humans is 11.6-fold larger than in dogs. Together with information about the expected therapeutic exposure, the evidence of a correlation between the compound-specific parameter in dogs and in humans represents an opportunity for translating preclinical safety data before progression into the clinic. Whereas further investigation is required to establish the generalizability of our findings, this approach can be used with clinical trial simulations to predict the probability of QT prolongation in humans. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bean Knudsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g. motor tasks under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n=5, while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n=6. Using PETH analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT, however only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter, we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R=0.61 significantly better than nIT animals (R=0.507, p<0.01, suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  13. Multifactor analysis of multiscaling in volatility return intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We study the volatility time series of 1137 most traded stocks in the U.S. stock markets for the two-year period 2001-2002 and analyze their return intervals tau , which are time intervals between volatilities above a given threshold q . We explore the probability density function of tau , P_(q)(tau) , assuming a stretched exponential function, P_(q)(tau) approximately e;(-tau;(gamma)) . We find that the exponent gamma depends on the threshold in the range between q=1 and 6 standard deviations of the volatility. This finding supports the multiscaling nature of the return interval distribution. To better understand the multiscaling origin, we study how gamma depends on four essential factors, capitalization, risk, number of trades, and return. We show that gamma depends on the capitalization, risk, and return but almost does not depend on the number of trades. This suggests that gamma relates to the portfolio selection but not on the market activity. To further characterize the multiscaling of individual stocks, we fit the moments of tau , mu_(m) identical with(tautau);(m);(1m) , in the range of 10portfolio optimization.

  14. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegeun Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP, the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  15. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jaegeun; Jung, Im Y; Yoo, Jaesoo

    2017-04-02

    Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  16. Modified stochastic fragmentation of an interval as an ageing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2018-02-01

    We study a stochastic model based on modified fragmentation of a finite interval. The mechanism consists of cutting the interval at a random location and substituting a unique fragment on the right of the cut to regenerate and preserve the interval length. This leads to a set of segments of random sizes, with the accumulation of small fragments near the origin. This model is an example of record dynamics, with the presence of ‘quakes’ and slow dynamics. The fragment size distribution is a universal inverse power law with logarithmic corrections. The exact distribution for the fragment number as function of time is simply related to the unsigned Stirling numbers of the first kind. Two-time correlation functions are defined, and computed exactly. They satisfy scaling relations, and exhibit aging phenomena. In particular, the probability that the same number of fragments is found at two different times t>s is asymptotically equal to [4πlog(s)]-1/2 when s\\gg 1 and the ratio t/s is fixed, in agreement with the numerical simulations. The same process with a reset impedes the aging phenomenon-beyond a typical time scale defined by the reset parameter.

  17. Nosewitness Identification: Effects of Lineup Size and Retention Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C; Costa, Liliana P; Pinto, Elisa; Ferreira, Jacqueline H T; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Silva, Carlos F; Olsson, Mats J

    2016-01-01

    Although canine identification of body odor (BO) has been widely used as forensic evidence, the concept of nosewitness identification by human observers was only recently put to the test. The results indicated that BOs associated with male characters in authentic crime videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. To further evaluate nosewitness memory, we assessed the effects of lineup size (Experiment 1) and retention interval (Experiment 2), using a forced-choice memory test. The results showed that nosewitness identification works for all lineup sizes (3, 5, and 8 BOs), but that larger lineups compromise identification performance in similarity to observations from eye- and earwitness studies. Also in line with previous eye- and earwitness studies, but in disagreement with some studies on odor memory, Experiment 2 showed significant forgetting between shorter retention intervals (15 min) and longer retention intervals (1-week) using lineups of five BOs. Altogether this study shows that identification of BO in a forensic setting is possible and has limits and characteristics in line with witness identification through other sensory modalities.

  18. Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.

  19. Extended score interval in the assessment of basic surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Stefan; Sevonius, Dan; Beckman, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The Basic Surgical Skills course uses an assessment score interval of 0-3. An extended score interval, 1-6, was proposed by the Swedish steering committee of the course. The aim of this study was to analyze the trainee scores in the current 0-3 scored version compared to a proposed 1-6 scored version. Sixteen participants, seven females and nine males, were evaluated in the current and proposed assessment forms by instructors, observers, and learners themselves during the first and second day. In each assessment form, 17 tasks were assessed. The inter-rater reliability between the current and the proposed score sheets were evaluated with intraclass correlation (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The distribution of scores for 'knot tying' at the last time point and 'bowel anastomosis side to side' given by the instructors in the current assessment form showed that the highest score was given in 31 and 62%, respectively. No ceiling effects were found in the proposed assessment form. The overall ICC between the current and proposed score sheets after assessment by the instructors increased from 0.38 (95% CI 0.77-0.78) on Day 1 to 0.83 (95% CI 0.51-0.94) on Day 2. A clear ceiling effect of scores was demonstrated in the current assessment form, questioning its validity. The proposed score sheet provides more accurate scores and seems to be a better feedback instrument for learning technical surgical skills in the Basic Surgical Skills course.

  20. Time interval measurement between two emissions: Kr + Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.

    1998-01-01

    To indicate the method allowing the determination of the emission intervals, the results obtained with the Kr + Au system at 43 and 60 A.MeV are presented. The experiments were performed with the NAUTILUS exclusive detectors. Central collisions were selected by means of a relative velocity criterion to reject the events containing a forward emitted fragment. For the two bombardment energies the data analysis shows that the formation of a compound of mass around A = 200. By comparing the fragment dynamical variables with simulations one can conclude about the simultaneity of the compound deexcitation processes. It was found that a 5 MeV/A is able to reproduce the characteristics of the detected fragments. Also, it was found that to reproduce the dynamical characteristics of the fragments issued from central collisions it was not necessary to superimpose a radial collective energy upon the Coulomb and thermal motion. The distribution of the relative angles between detected fragments is used here as a chronometer. For simultaneous ruptures the small relative angles are forbidden by the Coulomb repulsion, while for sequential processes this interdiction is the more lifted the longer the interval between the two emissions is. For the system discussed here the comparison between simulation and data has been carried out for the extreme cases, i.e. for a vanishing and infinite time interval between the two emissions, respectively. More sophisticated simulations to describe angular distributions between the emitted fragments were also developed

  1. Multifactor analysis of multiscaling in volatility return intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We study the volatility time series of 1137 most traded stocks in the U.S. stock markets for the two-year period 2001-2002 and analyze their return intervals τ , which are time intervals between volatilities above a given threshold q . We explore the probability density function of τ , Pq(τ) , assuming a stretched exponential function, Pq(τ)˜e-τγ . We find that the exponent γ depends on the threshold in the range between q=1 and 6 standard deviations of the volatility. This finding supports the multiscaling nature of the return interval distribution. To better understand the multiscaling origin, we study how γ depends on four essential factors, capitalization, risk, number of trades, and return. We show that γ depends on the capitalization, risk, and return but almost does not depend on the number of trades. This suggests that γ relates to the portfolio selection but not on the market activity. To further characterize the multiscaling of individual stocks, we fit the moments of τ , μm≡⟨(τ/⟨τ⟩)m⟩1/m , in the range of 10portfolio optimization.

  2. Desenvolvimento de uma escala para medir o potencial empreendedor utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI Development of a scale to measure the entrepreneurial potential using the Item Response Theory (IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ricardo Rath Alves

    2011-01-01

    referenced in theories of entrepreneur's personality. The samples include 664 undergraduate and graduate students of Brazilian universitie, and 100 entrepreneurs of the state of Alagoas. A two- parameter logistic IRT model was used. The parameter estimates were obtained from a sample of 764 people who responded to an instrument containing 103 items. The information and the standard error curves and the qualitative interpretation of the scale levels allowed us to determine the most appropriate range for the instrument use. The results showed that the scale is most adequate to evaluate individuals with low to moderately high entrepreneurial potential. Therefore, it is suggested that new items are incorporated into the instrument to measure and interpret even higher levels. The Item Response Theory allows the calibration of new items to measure entrepreneurs with high entrepreneurial potential using previously obtained data.

  3. Geometric Least Square Models for Deriving [0,1]-Valued Interval Weights from Interval Fuzzy Preference Relations Based on Multiplicative Transitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geometric least square framework for deriving [0,1]-valued interval weights from interval fuzzy preference relations. By analyzing the relationship among [0,1]-valued interval weights, multiplicatively consistent interval judgments, and planes, a geometric least square model is developed to derive a normalized [0,1]-valued interval weight vector from an interval fuzzy preference relation. Based on the difference ratio between two interval fuzzy preference relations, a geometric average difference ratio between one interval fuzzy preference relation and the others is defined and employed to determine the relative importance weights for individual interval fuzzy preference relations. A geometric least square based approach is further put forward for solving group decision making problems. An individual decision numerical example and a group decision making problem with the selection of enterprise resource planning software products are furnished to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed models.

  4. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  5. Entyvio lengthen dose-interval study: lengthening vedolizumab dose interval and the risk of clinical relapse in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Webber; Lynch, Nicole; Bampton, Peter; Chang, Jeff; Chung, Alvin; Florin, Timothy; Hetzel, David J; Jakobovits, Simon; Moore, Gregory; Pavli, Paul; Radford-Smith, Graham; Thin, Lena; Baraty, Brandon; Haifer, Craig; Yau, Yunki; Leong, Rupert W L

    2018-07-01

    Vedolizumab (VDZ), an α4β7 anti-integrin antibody, is efficacious in the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). In the GEMINI long-term safety study, enrolled patients received 4-weekly VDZ. Upon completion, patients were switched to 8-weekly VDZ in Australia. The clinical success rate of treatment de-escalation for patients in remission on VDZ has not been described previously. To determine the proportion of patients who relapsed after switching from 4 to 8-weekly VDZ, the mean time to relapse, and the recapture rate when switching back to 8-weekly dosing. This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter study of patients previously recruited into GEMINI long-term safety in Australia. Data on the demographics and biochemical findings were collected. There were 34 patients [23 men, mean age 49.1 (±13.1) years] and their mean disease duration was 17.6 (±8.5) years. The mean 4-weekly VDZ infusion duration was 286.5 (±48.8) weeks. A total of five (15%) patients relapsed on dose-interval increase (4/17 UC, 1/17 CD) at a median duration from dose interval lengthening to flare of 14 weeks (interquartile range=6-25). Eighty percent (4/5) of patients re-entered remission following dose-interval decrease back to 4-weekly. No clinical predictors of relapse could be determined because of the small cohort size. The risk of patients relapsing when switching from 4 to 8-weekly VDZ ∼15% and is similar between CD and UC. Dose-interval decrease recaptures 80% of patients who relapsed. Therapeutic drug monitoring of VDZ may be of clinical relevance.

  6. Interepisode Sleep Bruxism Intervals and Myofascial Face Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, Konstantin; Lobbezoo, Frank; Janal, Malvin N; Raphael, Karen G

    2017-08-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is considered as a possible etiological factor for temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. However, polysomnographic (PSG) studies, which are current "gold standard" diagnostic approach to SB, failed to prove an association between SB and TMD. A possible explanation could be that PSG studies have considered only limited characteristics of SB activity: the number of SB events per hour and, sometimes, the total duration of SB per night. According to the sports sciences literature, lack of adequate rest time between muscle activities leads to muscle overloading and pain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the intervals between bruxism events differ between patients with and without TMD pain. Two groups of female volunteers were recruited: myofascial TMD pain group (n=124) and non-TMD control group (n=46). From these groups, we selected 86 (69%) case participants and 37 (80%) controls who had at least two SB episodes per night based on PSG recordings. A linear mixed model was used to compare case and control groups over the repeated observations of interepisode intervals. The duration of interepisode intervals was statistically similar in the case (mean [standard deviation {SD}] 1137.7 [1975.8] seconds)] and control (mean [SD] 1192.0 [1972.0] seconds) groups. There were also a similar number of SB episodes per hour and a total duration of SB episodes in both groups. The current data fail to support the idea that TMD pain can be explained by increasing number of SB episodes per hour of sleep or decreasing the time between SB events. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Designing Yellow Intervals for Rainy and Wet Roadway Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper quantifies and models the impact of wet pavement surface and rainy weather conditions on driver perception-reaction times (PRTs, deceleration levels, and traffic signal change interval durations. A total of 648 stop-run records were collected as part of the research effort for a 72 km/h (45 mi/h approach speed where participant drivers encountered a yellow indication initiation at different distances from the intersection. The participant drivers were randomly selected in different age groups (under 40 years old, 40 to 59 years old, and 60 years of age or older and genders (female and male. Using the gathered data, statistical models for driver PRT and deceleration levels were developed, considering roadway surface and environmental parameters, driver attributes (age and gender, roadway grade, approaching speed, and time and distance to the intersection at the onset of yellow. Inclement weather yellow timings were then developed and summarized in lookup tables as a function of different factors (driver age/gender, roadway grade, speed limit, precipitation level, and roadway surface condition to provide practical guidelines for the design of yellow signal timings in wet and rainy weather conditions. The results indicate that wet roadway surface conditions require a 5 percent increase in the change interval and that rainy conditions require a 10 percent or more increase in the duration of the change interval. These recommended change durations can also be integrated within the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII initiative to provide customizable driver warnings prior to a transition to a red indication.

  8. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesanz, Jeremy C; Falk, Carl F; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-08-06

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses ( Baron & Kenny, 1986 ; Sobel, 1982 ) have in recent years been supplemented by computationally intensive methods such as bootstrapping, the distribution of the product methods, and hierarchical Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. These different approaches for assessing mediation are illustrated using data from Dunn, Biesanz, Human, and Finn (2007). However, little is known about how these methods perform relative to each other, particularly in more challenging situations, such as with data that are incomplete and/or nonnormal. This article presents an extensive Monte Carlo simulation evaluating a host of approaches for assessing mediation. We examine Type I error rates, power, and coverage. We study normal and nonnormal data as well as complete and incomplete data. In addition, we adapt a method, recently proposed in statistical literature, that does not rely on confidence intervals (CIs) to test the null hypothesis of no indirect effect. The results suggest that the new inferential method-the partial posterior p value-slightly outperforms existing ones in terms of maintaining Type I error rates while maximizing power, especially with incomplete data. Among confidence interval approaches, the bias-corrected accelerated (BC a ) bootstrapping approach often has inflated Type I error rates and inconsistent coverage and is not recommended; In contrast, the bootstrapped percentile confidence interval and the hierarchical Bayesian MCMC method perform best overall, maintaining Type I error rates, exhibiting reasonable power, and producing stable and accurate coverage rates.

  9. Discriminator/time interval meter system evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condreva, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the evaluation of a modular prototype Discriminator/Time Interval Meter data acquisition unit as a useful tool in a digital diagnostics system. The characteristics, operation and calibration of each of the hardware components are discussed in some detail. A discussion of the system calibration, operation, and data ingestion and reduction is also given. System test results to date are given and discussed. Finally, recommendations and conclusions concerning the capabilities of the Discriminator/T.I.M. system based on test and calibration results to date are given

  10. On a linear method in bootstrap confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pallini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A linear method for the construction of asymptotic bootstrap confidence intervals is proposed. We approximate asymptotically pivotal and non-pivotal quantities, which are smooth functions of means of n independent and identically distributed random variables, by using a sum of n independent smooth functions of the same analytical form. Errors are of order Op(n-3/2 and Op(n-2, respectively. The linear method allows a straightforward approximation of bootstrap cumulants, by considering the set of n independent smooth functions as an original random sample to be resampled with replacement.

  11. Discriminator/time interval meter system evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condreva, K. J.

    1976-04-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the evaluation of a modular prototype Discriminator/Time Interval Meter data acquisition unit as a useful tool in a digital diagnostics system. The characteristics, operation and calibration of each of the hardware components are discussed in some detail. A discussion of the system calibration, operation, and data ingestion and reduction is also given. System test results to date are given and discussed. Finally, recommendations and conclusions concerning the capabilities of the Discriminator/T.I.M. system based on test and calibration results to date are given.

  12. Primary Surgery or Interval Debulking for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markauskas, Algirdas; Mogensen, Ole; dePont Christensen, René

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the surgical complexity, the postoperative morbidity, and the survival of the women after primary debulking surgery (PDS) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively included all patients who underwent debulking surgery at our institution between January 2007 and December 2012 for stages IIIc and IV of epithelial ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Of the 332 patients included, 165 (49.7%) underwent PDS, and 167 (50.3%) had NACT...

  13. Iterates of piecewise monotone mappings on an interval

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Piecewise monotone mappings on an interval provide simple examples of discrete dynamical systems whose behaviour can be very complicated. These notes are concerned with the properties of the iterates of such mappings. The material presented can be understood by anyone who has had a basic course in (one-dimensional) real analysis. The account concentrates on the topological (as opposed to the measure theoretical) aspects of the theory of piecewise monotone mappings. As well as offering an elementary introduction to this theory, these notes also contain a more advanced treatment of the problem of classifying such mappings up to topological conjugacy.

  14. Notas sobre la investigación-intervención

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Gerardo

    1990-01-01

    Como parte del compromiso del ITESO de profundizar en su labor de investigación científica, así como de diseñar estrategias que permitan un cambio social, se explora la propuesta teórica del enfoque investigación-intervención en las ciencias sociales que, desde el punto de vista metodológico, establece la relación permanente entre el conocimiento y la acción. El conocimiento y la acción son vistos como son dos aspectos inseparables de la actividad humana; se relacionan dialécticamente, se con...

  15. Confidence Intervals from Realizations of Simulated Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ratkiewicz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ressler, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Various statistical techniques are discussed that can be used to assign a level of confidence in the prediction of models that depend on input data with known uncertainties and correlations. The particular techniques reviewed in this paper are: 1) random realizations of the input data using Monte-Carlo methods, 2) the construction of confidence intervals to assess the reliability of model predictions, and 3) resampling techniques to impose statistical constraints on the input data based on additional information. These techniques are illustrated with a calculation of the keff value, based on the 235U(n, f) and 239Pu (n, f) cross sections.

  16. STUDY ON THE PARTICLE INJECTIONS DURING HILDCAA INTERVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between substorm occurrences and HILDCAA events has been an issue. We have studied the association of particle injections with substorm onsets during HILDCAA intervals for the first half of year 2003. The examination of aurora images observed by IMAGE spacecraft and electron flux data measured by LANL satellites exhibits a close association of repetitive particle injections with substorm activity. We also find that HILDCAA events can occur equally frequently during slow speed solar wind streams as long as the interplanetary magnetic field exhibits Alfvenic wave feature.

  17. A Characterization of Strong Regularity of Interval Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2010), s. 717-722 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * strong regularity * spectral radius * matrix inequality * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol20_pp717-722.pdf

  18. Semiparametric regression analysis of interval-censored competing risks data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lu; Lin, Dan-Yu; Zeng, Donglin

    2017-09-01

    Interval-censored competing risks data arise when each study subject may experience an event or failure from one of several causes and the failure time is not observed directly but rather is known to lie in an interval between two examinations. We formulate the effects of possibly time-varying (external) covariates on the cumulative incidence or sub-distribution function of competing risks (i.e., the marginal probability of failure from a specific cause) through a broad class of semiparametric regression models that captures both proportional and non-proportional hazards structures for the sub-distribution. We allow each subject to have an arbitrary number of examinations and accommodate missing information on the cause of failure. We consider nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation and devise a fast and stable EM-type algorithm for its computation. We then establish the consistency, asymptotic normality, and semiparametric efficiency of the resulting estimators for the regression parameters by appealing to modern empirical process theory. In addition, we show through extensive simulation studies that the proposed methods perform well in realistic situations. Finally, we provide an application to a study on HIV-1 infection with different viral subtypes. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Desarrollo cognitivo diferencial e intervención psicoeducativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sastre i Riba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisa el concepto de desarrollo cognitivo desde una perspectiva neuroconstructivista actual y sus relaciones con la intervención psicoeduca-tiva. Desde esta perspectiva se postula que, para apresar el desarrollo en toda su ampli-tud multimodal, hay que atender al menos, a dos ejes: 1 el díferencial y, 2 la interacción (simétrica o asímétrica como fenómenos incidentes de forma específica en cada uno de los cursos de desarrollo alternativos que se contemplan: la deficiencia menta! (y dentro de ella el Síndrome de Down y las altas capacidades (y, dentro de ellas, la superdota-ción, postulando la necesidad de una intervención psicoeducativa ajustada a sus parti-cularidades, sin referencias anquilosantes provenientes de la perspectiva normativa = We propose a revision of the concept of cognitive development from a neuroconstructivist point of view and their relations with the psicoeducational practices. From this point of view, we postule that we must adopt two guide-lines in order to know as large as possible the concept of development: 1, the differential one, and, 2. interac-tion (symmetrical or asymmetrical as specific phenomenon in mental deficiency (con-cretely in Down's Syndrome ones and high intellectual abilities (concretely, giftedness. We postulate the necessity of a psicoeducational intervention adjusted to their capabili-ties and necessities without inmovilisms

  20. Risk based test interval and maintenance optimisation - Application and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, E.

    1999-10-01

    The project is part of an IAEA co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Development of Methodologies for Optimisation of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs'. The purpose of the project is to investigate the sensitivity of the results obtained when performing risk based optimisation of the technical specifications. Previous projects have shown that complete LPSA models can be created and that these models allow optimisation of technical specifications. However, these optimisations did not include any in depth check of the result sensitivity with regards to methods, model completeness etc. Four different test intervals have been investigated in this study. Aside from an original, nominal, optimisation a set of sensitivity analyses has been performed and the results from these analyses have been compared to the original optimisation. The analyses indicate that the result of an optimisation is rather stable. However, it is not possible to draw any certain conclusions without performing a number of sensitivity analyses. Significant differences in the optimisation result were discovered when analysing an alternative configuration. Also deterministic uncertainties seem to affect the result of an optimisation largely. The sensitivity of failure data uncertainties is important to investigate in detail since the methodology is based on the assumption that the unavailability of a component is dependent on the length of the test interval

  1. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  2. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  3. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  4. HIV intertest interval among MSM in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David A; Dombrowski, Julia C; Swanson, Fred; Buskin, Susan E; Golden, Matthew R; Stekler, Joanne D

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined temporal trends and correlates of HIV testing frequency among men who have sex with men (MSM) in King County, Washington. The authors evaluated data from MSM testing for HIV at the Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) STD Clinic and Gay City Health Project (GCHP) and testing history data from MSM in PHSKC HIV surveillance. The intertest interval (ITI) was defined as the number of days between the last negative HIV test and the current testing visit or first positive test. Correlates of the log(10)-transformed ITI were determined using generalised estimating equations linear regression. Between 2003 and 2010, the median ITI among MSM seeking HIV testing at the STD Clinic and GCHP were 215 (IQR: 124-409) and 257 (IQR: 148-503) days, respectively. In multivariate analyses, younger age, having only male partners and reporting ≥10 male sex partners in the last year were associated with shorter ITIs at both testing sites (pGCHP attendees, having a regular healthcare provider, seeking a test as part of a regular schedule and inhaled nitrite use in the last year were also associated with shorter ITIs (pGCHP (median 359 vs 255 days, p=0.02). Although MSM in King County appear to be testing at frequent intervals, further efforts are needed to reduce the time that HIV-infected persons are unaware of their status.

  5. Bridging the interval: theory and neurobiology of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-01-01

    An early finding in the behavioral analysis of learning was that conditioned responding weakens as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) are separated in time. This "trace" conditioning effect has been the focus of years of research in associative learning. Theoretical accounts of trace conditioning have focused on mechanisms that allow associative learning to occur across long intervals between the CS and US. These accounts have emphasized degraded contingency effects, timing mechanisms, and inhibitory learning. More recently, study of the neurobiology of trace conditioning has shown that even a short interval between the CS and US alters the circuitry recruited for learning. Here, we review some of the theoretical and neurobiological mechanisms underlying trace conditioning with an emphasis on recent studies of trace fear conditioning. Findings across many studies have implications not just for how we think about time and conditioning, but also for how we conceptualize fear conditioning in general, suggesting that circuitry beyond the usual suspects needs to be incorporated into current thinking about fear, learning, and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal interval for major maintenance actions in electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louit, Darko; Pascual, Rodrigo [Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna MacKenna, 4860 Santiago (Chile); Banjevic, Dragan [Centre for Maintenance Optimization and Reliability Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Rd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Many systems require the periodic undertaking of major (preventive) maintenance actions (MMAs) such as overhauls in mechanical equipment, reconditioning of train lines, resurfacing of roads, etc. In the long term, these actions contribute to achieving a lower rate of occurrence of failures, though in many cases they increase the intensity of the failure process shortly after performed, resulting in a non-monotonic trend for failure intensity. Also, in the special case of distributed assets such as communications and energy networks, pipelines, etc., it is likely that the maintenance action takes place sequentially over an extended period of time, implying that different sections of the network underwent the MMAs at different periods. This forces the development of a model based on a relative time scale (i.e. time since last major maintenance event) and the combination of data from different sections of a grid, under a normalization scheme. Additionally, extended maintenance times and sequential execution of the MMAs make it difficult to identify failures occurring before and after the preventive maintenance action. This results in the loss of important information for the characterization of the failure process. A simple model is introduced to determine the optimal MMA interval considering such restrictions. Furthermore, a case study illustrates the optimal tree trimming interval around an electricity distribution network. (author)

  7. Interval prediction for graded multi-label classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lastra, Gerardo; Bahamonde, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multi-label was introduced as an extension of multi-class classification. The aim is to predict a set of classes (called labels in this context) instead of a single one, namely the set of relevant labels. If membership to the set of relevant labels is defined to a certain degree, the learning task is called graded multi-label classification. These learning tasks can be seen as a set of ordinal classifications. Hence, recommender systems can be considered as multi-label classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new type of nondeterministic learner that, for each instance, tries to predict at the same time the true grade for each label. When the classification is uncertain for a label, however, the hypotheses predict a set of consecutive grades, i.e., an interval. The goal is to keep the set of predicted grades as small as possible; while still containing the true grade. We shall see that these classifiers take advantage of the interrelations of labels. The result is that, with quite narrow intervals, i...

  8. Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Collegiate Softball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Michael J.; Windley, Thomas C.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To construct interval throwing programs followed by a simulated game for collegiate softball players at all positions. The programs are intended to be used as functional progressions within a comprehensive rehabilitation program for an injured athlete or to augment off-season conditioning workouts. Design and Setting: We collected data over a single season of National Collegiate Athletic Association softball at the University of Delaware and Goldey Beacom College. We observed 220 half-innings of play and 2785 pitches during data collection. Subjects: The subjects were collegiate-level softball players at all positions of play. Measurements: We recorded the number of pitches for pitchers. For catchers, we recorded the number of sprints to back up a play, time in the squat stance, throws back to the pitcher, and the perceived effort and distance of all other throws. We also collected the perceived effort and distance of all throws for infielders and outfielders. Results: Pitchers threw an average of 89.61 pitches per game; catchers were in the squat stance 14.13 minutes per game; infielders threw the ball between 4.28 times per game and 6.30 times per game; and outfielders threw distances of up to 175 feet. Conclusions: We devised the interval throwing programs from the data collected, field dimensions, the types of injuries found to occur in softball, and a general understanding of tissue healing. We designed programs that allow a safe and efficient progressive return to sport. PMID:12937435

  9. Effects of Forgetting Phenomenon on Surveillance Test Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho-Joong; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants (NPPs) define Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. SRs include surveillance test intervals (STIs) and the optimization of the STIs is one of the main issues in risk-informed applications. Surveillance tests are required in NPPs to detect failures in standby equipment to assure their availability in an accident. However, operating experience of the plants suggests that, in addition to the beneficial effects of detecting latent faults, the tests also may have adverse effects on plant operation or equipment; e.g., plant transient caused by the test and wear-out of safety system equipment due to repeated testing. Recent studies have quantitatively evaluated both the beneficial and adverse effects of testing to decide on an acceptable test interval. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of forgetting phenomenon on STI. It is a fundamental human characteristic that a person engaged in a repetitive task will improve his performance over time. The learning phenomenon is observed by the decrease in operation time per unit as operators gain experience by performing additional tasks. However, once there is a break of sufficient length, forgetting starts to take place. In surveillance tests, the most common factor to determine the amount of forgetting is the length of STI, where the longer the STI, the greater the amount of forgetting

  10. Shortening of ventriculoatrial interval after ablation of an accessory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alasti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year old man with history of 8 year palpitation was referred for electrophysiologic study and possible radiofrequency ablation. Physical examination and transthoracic echocardiographic study did not disclose any abnormality. Baseline ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with normal PR and QRS intervals and no evidence of preexcitation. Antiarrhythmic drugs (propranolol and verapamil were discontinued two days before the procedure. Baseline intervals in sinus rhythm were as follows: sinus cycle length=690 msec, AH=74 msec, HV=37 msec, QRS=90 msec, PR=133 msec. The minimal pacing cycle length maintaining 1:1 antegrade conduction (AVWP was 320 msec and the minimal pacing cycle length maintaining 1:1 retrograde conduction (VAWP was 400 msec. Single extrastimulus testing in the right atrium and the right ventricular apex leaded to a sustained narrow complex tachycardia. The arrhythmia was a short PR- long RP tachycardia with following characteristics: cycle length=376 msec, AH=141 msec, HV=42 msec, VA=200 msec, HA (HRA =236 msec, HA (His =243 msec and eccentric atrial activation during the arrhythmia (Figure 1. The arrhythmia was easily reproducible with stable hemodynamic.

  11. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  12. Design and Simulation of MEMS Devices using Interval Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugavalli, M; Uma, G; Vasuki, B; Umapathy, M

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of MEMS devices are used to optimize the design, to improve the performance of the device, to reduce time to market, to minimize development time and cost by avoiding unnecessary design cycles and foundry runs. The major design objectives in any device design, is to meet the required functional parameters and the reliability of the device. The functional parameters depend on the geometry of the structure, material properties and process parameters. All model parameters act as input to optimize the functional parameters. The major difficulty the designer faces is the dimensions and properties used in the simulation of the MEMS devices can not be exactly followed during fabrication. In order to overcome this problem, the designer must test the device in simulation for bound of parameters involved in it. The paper demonstrates the use of interval methods to assess the electromechanical behaviour of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) under the presence of manufacturing and process uncertainties. Interval method guides the design of pullin voltage analysis of fixed-fixed beam to achieve a robust and reliable design in a most efficient way. The methods are implemented numerically using Coventorware and analytically using Intlab

  13. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  14. Petrophysics of shale intervals in the Skjold Field, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Oji, C. O.

    2011-01-01

    interval 6 is mainly shale. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the dominance of inter-layered smectite/illite in interval 1–3 and upper part of interval 4, whereas illite dominates interval 5 and 6. Other minerals include kaolinite, chlorite, quartz, calcite, Opal-CT, dolomite and plagioclase...

  15. An Introduction to Confidence Intervals for Both Statistical Estimates and Effect Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    This paper summarizes methods of estimating confidence intervals, including classical intervals and intervals for effect sizes. The recent American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference report suggested that confidence intervals should always be reported, and the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual"…

  16. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  17. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  18. New precession expressions, valid for long time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrák, J.; Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P.

    2011-10-01

    Context. The present IAU model of precession, like its predecessors, is given as a set of polynomial approximations of various precession parameters intended for high-accuracy applications over a limited time span. Earlier comparisons with numerical integrations have shown that this model is valid only for a few centuries around the basic epoch, J2000.0, while for more distant epochs it rapidly diverges from the numerical solution. In our preceding studies we also obtained preliminary developments for the precessional contribution to the motion of the equator: coordinates X,Y of the precessing pole and precession parameters ψA,ωA, suitable for use over long time intervals. Aims: The goal of the present paper is to obtain upgraded developments for various sets of precession angles that would fit modern observations near J2000.0 and at the same time fit numerical integration of the motions of solar system bodies on scales of several thousand centuries. Methods: We used the IAU 2006 solutions to represent the precession of the ecliptic and of the equator close to J2000.0 and, for more distant epochs, a numerical integration using the Mercury 6 package and solutions by Laskar et al. (1993, A&A, 270, 522) with upgraded initial conditions and constants to represent the ecliptic, and general precession and obliquity, respectively. From them, different precession parameters were calculated in the interval ± 200 millennia from J2000.0, and analytical expressions are found that provide a good fit for the whole interval. Results: Series for the various precessional parameters, comprising a cubic polynomial plus from 8 to 14 periodic terms, are derived that allow precession to be computed with an accuracy comparable to IAU 2006 around the central epoch J2000.0, a few arcseconds throughout the historical period, and a few tenths of a degree at the ends of the ± 200 millennia time span. Computer algorithms are provided that compute the ecliptic and mean equator poles and the

  19. Psychological and behavioral responses to interval and continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-05-16

    To compare psychological responses to, and preferences for, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and sprint interval training (SIT) among inactive adults; and to investigate the relationships between affect, enjoyment, exercise preferences, and subsequent exercise behavior over a 4-wk follow-up period. Thirty inactive men and women (21.23±3.81 y), inexperienced with HIIT or SIT, completed three trials of cycle ergometer exercise in random order on separate days: MICT (45min continuous; ~70-75% of heart rate maximum (HRmax)); HIIT (10x1 min bouts at ~85-90%HRmax with 1-min recovery periods); and SIT (3x20-s "all-out" sprints with 2-min recovery periods). Perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and arousal were measured throughout the trials and enjoyment was measured post-exercise. Participants rank-ordered the protocols (#1-3) according to preference and logged their exercise over a 4-week follow-up. Despite elevated HR, RPE, and arousal during work periods (psHIIT and SIT, enjoyment and preferences for MICT, HIIT, and SIT were similar (ps>0.05). In-task affect was predictive of post-exercise enjoyment for each type of exercise (rs=0.32 to 0.47; psHIIT and SIT (rss=-0.34 to -0.61; ps0.05), respectively. Over the follow-up, participants completed more MICT (M=6.11±4.12) than SIT sessions (M=1.39±1.85; pHIIT (M=3.54±4.23; p=0.16, d=0.56), and more sessions of HIIT than SIT (p=0.07, d=0.60), differences were not significant. In-task affect predicted the number of sessions of MICT (r=0.40; pHIIT or SIT (ps>0.05). This study provides new evidence that a single session of HIIT and SIT can be as enjoyable and preferable as MICT among inactive individuals and that there may be differences in the exercise affect-behavior relationship between interval and continuous exercise.

  20. Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over Natural Numbers with Integer Constraints for Interval Lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Interval temporal logics are based on interval structures over linearly (or partially) ordered domains, where time intervals, rather than time instants, are the primitive ontological entities. In this paper we introduce and study Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over natural numbers...... with integer constraints for interval lengths, which is a propositional interval temporal logic featuring a modality for the 'right neighborhood' relation between intervals and explicit integer constraints for interval lengths. We prove that it has the bounded model property with respect to ultimately periodic...