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Sample records for irritable heart shell

  1. [Study on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: based on relationship between heart and intestines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Na; Wang, Zu-Hong; Xie, Su-Juan; Han, Li-Bing; Yi, Rong

    2010-11-01

    The article puts forward the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome through regulating heart vitality since it is held that the pathological factors of the disease lay in dysfunction of heart and intestines as well as disorder of qi circulation. At the same time, the internal-external relationship between the heart the small intestine is discussed from the theory of Brain-gut Axis in modern medicine, which provides theoretical base of modern medicine for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome through regulation of the heart functions.

  2. Production of bioethanol from heart and pineapple shell using the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corella Quiros, Byron Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The performance of bioethanol production was evaluated from heart and pineapple shell, using the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, in which has been obtained a maximum output of 1,6% v/v. The research was divided into a phase of characterization and five experimental phases. The heart and pineapple shell were used as substrate for the study. The contents of glucose, reducing sugars and total, moisture, ash, crude fiber and soluble solids content were determined of the heart and golden pineapple shell (MD2). The shell has had a higher content of soluble solids, fiber content, ash and lower moisture content and reducing sugars. In the first experimental phase was made a fermentation of commercial sucrose, with the objective to corroborate the method of measurement of CO 2 and the pH was measured of the water that is collected the gas. Great variation between samples has not been observed, comparing the method to estimate the losses of gas, so it is reproducible and the losses of CO 2 has been at least of 22%. In the second experimental stage to compare measurement methods of ethanol, for collection of CO 2 and gas chromatography, it has been found that for concentrations from 0 to 0,79% v/v, the results have shown a quadratic behavior (second-degree polynomial with 0,83173x 2 +0,0024 x, R 2 =0,9984), while that for higher concentrations to 0,79% the relation has been linear (0,6372 x -0,099, R 2 =0,9424), in which x is the %v/v of ethanol, of the chromatographic method. In the third experimental stage were compared the effects of the filtration. The significant differences of this effect were not found for either of the two substrates used: hearts and shells. The adjustment parameters of the modified Gompertz equation for mixtures of 53% heart and 47% shell, and concentration of 280 g/L have been: Pm 0,72 %v/v; λ 0,3 h, Rm 0,047 (%v/v)/h; for a concentration of 400 g/L, have been Pm 1,3 %v/v λ 1,8 h and Rm 0,068 (%v/v)/h and for 523 g/L, using extract of yeast have

  3. Irritancies of shampoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your belly area), constipation (when you can't poop), and diarrhea (when you poop too much). If you have irritable bowel syndrome, ... food particles are also known as stool, a bowel movement, or poop. Here's why an intestine gets "irritable." ...

  5. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  6. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  8. Shell Venster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.; Looijesteijn, B.; Regeer, B.; Stip, B.

    1995-03-01

    In the bi-monthly issues of 'Shell Venster' (window on Shell) attention is paid to the activities of the multinational petroleum company Shell Nederland and the Koninklijke/Shell Groep by means of non-specialist articles

  9. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  10. Subtle involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, Narender P.; Andriesse, Gunnar I.; van Schelven, Leonard J.; Smout, André J.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Oey, P. Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study comprises assessment of autonomic function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, focusing on meal-related changes. In 18 IBS patients (4 males, mean age 45+/-3.0 [SEM] years) and 19 healthy volunteers (6 males, mean age 41+/-3.5 years) blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate

  11. Irritant Contact Dermatitis : Diagnosis and Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Maria; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is frequent and is induced by direct and repeated contact with skin irritants such as detergents, abrasives, solvents and physical factors such as dry air and occlusion (by wearing gloves) but also water. When dermatitis has developed, even a minimal skin irritation, like

  12. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  13. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  14. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  15. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  16. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  19. Clinical and Physiological Correlates of Irritability in Depression: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor E. A. Verhoeven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Irritable and nonirritable depressed patients differ on demographic and clinical characteristics. We investigated whether this extends to psychological and physiological measures. Method. We compared irritable and nonirritable unipolar depressed patients on symptomatology, personality, and (psychophysiological measures (cortisol, cholesterol, and heart rate variability. Symptomatology was reassessed after one year, and we also compared depressed patients who were irritable or non-irritable at both time points (Irr++ versus Irr−−. Results. Almost half (46%; N=420 of the sample was classified as irritable. These patients scored higher on depression severity, anxiety, hypomanic symptoms, and psychological variables. No differences were observed on physiological markers after correction for depression severity. The same pattern was found when comparing Irr++ and Irr−− groups. Conclusion. Irritable and non-irritable depressed patients differ on clinical and psychological variables, but not on the currently investigated physiological markers. The clinical relevance of the distinction and the significance of the hypomanic symptoms remain to be demonstrated.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubić, Petra; Jurcić, Dragan; Ebling, Barbara; Gmajnić, Rudika; Nikolić, Bojana; Pribić, Sanda; Bilić, Ante; Levak, Maja Tolusić

    2014-06-01

    There are three epidemiological studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were conducted in Croatia (in the area of Zagreb in 2002, Bjelovarsko-bilogorska County in 2008, and finally in Osjecko-baranjska County in 2011). The aim of this study is to analyze the anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS in Croatia comparing these three studies. The studies included a questionnaire based on Rome criteria. Study population matched the adult population of Croatia according last available census (1991, 2001 resp.). Studies showed a high prevalence of IBS and some common factors relevant for development of IBS were determined such as gender, body mass index and lower level of education. There is a need for further investigations in coastal Croatia applying a uniform questionnaire on anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS and Rome III criteria, diagnostic questionnaires and scoring algorithm for functional gastrointestinal disorders developed by Rome Foundation applicable in clinical practice and population studies, regarding the significant high prevalence of IBS in our country.

  1. Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Korpela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a major cause of abdominal discomfort and gut dysfunction worldwide. It is a poorly understood functional gastrointestinal disorder for which no effective medication is available. It is a benign condition, but its social and economic burden is significant. The symptoms consist of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and irregular bowel movements. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosal inflammation may contribute to the development of IBS and probiotics could thus relieve the symptoms. This review gives an overview on the existing data on the effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods: A PUBMED search was made to review the relevant literature, and additional studies were obtained from the references of the selected articles. Results: Clinical trials suggest that certain probiotics or combinations of bacteria have beneficial effects on the IBS symptoms. However the heterogeneity of studies, e.g. suboptimal study design, inadequate number of subjects, different doses and vehicles, inadequate length, make it difficult to compare the differences between probiotics and the effect may be strain-specific. Conclusions: Though evidence is very promising, no general recommendations on the use of probiotics in IBS can be given yet. Further clinical trials and data on the mechanisms of action are needed. Probiotics are considered safe and if future scientific data is able to substantiate their efficacy in IBS, they certainly could be a treatment option in relieving the symptoms in IBS.

  2. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual psychotherapy: research. ... The goal of this study was to provide individualised psychotherapy for a sample suffering from IBS and vocational stress. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  5. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  6. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; White, I R; Basketter, D A

    2003-07-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petrolatum and the European standard series. 28 of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction (+ to +++) to citral and 82 at least 1 IR patch test reaction and no positive patch test reaction to citral. A statistically significant association between a positive patch test reaction to citral and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive studies.

  7. [Intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio García, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The Syndrome of Irritable Intestine (SII) is a chronic functional dysfunction that it is characterized by abdominal pain and changes of intestinal rhythm without demonstrable organic alteration. It is avery prevelent dysfunction in the developed countries, there being involved in its physiopathology, among other, the psychosocial factors (illness behavior, social situation, stress, vital events, neuroticism, anxiety and somatization). However no study has been carried out on the Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence or Constructive Thought in patient with SII in spite of knowing that the cognitive processes participate in its genesis. On the hypothesis that the patients with SII would have an experiencial intelligence smaller that the fellows controls, 100 cases of SII and 100 controls have been studied, being excluded of both patients groups with intellectual deficit or psychiatric illness in the last year. The cases of SII were distributed in two groups, one of 50 cases that habitually consulted with the doctor and other 50 that didn't make it. All the participants completed specific tests to evaluate all the psychological factors and Rational Intelligence and the Constructive Thought. The results show an alteration of the psychological factors in the SII, expressed by the antecedents of vital events, m even significant of anxiety feature and anxiety and a neuroticism statistically significant. As for Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence in the SII, it was observed that to Rational Intelligence is same in the patients with SII that in the controls. Only in the group of SII that habitually consulted with the doctor a slightly significant decrease of the intellectual coefficient it was observed. As for the Experiential Intelligence a significant decrease of the Constructive Thought was observed in the patients with SII in comparison with the group control. Of their components a decrease of the emotionality exists and of the

  8. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  9. Limbic Irritability, Neuronal Complexity and Smoking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svetlak, M.; Bob, P.; Černík, M.; Konečný, P.; Chládek, Jan; Svrček, M.; Kukleta, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2008), s. 85 ISSN 0001-7604. [International CIANS Conference 2008: Higher Brain Functions. 28.09.2008-02.10.2008, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : smoking * limbic irritability * stress * complexity * EDA Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapoigny, M.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Coremans, G.; Müller-Lissner, S.; Oberndorff, A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Vatn, M.; Whorwell, P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. AIMS: During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between

  11. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  12. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  13. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms described in Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals. Irritation of the eye, nose, and throat is common to SBS, MCS, and sensory irritation (SI). Difficulty of breathing is often seen with SBS, MCS, and pulmonary irritation (PI). We therefore asked the question: can indoor air pollutants cause SI and/or PI? In laboratory testing in which mice breathed the dilute volatile emissions of air fresheners, fabric softeners, colognes, and mattresses for 1 h, we measured various combinations of SI and PI as well as airflow decreases (analogous to asthma attacks). Air samples taken from sites associated with repeated human complaints of poor air quality also caused SI, PI, and airflow limitation (AFL) in the mice. In previous publications, we have documented numerous behavior changes in mice (which we formally studied with a functional observational battery) after exposure to product emissions or complaint site air; neurological complaints are a prominent part of SBS and MCS. All together, these data suggest that many symptoms of SBS and MCS can be described as SI, PI, AFL, and neurotoxicity. All these problems can be caused by airborne irritant chemicals such as those emitted by common commercial products and found in polluted indoor air. With some chemical mixtures (e.g., emissions of some fabric softeners, disposable diapers, and vinyl mattress covers) but not others (e.g., emissions of a solid air freshener), the SI response became larger (2- to 4-fold) when we administered a series of two or three 1-h exposures over a 24-h period. Since with each exposure the intensity of the stimulus was constant yet the magnitude of the response increased, we concluded that there was a change in the sensitivity of the mice to these chemicals. The response was not a generalized stress response because it occurred with only some mixtures of irritants and not others

  14. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  15. The irritancy of metalworking fluids: a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. M.; Scholten, R. J.; van Ketel, W. G.; Bruynzeel, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is common in metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF). The irritancy of 3 commercially available water-based cutting fluids in maximal user's concentration and 2 neat oils was investigated in 23 healthy volunteers. Additionally, the irritancy of some groups of

  16. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  17. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  18. Síndrome de intestino irritable y diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kestenberg Himelfar, Abraham; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    Síndrome de intestino irritable (SII)/ ¿Cómo funciona el sistema digestivo?/¿Qué es el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas del síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Qué causa el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Qué papel juega la tensión emocional en el origen del síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Cómo saber si el problema es síndrome de intestino irritable o si es algo diferente?/¿Cómo se debe tratar el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Se deben evitar algunos alimentos?/¿...

  19. Eye irritancy screening for classification of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Y H; Weterings, P J

    1990-01-01

    A screening method was applied to determine the eye irritation potential of industrial chemicals. Bovine eyes (BE) were used to predict corneal damage and chicken egg chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) to estimate the irritancy potential of chemical substances towards the conjunctivae. Exposure of the BE to a test substance is followed by grading of the corneal opacity and epithelial injury. The CAM is inspected for signs of capillary injection, haemorrhages and coagulation. The tests are collectively called the BECAM assay. So far, almost 150 substances have been evaluated in this test system. A good correlation was observed between the BECAM assay and in vivo data; less than 5% of chemicals showed a clear disagreement. Also the assay is promising for labelling requirements according to the EEC criteria.

  20. Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

    OpenAIRE

    McSherry, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  2. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  3. Transcutaneous sacral neurostimulation for irritative voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, I K; Johnston, R S; Keane, P F

    1999-01-01

    Patients with irritative voiding dysfunction are often unresponsive to standard clinical treatment. We evaluated the response of such individuals to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the third sacral nerve. 32 patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction (31 female and 1 male; mean age 47 years) were recruited to the study. Ambulatory transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation was applied bilaterally to the third sacral dermatomes for 1 week. Symptoms of frequency, nocturia, urgency, and bladder pain were scored by each patient throughout and up to 6 months following treatment. The mean daytime frequency was reduced from 11.3 to 7.96 (p = 0.01). Nocturia episodes were reduced from a mean of 2.6 to 1.8 (p = 0.01). Urgency and bladder pain mean symptom scores were reduced from 5.97 to 4.89 and from 1.48 to 0.64, respectively. After stopping therapy, symptoms returned to pretreatment levels within 2 weeks in 40% of the patients and within 6 months in 100%. Three patients who continued with neurostimulation remained satisfied with this treatment modality at 6 months. Transcutaneous third sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective and noninvasive ambulatory technique for the treatment of patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction. Following an initial response, patients may successfully apply this treatment themselves to ensure long-term relief.

  4. Work-associated irritable larynx syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the relevant literature concerning work-associated irritable larynx syndrome (WILS), a hyperkinetic laryngeal disorder associated with occupational irritant exposure. Clinical symptoms are variable and include dysphonia, cough, dyspnoea and globus pharyngeus. WILS is a clinical diagnosis and can be difficult to differentiate from asthma. Treatment options for WILS include medical and behavioural therapy. Laryngeal-centred upper airway symptoms secondary to airborne irritants have been documented in the literature under a variety of diagnostic labels, including WILS, vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), laryngeal hypersensitivity and laryngeal neuropathy and many others. The underlying pathophysiology is as yet poorly understood; however, the clinical scenario suggests a multifactorial nature to the disorder. More recent literature indicates that central neuronal plasticity, inflammatory processes and psychological factors are all likely contributors. Possible mechanisms for WILS include central neuronal network plasticity after noxious exposure and/or viral infection, inflammation (i.e. reflux disease) and intrinsic patient factors such a psychological state. Treatment is individualized and frequently includes one or more of the following: environmental changes in the workplace, GERD therapy, behavioural/speech therapy, psychotherapy counselling and neural modifiers.

  5. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  6. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Bonde, Jens P E; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common diagnosis in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Studies are lacking on the usefulness of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) in making the diagnosis of ICD. To characterize irritant exposures leading to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during January 2010-August 2011, in a programme consisting of a clinical examination, exposure assessment, and extensive patch/prick testing. OCD was diagnosed in 228 patients. Of these patients, 118 were diagnosed with OICD. The main irritant exposures identified were wet work (n = 64), gloves (n = 45), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  8. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-12-01

    Although surfactant-induced acute irritant dermatitis has been extensively studied, our understanding about the induction and repair of the clinically more relevant chronic form is limited. Our purpose was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to structurally unrelated surfactants and to compare the maximal irritant responses from this model with corresponding reactions noted in a previously reported acute irritation model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (7.5%) were applied for 20 minutes daily (for 8 consecutive days excluding the weekend) to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were repeatedly assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). Maximum irritant responses were compared with corresponding reactions from an acute irritation model. TEWL was increased by SLS and DTAB to the same extent, but erythema was significantly higher in DTAB-treated skin. Skin dryness, as demonstrated by decreased capacitance values and increased scores for scaling and fissuring, was significantly more pronounced than in an acute irritation model for SLS and DTAB, although no difference was detected between the two surfactants. Potassium soap led to a slight increase in TEWL, whereas the remaining features were not significantly changed. This chronic irritation model appears to represent the clinical situation of irritant contact dermatitis with pronounced skin dryness more closely than the acute irritation model. The present study confirms that an extended time is needed for complete healing of irritant skin reactions. We also demonstrated that the evaluation of the irritation potential of

  9. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common diagnosis in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Studies are lacking on the usefulness of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) in making the diagnosis of ICD. OBJECTIVE: To characterize irritant exposures leading...... to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. METHODS: We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during......), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact...

  10. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Aytekin; Arzu Karataş Toğral

    2014-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem....

  11. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  12. [Methaemoglobinaemia and respiratory tract irritation connected with poppers inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Eryk

    2010-01-01

    "Poppers" is the street name for volatile nitrites offered by online shops and sex-shops for their aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. Although nitrites have been abused since the late 1960s, recently they became popular in Poland. Recreational poppers using was associated with homosexual men at first. Currently they are commonly reported among heterosexual men and regular dicso participants. Advertisements of these substances tempt potential buyers with the promise of a legal narcotic high. Easy access and the sense of safety make these products the reason of acute toxicity. Volatile nitrites relaxes smooth muscle, the consequent intense peripheral vasodilatation produces flushing, a fall in blood pressure, and reflex increase in heart rate. These effects are accompanied by feeling of warmth, euphoria and intensifying of sexual pleasure. Serious poisoning results in severe methaemoglobinaemia, coma, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and even death. Skin and mucous contact with poppers can produce a crusty lesion at the site. This article presents the case of 44-years old male hospitalized three times in Toxicology Department after history of poppers abusing. Methaemoglobinaemia (26.4%) and tracheobronchial irritation were the main symptoms observed. Patient was given specific therapy with methylene blue.

  13. Developmental trajectories of irritability and bidirectional associations with maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Stringaris, Argyris; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Irritability is a dimensional trait in typical development and a common presenting symptom in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, little is known about the developmental trajectory of irritability or how child irritability interacts with maternal depression. The present study identifies classes of irritability trajectories from toddlerhood to middle childhood; characterizes maternal depression and other family, social environment, and child variables within each irritability trajectory class; and, as a more exploratory analysis, examines bidirectional associations between maternal depression and child irritability. A total of 4,898 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study reported on irritability symptoms at ages 3, 5, and 9 years, assessed with items from the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental major depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form at child ages 1, 3, 5, and 9 years. A latent class growth analysis identified 5 irritability classes: low decreasing; moderate decreasing; high steady; initially very high, then decreasing; and high increasing. Children with more severe irritability trajectories are more likely to have mothers with recurrent depression, and, with the exception of the most severe (high increasing irritability) class, were more likely to have mothers who were exposed to violence. Moreover, paternal depression and alcohol abuse, as well as maternal drug and alcohol abuse, were also risk factors for membership in the more severe irritability classes. A latent auto-regressive cross-lag model showed that child irritability at ages 3 and 5 years is associated with increased mother depression at ages 5 and 9, respectively. Conversely, mother depression at child ages 1 and 3 years is associated with increased child irritability at 3 and 5. Irritability development across toddlerhood and middle childhood has 5 main trajectory types, which differ on maternal

  14. Psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, M; Kavuk, I; Sayar, K

    2003-12-09

    The role of psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a matter of debate. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in IBS patients. Positive response to antidepressant therapy and presence of family history of depression in IBS patients have led speculations whether this syndrome might be regarded as an affective spectrum disorder. In this study we tried to examine the possible association of IBS with affective spectrum disorders. Forty IBS patients from gastroenterology outpatient clinics of a university hospital and state hospital, 32 controls with inflammatory bowel disease and 34 healthy hospital workers were included in the study. Psychiatric interviews were done using SCID-NP (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Non-patients) and psychological factors were assessed by the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Family histories were obtained by FH-RDC (Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria). All groups were matched for sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and mood disorders was higher in the IBS group than the control groups. Also IBS group rated higher on anxiety and depression scales than the other groups, where the differences were statistically significant. Presence of positive family history for mood disorders was higher in the IBS group. These results support the hypothesis that IBS might be linked to affective spectrum disorder. Psychiatric assessment and therapy might be useful in the course of irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  16. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  17. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  18. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  19. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  1. Changing face of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eamonn MM Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is evident that this is a truly global disease associated with significant symptoms and impairments in personal and social functioning for afflicted individuals. Advances in our understanding of gut flora-mucosal interactions, the enteric nervous system and the brain-gut axis have led to substantial progress in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS and have provided some hints towards the basic etiology of this disorder, in some subpopulations, at the very least. We look forward to a time when therapy will be addressed to pathophysiology and perhaps, even to primary etiology. In the meantime, a model based on a primary role for intestinal inflammation serves to integrate the various strands, which contribute to the presentation of IBS

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  3. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  4. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  5. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  6. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  7. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  8. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-06-01

    Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome: towards an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders are defined as chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea (Tally, 1994; University of North Carolina, 1998. These disorders are of concern because of their high incidence, associated morbidity, expense and the impact of these disorders on people's quality of life. Drossman (1993, in University of North Carolina (UNC, 1998 found that of 5 400 U.S. households, 69% of people met the criteria for at least one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders which represents a 59% increase in the incidence of functional gastrointestinal disorders since 1983 (Drossman, in UNC, 1998; Drossman, 1983. In particular, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS sufferers account for 2,4 - 3,5 million visits to doctors annually. Furthermore, IBS sufferers spend $40 million annually on treatment for their condition. They also tend to have 3 to 4 times more disability days than other workers, which illustrates the debilitating effect of this disorder (Drossman, in UNC, 1998. It is therefore necessary that the etiology of IBS be researched, as well as the course and management of this debilitating disease. The studies presented in this series aimed to improve the understanding of the multiple agents that influence the development and course of IBS.

  10. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Asian motility studies in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-04-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotility in Asian IBS patients were reviewed. MEDLINE search work was performed including following terms, 'IBS,' 'motility,' 'transit time,' 'esophageal motility,' 'gastric motility,' 'small intestinal motility,' 'colonic motility,' 'anorectal function,' and 'gallbladder motility' and over 100 articles were categorized under 'esophagus,' 'stomach,' 'small intestine,' 'colon,' 'anorectum,' 'gallbladder,' 'transit,' 'motor pattern,' and 'effect of stressors.' Delayed gastric emptying, slow tansit in constipation predominant IBS patients, rapid transit in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, accelerated motility responses to various stressors such as meals, mental stress, or corticotrophin releasing hormones, and altered rectal compliance and altered rectal accomodation were reported in many Asian studies regarding IBS. Many conflicting results were found among these studies and there are still controversies to conclude these as unique features of Asian IBS patients. Multinational and multicenter studies are needed to be performed vigorously in order to elaborate characteristics as well as differences of altered motililty in Asian patients with IBS.

  12. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  13. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits.

  14. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  15. Neurobiology of Depression and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Donat Eker

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disabling functional disorder with a frequent comorbidity of depression though underlying mechanisms remain yet little understood. Various signs and symptoms have been determined as diagnostic criteria in recent years and standardized as Rome-III criteria. Irritable bowel syndrome can have constipation-dominant, diarrhea-dominant or mixed clinical presentations. Main features can be summarized as continuous and recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a change of stool frequency or consistency and usually relief of symptoms with defe-cation in the absence of physical or laboratory abnormalities indicative of an organic etiology. The frequency of major depressive disorder diagnosis reaches up to two thirds of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Moreover, the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome among patients with major depression is highly frequent (30%. The mechanism underlying irritable bowel syndrome which have been considered as a kind of a somatization disorder for a long time and now as a functional bowel disease is in the brain-gut axis. Low grade mucosal inflammation and cytokines originating from mucosal inflammation have important functions in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and its comorbidity with major depression. Besides the inflammatory factors lumbosacral visceral hyperexcitability which is an individual variation is proposed as the main underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome. Visceral hyper-excitability is mediated by cytokines and neuro-mediators and stress is known to increase the effect of this mechanism. Furthermore, molecules participating in this mechanism (e.g. cytokines, corticotrophin releasing factor, neurokinins and monoamines play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Increased activation in the pain matrix (thalamus – insula – prefrontal cortex and insufficiency of endogenous pain inhibitory system are regarded as possible

  16. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can ... Some people with IBS have more symptoms after eating gluten, even though they do not have celiac ...

  17. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  18. Use of debridat in therapy of irritable colon syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that debridat is an effective means for treatment of patients with irritable colon syndrome. All patients underwent roentgenological and endoscopy examinations for determination of diagnosis and effect of their treatment

  19. Augmentation of skin response by exposure to a combination of allergens and irritants - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Held, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Clinical experimental studies on contact dermatitis (CD) often evaluate the effect of one allergen or one irritant at a time. In real life, the skin is often exposed to more allergens, more irritants or allergens and irritants in combination. This combined exposure may potentially influence irrit...

  20. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  1. Carcinogenesis after sublethal ionizing irradiation and regular avoidance irritation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisnik, M.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Logonder-Mlinsek, M.; Zorc-Pleskovic, R.; Pajer, Z.; Kham-Lindtner, T.; Zorc, M.; Skrk, J.

    1982-01-01

    160 mice of the BALB/C strain of both sexes, aged 3 months, were divided into four equal groups of which two were regularly irritated by a combination of an optical signal and electrical stroke. After one month of irritation one nonirritated and one irritated group were whole body irradiated with an acute dose of 6.65 Gy (1.83 Gy/min), the other two groups were sham irradiated. The mice lived until spontaneous death or one year after irradiation, when the rest of the animals were sacrificed. Malignant tumors were recorded. Irradiation shortened the survival time while the irritation had an appeasing, compensatory effect, more marked in the males than in the females. After irradiation the number and assortment of the tumors increased and the latent period was significantly shorter. In the irritated animals the number and assortment of the malignant tumors were reduced and the latent time period tended to be longer. These differences, however, were not statistically significant. In spite of some differences the response of both sexes to irradiation and irritation or their combination was similar. (author)

  2. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  3. A cross-cultural perspective on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal illness, defined by symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome has been described as a biopsychosocial condition, in which colonic dysfunction is affected by psychological and social factors. As a result of this unusual constellation, irritable bowel syndrome may be subject to cultural variables that differ in different parts of the globe. In this article, we describe some of the ways in which irritable bowel syndrome may be experienced differently, depending on local belief systems, psychological pressures, acceptance or resistance to a mind-body paradigm, and breakdown in support or relationship structure. Examples are given in which irritable bowel syndrome investigators from countries around the world describe various aspects of the syndrome that may affect the illness experience of their patients. We describe our own research studies that have demonstrated possible adverse effects on disease severity from relationship conflict, attribution of symptoms to physical rather than emotional cause, and the belief that irritable bowel syndrome is enduring and mysterious. Also described is our finding that symptom patterns may differ significantly between different geographic locations. Finally, we discuss the importance of "cultural competence" on the part of healthcare professionals in regard to caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  4. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M.; Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M.; Esteban-Carretero, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  5. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  6. Perceived Social Support and Markers of Heart Failure Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    that the heart may be overworking to compensate for cardiac damage (Hunt et al., 2005). To assess the presence and severity of cardiac-related...of depressive symptoms to include hopelessness, irritability, fatigue, appetite, and suicidal ideation. The BDI-II is a widely adopted measure

  7. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  9. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  10. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  11. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  12. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoleit, H G; Grigoleit, P

    2005-08-01

    In a literature search 16 clinical trials investigating 180-200 mg enteric-coated peppermint oil (PO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or recurrent abdominal pain in children (1 study) with 651 patients enrolled were identified. Nine out of 16 studies were randomized double blind cross over trials with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) run in and/or wash out periods, five had a randomized double blind parallel group design and two were open labeled studies. Placebo served in 12 and anticholinergics in three studies as comparator. Eight out of 12 placebo controlled studies show statistically significant effects in favor of PO. Average response rates in terms of "overall success" are 58% (range 39-79%) for PO and 29% (range 10-52%) for placebo. The three studies versus smooth muscle relaxants did not show differences between treatments hinting for equivalence of treatments. Adverse events reported were generally mild and transient, but very specific. PO caused the typical GI effects like heartburn and anal/perianal burning or discomfort sensations, whereas the anticholinergics caused dry mouth and blurred vision. Anticholinergics and 5HT3/4-ant/agonists do not offer superior improvement rates, placebo responses cover the range as in PO trials. Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS PO (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.

  15. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  16. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  17. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  18. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  19. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  20. The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to

  1. Evaluation of Ocular Irritation and Bioavailability of Voriconazole Loaded Microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Voriconazole (VCZ), a second-generation antifungal with excellent attributes like, broad-spectrum activity, targeted delivery, and tolerability. VCZ loaded microemulsion could be an effective strategy for efficient ocular delivery of the drug. To perform corneal irritation studies and in vivo delivery of VCZ microemulsion to establish its potential as an efficient ocular delivery system. Ocular irritancy was performed by HETCAM (Hen's Egg Test Chorio Allantoic Membrane) assay, corneal histopathology and Draize test. Ex vivo and in vivo studies were performed to determine permeation efficiency of VCZ microemulsion. The irritation studies suggested the non-irritant nature of the microemulsion. The ex vivo studies performed on excised cornea displayed significant enhancement in drug permeation/penetration from microemulsion in contrast to the drug suspension. Further, the in vivo study confirmed the higher availability of VCZ (from microemulsion) in aqueous humor with minimal nasolacrimal drainage (lower plasma drug content) when compared with the drug suspension. The non-irritant nature and high corneal permeation of VCZ encourages the role of microemulsion as a potential ocular delivery system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  4. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  5. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  6. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  7. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  8. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert J.

    2001-08-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  9. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  10. Antioxidant activity and irritation property of venoms from Apis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwongin, Suvimol; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Chaiyana, Wantida

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay were used to determine the antioxidant activity, whereas, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay was used to determine the irritation property of each bee venom extracts. Melittin was the major constituent in all bee venom extracts. The melittin content in A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. florea, and A. cerena were 95.8 ± 3.2%, 76.5 ± 1.9%, 66.3 ± 8.6%, and 56.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. Bee venom extract from A. dorsata possessed the highest antioxidant activity with the inhibition of 41.1 ± 2.2% against DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 10.21 ± 0.74 mM Trolox/mg and equivalent concentration (EC 1 ) of 0.35 ± 0.02 mM FeSO 4 /mg. Bee venom extract from A. mellifera exhibited the highest irritation, followed by A. cerena, A. dorsata, and A. florea, respectively. Melittin was the compound responsible for the irritation property of bee venom extracts since it could induce severe irritation (irritation score was 13.7 ± 0.5, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml). The extract from A. dorsata which possessed the highest antioxidant activity showed no irritation up to the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. Therefore, bee venom extract from A. dorsata at the concentration not more than 0.1 mg/ml would be suggested for using

  11. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  12. The evaluation of the local tolerance of vaginal formulations containing dapivirine using the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Marijke M M; Adriaens, Els; Roey, Jens Van; Remon, Jean Paul

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local tolerance of vaginal gels (three gels containing dapivirine, the placebo gel, and Conceptrol) with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and to compare the results with those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. The irritation potential on the slug mucosa was assessed by the mucus production caused by a repeated treatment for 5 successive days. Additionally, membrane damage was estimated by the protein and enzyme release. By means of a classification prediction model the formulations were classified into four irritation classes. The effect of a 10-day intravaginal application of the gels on the rabbit vaginal and cervical mucosa was evaluated by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The placebo and dapivirine gels induced no irritation of the slug mucosa (low mucus production and protein release, no enzyme release) and no vaginal or cervical irritation in rabbits. Conceptrol caused severe irritation of the slug mucosa (increased mucus production, protein release, and enzyme release) and irritation of the rabbit vagina and cervix. The results obtained with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test were comparable to those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

  13. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  14. Homeopathy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Emily J; Nelson, E Andrea; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Cooper, Katy; Roberts, E Rachel; Agrawal, Anurag

    2013-11-13

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that leads to decreased health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have not been able to give guidance on the effects of homeopathic treatment for IBS because no systematic reviews have been carried out to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS. Two types of homeopathic treatment were evaluated in this systematic review. In clinical homeopathy a specific remedy is prescribed for a specific condition. This differs from individualised homeopathic treatment, where a homeopathic remedy based on a person's individual symptoms is prescribed after a detailed consultation. To assess the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic treatment for treating IBS. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cochrane IBD/FBD Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field Specialised Register and the database of the Homeopathic Library (Hom-inform) from inception to February 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies that compared homeopathic treatment with placebo, other control treatments, or usual care, in adults with IBS were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was global improvement in IBS. The overall quality of the evidence supporting this outcome was assessed using the GRADE criteria. We calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous outcomes and the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Three RCTs (213 participants) were included. No cohort or case-control studies were identified. Two studies published in 1976 and 1979 compared clinical homeopathy (homeopathic remedy) to placebo for constipation-predominant IBS

  15. Benzalkonium chloride neutralizes the irritant effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Holloway, D B; Whittle, E G; Basketter, D A

    2000-11-01

    When benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a cationic surfactant, is added to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and used in patch testing, on the basis of their known physicochemical interaction, it is possible to predict that there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the expected irritant response when compared to SDS alone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BKC could reduce the irritant response to SDS when applied after the SDS exposure. 54 non-atopic adult volunteers were recruited for the study. 20% SDS was applied for 2 h under occlusion. 1% BKC was then applied to the same site. Various controls, including SDS application followed by water for 2 h, were included. The irritant reaction was assessed at 24 h and 48 h. 40 of the 54 subjects had some reaction when SDS was applied for 2 h followed by either benzalkonium chloride or water control under occlusion. In comparison to water control, where BKC was applied after SDS, 20 of the 40 responders had a weaker reaction but only 4 had a stronger response. This study shows that BKC applied to skin exposed to SDS attenuates the resulting irritant reaction.

  16. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  17. Pediatric Mania: The Controversy between Euphoria and Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Uchida, Mai; Battaglia, Claudia; Casini, Maria Pia; De Chiara, Lavinia; Biederman, Joseph; Vicari, Stefano; Wozniak, Janet

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania. Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95-100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age. Future research should focus on the heterogeneity of irritability aiming at differentiating distinct subtypes of pediatric psychiatric disorders with distinct phenomenology, course, outcome and biomarkers. Longitudinal studies of samples attending to mood presentation, irritable versus elated, and course, chronic versus episodic, may help clarify whether these are meaningful distinctions in the course, treatment and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder.

  18. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    , and hyperemia. Methods for detecting nasal mucosa irritation include measuring swelling of the nasal mucosa, peak airflows through the nose, acoustic rhinometry, and rhinostereometry, which measures thickness of the anterior nasal turbinate. Questionnaires are useful for defining a set of symptoms in an attempt...

  19. The rectum: a window to irritable bowel syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coremans, G.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Dapoigny, M.; Müller-Lissner, S. A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Whorwell, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes current concepts and information gathered to date about the rectum in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were presented at the 10th meeting of IBiS Club held in Leuven, Belgium. A working group of experts in the field of IBS discussed whether the rectum or the whole colon

  20. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control

  1. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, dietary intake, fibre, fructose ... leads to its delivery into the colonic lumen, together with water, because of its osmotic ..... glucose ratio is 55:45), and secondly to fruits with a high fructose content. .... was from high-fructose corn syrup in sweetened cold drinks. The IBS ...

  2. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The Me...

  3. Postanaesthetic tear production and ocular irritation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, N; Köstlin, R; Reese, S; Pieper, K

    2015-01-01

    General anaesthesia significantly reduces tear production and normal values are not immediately re-established on ending anaesthesia. Therefore, adequate protection of the cornea has to be assured during the perianaesthetic period. There are various methods available, including taping of the eyelids and the application of eye ointments, gels and drops. In human medicine studies, different formulations were found to induce signs of ocular irritation. The aim of the present study was to determine tear production in cats after general anaesthesia, and to identify possible causes of irritation. Tear production was determined in 41 cats after general anaesthesia and eyes were examined for signs of irritation. Two different anaesthetic protocols were used. To protect the cornea, an ointment and gel were applied to the right and left eyes, respectively. Postoperatively, tear production was significantly reduced for 6 hours and 18 hours in the right and left eyes, respectively. Two hours after anaesthesia, blepharospasm of the right eye was observed in 92.7% (n = 38) of the cats. In contrast, the left eye was always held open. This study demonstrated that tear production in cats is significantly decreased both during and after anaesthesia. The degree of reduction was independent of the anaesthetic protocol. Both the eye ointment and gel proved effective in protecting the corneal surface. However, eye gel use is recommended because the eye ointment consistently caused an irritation comparable to the foreign-body sensation reported in humans.

  4. Gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, H. J.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; ten Thije, O. J.

    1992-01-01

    Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have symptoms suggestive of disturbances in gastric emptying, but so far no abnormalities in gastric emptying have been demonstrated in these patients. We studied gastric emptying of a solid meal with a 99mTc-labeled pancake in 16 healthy volunteers

  5. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  6. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  7. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received mu...

  8. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  9. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central

  10. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  11. [Current issues on irritable bowel syndrome: diet and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung

    2014-09-25

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.

  12. Cutaneous irritancy of an ibuprofen medicated plaster in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganji, Manisha; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2018-04-01

    To assess the irritation and contact sensitization potential of a 200 mg ibuprofen medicated plaster. This double-blind, phase-1 placebo controlled study had two phases; the induction phase to evaluate the irritant potential of continuous application of the plaster, and the challenge phase to assess contact sensitivity (allergy). The cumulative irritancy potential was evaluated using an adaptation of the Shelanski method. Healthy adults (≥18 years of age) (N = 210) were treated simultaneously with one ibuprofen medicated and one placebo plaster applied in a randomized fashion to either the left or right side of the lower back. During the induction phase, plasters were applied on Days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19 and the final plaster removed on Day 22. At each scheduled visit plasters and applications sites were assessed for degree of adhesion and skin irritation (score of 1 = no irritation to 7 = strong reaction spreading beyond test sites), respectively. The challenge phase followed a two-week washout period. A plaster was applied on Day 36 for 48 h and assessment occurred on Days 38, 39, and 40. The mean cumulative irritation score during the induction phase was lower for the ibuprofen medicated plaster than the placebo plaster (0.32 vs. 1.23, respectively). Three (1.4%) subjects experience a dermal reaction of grade ≥3 for the ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with 27 (12.7%) for the placebo plaster. Following challenge with ibuprofen or placebo plasters, 12 subjects (6.2%) with the ibuprofen medicated plaster and four (2.2%) with the placebo plaster had skin reaction of assessment grade higher than the induction phase. One subject for the ibuprofen and two for the placebo plaster had reactions with grade >2. No subjects showed an increase in sensitization on Day 39 or 40 compared with Day 38. The findings indicate that the both the irritancy and contact sensitization of the ibuprofen medicated plaster is acceptable.

  13. Stability of charged thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  14. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  15. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  16. Respiratory irritation by trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway and Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W.de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Several acid anhydrides are known for their sensitizing and irritative properties. Since both irritation and respiratory allergy can cause changes of lung function, proper testing of allergen-dependent effects on the respiratory tract requires knowledge of the respiratory irritant effects. To study

  17. Irritant potential of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-01-01

    The irritant potentials of essential oil and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha were investigated by open mouse ear assay. The essential oil, curzerenone, furanodiene-6-one and furanoeudesma-1,3-diene showed potent and persistent irritant effects while others possess least irritant potentials.

  18. Preparation of irritant polymer samples for an in vitro round robin study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, Kelly P; Grailer, Thomas P; McNamara, Lori R; Rollins, Beau L; Christiano, Nicholas J; Kandárová, Helena; De Jong, Wim H

    2018-01-01

    A round robin study using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissues was conducted to test medical device polymer extracts for skin irritation potential. Test samples were four irritant and three non-irritant medical device polymers. Five of these polymer samples were developed and two were

  19. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Emulsifiers' composition modulates venous irritation of the nanoemulsions as a lipophilic and venous irritant drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengwen; Wan, Jiangling; Chen, Huabing; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a nanoemulsion (NE) system was investigated for intravenous delivery of lipophilic and venous irritant drugs. NEs were prepared to deliver diallyl trisulfide (DT) for systemic therapy of bacterial and fungal infection, egg phospholipid was chosen as the main emulsifier, and two co-emulsifiers were also incorporated, including Poloxamer 188 (P188) and Solutol HS 15 (S15). Soybean oil was used as the dispersed phases, forming stable DT NEs with small particle sizes. The venous irritation of DT NEs was evaluated by in vitro human umbilical cord endothelial cells (CRL 1730) compatibility model with the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentrations as the indices. The intracellular ATP and GTP reduction changed with the incorporation of a variety of co-emulsifiers, which varied in a free DT concentration-dependent manner. It was deduced that the free DT concentrations of NEs containing co-emulsifiers were determined by the partition coefficient of DT between oil and surfactant buffer solution. In conclusion, NE was an appropriate delivery system for lipophilic and venous irritant drug, and optimization of the composition of emulsifiers was an effective method to alleviate the venous irritation of DT NEs.

  1. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naive guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis

  2. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  3. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  4. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  5. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  6. Pediatric Mania: The Controversy between Euphoria and Irritability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Uchida, Mai; Battaglia, Claudia; Casini, Maria Pia; De Chiara, Lavinia; Biederman, Joseph; Vicari, Stefano; Wozniak, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania. Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95–100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age. Future research should focus on the heterogeneity of irritability aiming at differentiating distinct subtypes of pediatric psychiatric disorders with distinct phenomenology, course, outcome and biomarkers. Longitudinal studies of samples attending to mood presentation, irritable versus elated, and course, chronic versus episodic, may help clarify whether these are meaningful distinctions in the course, treatment and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder. PMID:28503110

  7. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-?), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS....

  8. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was t...

  9. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O’Malley, Dervla

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It’s generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusi...

  10. Radiotracer technique to predict irritation potential of soap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, S.S.; Garcia, T.Y.; Santos, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    The application of a radiotracer technique using tritiated water to predict the irritation potentials of some soap products is demonstrated. Collagen films are treated with 0.5% and 1.0% soap solutions and tritiated water then incubated at 50 degrees centigrade for 24 hours. After incubation, the uptake of tritiated water by the collagen films was measured by liquid scintillation counting. (Auth.). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs incre...

  12. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  13. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  14. Modulation of oral heat and cold pain by irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Kelly C; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2008-01-01

    Common food irritants elicit oral heat or cool sensations via actions at thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We used a half-tongue, 2-alternative forced-choice procedure coupled with bilateral pain intensity ratings to investigate irritant effects on heat and cold pain. The method was validated in a bilateral thermal difference detection task. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde enhanced lingual heat pain elicited by a 49 degrees C stimulus. Mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde weakly enhanced lingual cold pain (9.5 degrees C), whereas capsaicin had no effect. Menthol significantly enhanced cold pain and weakly reduced heat pain. To address if capsaicin's effect was due to summation of perceptually similar thermal and chemical sensations, one-half of the tongue was desensitized by application of capsaicin. Upon reapplication, capsaicin elicited little or no irritant sensation yet still significantly enhanced heat pain on the capsaicin-treated side, ruling out summation. In a third experiment, capsaicin significantly enhanced pain ratings to graded heat stimuli (47 degrees C to 50 degrees C) resulting in an upward shift of the stimulus-response function. Menthol may induce cold hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPM8 in peripheral fibers. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde may induce heat hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPV1 that is coexpressed with TRPA1 in peripheral nociceptors.

  15. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  16. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  17. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  18. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    applied, we tested the efficacy of four anti-irritant compounds using the two different irritants sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, healthy volunteers were exposed to 5% SLS and 50% NON (the right and the left forearm...

  20. Anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycerol and xylitol in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szél, E; Polyánka, H; Szabó, K; Hartmann, P; Degovics, D; Balázs, B; Németh, I B; Korponyai, C; Csányi, E; Kaszaki, J; Dikstein, S; Nagy, K; Kemény, L; Erős, G

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol is known to possess anti-irritant and hydrating properties and previous studies suggested that xylitol may also have similar effects. Our aim was to study whether different concentrations of these polyols restore skin barrier function and soothe inflammation in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced acute irritation. The experiments were performed on male SKH-1 hairless mice. The skin of the dorsal region was exposed to SLS (5%) for 3 h alone or together with 5% or 10% of glycerol respectively. Further two groups received xylitol solutions (8.26% and 16.52% respectively) using the same osmolarities, which were equivalent to those of the glycerol treatments. The control group was treated with purified water. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were determined. Microcirculatory parameters of inflammation were observed by means of intravital videomicroscopy (IVM). Furthermore, accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and SLS penetration were assessed, as well. Treatment with the 10% of glycerol and both concentrations of xylitol inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of the applied polyols improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. At the mRNA level, neither glycerol nor xylitol influenced the expression of interleukin-1 alpha. However, expression of interleukin-1 beta was significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment, while expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased upon the same treatment, as well as in response to xylitol. Higher polyol treatments decreased the SLS penetration to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. Both of the analysed polyols exert considerable anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, but the effective concentration of xylitol is lower than that of

  1. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  2. Creep analysis of orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)

  3. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  4. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  5. Studies on aerosols. XI. Influence of particulate matter on the eye irritation produced by volatile irritants and importance of particle size in connection with atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautrebande, L; Shaver, J; Capps, R

    1951-01-01

    This is a review of smog irritation prevented by water filters which remove > 2-..mu..m particles. Formaldehyde, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vapors combined plus used oil produced stronger irritation than vapors alone. Vapors produced irritation essentially only at concentrations above 4.2 x 10/sup -3/ mg/liter air of each constituent. Three trained human volunteers were exposed to various aerosols via goggles. Blinking and lacrimation were observed. Reaction varied largely between the 3 and between different exposure periods. NaCl, Si dust, and used oil in combination required a much higher concentration to produce eye irritation than with vapors present. NaCl and Si combined did not irritate; used oil did. Photomicrographs showed small (approx. 0.05 ..mu..m), long-chained (1 to 7 ..mu..m), and aggregated (1 to 10 ..mu..m) particles.

  6. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or ... transplantation or support with a ventricular assist device. Prevention The key to preventing heart failure is to ...

  7. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  8. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  9. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  10. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  11. Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon; Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matla, P.

    2012-05-15

    Three articles address subjects concerning the annual race with highly energy efficient cars: the Shell Eco-Marathon. [Dutch] In 3 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwerpen voor de jaarlijkse race met superzuinige auto's, de Shell Eco-Marathon.

  12. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  13. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  14. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  15. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  16. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  17. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  18. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  19. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  20. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Shin; Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE). Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete question...

  1. ['Laryngeal neuropathy' and 'irritable larynx syndrome': synonyms or distinct entities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Ptok, M

    2012-10-01

    The term 'laryngeal neuropathy' (LN) has first been used in veterinary medicine to describe an idiopathic and typically exercise induced inspiratory noise in horses.Nowadays, the term is often used in relation with intermittent vocal cord pareses in humans. Some authors use the term 'irritable larynx syndrome' (ILS) in a similar context. This article reviews the state of knowledge regarding LN and ILS and discusses the somewhat confusing terminology.For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed has been carried out.35 articles were found, which report on LN in animals and 17 articles reported on humans. 4 of these articles used the term 'irritable larynx syndrome'.Laryngeal neuropathy in horses usually affects the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and results in decreased vocal cord abduction and an inspiratory roaring or whistling noise, particularly during exercise. In dogs LN has been reported to also occur bilaterally. In association with humans LN has not been defined clearly in the literature. The term ILS on the other hand has only been used in relation to humans. The term describes a hypersensitivity of the laryngeal structures towards external stimuli, which causes symptoms such as dyspnea or cough among others. Sufficient knowledge does not exist for either of the 2 diseases, ILS or LN. As of yet, the term LN should not be used in human medicine to describe according symptoms of unknown aetiology. The term 'laryngeal movement disorder' seems a lot more appropriate. The symptom oriented term irritable larynx syndrome also seems suitable to describe laryngeal hypersensitivity appropriately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Dynamic centering of liquid shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamopoulos, J.A.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The moderate-amplitude axisymmetric oscillations of an inviscid liquid shell surrounding an incompressible gas bubble are calculated by a multiple-time-scale expansion for initial deformations composed of two-lobed perturbations of the shell and a displacement of the bubble from the center of mass of the liquid. Two types of small-amplitude motion are identified and lead to very different nonlinear dynamic interactions, as described by the results valid up to second order in the amplitude of the initial deformation. In the ''bubble mode,'' the oscillations of the captive bubble and the liquid shell are exactly in phase and the bubble vibrates about its initial eccentric location. The bubble moves toward the center of the drop when the shell is perturbed into a ''sloshing mode'' of oscillation where both interfaces move out of phase. These results explain the centering of liquid shells observed in several experiments

  3. Bacterial metabolic 'toxins': a new mechanism for lactose and food intolerance, and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A K; Matthews, S B; Vassel, N; Cox, C D; Naseem, R; Chaichi, J; Holland, I B; Green, J; Wann, K T

    2010-12-30

    Lactose and food intolerance cause a wide range of gut and systemic symptoms, including gas, gut pain, diarrhoea or constipation, severe headaches, severe fatigue, loss of cognitive functions such as concentration, memory and reasoning, muscle and joint pain, heart palpitations, and a variety of allergies (Matthews and Campbell, 2000; Matthews et al., 2005; Waud et al., 2008). These can be explained by the production of toxic metabolites from gut bacteria, as a result of anaerobic digestion of carbohydrates and other foods, not absorbed in the small intestine. These metabolites include alcohols, diols such as butan 2,3 diol, ketones, acids, and aldehydes such as methylglyoxal (Campbell et al., 2005, 2009). These 'toxins' induce calcium signals in bacteria and affect their growth, thereby acting to modify the balance of microflora in the gut (Campbell et al., 2004, 2007a,b). These bacterial 'toxins' also affect signalling mechanisms in cells around the body, thereby explaining the wide range of symptoms in people with food intolerance. This new mechanism also explains the most common referral to gastroenterologists, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and the illness that afflicted Charles Darwin for 50 years (Campbell and Matthews, 2005a,b). We propose it will lead to a new understanding of the molecular mechanism of type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HRV biofeedback for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain: a clinical replication series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark J; Guiles, Robert A F; Gevirtz, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Functional Abdominal Pain (FAP) are among the most commonly reported Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Both have been associated with varying autonomic dysregulation. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB) has recently begun to show efficacy in the treatment of both IBS and FAP. The purpose of this multiple clinical replication series was to analyze the clinical outcomes of utilizing HRVB in a clinical setting. Archival data of twenty-seven consecutive pediatric outpatients diagnosed with IBS or FAP who received HRVB were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were self-report and categorized as full or remission with patient satisfaction, or no improvement. Qualitative reports of patient experiences were also noted. Full remission was achieved by 69.2 % and partial remission was achieved by 30.8 % of IBS patients. Full remission was achieved by 63.6 % and partial remission was achieved by 36.4 % of FAP patients. No patients in either group did not improve to a level of patient satisfaction or >50 %. Patient's commonly reported feeling validated in their discomfort as a result of psychophysiological education. Results suggest that HRVB is a promising intervention for pediatric outpatients with IBS or FAP. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to accurately determine clinical efficacy of HRVB in the treatment of IBS and FAP.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome and symptom severity: evidence of negative attention bias, diminished vigour, and autonomic dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristy; Wright, Bradley J; Kent, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To determine if cognitive processing, and subjective and physiological responses to stress and relaxation differed between an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group and control group. How these variables relate to the severity of IBS symptoms was also determined. Twenty-one IBS participants and 20 controls provided cognitive (attention and processing), subjective (perceived stress and vigour), and physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance) data during a relaxation and stress phase. Logistic regression analyses determined which variables are related to the IBS group and hierarchical linear regression assessed how the variables are related to the severity of IBS symptoms. Subjective and cognitive factors (drowsiness at baseline, total vigour, and reduced Stroop colour-naming accuracy for negative words) are significantly related to IBS, χ2 (3, N=41)=23.67, pself-schema, as well as perceived low vigour were important in categorising IBS. Low subjective vigour and reduced physiological reactivity to both relaxation and stress conditions were associated with IBS severity, suggestive of illness-related allostatic load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  7. Intestinal microbiome-gut-brain axis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gabriele; Fournier, Camille; Peter, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    Psychological comorbidity is highly present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent research points to a role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Increased disease reactivity to psychological stress has been described too. A few clinical studies have attempted to identify features of dysbiosis in IBS. While animal studies revealed strong associations between stress and gut microbiota, studies in humans are rare. This review covers the most important studies on intestinal microbial correlates of psychological and clinical features in IBS, including stress, anxiety, and depression.

  8. The determination of the irritancy potential of surfactants using various methods of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuchta, H P; Dodd, K T

    1978-01-01

    Several animal irritancy test methods whose criteria include sensory response, pain/discomfort or tissue damage were evaluated as to their ability to assess relative irritancy potential of the following surfactants: sodium lauryl polyether (12) sulfate (SLES), Miranol C2M (MC2M), Miranol MHT (MMHT), sodium coco methyl tauride (SCMT), triethanolamine lauryl sulfate (TEALS), ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Data from the mouse upper respiratory tract and mouse writhing tests indicated that SLES, MC2M and MMHT were the least irritating and SLS, ALS and TEALS were the most irritating. The blepharospasm test did not lend itself to this type of evaluation because sequential instillation of the surfactants produced eye anesthesia. Data from the Draize eye test indicated that SLES was the least irritating while MC2M was slightly more irritating. All other surfactants were equally irritating. The Draize skin test results showed that SLES again was the least irritating at all concentrations tested and that SLS and ALS along with TEALS and SCMT were the most irritating.

  9. Comparison of the effect of glycerol and triamcinolone acetonide on cumulative skin irritation in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So-called anti-irritants are added to cosmetic formulations because of their alleged beneficial effect on irritated skin. Documentation for these claims is often limited. However, glycerol has shown anti-irritant properties in experimentally induced irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate...... volunteers. METHODS: Irritation was induced by 3 daily arm washes for a week with 10% sodium lauryl sulfate on one arm and 30% NON on the other. To maintain irritation, for the next 12 days volunteers washed their arms twice daily with the irritants. Treatments were applied immediately after washing....... The treatments (including vehicle and no treatment) were randomized to sites using a Latin square design. The reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally. LIMITATIONS: Study was designed to only detect potent anti-irritants. CONCLUSION: Glycerol reduced the irritant effect of both sodium lauryl...

  10. Heart valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves; Prosthetic valves ... surgery. Your heart valve has been damaged by infection ( endocarditis ). You have received a new heart valve ...

  11. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  12. Is dermatitis palmaris sicca an irritant contact dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Juan; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yong-Hua; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis palmaris sicca (DPS) is a common dry-fissured palmar dermatitis in Asian women. It may be an irritant contact dermatitis, but the immunophenotype of the cells in its infiltrate is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of DPS. Patch testing was done in 68 patients with DPS, 87 subjects with hand eczema, and 31 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of cutaneous inflammatory cells was performed in 8 patients with DPS, 10 subjects with hand eczema, and 8 healthy individuals. Positive patch rates were higher in patients with DPS and those with hand eczema compared with healthy controls, but strong positive (++ or +++) reactions in DPS were fewer compared with hand eczema. Density of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 cells in skin lesions of DPS and hand eczema was significantly higher than that in normal skin. Sparse CD20 cells were present only in hand eczema. Compared with hand eczema, the number of CD3, CD8, CD68, and dermal CD1a cells decreased, but epidermal CD1a cells and CD4/CD8 ratio increased in DPS. The absolute lack of CD20 cells and relative scarcity of dermal CD8 and CD1a cells in skin lesions might be insufficient to induce contact hypersensitivity, so DPS may be an irritant but not allergic contact dermatitis.

  13. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.

  14. Impact of irritability: a 2-year observational study of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lesley; Hallam, Karen T; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Lewis, Andrew James; Austin, David W; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Dodd, Seetal; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Berk, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Many people experience irritability when manic, hypomanic, or depressed, yet its impact on illness severity and quality of life in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the relationship between irritability and symptom burden, functioning, quality of life, social support, suicidality, and overall illness severity in a naturalistic cohort of people with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. We used data from 239 adult outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in the Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) - a non-interventional observational study with a 2-year follow-up period. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants with and without irritability were compared. A mixed-model repeated measures analysis was conducted to examine the longitudinal effect of irritability on clinical and quality-of-life variables over follow-up using significant baseline variables. At baseline, 54% of participants were irritable. Baseline irritability was associated with illness severity, mania, depression, psychotic symptoms, suicidality, poor functioning, and quality of life, but not diagnosis (schizoaffective/bipolar disorder). Participants with irritability were less likely to have a partner and perceived less adequate social support. On average, over follow-up, those with irritability reported more symptoms, functional impairment, and suicidality. Furthermore, the effects of irritability could not be fully explained by illness severity. Irritability was associated with more negative symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes and suicidality. The identification, monitoring, and targeted treatment of irritability may be worth considering, to enhance health and wellbeing outcomes for adults with bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furuhashi, T.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Smrž, Miloslav; Beran, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 3 (2009), s. 351-371 ISSN 1096-4959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mollusca * shell * biomineralization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009

  16. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  17. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  18. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  19. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  20. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  1. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  2. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  3. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  4. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  5. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  6. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  7. A single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented here shows that a single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components whi...

  8. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Cindy M.; Verberk, Maarten M.; Withagen, Carien E. T.; Jacobs, John J. L.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels

  9. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  10. Irritancy ranking of anionic detergents using one-time occlusive, repeated occlusive and repeated open tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Bunte, EE; Fidler, [No Value; Wiechers, JW; Coenraads, PJ

    Discrepancies between the one-time patch test and the wash test regarding the ranking of irritancy of detergents have been found in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the concordance of irritancy rank order of 4 anionic detergents tested by 3 different exposure methods,

  11. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  12. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  13. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  14. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrostatics-driven shape transitions in soft shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Vikram; Thomas, Creighton K; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2014-09-02

    Manipulating the shape of nanoscale objects in a controllable fashion is at the heart of designing materials that act as building blocks for self-assembly or serve as targeted drug delivery carriers. Inducing shape deformations by controlling external parameters is also an important way of designing biomimetic membranes. In this paper, we demonstrate that electrostatics can be used as a tool to manipulate the shape of soft, closed membranes by tuning environmental conditions such as the electrolyte concentration in the medium. Using a molecular dynamics-based simulated annealing procedure, we investigate charged elastic shells that do not exchange material with their environment, such as elastic membranes formed in emulsions or synthetic nanocontainers. We find that by decreasing the salt concentration or increasing the total charge on the shell's surface, the spherical symmetry is broken, leading to the formation of ellipsoids, discs, and bowls. Shape changes are accompanied by a significant lowering of the electrostatic energy and a rise in the surface area of the shell. To substantiate our simulation findings, we show analytically that a uniformly charged disc has a lower Coulomb energy than a sphere of the same volume. Further, we test the robustness of our results by including the effects of charge renormalization in the analysis of the shape transitions and find the latter to be feasible for a wide range of shell volume fractions.

  16. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  17. [Emotional distress in elderly people with heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Santamaría, Emilia; Lameiras Fernández, María; González Lorenzo, Manuel; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda

    2006-06-30

    To analyse the emotional distress associated with ageing, and its prevalence among elderly people who suffer from heart disease. Personal interviews with elderly people with and without heart problems. Interviews were conducted in public hospitals and old people's homes in the south of Galicia, Spain. The sample was made up of 130 elderly people (65 with heart problems and 65 without). The Inventory of Coping Strategies, of Halroyd and Reynolk (1984); Scheir, Caver, and Bridges Test (1984); the Life Satisfaction Scale of Diener, Emmuns, Larsen, and Griffen (1985); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965); and an instrument to measure Associated Symptoms (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1975). Elderly people with heart problems experienced greater anxiety and had lower self-esteem than those without such problems. Heart patients also tended to suffer more phobic anxiety and to retreat from social interaction more. With the passing of time, heart patients over 60 showed more anxiety, irritability and psychosomatic disorders. This study clearly shows the existence of emotional distress in elderly heart patients. This makes it particularly important to conduct risk-prevention programmes, since a lot of heart disease is brought on by unhealthy conduct.

  18. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous...... nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  20. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2012-09-04

    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  1. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment.

  2. Inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome: Myth or new treatment target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagra, Emanuele; Pompei, Giancarlo; Tomasello, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; Morreale, Gaetano Cristian; Amvrosiadis, Georgios; Rossi, Francesca; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio; Rizzo, Aroldo Gabriele; Raimondo, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade intestinal inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and this role is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on the spectrum of mucosal inflammation in IBS, highlighting the relationship of this inflammation to the pathophysiology of IBS and its connection to clinical practice. We carried out a bibliographic search in Medline and the Cochrane Library for the period of January 1966 to December 2014, focusing on publications describing an interaction between inflammation and IBS. Several evidences demonstrate microscopic and molecular abnormalities in IBS patients. Understanding the mechanisms underlying low-grade inflammation in IBS may help to design clinical trials to test the efficacy and safety of drugs that target this pathophysiologic mechanism. PMID:26900287

  3. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Naliboff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.

  4. Placebo effect in clinical trial design for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Eric; Pimentel, Mark

    2014-04-30

    Ongoing efforts to improve clinical trial design in irritable bowel syndrome have been hindered by high placebo response rates and ineffective outcome measures. We assessed established strategies to minimize placebo effect as well as the various ap-proaches to placebo effect which can affect trial design. These include genetic markers such as catechol-O-methyltransferase, opioidergic and dopaminergic neurobiologic theory, pre-cebo effect centered on expectancy theory, and side effect unblinding grounded on conditioning theory. We reviewed endpoints used in the study of IBS over the past decade including adequate relief and subjective global relief, emphasizing their weaknesses in fully evaluating the IBS condition, specifically their motility effects based on functional net value and relative benefit-harm based on dropouts due to adverse events. The focus of this review is to highlight ongoing efforts to improve clinical trial design which can lead to better outcomes in a real-world setting.

  5. Comparison of Active Carbon, Sawdust, Almond Shell and Hazelnut Shell Absorbent in Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Mohammadi Galehzan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental pollutants are heavy metals in industrial wastewater effluents. Nickel is one of the toxic heavy metals which its high concentration causes skin allergy, heart disease and various cancers. So removal of this element from industrial effluent is of prime concern and necessary. The main purpose of this study is to compare kinetics and isotherms of nickel uptake by activated carbon (AC, sawdust (SD, hazelnut shell (SH and almond shells (AH. Adsorbents are initially prepared to remove nickel from solutions with concentrations 2.5 to 125 mg/l. pH test results showed that maximum absorption using AC, SH, SD and AH obtained at pH 6, 6, 6 and 7 respectively. Kinetics experiments showed that maximum absorption equilibrium time at concentration of 5 mg/l of AC, SH, SD and AH occur at 60, 75, 120 and 150 minutes respectively. Kinetic models fitting results showed that for sawdust and hazelnut shells, Lagergern model and for activated carbon and peanut shell Ho et al. model are suitable and have the lowest error and highest correlation coefficient at 95 percent confidence level. The results also revealed that rate of Nickel adsorption follows this order: AH

  6. In vivo skin penetration of macromolecules in irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-12-30

    Recently, a selective preferential accumulation of polymeric nanoparticles (in the size range around 100nm) has been observed in the follicular system of dermatitis skin. The present investigation aimed at clearly investigating the effect of irritant contact dermatitis on the barrier permeability for colloidal systems below this size range, namely quantum dots and hydrophilic macromolecules. Irritant dermatitis was induced in mice and the penetrability of quantum dots (5nm) and hydrophilic dextran molecules has been tracked in both healthy and inflamed skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The selective accumulation of the quantum dots was clearly observed in inflamed skin while hydrophilic dextran behaved similarly in both healthy and inflamed skin. The therapeutic potential for the transdermal delivery of peptide drugs through inflamed skin has been also tested in rats. Results revealed that the transdermal permeation of insulin and calcitonin was not significantly enhanced in dermatitis compared to healthy skin. On the other side, permeation through stripped skin was significantly higher. However, the effect was limited and shorter compared to the SC injection where t min was 0.5h and 2h with a 70% and 46% reduction in blood glucose levels for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. Similarly, t min was 4h and 8h with area under the curve of 161±65% and 350±97% for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. In conclusion, the changes in skin permeability accompanied with skin inflammation did not affect its permeability to peptide drugs. Our findings also underline that experiments with the tape stripped skin model as a surrogate for inflamed skin can risk misleading conclusions due to significant difference of skin permeability between the tape stripped skin and inflamed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A S Almeida

    Full Text Available Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line, frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  8. Creep buckling of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the characteristics of LMFBR primary piping components (thin-walled, low pressure, high temperature), the designer must guard against creep buckling as a potential failure mode for certain critical regions, such as elbows, where structural flexibility and inelastic response may combine to concentrate deformation and cause instability. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, through its elevated temperature Code Case 1592 (Section III, Division 1) provides design rules for Class 1 components aimed at preventing creep buckling during the design life. A similar set of rules is being developed for Class 2 and 3 components at this time. One of the original concepts behind the creep buckling rules was that the variability in creep properties (especially due to the effects of prior heat treatment), the uncertainty about initial imperfections, and the lack of confirmed accuracy of design analysis meant that conservatism would be difficult to assure. As a result, a factor of ten on service life was required (i.e. analysis must show that, under service conditions that extrapolate the life of the component by ten times, creep buckling does not occur). Two obvious problems with this approach are that: first, the creep behavior must also be extrapolated (since most creep experiments are terminated at a small fraction of the design life, extrapolation of creep data is already an issue, irrespective of the creep buckling question); second the nonlinear creep analysis, which is very nearly prohibitively expensive for design life histograms, becomes even more costly. Analytical results for an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to axial loads at elevated temperatures are used to examine the supposed equivalence of two types of time-dependent buckling safety factors - a factor of ten on service life and a factor of 1.5 on loading

  9. Balance of Autonomic Nervous System Predicts Who Benefits from a Self-management Intervention Program for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Monica E; Cain, Kevin C; Barney, Pamela G; Burr, Robert L; Naliboff, Bruce D; Shulman, Robert; Zia, Jasmine; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-01-31

    To determine if potential biomarkers can be used to identify subgroups of people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who will benefit the most or the least from a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial a CSM (n = 46) was compared to a usual care (n = 46) group with follow-up at 3 and 6 months post randomization. Biomarkers obtained at baseline included heart rate variability, salivary cortisol, interleukin-10 produced by unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lactulose/mannitol ratio. Linear mixed models were used to test whether these biomarkers predicted improvements in the primary outcomes including daily abdominal pain, Gastrointestinal Symptom score and IBS-specific quality of life. The nurse-delivered 8-session CSM intervention is more effective than usual care in reducing abdominal pain, reducing Gastrointestinal Symptom score, and enhancing quality of life. Participants with lower nighttime high frequency heart rate variability (vagal modulation) and increased low frequency/high frequency ratio (sympathovagal balance) had less benefit from CSM on abdominal pain. Salivary cortisol, IL-10, and lactulose/mannitol ratio were not statistically significant in predicting CSM benefit. Baseline symptom severity interacts with treatment, namely the benefit of CSM is greater in those with higher baseline symptoms. Cognitively-focused therapies may be less effective in reducing abdominal pain in IBS patients with higher sympathetic tone. Whether this a centrally-mediated patient characteristic or related to heightened arousal remains to be determined.

  10. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  11. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Creep buckling of shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Hagihara, Seiya

    2015-01-01

    The present article contains a review of the literatures on the creep buckling of shell structures published from late 1950's to recent years. In this article, the creep buckling studies on circular cylindrical shells, spherical shells, partial cylindrical shells and other shells are reviewed in addition to creep buckling criteria. Creep buckling is categorized into two types. One is the creep buckling due to quasi-static instability, in which the critical time for creep buckling is determined by tracing a creep deformation versus time curve. The other is the creep buckling due to kinetic instability, in which the critical time can be determined by examining the shape of total potential energy in the vicinity of a quasi-static equilibrium state. Bifurcation buckling and snap-through buckling during creep deformation belong to this type of creep buckling. A few detailed descriptions are given to the bifurcation and snap-through type of creep buckling based on the present authors' works. (author)

  13. Current irritability robustly related to current and prior anxiety in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Laura D; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Holtzman, Jessica N; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-08-01

    Although current irritability and current/prior anxiety have been associated in unipolar depression, these relationships are less well understood in bipolar disorder (BD). We investigated relationships between current irritability and current/prior anxiety as well as other current emotions and BD illness characteristics. Outpatients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorders Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Prevalence and clinical correlates of current irritability and current/prior anxiety and other illness characteristics were examined. Among 497 BD outpatients (239 Type I, 258 Type II; 58.1% female; mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years), 301 (60.6%) had baseline current irritability. Patients with versus without current irritability had significantly higher rates of current anxiety (77.1% versus 42.9%, p anxiety disorder (73.1% versus 52.6%, p anxiety than to current anhedonia, sadness, or euphoria (all p anxiety associations persisted across current predominant mood states. Current irritability was more robustly related to past anxiety than to all other assessed illness characteristics, including 1° family history of mood disorder, history of alcohol/substance use disorder, bipolar subtype, and current syndromal/subsyndromal depression (all p anxiety. Further studies are warranted to assess longitudinal clinical implications of relationships between irritability and anxiety in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An approach for evaluating the respiratory irritation of mixtures: application to metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, M M; Detwiler-Okabayashi, K A

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the sensory and pulmonary irritating properties of ten metalworking fluids (MWF) were assessed using a mouse bioassay. Relative potency of the MWFs was estimated, but it was not possible to identify the component(s) responsible for the the respiratory irritation induced by each MWF. One of the ten fluids, MWF "ET", produced sensory and pulmonary irritation in mice, and it was of moderate potency in comparison to the other nine MWFs. MWF "E" had three major components: tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), sodium sulfonate (SA), and paraffinic oil (PO). In the present study, the sensory and pulmonary irritating properties of these individual components of MWF "E" were evaluated. Mixtures of the three components were also prepared and similarly evaluated. This analysis revealed that the sensory irritation from MWF "E" was largely due to TOFA, whereas SA produced the pulmonary irritation observed with MWF "E". Both TOFA and SA were more potent irritants than was MWF "E", and the potency of TOFA and/or SA was diminished through combination with PO. There was no evidence of synergism of the components when combined to form MWF "E". This approach for identifying the biologically "active" component(s) in a mixture should be useful for other MWFs. Furthermore, the approach should be easily adapted for other applications involving concerns with mixtures.

  15. The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, C S; Freeman, J J; Forgash, R C; McKee, R H

    1999-05-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans.

  16. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Monica; Heitkemper, Margaret; Czyzewski, Danita; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Shulman, Robert J

    2012-05-01

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain (FAP) or IBS to healthy children (HC) and explored the relationship of vagal activity and sympathovagal balance to psychological distress and stool type. Children completed questionnaires, kept a 2-week pain/stool diary, and wore a 24-hour Holter monitor to assess vagal activity. Group comparisons on vagal activity were controlled for age and body mass index. Indicators of vagal activity and sympathovagal balance did not differ between FAP/IBS children (70 girls, 30 boys) and HC (44 girls, 18 boys). Psychological distress measures were generally higher in FAP/IBS than HC, primarily in girls. Exploratory analyses suggest a potential negative correlation between vagal activity and psychological distress in FAP/IBS girls but not boys. In contrast to reports in women, no differences were found in vagal activity between FAP/IBS and HC. Preliminary findings suggest that in girls with FAP/IBS there is an inverse relationship between vagal activity and psychological distress. The results from this study suggest a possible relationship between emotional state and vagal activity in prepubertal girls (but not boys) with FAP/IBS. Age and/or duration of symptoms may explain our contrasting findings versus adults with IBS. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  18. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure ... problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or ...

  20. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  1. A retrospective analysis of in vivo eye irritation, skin irritation and skin sensitisation studies with agrochemical formulations: Setting the scene for development of alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvaro, M; Gehen, S; Andrews, K; Chatfield, R; Macleod, F; Mehta, J

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the prevalence of health effects in large scale databases is key in defining testing strategies within the context of Integrated Approaches on Testing and Assessment (IATA), and is relevant to drive policy changes in existing regulatory toxicology frameworks towards non-animal approaches. A retrospective analysis of existing results from in vivo skin irritation, eye irritation, and skin sensitisation studies on a database of 223 agrochemical formulations is herein published. For skin or eye effects, high prevalence of mild to non-irritant formulations (i.e. per GHS, CLP or EPA classification) would generally suggest a bottom-up approach. Severity of erythema or corneal opacity, for skinor eye effects respectively, were the key drivers for classification, consistent with existing literature. The reciprocal predictivity of skin versus eye irritation and the good negative predictivity of the GHS additivity calculation approach (>85%) provided valuable non-testing evidence for irritation endpoints. For dermal sensitisation, concordance on data from three different methods confirmed the high false negative rate for the Buehler method in this product class. These results have been reviewed together with existing literature on the use of in vitro alternatives for agrochemical formulations, to propose improvements to current regulatory strategies and to identify further research needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: DIAGNOSTICS AND MODERN APPROACHES TO THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Tereshchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article modern data on prevalence, diagnostic criteria and approaches to the treatment of irritable bowel in children are presented. The issues of the terminology and classification of recurrent abdominal pains in children are clarified, the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are indicated. Particular emphasis has been placed on the efficient therapy of the different clinical variants of irritable bowel syndrome. The role of modern spasmolytic drugs in the treatment of abdominal pain syndrome and the rational usage of laxatives in constipation in children is shown.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, diagnostics, treatment.

  3. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.; Langanke, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and γ-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Cask for concrete shells transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labergri, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, nuclear plant radioactive waste are conditioned in situ into concrete shells. Most of them enter in the industrial waste category defined by the regulations of radioactive material transportation. However, the content of a few ones exceeds the limits set for low specific activity substances. Thus, these shells must be transported into type B packagings. To this end, Robatel has undertaken, for EDF (Electricite de France), the development of a container, named ROBATEL TM R68, for further licensing. The particularity of this packaging is that the lid must have a wide opening to allow the usual handling operations of the concrete shells. This leads to a non-conventional conception, and makes the package more vulnerable to drop test solicitations. In order to define a minimal drop test program on a reduced scale model, we use a simple method to find the most damageable drop angle. (author)

  5. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of γ-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs

  6. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  7. Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MC Rosano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural valvular heart disease may be the cause of heart failure or may worsen the clinical status of patients with heart failure. Heart failure may also develop in patients treated with valve surgery. Patients with heart failure with valvular heart disease are at increased risk of events including sudden cardiac death. Before considering intervention (surgical or percutaneous all patients should receive appropriate medical and device therapy taking into account that vasodilators must be used with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Numerous percutaneous and/or hybrid procedures have been introduced in the past few years and they are changing the management of valvular heart disease. In patients with heart failure and valvular heart disease, either primary or functional, the whole process of decision-making should be staged through a comprehensive evaluation of the risk– benefit ratio of different treatment strategies and should be made by a multidisciplinary ‘heart team’ with a particular expertise in valvular heart disease. The heart team should include heart failure cardiologists, cardiac surgeons/structural valve interventionists, imaging specialists, anaesthetists, geriatricians and intensive care specialists. This article will review recent developments and distill practical guidance in the management of this important heart failure co-morbidity.

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: diagnostic approaches in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Burbige

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eugene J BurbigeDivision of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Research, John Muir Medical Center, Concord, CA, USABackground: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a functional gastrointestinal disorder long considered a diagnosis of exclusion, has chronic symptoms that vary over time and overlap with those of non-IBS disorders. Traditional symptom-based criteria effectively identify IBS patients but are not easily applied in clinical practice, leaving >40% of patients to experience symptoms up to 5 years before diagnosis.Objective: To review the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected IBS, strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies, and newer diagnostic tools that can augment current symptom-based criteria.Methods: The peer-reviewed literature (PubMed was searched for primary reports and reviews using the limiters of date (1999–2009 and English language and the search terms irritable bowel syndrome, diagnosis, gastrointestinal disease, symptom-based criteria, outcome, serology, and fecal markers. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week 2008–2009 and reference lists of identified articles were reviewed.Results: A disconnect is apparent between practice guidelines and clinical practice. The American Gastroenterological Association and American College of Gastroenterology recommend diagnosing IBS in patients without alarm features of organic disease using symptom-based criteria (eg, Rome. However, physicians report confidence in a symptom-based diagnosis without further testing only up to 42% of the time; many order laboratory tests and perform sigmoidoscopies or colonoscopies despite good evidence showing no utility for this work-up in uncomplicated cases. In the absence of diagnostic criteria easily usable in a busy practice, newer diagnostic methods, such as stool-form examination, fecal inflammatory markers, and serum biomarkers, have been proposed as adjunctive tools to aid in an IBS diagnosis by increasing physicians

  9. Learning Shell scripting with Zsh

    CERN Document Server

    Festari, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial that will teach you, through real-world examples, how to configure and use Zsh and its various features. If you are a system administrator, developer, or computer professional involved with UNIX who are looking to improve on their daily tasks involving the UNIX shell, ""Learning Shell Scripting with Zsh"" will be great for you. It's assumed that you have some familiarity with an UNIX command-line interface and feel comfortable with editors such as Emacs or vi.

  10. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Dalcí n, Lisandro D.; Ghommem, Mehdi; Calo, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  11. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business......Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  12. Activated carbons prepared from hazelnut shells, walnut shells and peanut shells for high CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewicka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research treats about producing activated carbons for CO2 capture from hazelnut shells (HN, walnut shells (WN and peanut shells (PN. Saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent in ratio 1:1. Samples were carbonized in the furnace in the range of temperatures 600°C–900°C. Properties of carbons were tested by N2 adsorption method, using BET equation, DFT method and volumetric CO2 adsorption method. With the increase of carbonization temperature specific surface area of studied samples increased. The largest surface area was calculated for samples carbonized at 900°C and the highest values of CO2 adsorption had samples: PN900 at 0°C (5.5 mmol/g and WN900 at 25°C (4.34 mmol/g. All of the samples had a well-developed microporous structure.

  13. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2015-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are classically viewed as dichotomous conditions. The former is perceived as a typical organic disease, and the latter is regarded as a disorder of gut function driven by mood. Recent research identified some shared contributing factors, which will be discussed here. Mounting evidence shows the importance in both IBD and IBS of genetic, microbiological, epithelial, and immunological factors. In some instances, these factors overlap in the two conditions as shown by: involvement of brain-gut axis dysfunction in IBD, implication of TNFSF gene in Crohn's disease and IBS, evidence of abnormal microbiota and its impact on host functions, identification of low-grade inflammation in subsets of IBS patients, and development of IBS symptoms in patients with IBD in remission. IBD and IBS remain separate conditions although there are some overlapping mechanisms. Both research and clinical management would benefit from considering a functional approach for certain manifestations of IBD and accepting an organic view in subsets of IBS patients.

  15. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Prakash S; Keuthen, Nancy J; Gupta, Sanjay; Virk, Subhdeep; Yu-Siao, Barbara; Kaplan, David

    2006-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs more frequently in psychiatric patients, especially those with anxiety and mood disorders. We sought to determine the prevalence and phenomenology of IBS in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A semi-structured diagnostic interview was administered to patients seeking treatment for OCD in outpatient settings. Structured questions regarding gastrointestinal functioning and IBS symptoms were administered. IBS was diagnosed by a gastroenterologist using Rome I criteria. Thirty-seven patients (35.1%) with OCD met criteria for IBS. Of these, 53.8% had IBS with both diarrhea and constipation, 30.8% had diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 15.4% had constipation-predominant IBS. The prevalence rate of IBS in an age- and sex-matched control group (n=40) of medical patients in a family practice was 2.5%. IBS prevalence rates were significantly higher for OCD patients than control subjects (P=.0002). IBS and psychiatric illness have high rates of bi-directional comorbidity. This study shows that 35.1% of patients with OCD satisfied criteria for IBS in contrast to 2.5% of the controlled subjects. In most patients the IBS was characterized by both diarrhea and constipation. While taking the initial history clinicians should inquire about bowel symptoms in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses, including OCD. SSRIs could potentially worsen such symptoms and lead to non-adherence.

  16. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  17. Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammatory reaction as well as moderation of visceral sensation. Melatonin is commonly given orally. It is categorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a dietary supplement. Melatonin treatment has an extremely wide margin of safety though it may cause minor adverse effects, such as headache, rash and nightmares. Melatonin was touted as a potential effective candidate for IBS treatment. Putative role of melatonin in IBS treatment include analgesic effects, regulator of gastrointestinal motility and sensation to sleep promoter. Placebo-controlled studies in melatonin suffered from heterogeneity in methodology. Most studies utilized 3 mg at bedtime as the standard dose of trial. However, all studies had consistently showed improvement in abdominal pain, some showed improvement in quality of life of IBS patients. Melatonin is a relatively safe drug that possesses potential in treating IBS. Future studies should focus on melatonin effect on gut mobility as well as its central nervous system effect to elucidate its role in IBS patients.

  18. Rome Criteria and a Diagnostic Approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Lacy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs account for at least 40% of all referrals to gastroenterologists. Of the 33 recognized adult FGIDs, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent, with a worldwide prevalence estimated at 12%. IBS is an important health care concern as it greatly affects patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the health care system. Cardinal symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. The absence of abdominal pain makes the diagnosis of IBS untenable. The diagnosis of IBS can be made by performing a careful review of the patient’s symptoms, taking a thoughtful history (e.g., diet, medication, medical, surgical, and psychological history, evaluating the patient for the presence of warning signs (e.g., “red flags” of anemia, hematochezia, unintentional weight loss, or a family history of colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, performing a guided physical examination, and using the Rome IV criteria. The Rome criteria were developed by a panel of international experts in the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although initially developed to guide researchers, these criteria have undergone several revisions with the intent of making them clinically useful and relevant. This monograph provides a brief overview on the development of the Rome criteria, discusses the utility of the Rome IV criteria, and reviews how the criteria can be applied clinically to diagnose IBS. In addition, a diagnostic strategy for the cost-effective diagnosis of IBS will be reviewed.

  19. Probiotic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enck, P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of functional bowel disorders of irritable bowel-type (IBS in children remains a difficult task because of a lack of drugs with low adverse event profile. We here report the results of a treatment study in 203 children (66 boys and 137 girls age 4 to 18 years (mean: 10.5±4.5 years with typical IBS symptoms with abdominal pain and either predominant diarrhea (n=50, constipation (n=56, alternating stool frequency (n=28 or unspecific pain (n=69. The average duration of symptoms prior to therapy was 175 days. Most (95% patients up to age 11 were treated with a daily dose of 10 drops of Symbioflor 2 (SF2 (SymbioPharm, Herborn (cells and autolysate of 1.5–4.5x107 CFU of bacteria of Escherichia coli type, in the elder children 77% received this dosage, while the remaining received a higher dose up to 30 drops/day. Treatment lasted 43 days on average. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment well and without adverse events. The key IBS symptoms (abdominal pain, stool frequency as well as the other symptoms (bloating, mucous and blood in stool, need for straining at stools, urge to defecate improved significantly during treatment. Global assessment of therapy by parents and doctors was altogether positive. In summary these data confirm efficacy and tolerability of this probiotic compound in children and adolescents and supplement published data of probiotic IBS therapy in adults.

  20. PREVALENCE OF SMALL INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premaletha Narayanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder and the pathophysiology of IBS is poorly understood. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS using Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT. Diagnosis of IBS was made according to the Rome III Criteria and Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current hypothesis suggests that altered gastrointestinal motility, disturbance of visceral hypersensitivity and infection may contribute to the symptoms. Gut microbiota and intestinal pathogens are likely to influence the pathogenesis of IBS. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO is defined as an abnormally high bacterial count (≥105 colony-forming units/mL in the proximal small intestine. RESULTS Out of the 120 patients, 9 were LHBT positive (7.5% compared to none in controls (p <0.01. IBS patients with LHBT positivity was correlated well with the increased frequency of stools. There was no correlation noted with LHBT positivity and abdominal pain or flatulence or bloating compared to IBS patients who were LHBT negative. CONCLUSION These findings may suggest that patients with chronic diarrhoea including IBS should be tested for SIBO. Our study also showed that LHBT positivity is associated with increased frequency of stools and diarrhoea. If SIBO is found in patients with chronic diarrhoea, specific treatment with antibiotics may benefit them.

  1. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome: role of food in pathogenesis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, Ashraf

    2009-11-01

    Patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) commonly report the precipitation of symptoms on food ingestion. Though the role of dietary constituents in IBS has not been extensively studied, food could contribute to symptom onset or even the causation of IBS through a number of mechanisms. First, the physiological response of the intestine to food ingestion could precipitate symptoms in predisposed individuals; second, there is some evidence that allergy or intolerance to a particular food can produce IBS-like symptoms, third, certain foods may alter the composition of the luminal milieu, either directly or indirectly through effects on bacterial metabolism, and thus induce symptoms and, finally, IBS may develop following exposure to food-borne pathogens. Anticipatory, psychological factors generated by previous negative experiences with food ingestion or other factors may also contribute though their contribution has been scarcely quantified. Not surprisingly, there is considerable interest in the potential roles of diet and food supplements in the therapy of IBS; for the most part, the evidence base for such recommendations remains slim though certain probiotics show considerable promise.

  3. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  4. Cross-cultural and psychological issues in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered by gastroenterologists worldwide. Of all the etiological factors that had been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of IBS, cultural and psychological factors are unique and difficult to understand. Culture plays an important role in coloring the presentation of IBS, and many a times, it has a significant role in several treatment aspects too. Psychological aspects like personality profiles, family relationships, societal myths, and abuse in any form are equally important in the management perspectives of IBS. In this brief review, we had tried to specifically focus on these aspects in IBS and have explained the evidences in favor of these factors. Knowledge about various cross-cultural aspects and psychological factors in patients with IBS is essential for taking an appropriate history and for undertaking a holistic approach for the management of the same. A collaborative team effort by psychiatrists and gastroenterologists could help in reducing the burden of this difficult to treat functional bowel disorder. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome and endometriosis: New insights for old diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Davide; Zara, Federica; Usai, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome and endometriosis are two diseases affecting a significant part of the female population, either together or individually, with remarkable consequences in the quality of life. Several studies suggest an epidemiological association between them. Their association may not be just an epidemiological phenomenon, but the manifestation of a pathophysiological correlation, which probably generates a mutual promotion phenomenon. In particular, both clinical entities share the presence of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state at the basis of the disease persistence. Recognizing this association is highly significant due to their prevalence and the common clinical manifestation occurring with a chronic abdominal pain. A further multi disciplinary approach is suggested in these patients' management in order to achieve an adequate diagnostic work up and a targeted therapy. This paper analyses some common pathophysiological mechanisms, such as activation of mast cell line, neuronal inflammation, dysbiosis and impaired intestinal permeability. The aim was to investigate their presence in both IBS and endometriosis, and to show the complexity of their relationship in the generation and maintenance of chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Self-schema in irritable bowel syndrome and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Scher, H; Shulhan, D; Di Gasbarro, I

    1990-01-01

    Some investigators have suggested that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents a physiologic expression of an affective disorder. This study investigated whether IBS patients differed in their self-schema from depressed patients. Self-schema refers to a cognitive framework of the individual's beliefs, attitudes, and self-perceptions which is stored in memory and which influences incoming information. The sample consisted of 21 IBS patients, 21 psychiatric outpatients with major depression (MD), and 19 normal controls. All groups were age matched. Subjects completed a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), in addition to a test of self-schema, which involved rating and recall of a variety of "depressed" and "nondepressed" content adjectives. Consistent with previous work on self-schema, the MD group recalled significantly more depressed adjectives rated under the self-referent task than the Control group (p less than 0.05) and, also, the IBS group (p less than 0.05). Most striking was the finding that a subgroup of IBS patients who met criteria for MD (43% of the sample) recalled significantly more self-referent nondepressed words (and less self-referent depressed words) than the MD group (p less than 0.05). In other words, IBS patients with MD do not view themselves as depressed. These findings suggest that while some IBS and depressed psychiatric outpatients may share depressive symptoms, these groups can be differentiated by their self-schema.

  7. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-01-01

    Background IBS affects 5–11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. Aim To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Results Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5‐HT3 antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5‐HT4 agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Conclusions Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed. PMID:17488783

  8. Role of gut pathogens in development of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly identifiable risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. A number of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens have been found to be associated with the development of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Epidemiological studies have identified demographic and acute enteritis-related risk factors for the development of post-infectious-IBS (PI-IBS. Immune dysregulation, alterations in barrier function, serotonergic and mast cell activation have been identified as potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, variations in host genes involved in barrier function, antigen presentation and cytokine response have been associated with PI-IBS development. However, it is unknown whether specific pathogens have unique effects on long-term alterations in gut physiology or different pathogens converge to cause common alterations resulting in similar phenotype. The role of microbial virulence and pathogenicity factors in development of PI-IBS is also largely unknown. Additionally, alterations in host gut sensation, motility, secretion, and barrier function in PI-IBS need to be elucidated. Finally, both GI infections and antibiotics used to treat these infections can cause long-term alterations in host commensal microbiota. It is plausible that alteration in the commensal microbiome persists in a subset of patients predisposing them to develop PI-IBS.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome: A microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  10. Wound-Related Allergic/Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Ladizinski, Barry; Saraiya, Ami; Lee, Kachiu C; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy; Maibach, Howard

    2016-06-01

    To provide information from a literature review about the prevention, recognition, and treatment for contact dermatitis. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify signs and symptoms of and diagnostic measures for contact dermatitis.2. Identify causes and risks for contact dermatitis.3. Select appropriate treatment for contact dermatitis and its prevention. Contact dermatitis to wound care products is a common, often neglected problem. A review was conducted to identify articles relevant to contact dermatitis.A PubMed English-language literature review was conducted for appropriate articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.Contact dermatitis is both irritant (80% of cases) or allergic (20% of cases). Frequent use of potential contact allergens and impaired barrier function of the skin can lead to rising sensitization in patients with chronic wounds. Common known allergens to avoid in wound care patients include fragrances, colophony, lanolin, and topical antibiotics.Clinicians should be cognizant of the allergens in wound care products and the potential for sensitization. All medical devices, including wound dressings, adhesives, and bandages, should be labeled with their complete ingredients, and manufacturers should be encouraged to remove common allergens from wound care products, including topical creams, ointments, and dressings.

  11. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  12. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design.Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls.A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y, female (n = 67; 58% and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y, female (n = 44; 80%. Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  13. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Moreno Ortega, Marta; Garcia Alonso, Monica-Olga; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-07-07

    To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 +/- 10.8 vs 102.8 +/- 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 +/- 9.4 vs 49.6 +/- 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS.

  14. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Ikechi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS.

  15. Síndrome de intestino irritable: Una perspectiva actualizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Felipe Gómez Álvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de intestino irritable (SII es un desordengastrointestinal funcional (DGIF que hace parte de lacategorización según los criterios Roma III, como undesorden funcional del intestino. Debido a su altaprevalencia aproximada del 4 al 20% a nivel mundial, seconsidera una enfermedad de gran impacto por afectar lacalidad de vida. La manifestación clínica depende delsíntoma predominante: dolor o disconfort, diarrea,estreñimiento o un cuadro mixto. Su diagnóstico esbásicamente clínico por medio de los criterios de Roma III,descartando enfermedad orgánica. Las alternativasterapéuticas del SII son para el control sintomático de laenfermedad y mejoría de la calidad de vida, nunca comotratamiento definitivo. El objetivo del artículo es producir unarevisión actualizada de la temática para conocer, entender yabarcar una patología que en los últimos años ha generadoun alto compromiso en el paciente.

  16. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  18. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-02-21

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required.

  19. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS.

  20. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  1. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-07-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients.

  2. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  3. [Irritable bowel syndrome: New pathophysiological hypotheses and practical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, H; Dior, M; Coffin, B

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, besides the fact that it still fills the gastroenterologists' offices and impairs patient's quality of life, the irritable bowel syndrome has considerably evolved on several points. The pathophysiology is now organized around a consensual hypothesis called the "brain-gut axis", which gather all the influences of peripheral factors as gut microbiota or local serotonin secretion, on the central pain perception, contributing to visceral hypersensitivity and transit modifications. About the diagnosis, the key message is "avoid over-prescription" of additional tests, and reminds that a positive clinical diagnosis based on Rome III criteria is possible after the elimination of simple clinical warning signs. Finally, the food component, a neglected and historical claim of patients, finally finds a strong scientific rational, with a diet low in fermentable sugar and polyols, that gives positive and reproducible results. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluhr, J W; Kelterer, D; Fuchs, S; Kaatz, M; Grieshaber, R; Kleesz, P; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    Biogenic amines are potential irritants e.g. in fish-, meat-, milk- and egg-processing professions like cooks, butchers and bakers. The aim of this study was to test the irritative and barrier-disrupting properties of the biogenic amines ammonium hydroxide (AM), dimethylamine (DMA) and trimethylamine (TMA). A repeated sequential irritation of 30 min twice per day was performed over a total of 4 days (tandem repeated irritation test) on the back of 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes with AM, DMA, TMA and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The epidermal barrier function was assessed with a Tewameter TM 210, stratum corneum surface pH was measured with a Skin-pH-Meter 900, inflammation was assessed with a Chromameter CR-300 on the a* axis for redness and a visual score was recorded. All tested biogenic amines (AM, DMA and TMA) induced a barrier disruption and a pH increase paralleled with a 1-day-delayed onset of inflammatory signs. These effects were further enhanced and accelerated by a sequential application of SLS together with the biogenic amines, and inflammation occurred earlier than with the single compounds. Acetic acid (AA) in contrast did only show mild barrier disruption and no significant inflammatory signs. Our system allowed a ranking of the different compounds in their irritative potential in the tandem irritation with SLS: SLS > NaOH > TMA > AA > AM > DMA. The results are suggestive that in the food-processing industry the simultaneous contact with biogenic amines and harmful detergents like SLS should be minimized. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be able to replace it with an artificial (man-made) valve. Cardiac size reduction . During this procedure, your doctor removes a piece of the heart muscle from an enlarged heart. This makes your heart ...

  6. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  7. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  8. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002950.htm Open heart surgery To use the sharing features on this ... large arteries connected to the heart. The term "open heart surgery" means that you are connected to a ...

  9. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  10. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  11. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  12. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  13. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  14. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  15. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern ...

  16. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Home About Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  17. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  18. Adaptative mixed methods to axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, S.M.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Garcia, E.L.M.

    1989-09-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin method is applied to axisymmetric shells with uniform and non uniform meshes. Numerical experiments with a cylindrical shell showed a significant improvement in convergence and accuracy with adaptive meshes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome patient and parental characteristics differ by care management type

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates whether certain patient or parental characteristics are associated with gastroenterology (GI) referral versus primary pediatrics care for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A retrospective clinical trial sample of patients meeting pediatric Rome III IBS criteria was assem...

  20. Multivariate Regression Model of Impedance of Normal and Chemically Irritated Skin Shows Predictive Ability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aberg, P

    2001-01-01

    ... before and after application of chemicals on volar forearms of volunteers, Tegobetaine and sodium lauryl sulphate were used to induce the irritations, The spectra were filtered using orthogonal signal correction (OSC...

  1. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O'Connor, Brian P; Stewart, Donna E

    2016-04-08

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition.

  2. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  3. Overlap of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Jensen, Trine Holm; Henriksen, Susanne Lund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common functional gastrointestinal conditions with significant impact on the daily lives of individuals. The objective was to investigate the prevalence and overlap...

  4. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an update to EPA’s 2013 published alternative testing approach (using in vitro/ex vivo assays) for determination of eye irritation potential in the pesticide program under EPA's classification and labeling system.

  5. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  6. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  7. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  8. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  9. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  10. Collapse analysis of toroidal shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation

  11. Studies of dust shells around stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedijn, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis deals with some aspects of circumstellar dust shells. This dust shell, emitting infrared radiation, is described by way of its absorptive and emissive properties as well as by the transfer of radiation through the dust shell itself. Model calculations are compared to experimental results and agree reasonably well. The author also discusses the dynamics of the extended shells of gas and dust around newly formed stars

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Antidepressants for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Chen; Tang, Yurong; Wang, Yunfeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Yun; Jiang, Liuqin; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and The Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Article quality was evaluated by Jadad score. RevMan 5.0 and Stata 12.0 were used for the meta-analysis. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were...

  13. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contri RV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renata V Contri,1 Luiza A Frank,2 Moacir Kaiser,1 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Silvia S Guterres1,2 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP] and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product] and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product] irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation. Keywords: chitosan, nanocapsules, capsaicinoids, skin irritation, skin permeation

  14. Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Cont...

  15. Systematic review: Complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussain, Z

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices are widely employed in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: To review the usage of complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome, and to assess critically the basis and evidence for its use. METHODS: A systematic review of complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices in the irritable bowel syndrome was performed based on literature obtained through a Medline search. RESULTS: A wide variety of complementary and alternative medical practices and therapies are commonly employed by irritable bowel syndrome patients both in conjunction with and in lieu of conventional therapies. As many of these therapies have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, some, at least, of their efficacy may reflect the high-placebo response rate that is characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome. Of those that have been subjected to clinical trials most have involved small poor quality studies. There is, however, evidence to support efficacy for hypnotherapy, some forms of herbal therapy and certain probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors caring for irritable bowel syndrome patients need to recognize the near ubiquity of complementary and alternative medical use among this population and the basis for its use. All complementary and alternative medicine is not the same and some, such as hypnotherapy, forms of herbal therapy, specific diets and probiotics, may well have efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome. Above all, we need more science and more controlled studies; the absence of truly randomized placebo-controlled trials for many of these therapies has limited meaningful progress in this area.

  16. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  17. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  18. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  19. Protein and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  20. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  1. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means pistachio...

  2. Thin-shell wormholes in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    In this work we construct charged thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is localized in the shell and the energy conditions are satisfied outside the shell. The total amount of exotic matter is calculated and its dependence with the parameters of the model is analyzed

  3. Shell film- and video catalogue 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An overview is given of films and videos that are available through 'Shell Nederland Filmcentrale' (Shell Netherlands Film Center), subdivided into the subjects (1) About Shell; (2) Health, Safety and Environment; (3) Science and Technology; (4) The History of Car(racing); and (5) Historical Overview. 5 ills

  4. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  5. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  6. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  7. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Cindy M; Verberk, Maarten M; Withagen, Carien E T; Jacobs, John J L; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-06-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels and the skin response to a single and a repeated irritation test. This study also aimed to determine changes in SC cytokine levels after repeated irritation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured in 20 volunteers after single 24-hr exposure to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and during and after repeated exposure to 0.1% SLS over a 3-week period. SC cytokine levels were measured from an unexposed skin site and from the repeatedly exposed site. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha decreased by 30% after repeated exposure, while IL-1RA increased 10-fold and IL-8 increased fourfold. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 values were predictors of TEWL and erythema after single exposure (r = 0.55-0.61). 6 subjects showed barrier recovery during repeated exposure. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 levels are likely to be indicators of higher skin irritability after single exposure to SLS. Barrier repair in some of the subjects might explain the lack of agreement between the TEWL response after single and repeated irritation.

  8. Irritability and Parenting Styles in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Halit Necmi; Vural, Ayşe Pınar

    2018-04-17

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects functioning of the family, decreasing interactions and loyalty and increasing conflict between adolescents with ADHD and their families. Irritable mood and difficulties with emotional dysregulation are common in children with ADHD. The objective of the current study was to assess levels of irritability in adolescents with ADHD using self- and parent-report scales, and investigate the relationship between irritability levels and parental attitudes. A total of 47 adolescents with ADHD and 39 adolescents with typical development participated in the current study. Findings demonstrated that higher levels of parent-reported irritability were associated with decreased egalitarian attitudes in the ADHD group. Although other parental attitudes were not associated with self- and parent-reported irritability, evaluation of the relationship between parental attitudes and irritability in adolescents with ADHD, which can guide diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, is of critical importance. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kirino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed.

  10. Skin irritation, false positives and the local lymph node assay: a guideline issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Since the formal validation and regulatory acceptance of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) there have been commentaries suggesting that the irritant properties of substances can give rise to false positives. As toxicology aspires to progress rapidly towards the age of in vitro alternatives, it is of increasing importance that issues relating to assay selectivity and performance are understood fully, and that true false positive responses are distinguished clearly from those that are simply unpalatable. In the present review, we have focused on whether skin irritation per se is actually a direct cause of true false positive results in the LLNA. The body of published work has been examined critically and considered in relation to our current understanding of the mechanisms of skin irritation and skin sensitisation. From these analyses it is very clear that, of itself, skin irritation is not a cause of false positive results. The corollary is, therefore, that limiting test concentrations in the LLNA for the purpose of avoiding skin irritation may lead, unintentionally, to false negatives. Where a substance is a true false positive in the LLNA, the classic example being sodium lauryl sulphate, explanations for that positivity will have to reach beyond the seductive, but incorrect, recourse to its skin irritation potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Conceptual Model of Irritability Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Qualitative, Participatory Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M; Davis, Christine; Cook, James R; Philbrick, Peggy; Hirsch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have chronic problems with irritability, which can negatively affect their lives. (1) To describe the experience (thoughts and feelings) of irritability from the perspectives of multiple people living with or affected by the problem, and (2) to develop a conceptual model of irritability. Qualitative, participatory research. Forty-four stakeholders (individuals with a history of TBI, family members, community professionals, healthcare providers, and researchers) divided into 5 focus groups. Each group met 10 times to discuss the experience of irritability following TBI. Data were coded using grounded theory to develop themes, metacodes, and theories. Not applicable. A conceptual model emerged in which irritability has 5 dimensions: affective (related to moods and feelings); behavioral (especially in areas of self-regulation, impulse control, and time management); cognitive-perceptual (self-talk and ways of seeing the world); relational issues (interpersonal and family dynamics); and environmental (including environmental stimuli, change, disruptions in routine, and cultural expectations). This multidimensional model provides a framework for assessment, treatment, and future research aimed at better understanding irritability, as well as the development of assessment tools and treatment interventions.

  12. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  13. Extensions to a nonlinear finite-element axisymmetric shell model based on Reissner's shell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Extensions to shell analysis not usually associated with shell theory are described in this paper. These extensions involve thick shells, nonlinear materials, a linear normal stress approximation, and a changing shell thickness. A finite element shell-of-revolution model has been developed to analyze nuclear material shipping containers under severe impact conditions. To establish the limits for this shell model, the basic assumptions used in its development were studied; these are listed in this paper. Several extensions were evident from the study of these limits: a thick shell, a plastic hinge, and a linear normal stress

  14. Take heart!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Recently, ten new semi-automatic defibrillators were installed at various locations around CERN. This is a preventive measure intended to provide cardiac arrest victims with the best possible response. The first responder could be you!   The Director-General has welcomed the initiative of the Medical Service and Fire Brigade for the installation of ten new semi-automatic defibrillators. You have probably seen them on your way to the restaurant, for example:  brand new semi-automatic defibrillators, ready for an emergency. Housed in a white wall-mounted case, the bright red defibrillators are marked with a white heart symbol crossed by a lightning bolt (see photo). The defibrillator is designed so that anyone can use it. “Anyone can use it, you don’t need to be a health professional,” says Dr Reymond from CERN's Medical Service. Together with the CERN Fire Brigade, he is behind the initiative to have these units put in place. And with good reason, as the unit...

  15. Evaluation of drug treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a therapeutic challenge in part because of the limited understanding of the pathophysiology. The placebo response rate varies in randomized controlled trials from 20 to 70%, and can persist for up to at least 1 year. It is contentious whether dietary fibre and bulking agents relieve the symptoms of IBS; constipation probably improves. Anticholinergic and antispasmodic agents are of questionable benefit in IBS despite positive meta-analyses of poor quality trials. A meta-analysis concluded that the tricyclic antidepressants were superior to placebo in IBS, although the individual trial results were variable. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are of uncertain benefit. Laxatives are used for constipation but probably poorly control the IBS symptom complex. Loperamide is superior to placebo in improvement of diarrhoea but not abdominal pain in IBS. Tegaserod is a well- tolerated aminoguanidine indole derivative of serotonin that is a partial 5HT4–receptor agonist with prokinetic properties; a therapeutic gain over placebo of 5% to 15% has been observed in constipation-predominant IBS in females. Alosetron is a 5HT3-receptor antagonist that is efficacious in females with diarrhoea-predominant IBS, with a 12% to 17% therapeutic gain; the risk of ischaemic colitis is 1 in 350, with very severe constipation occurring in about 1 in 1000. Optimizing study design remains a challenge in IBS. New visceral analgesic and motility modifying agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents are in trials, and hopefully additional efficacious therapeutic options for patients with IBS will soon emerge. PMID:12968980

  16. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  17. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  18. Increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P mood disorder (CI, 1.4-3.5; P IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiang, Wei; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2016-12-21

    To estimate annual direct and indirect costs for patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and subtypes. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire concerning usage of healthcare resources, travel costs, meals, and productivity loss of patients when seeking treatment for IBS. Total annual costs per patient were calculated as the sum of direct (including medical and nonmedical) and indirect costs. Total annual costs per patient among various IBS subtypes were compared. Analysis of variance and bootstrapped independent sample t -tests were performed to determine differences between groups after controlling for IBS subtypes. A total of 105 IBS patients (64.80% female), mean age of 57.12 years ± 10.31 years), mean disease duration of 4.31 years ± 5.40 years, were included. Total annual costs per patient were estimated as CNY18262.84 (USD2933.08). Inpatient and outpatient healthcare use were major cost drivers, accounting for 46.41%and 23.36% of total annual costs, respectively. Productivity loss accounted for 25.32% of total annual costs. The proportions of direct and indirect costs were similar to published studies in other countries. Nationally, the total costs of managing IBS would amount to CNY123.83 billion (USD1.99 billion). Among the IBS subtypes, total annual costs per patient of IBS-M was highest at CNY18891.18 (USD3034). Furthermore, there was significant difference in productivity loss among IBS subtypes ( P = 0.031). IBS imposes a huge economic burden on patients and healthcare systems, which could account for 3.3% of the total healthcare budget for the entire Chinese nation. More than two-thirds of total annual costs of IBS consist of inpatient and outpatient healthcare use. Among the subtypes, IBS-M patients appear to have the greatest economic burden but require further confirmation.

  20. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  1. Treatments for irritable bowel syndrome: patients' attitudes and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a highly prevalent chronic disorder, places significant burden on the health service and the individual. Symptomatic distress and reduced quality of life are compounded by few efficacious treatments available. As researchers continue to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of alternative therapies, it would be useful to gain a patient-perspective of treatment acceptability and identify patient's attitudes towards those modalities considered not acceptable. Methods Six hundred and forty-five participants identified from an earlier IBS-prevalence study received a postal questionnaire to evaluate preferences and acceptability of nine forms of treatment. Proportions accepting each form of treatment were calculated and thematic analysis of qualitative data undertaken. Results A total of 256 (39.7% of 645 potential respondents completed the questionnaire (mean age 55.9 years, 73% female. Tablets were most acceptable (84%, followed by lifestyle changes (diet (82%, yoga (77%. Acupuncture (59% and suppositories (57% were less acceptable. When explaining lack of acceptability, patient views fell into four broad categories: dislike treatment modality, do not perceive benefit, general barriers and insufficient knowledge. Scepticism, lack of scientific rationale and fear of CAM were mentioned, although others expressed a dislike of conventional medical treatments. Past experiences, age and health concerns, and need for proof of efficacy were reported. Conclusion Most patients were willing to accept various forms of treatment. However, the reservations expressed by this patient-population must be recognised with particular focus directed towards allaying fears and misconceptions, seeking further evidence base for certain therapies and incorporating physician support and advice.

  2. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS. Settings and Design: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats. The HP extract was administered by gavage in doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg for 26 days. Fluoxetine and loperamide were used as positive controls. Gastric emptying and small bowel and colon transit, besides the levels of TNF-α, MPO, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant power, were determined in colon homogenates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg), TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: HP diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells and TNF-α following restraint stress not in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via inhibition of MPO activity and increasing colon antioxidant power, without any difference with fluoxetine. The HP extract inhibits small bowel and colonic transit acceleration like loperamide but has minimal

  3. CON4EI: EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular™ EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandarova, H; Letasiova, S; Adriaens, E; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Alépée, Nathalie; Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The objective of the CON4EI project was to develop tiered testing strategies for eye irritation assessment. A set of 80 reference chemicals (38 liquids and 42 solids) was tested with eight different methods. Here, the results obtained with the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT), adopted as OECD TG 492, are shown. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate of the performance of the test method to discriminate between chemicals not requiring classification for serious eye damage/eye irritancy (No Category) and chemicals requiring classification and labelling. In addition, the predictive capacity in terms of in vivo drivers of classification (i.e. corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and persistence at day 21) was investigated. EpiOcular™ EIT achieved a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 87% and accuracy of 95% and also confirmed its excellent reproducibility (100%) from the original validation. The assay was applicable to all chemical categories tested in this project and its performance was not limited to the particular driver of the classification. In addition to the existing prediction model for dichotomous categorization, a new prediction model for Cat 1 is suggested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Design aids for stiffened composite shells with cutouts

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variat...

  5. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  6. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  7. Double containment shell for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1977-01-01

    A double containment shell is proposed for nuclear power plants, especially those equipped with pressurized water reactors. The shell offers increased environmental protection from primary circuit accidents. The inner shell is built of steel or concrete while the outer shell is always built of concrete. The space between the two shells is filled with water and is provided with several manholes and with stiffeners designed for compensation for load due to the water hydrostatic pressure. Water serves the airtight separation of the containment shell inside from the environment and the absorption of heat released in a primary circuit accident. In case the inner shell is made of concrete, it is provided with heat-removal tubes in-built in its walls ensuring rapid heat transfer from the inside of the containment to the water in the interwall space. (Z.M.)

  8. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  9. Advanced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:May 9,2017 When heart failure (HF) ... Making This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  10. Atomic inner-shell physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses: relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects on atomic inner shells; relativistic calculation of atomic transition probabilities; many-body effects in energetic atomic transitions; Auger Electron spectrometry of core levels of atoms; experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory; mechanisms for energy shifts of atomic K-X rays; atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation; investigations of inner-shell states by the electron energy-loss technique at high resolution; coherence effects in electron emission by atoms; inelastic X-ray scattering including resonance phenomena; Rayleigh scattering: elastic photon scattering by bound electrons; electron-atom bremsstrahlung; X-ray and bremsstrahlung production in nuclear reactions; positron production in heavy-ion collisions, and X-ray processes in heavy-ion collisions

  11. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. Læren fra Shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst......Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst...

  14. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  15. CON4EI: SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, A R; Alépée, N; Nardelli, L; Hollanders, K; Leblanc, V; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Adriaens, E

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement and a necessary step in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as a stand-alone assay. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed with the goal of assessing the reliability of eight in vitro/alternative test methods as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One of the in vitro assays selected was the validated SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test method (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT). The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT has already demonstrated its capacity to correctly identify chemicals (both substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage (No Category). The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method in terms of the important in vivo drivers of classification. For the performance with respect to the drivers all in vivo Cat 1 and No Cat chemicals were 100% correctly identified. For Cat 2 chemicals the liquids and the solids had a sensitivity of 100% and 85.7%, respectively. For the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method, 100% concordance in predictions (No Cat versus No prediction can be made) between the two participating laboratories was obtained. The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT was 97.5% with 100% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity. The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT confirms its excellent results of the validation studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Nested shell superconducting magnet designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.; Titus, P.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for manufacturing the toroidal field coil is described in this paper. Instead of structural plates, the magnet is wound in interlocking shells. The magnet configuration is described and the advantages explored. Structural analysis of the concept is performed using the ARIES tokamak reactor parameters. The effectiveness of a structural cap, placed above and below the toroidal field coils and used only to balance opposing torques generated in different places of the coil, is quantified

  17. Shell Models of Superfluid Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacks, Daniel H; Barenghi, Carlo F

    2011-01-01

    Superfluid helium consists of two inter-penetrating fluids, a viscous normal fluid and an inviscid superfluid, coupled by a mutual friction. We develop a two-fluid shell model to study superfluid turbulence and investigate the energy spectra and the balance of fluxes between the two fluids in a steady state. At sufficiently low temperatures a 'bottle-neck' develops at high wavenumbers suggesting the need for a further dissipative effect, such as the Kelvin wave cascade.

  18. Vitrigel-eye irritancy test method using HCE-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    We previously reported that the time-dependent relative changes of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) after exposing four different chemicals to a human corneal epithelium (HCE) model were well correlated to the potential of ocular irritancy. Meanwhile, we recently developed a collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM) chamber possessing a scaffold composed of high-density collagen fibrils equivalent to connective tissues in vivo as a three-dimensional culture tool. The CVM chamber is useful for biomedical assays and immunohistology using cryosections that are inappropriate to be performed using the conventional Millicell chamber with a polyethylene terephthalate membrane. In this study, we aimed to develop a new eye irritancy test (EIT) method called "Vitrigel-EIT method" that can facilitate to briefly and accurately estimate the widespread irritancy of test chemicals by applying the TEER assay system to a HCE model fabricated in the CVM chamber. HCE-T cells (a HCE-derived cell strain) were cultured in the CVM chamber for 6 days, and consequently, the Vitrigel-HCE model possessing the following characteristics of HCE in vivo was formed: six cell layers with specific protein expressions and their barrier function. Time-dependent profiles of TEER values after exposing 30 test chemicals to the HCE model were converted into the scores of three indexes (time lag, intensity, and plateau level), and each chemical was successfully classified into irritant or nonirritant category by utilizing the criteria for the indexes, resulting in the excellent correlation with Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) classification (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 75%, accuracy: 90%). These data suggest that the widespread eye irritancy of chemicals can be predicted without false negatives by the Vitrigel-EIT method. Interestingly, the disruption of tight junctions was immunohistologically observed after exposing not only irritants but also three

  19. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  20. Plastic buckling of cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Xu, J.; Shteyngart, S.; Eckert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Cylindrical shells exhibit buckling under axial loads at stresses much less than the respective theoretical critical stresses. This is due primarily to the presence of geometrical imperfections even though such imperfections could be very small (e.g., comparable to thickness). Under internal pressure, the shell regains some of its buckling strength. For a relatively large radius-to-thickness ratio and low internal pressure, the effect can be reasonably estimated by an elastic analysis. However, for low radius-to-thickness ratios and greater pressures, the elastic-plastic collapse controls the failure load. in order to quantify the elastic-plastic buckling capacity of cylindrical shells, an analysis program was carried out by use of the computer code BOSOR5 developed by Bushnell of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The analysis was performed for various radius-to-thickness ratios and imperfection amplitudes. The purpose of the analytical program was to compute the buckling strength of underground cylindrical tanks, that are used for storage of nuclear wastes, for realistic geometric imperfections and internal pressure loads. This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic analyses and compares them with other available information for various pressure loads

  1. Buckling shells are also swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliet, Catherine; Dyfcom Bubbleboost Team

    We present an experimental and numerical study on the displacement of shells undergoing deformations in a fluid. When submitted to cycles of pressure difference between outside and inside, a shell buckles and debuckles, showing a succession of shapes and a dynamics that are different during the two phases. Hence such objects are likely to swim, including at low Reynolds (microscopic scale). We studied the swimming of buckling/debuckling shells at macroscopic scale using different approaches (force quantization, shape recording, displacement along a frictionless rail, study of external flow using PIV), and showed that inertia plays a role in propulsion, even in situations where dimensionless numbers correspond also to microswimmers in water. Different fluid viscosities were explored, showing an optimum for the displacement. Interestingly, the most favorable cases lead to displacements in the same direction and sense during both motor stroke (buckling phase) and recovery stroke (de-buckling phase). This work opens the route for the synthesis with high throughput of abusively simple synthetic swimmers, possibly gathered into nanorobots, actuated by a scalar field such as the pressure in echographic devices. Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, European Research Council.

  2. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  3. Irritability, Externalizing, and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations and Moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Schouboe, Sophie N F; Kircanski, Katharina; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-04-18

    Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11.39, SD = 1.07) boys and girls (37% White/Caucasian, 8% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 2% Native American, 2% Pacific Islander, 28% Other, and 3% not reported). A subset of the sample (n = 112) provided data at a 2-year follow-up, used to extend these associations. There were no sex differences in levels of irritability; however, the associations between irritability and symptom domains were moderated by sex. Specifically, in girls, irritability was associated equally with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In contrast, in boys, irritability was associated more strongly with externalizing symptoms than with internalizing symptoms. Thus, across both sexes, irritability was moderately associated with externalizing symptoms, but the association between irritability and internalizing symptoms was stronger in girls than in boys. At follow-up, sex moderated the association between baseline irritability and later externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These findings indicate that irritability is associated with both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence and that irritability is associated with internalizing symptoms more strongly in girls than in boys.

  4. Putative skin-protective formulations in preventing and/or inhibiting experimentally-produced irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1999-10-01

    The effectiveness of skin protective formulations was evaluated in a previously-described in vivo human model. All formulations failed to inhibit ammonium hydroxide and urea irritation. Only paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol statistically (plauryl sulfate irritation. Paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol was quantitatively the most effective formulation. These results suggest that some formulations may provide protective effects against certain, but not all, irritants or allergens.

  5. Irritability Trajectories, Cortical Thickness, and Clinical Outcomes in a Sample Enriched for Preschool Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Pine, Daniel S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and genetic associations exist between irritability and depression. Prior studies have examined developmental trajectories of irritability, clinical outcomes, and associations with child and familial depression. However, studies have not integrated neurobiological measures. The present study examined developmental trajectories of irritability, clinical outcomes, and cortical structure among preschoolers oversampled for depressive symptoms. Beginning at 3 to 5 years old, a sample of 271 children enriched for early depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally by clinical interview. Latent class mixture models identified trajectories of irritability severity. Risk factors, clinical outcomes, and cortical thickness were compared across trajectory classes. Cortical thickness measures were extracted from 3 waves of magnetic resonance imaging at 7 to 12 years of age. Three trajectory classes were identified among these youth: 53.50% of children exhibited elevated irritability during preschool that decreased longitudinally, 30.26% exhibited consistently low irritability, and 16.24% exhibited consistently elevated irritability. Compared with other classes, the elevated irritability class exhibited higher rates of maternal depression, early life adversity, later psychiatric diagnoses, and functional impairment. Further, elevated baseline irritability predicted later depression beyond adversity and personal and maternal depression history. The elevated irritability class exhibited a thicker cortex in the left superior frontal and temporal gyri and the right inferior parietal lobule. Irritability manifested with specific developmental trajectories in this sample enriched for early depression. Persistently elevated irritability predicted poor psychiatric outcomes, higher risk for later depression, and decreased overall function later in development. Greater frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical thickness also was found, providing neural

  6. Perception of lactose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainese, Raffaella; Casellas, Francesc; Mariné-Barjoan, Eugènia; Vivinus-Nébot, Mylène; Schneider, Stéphane M; Hébuterne, Xavier; Piche, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The importance of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not well defined and these patients often complain of lactose intolerance. To objectively measure lactose malabsorption, a hydrogen breath test (HBT) can be performed, but a discrepancy emerges between the results of the HBT and the symptomatic response during the HBT. To determine in a group of IBS patients whether self-perceived lactose intolerance and the symptomatic response to lactose HBT were conditioned by other factors besides the presence of lactose malabsorption. Oral challenge to lactose (50 g) was tested in 51 IBS patients to assess HBT malabsorption and the symptomatic response to lactose intolerance was scored on a validated questionnaire. Allergological screening for common inhalants and food allergens (including cow's milk) was performed. The presence of psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, depression, fatigue) was evaluated using validated questionnaires. A total of 21 out of 51 patients (41.1%) were self-perceived to be lactose intolerant, 24/51 (47%) had a positive HBT, and 14/51 (27.4%) presented with symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT. The serological screening for inhalant and food allergens was positive in 6/21 (28.6%) and 4/21 (19%) of patients who self-perceived lactose intolerance and in 5/14 (37.5%) and 3/14 (21.4%) in intolerant patients symptomatic during HBT. Only 1/51 (1.9%) presented evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cow's milk. Patients who experienced symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT presented more severe IBS symptoms [326 (296-398) vs. 215 (126-295) P=0.05] and a higher score of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Factors influencing the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT resulted in an increase in hydrogen produced and in the severity of IBS. In a cohort of 51 IBS patients, the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT were influenced by the capacity to absorb lactose and the severity of IBS. Other factors, such as

  7. Prevalence, comorbidity and impact of irritable bowel syndrome in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandvik, Per Olav; Lydersen, Stian; Farup, Per G

    2006-06-01

    To study the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its comorbidity in a Norwegian adult population. In 2001, 11,078 inhabitants (aged 30-75 years) in Oppland County were invited to take part in a public health survey. A total of 4622 subjects (42%) completed the questionnaires on symptoms of IBS (Rome II criteria), comorbidity, health-care visits and medications. The impact of comorbidity on global health, working disability and use of health-care resources in subjects with IBS was explored by stepwise logistic regression. The population prevalence of IBS was 388/4622 (8.4% (95% CI: 7.6-9.4%)) with a female predominance and an age-dependent decrease. The proportion who had consulted for IBS ranged from 51% among 30-year-olds to 79% in 75-year-olds (p=0.05). IBS was associated with musculoskeletal complaints (OR = 2.4-3.4 for six different items), fibromyalgia (OR = 3.6 [2.7-4.8]), mood disorder (OR = 3.3 (2.6-4.3)), reduced global health (OR = 2.6 (2.1-3.2)), working disability (OR = 1.6 (1.2-2.1)), more frequent health-care visits and use of medications (OR 1.7-2.3). When controlling for comorbidity, reduced global health (OR = 1.5 (1.1-2.0)) and use of alternative health care (OR = 1.7 (1.3-2.4)) remained associated with IBS. Severity of abdominal pain/discomfort was a predictor of having to seek a physician for IBS (OR = 1.3 (1.2-1.5)). Symptoms of IBS were reported by 8% of Norwegian adults and had resulted in consultations with physicians for the majority in the long run. Subjects with IBS in the community were characterized by frequent somatic and psychiatric comorbidity. Their observed reduced health, working disability and increased use of health resources were largely explained by comorbid symptoms and disorders.

  8. [Psychiatric comorbidities in patients referred for irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing-xin; Han, Mai; Duan, Li-ping; Ge, Ying; Huang, Yue-qin

    2011-07-19

    To assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in patients referred for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with questionnaires for mental disorders. A total of 83 IBS patients at our hospital were enrolled and assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for DSM-IV, version 4 (PDQ-4) and Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 and 2.1 (CIDI-3.0 & CIDI-2.1) by trained interviewers. Such items as personality dysfunction, mental disorder and somatization disorder were examined. The male-female ratio was 1.08/1. Their mean age was (38 ± 14) years old. Among them, 20 patients (24.1%) were constipation-predominant, 31 (37.3%) diarrhea-predominant, 15 (18.1%) mixed and 17 (20.5%) unclassified type. (1) Sixty-two (74.7%) patients scored positive for any personality dysfunction. There was no significant gender difference. The cluster C (anxious-fearful) personality disorder was most commonly found in IBS patients (n = 58, 69.9%). The prevalence of somatoform disorders plus personality dysfunction was 46.8% (29/62). It was significantly higher than those without personality dysfunction [19.0% (4/21), P = 0.025]. (2) Thirty-seven patients (44.6%) had a lifetime CIDI-3.0 diagnosis. It was significantly higher than that in the general population. There was no gender difference. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common types of psychiatric comorbidities [n = 21 (25.3%) and n = 19 (22.9%) respectively]. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol or nicotine abuse and(or) dependence and intermittent explosive disorder were 10.8% (n = 9) and 8.4% (n = 7). Psychiatric comorbidities were most commonly found in diarrhea-predominant patients (58.1%). But there was no significant difference among the subgroups. (3) Thirty-three patients (39.8%) had somatoform disorders. Neither gender nor subgroup difference was observed. The IBS patients with anxiety disorders presented significantly more somatoform disorders than the remainders [61.9% (13/21) vs 32

  9. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both)and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients.METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome Ⅱ diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory.RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied.The mean age (±SD) was 33.4 (±11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25±7.80 vs 22.92±9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25±5.22 vs 27.94±4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ±7.80 vs 31.62±5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79±5.65 vs 31.95±6.80,P = 0.035 and 31.97±9.87, P = 0.043, respectively).Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population.CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors.Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype.

  10. [Gallbladder contractility in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain. In children

  11. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  13. Behavioral Interventions for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Smith, Stephanie D; McCauley, Spencer A; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B

    2016-02-01

    Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation.

  14. Evaluating skin-protective materials against contact irritants and allergens. An in vivo screening human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1998-03-01

    2 acute irritants and 1 allergen were selected: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) representative of irritant household and occupational contact dermatitis, the combination of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea to simulate diaper dermatitis, and Rhus to evaluate the effect of model protective materials. The putative protective materials and vehicle were applied to both ventral forearms of 10 subjects in each group, according to a randomized code. Test materials were spread over a marked 2.0 cm2 area, massaged in, allowed to dry for 30 min, and reapplied with another 30 min drying period. The model irritants and allergen were then applied (0.025 ml) to an Al-test occlusive patch, which in turn was placed for 24 h over each of the 8 designated sites. Inflammation was scored according to a clinical scale 72 h post-application. Paraffin wax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, and beeswax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, markedly (p < 0.001) suppressed SLS irritation. Paraffin wax plus beeswax in cetyl alcohol, and Acetulan in cetyl alcohol reduced NH4OH and urea irritation (p < 0.05), paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol significantly (p < 0.01) decreasing Rhus allergic contact dermatitis. This model, provides an easy approach to screening protectants. Its clinical significance requires comparison with an open rather than an occluded challenge.

  15. Pengaruh Entertainment, Irritating dan Informativeness Iklan di Website di Kalangan Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Supriyadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several advantages and disadvantages and advertising via the Internet. The appeal of advertising may also arise from given information element, the element of comfort but also sometimes lead to disturbing or irritation elements. The limited number of Internet users in Indonesia and the different backgrounds of individual Internet users in Indonesia certainly provide a different assessment of the advertisements contained on the Internet. There are 3 factors which was the starting point to explain how consumers interpret the value of advertising, namely: informativeness, entertainment and irritation. This research aims to discover whether there is a relationship between entertainment, informativeness, and irritation toward advertising values and whether there is a relationship between entertainment and advertising values toward attitude towards web advertising using statistics tools of path analysis and multiple regression. The research shows that there is a significant relationship between independent variables such as informativeness, entertainment and irritation simultaneously toward the advertising value but there are no significant relationship between entertainment and informativeness toward the advertising value individually.  In the other model there is a significant relationship between informativeness, irritation and advertising values with the attitude towards web advertising.

  16. Mussel Shell Impaction in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are commonly used in cooking around the world. The mussel shell breaks more easily than other shells, and the edge of the broken mussel shell is sharp. Impaction can ultimately cause erosion, perforation and fistula. Aside from these complications, the pain can be very intense. Therefore, it is essential to verify and remove the shell as soon as possible. In this report we describe the process of diagnosing and treating mussel shell impaction in the esophagus. Physicians can overlook this unusual foreign body impaction due to lack of experience. When physicians encounter a patient with severe chest pain after a meal with mussels, mussel shell impaction should be considered when diagnosing and treating the patient.

  17. Vibration of liquid-filled thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of free and forced vibration of a thin, axisymmetric shell, which contains some liquid. The axis of symmetry is vertical. Only such vibration is considered which can be produced by a horizontal movement of the base of shell. The objective of this paper is to examine the response of the coupled shell-liquid system for a frequency range lying between zero and the lowest natural sloshing frequency of the liquid. The mass of the liquid is modeled by a stationary and one or more sloshing masses. It is shown how the stationary mass can be incorporated in the vibration analysis of the shell and how to natural frequency of the coupled shell-liquid system can be obtained from a simple formula, if the lowest natural frequency of the shell, plus the stationary mass of the liquid, can be determined. A numerical example is given. (orig.)

  18. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  19. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant...... was threefold. (1) To evaluate the correlation between HD-OCT features and clinical scores of allergic and irritant patch test reactions. (2) To explore the potential of HD-OCT in optimizing the visual patch test scoring. (3) To assess in vivo the cytological and 3-D micro-architectural differences in skin...... reaction types between doubtful positive ACD and ICD. Twenty-two volunteers were patch tested using potassium(VI)dichromate, cobalt(II)chloride, nickel(II) sulfate and palladium(II)chloride. Visual patch test scoring and HD-OCT assisted patch test scoring were performed at 48 and 96 h after patch test...

  20. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  1. Cross-cultural validation of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae M; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Oh, Jung Hwan; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong; Chung, In-Sik

    2006-08-01

    Patients' responses to quality-of-life questionnaires are dependent on the cultural milieu. The aims of this study were to translate the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life questionnaire, which was developed in the West, into Korean and to validate the translated questionnaire in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Translation of the original questionnaire was performed according to accepted linguistic validation guidelines. Korean patients had no difficulty understanding the questions. Data from the translated questionnaire were well correlated with results from the SF-36 questionnaire and reflected the stress status of the patients as measured on the Perceived Stress Scale. Some questionnaire items seemed, on first analysis, to be problematic in this subset of patients, but these results may relate, in part, to cultural differences between Korea and the West. We conclude that the translated questionnaire is reliable and offers an accurate measure of quality of life for Korean patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R G

    1993-09-01

    In a laboratory study, the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae was evaluated at field, 1/3 field and 1/10 field rates using WHO conical exposure chambers and excito-repellency test boxes. Bendiocarb was the least irritant insecticide at all rates, inducing levels of takeoff, flight and exiting behavior similar to those of a distilled water control treatment. Of those mosquitoes introduced to the bendiocarb-treated boxes, not more than 1% exited and survived at any dose rate. Lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were highly irritant to An. gambiae, inducing a strong stimulation to take off and fly and also a high level of exiting. Exiting-survival rates associated with lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were between 15 and 51%. The relevance of these findings to the control of mosquito populations and the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed.

  3. Towards an Irritable Bowel Syndrome Control System Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolski, Ina; Rettberg, Achim

    To solve health problems with medical applications that use complex algorithms is a trend nowadays. It could also be a chance to help patients with critical problems caused from nerve irritations to overcome them and provide a better living situation. In this paper a system for monitoring and controlling the nerves from the intestine is described on a theoretical basis. The presented system could be applied to the irritable bowel syndrome. For control a neural network is used. The advantages for using a neural network for the control of irritable bowel syndrome are the adaptation and learning. These two aspects are important because the syndrome behavior varies from patient to patient and have also concerning the time a lot of variations with respect to each patient. The developed neural network is implemented and can be simulated. Therefore, it can be shown how the network monitor and control the nerves for individual input parameters.

  4. Ancient shell industry at Bet Dwarka island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Patankar, V.

    for the manufacture of beads, bangles, etc. 12 . Shell species found at the sites include T. pyrum (cha nk), Chicoreus ramosus , Fasciolaria trapezium , Cypraea (cowries), Arabica arabica (cowries), Babylonia spirata , dentalium, mussel and Arca... muscles are attached. Average length of a shell can be up to 15 to 20 cm and width 10 ? 15 cm 8 . It provides a unique structure for the manufacture of several bangles from a single shell. The organ ism living inside is also edible...

  5. Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schief, W K

    2014-05-08

    We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.

  6. Local shell-to-shell energy transfer via nonlocal interactions in fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the shell-to-shell energy transfer rate is found to be local and forward. .... interaction was strong, but the energy exchange occurred predominantly between ..... The wave-number range considered is in the inverse cascade regime.

  7. Statistics and the shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Starting with N. Bohr's paper on compound-nucleus reactions, we confront regular dynamical features and chaotic motion in nuclei. The shell-model and, more generally, mean-field theories describe average nuclear properties which are thus identified as regular features. The fluctuations about the average show chaotic behaviour of the same type as found in classical chaotic systems upon quantisation. These features are therefore generic and quite independent of the specific dynamics of the nucleus. A novel method to calculate fluctuations is discussed, and the results of this method are described. (orig.)

  8. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-01-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  9. The gendered impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a qualitative study of patients' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Dellenborg, Lisen; Ringström, Gisela; Simrén, Magnus; Jakobsson Ung, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the impact of irritable bowel syndrome on daily life from a gender perspective. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder, characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhoea and/or constipation. Sufferers experience negative emotions due to unpredictable symptoms and sometimes feel trivialized by healthcare professionals. The sufferers' experience of living with this disorder has never been explored from a gender perspective. A qualitative, interpretative method was used. A qualitative, hermeneutic method was applied. Interviews were conducted with 19 patients in 2011 and analysed in a constructionist gender framework. Constructionist gender theory views gender and identity as cultural constructs that develop through interplay between the individual and his/her social context and cultural norms. The main theme to emerge from the interviews was as follows: 'A normative framework of femaleness and maleness leads to suffering for persons with irritable bowel syndrome'. This consists of three interwoven themes: 'Being forced to abandon gender illusions'; 'Being forced to transcend taboos' and 'Reinforced suffering in healthcare encounters'. Men demonstrated masculinity by stressing the importance of being solid family providers while women spoke of nurturing and relational responsibilities in line with traditional notions of femininity. The experience of living with irritable bowel syndrome differs between men and women due to differing societal expectations, life situation and the everyday construction of gender identities. Gender stereotyping by healthcare professionals perpetuates rather than alleviates the suffering experienced by men and women with irritable bowel syndrome. In healthcare encounters, women risk being trivialized and men risk being overlooked due to the 'female health concern' label attached to irritable bowel syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  11. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    and forearms of 17 healthy volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks an SLS patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified with a visual score recording and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour were performed on days 1, 5, 11, 38 and 40. RESULTS...... was found on the disinfectant-treated area compared with the control area and detergent area, and a similar trend was found for TEWL, although it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Alcohol-based disinfectant caused less visible skin irritation and less skin barrier disruption than the use...

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome--prognosis and diagnostic safety. A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Munck, L K; Andersen, J R

    1985-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome is the commonest diagnosis in gastroenterological clinics, although diagnostic criteria and investigatory programs vary. To elucidate the diagnostic safety and prognosis of the syndrome, a retrospective study was conducted. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients...... with irritable bowel syndrome as the final and only abdominal diagnosis in the period 1977-79 were followed up in 1984. Seventeen patients died during the follow-up period; two of these were considered diagnostic failures (chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer). Of the remaining 95 patients, 93 were...

  13. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYLBROMIDE IN TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Arifullina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan was evaluated in a placebobcontrolled trial, on pediatric patients with algid type of irritable bowel syndrome. Hyoscine butylbromide favored to the increase of quality of life in pediatric patients, alleviation of clinical symptoms of disease, reliable decrease of malonic dialdehyde and increase of antioxidant activity of blood plasma significantly superior to placebo. Clinical efficacy of hyoscine butylbromide accompanies to its good tolerance and safety.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, hyoscine butylbromide, placebo controlled trial.

  14. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  15. TREATMENT OF ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY THROAT IRRITATION AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.

  16. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of six skin care formulations on experimentally induced acute irritation was studied in hairless guinea-pigs (HLGP) and in human volunteers (HV). The formulations were a basic cream, a carbomer cream and four modifications of the carbomer cream, containing either 10...... and colorimetry. RESULTS: The glycerol cream was the only product showing effects potentially better than no treatment in HV. CONCLUSION: The HLGP was too sensitive an animal model as a predictor for effect in humans. There was no difference in efficacy of the formulations against the two different irritants...

  17. Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging of epidermal reactions to two experimental irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suihko, C.; Serup, J.

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated the applicability of fluorescence CLSM for a detailed study of experimental skin irritants in vivo. Essential findings were disturbed and widened cell borders, swelling of keratinocytes by PA and induction of a parakeratotic shift by SLS with clusters of keratinocytes holding nuclei...... more complicated than reflectance CLSM and may not be applicable to any irritant. SLS applied epicutaneously interacted with the skin surface and coupling to the microscope and was thus found to be more difficult to study technically than PA. PA dissolved in isopropanol is for technical reasons...

  18. A design chart for long vacuum pipes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempetz, K.; Grimson, J.; Kelly, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a design chart to aid designers in the selection of a wall thickness for long cylindrical shells having atmospheric pressure outside the shell and a pressure less than atmospheric inside the shell. The chart indicates a conservative value for the minimum wall thickness for a given shell diameter and material when the shell is completely evacuated

  19. Effectiveness of Shelled Almonds in Decreasing Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Nuts such as almonds are high in unsaturated lipids and antioxidants. Some studies indicate that nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of shelled almonds on reduction of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial (before and after and was done on 30 men volunteering for the study. They consumed 60 grams shelled almonds per day for four weeks. Their blood lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a levels were measured after and before almond consumption. Results: Shelled almond consumption caused significant decrease in serum cholesterol 36.1 mg/dl, triglyceride 45.94 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol 28.68 mg/dl and increase in HDL-cholesterol 10.64 mg/dl(p<0.001. Shelled almond consumption decreased lipoprotein (a (2.11 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B100 (8.93 mg/dl and increased apolipoprotein A (1 1.74 mg/dl levels, but this effect was insignificant statistically. Conclusion: Continuous consumption of shelled almonds has beneficial effect on blood lipids and may play a preventive role in Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. We therefore suggest that a daily intake of 60 grams of almonds can be used for treatment of hyprelipidemic patients.

  20. The heart and hypothyroidism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... influenced by the thyroid disorder and vice versa. We recenrly ... hypothyroidism is a rare cause of heart failure other causes of heart failure must be excluded ... signs of cardiac tamponade and echocardiographic features of a.

  1. Valvular heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gelson, E; Gatzoulis, M; Johnson, M

    2007-01-01

    Valvular disease may be unmasked in pregnancy when physiological changes increase demands on the heart. Women with valvular heart disease require close follow-up during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum

  2. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  3. Menopause and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 23,2017 Heart ... can become more evident after the onset of menopause. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases . However, certain ...

  4. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  5. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  6. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  7. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  8. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  9. Heart disease and intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000540.htm Heart disease and intimacy To use the sharing features on ... Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... healthy people who are at low risk for heart disease. You provider will consider your overall medical condition ...

  11. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  12. Heart bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass; OPCAB; Beating heart surgery; Bypass surgery - heart; CABG; Coronary artery bypass graft; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Coronary bypass surgery; Coronary artery disease - CABG; CAD - CABG; Angina - ...

  13. Composted oyster shell as lime fertilizer is more effective than fresh oyster shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Heo, Jae Young; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2010-01-01

    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3+/-0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1+/-0.24 dS m(-1)), and alkaline powder (53.3+/-1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9+/-0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4+/-0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1+/-0.08%), NaCl (0.54+/-0.03%), and moisture (15.1+/-1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha(-1)) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.

  14. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  15. Chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Ingrid; Easton, Kellie

    2017-01-01

    1. The common symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure are dyspnoea, ankle swelling, raised jugular venous pressure and basal crepitations. Other conditions may be confused with chronic heart failure, including dependent oedema or oedema due to renal or hepatic disease. Shortness of breath may be due to respiratory disease or severe anaemia. Heart failure secondary to lung disease (cor pulmonale) should be distinguished from congestive cardiac failure. Heart failure may also present with l...

  16. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care...

  17. THE PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIMARY HEADACHE IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: a subgroup of the functional somatic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa LS SOARES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The irritable bowel syndrome and primary headache are two chronic diseases characterized by symptoms of recurring pain and affect approximately 10%-20% of the general population. Objectives To study the prevalence of primary headache in volunteers with irritable bowel syndrome in a Brazilian urban community. Methods It was evaluated the prevalence of primary headache associated with irritable bowel syndrome in adult volunteers 330 no patients.The protocol included the Rome III criteria, international classification of Headaches, later divided into four groups: I- Irritable bowel syndrome (n = 52, II- Primary headache (n = 45, III-Irritable bowel syndrome (n = 26 and headache, and IV- Controls (207. Results We not found significant difference in the average age of the four groups and the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, primary headache and their association was more frequent in females. The frequent use of analgesics was greater in groups II and III. Conclusion Our results suggest that irritable bowel syndrome and primary headache are also common in third world countries. The frequency in use of analgesics in association between the two entities was relevant. The identification of irritable bowel syndrome patients with different clinical sub-types could improve the therapeutics options and the prevention strategies.

  18. Assessment of the in vitro dermal irritation potential of cerium, silver, and titanium nanoparticles in a human skin equivalent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractDermal exposure to metals may res·ult in irritant contact dermatitis. This study examined the potential of metal nanoparticles to elicit irritant contact dermatitis in a human skin equivalent model (HSEM) derived from epidermal keratinocytes. These cultured cells form a m...

  19. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  20. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines.

  1. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  2. Heart valve surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  4. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  5. Heart Valve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  6. The Heart of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  7. Limited-Access Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the side of the chest. With traditional open heart surgery, the incision is usually 6 to 8 ... attached to a heart-lung machine. In traditional open heart surgery, patients would be connected to the heart- ...

  8. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media for Heart.org Heart and Stroke Association Statistics Each year, the American Heart Association, in conjunction ... health and disease in the population. Heart & Stroke Statistics FAQs What is Prevalence? Prevalence is an estimate ...

  9. Managing Feelings about Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Heart Failure Module 6: Managing Feelings About Heart Failure Download Module Order Hardcopy Heart failure can cause ... professional help for emotional problems. Common Feelings About Heart Failure It is common for people to feel depressed ...

  10. Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease Updated:May 3,2018 Most illegal drugs can ... www.dea.gov/druginfo/factsheets.shtml Alcohol and Heart Disease Caffeine and Heart Disease Tobacco and Heart Disease ...

  11. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and ... can’t change some of your risks for heart disease and stroke, but you can manage many of ...

  12. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1→3-β-D-glucan aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korpi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of β-glucan (grifolan were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The β-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled β-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to β-glucan.

  13. Evolution of shell gaps with neutron richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Moumita Ray; Ray, I.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to coordinate the recent data available over the periodic table, specially near the shell gaps and studied the evolution of the shell gaps as function of neutron numbers and/or other related quantities

  14. Microsoft Exchange Server PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This book is for messaging professionals who want to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 5 and the Exchange Management Shell. If you are a network or systems administrator responsible for managing and maintaining Exchange Server 2013, you will find this highly useful.

  15. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.

    1973-01-01

    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  16. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  17. Strength Calculation of Locally Loaded Orthotropic Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies laminated orthotropic cylindrical, conic, spherical, and toroidal shells, which are often locally loaded in the aircraft designs over small areas of their surfaces.The aim of this work is to determine stress concentration in shells versus structure of orthotropic composite material, shell form and parameters, forms of loading areas, which borders do not coincide with lines of main curvatures of shells. For this purpose, an analytical computing algorithm to estimate strength of shells in terms of stress is developed. It enables us to have solution results of the boundary value problem with a controlled error. To solve differential equations an analytical method is used. An algorithm of the boundary value problem solution is multiplicative.The main results of researches are graphs of stress concentration in the orthotropic shells versus their parameters and areas of loading lineated by circles and ellipses.Among the other works aimed at determination of stress concentration in shells, the place of this one is defined by the analytical solution of applied problems for strength estimation in terms of shell stresses of classical forms.The developed effective analytical algorithm to solve the boundary value problem and received results are useful in research and development.

  18. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  19. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košmrlj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  20. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  1. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  2. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  3. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  4. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  6. The Danish Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...

  7. Engineered Heart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, B; Zimmermann, W-H

    2017-08-01

    There is a pressing need for the development of advanced heart failure therapeutics. Current state-of-the-art is protection from neurohumoral overstimulation, which fails to address the underlying cause of heart failure, namely loss of cardiomyocytes. Implantation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via tissue-engineered myocardium is being advanced to realize the remuscularization of the failing heart. Here, we discuss pharmacological challenges pertaining to the clinical translation of tissue-engineered heart repair with a focus on engineered heart muscle (EHM). © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. New psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Sánchez, Beatriz; Gil Roales-Nieto, Jesús; Ferreira, Nuno Bravo; Gil Luciano, Bárbara; Sebastián Domingo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than placebo attention control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.

  9. American college of gastroenterology monograph on the management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-04-01

    This editorial reviews a recently published guideline on management of irritable bowel syndrome. The guideline illustrates problems arising from the quality of clinical trials used in systematic reviews and the potential impact of the inherent weaknesses of those trials on rating the strength of evidence and the resulting recommendations.

  10. Systematic review : knowledge and educational needs of patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flik, Carla E.; van Rood, Yanda R.; de Wit, NJ

    Educational programs have been used as a control condition in trials on psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An optimal control condition should have all logistic features of the experimental intervention, except the active component, but also have basic therapeutic benefit

  11. Sensory irritation to mixtures of formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Arts, J.H.E.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sensory irritation of formaldehyde (FRM), acrolein (ACR) and acetaldehyde (ACE) as measured by the decrease in breathing frequency (DBF) was studied in male Wistar rats using nose-only exposure. Groups of four rats were exposed to each of the single compounds separately or to mixtures of FRM, ACR

  12. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, Sjors A.; Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Jakasa, Ivone; Franceschi, Nika; Riethmüller, Christoph; Jurakić Tončic, Ružica; Marinovic, Branka; Raj, Nidhin; Rawlings, Anthony V.; Voegeli, Rainer; Lane, Majella E.; Haftek, Marek; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing was performed

  13. Short-term effects of alcohol-based disinfectant and detergent on skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    of 15 volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks, a sodium lauryl sulfate patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified by visual score, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour at baseline, D3, D8, D35 and D37. As evaluated by clinical assessment, detergent...

  14. Profile of irritant patch testing with detergents: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and alkyl polyglucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, H; Happle, R

    2003-01-01

    The cutaneous reaction to detergents follows distinct kinetic rules: the duration of application and the irritant concentration are of major importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in kinetics of skin reaction between the standard irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and 2 modern detergents: sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) and alkyl polyglucoside (APG). We performed patch testing with SLS and SLES (or APG) at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) and with different exposure times (6, 12 and 24 h). Evaluation was conducted by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LD) 24 h, 7 and 10 days after patch removal. We found a pronounced reaction to SLS, and a far milder one to SLES. Even at the highest concentration the skin reaction to APG was hard to detect. During the regeneration period (day 3-10) SLS showed even at day 10 an increased TEWL at all concentrations tested. The irritation due to SLES was convincingly detectable only up to day 7, whereas the APG-tested skin areas showed no significant reaction even at day 3. These results demonstrate the improvement in reduction of skin irritation achieved by development of novel detergents.

  15. Pattern of irritable bowel syndrome and its impact on quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common disorders diagnosed by gastroenterologists and a common cause of general practice visits. Although this disease is not life threatening, patients with IBS seem to be seriously affected in their everyday life. The study was designed to explore the pattern ...

  16. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  17. Association between pain episodes and high amplitude propagated pressure waves in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M. M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), both increased visceral sensitivity and altered colonic motility seem to play a role. The aim of this study was to quantify the temporal relationship between pain episodes and the occurrence of high amplitude propagated pressure

  18. Painful irritable bowel syndrome and diverticulosis. One hypermotile state? Correlation of pain and hypermotility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, Gerrit Homme

    1987-01-01

    Radiological and motility studies of the sigmoid are described in three common conditions: painful irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diverticulosis without and diverticulosis with IBS-like pain. The phenomenon, especially studies in these patients and compared with a control group, was their left

  19. Review of Rifaximin: Latest Treatment Frontier for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Mechanism of Action and Clinical Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamesh Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to 15% of the world’s population. Among its subtypes, the most common is diarrhoea predominant. However, the current treatment options for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have had not very promising results; most, such as antispasmodics, only provide partial symptomatic relief. Treatment with antidepressants and alosetron (a 5HT3 antagonist has shown the most promise to date. The latest drug to be approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea is rifaximin, which was approved in May 2015. It is a minimally absorbed antibiotic that is used to change the gut microbiota. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one of the causes suggested for irritable bowel syndrome, particularly for the diarrhoea-predominant type. There are various methods for detecting bacterial overgrowth, the simplest of which is breath tests. Rifaximin has been shown to be of benefit to these patients. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to discuss the potential mechanism of action of rifaximin, a minimally absorbed antibiotic. In addition, we evaluate the various clinical trials undertaken to study the efficacy and safety profile of rifaximin.

  20. Burnout Among Chinese Adult Reconstructive Surgeons: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Intraoperative Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanlong; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin

    2018-04-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations, mainly characterizing in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. There is very limited research dealing with burnout in orthopedic surgeons. Exploring burnout prevalence, risk factors, and intraoperative irritability-related incidences is necessary to improve the quality of life for surgeons. The study population consisted of 202 registered adult reconstructive doctors in China. Burnout was measured using a normalized translated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Demographics, professional characteristics, and intraoperative irritability-related questions were also collected by electronic questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The overall rate of burnout was 85.1%. Variables significantly associated with high emotional exhaustion scores included poor sleeping time per day (P = .008), more nights on call per week (P = .048), and absence of research (P = .014). For depersonalization, absence of marriage (P burnout, especially in emotional exhaustion. Residents were the population having the least opportunities to lose temper in operation. Burnout is highly prevalent in Chinese adult reconstructive surgeons, and it had some correlations with irritability. Further research is needed to determine more risk factors and reduce intraoperative irritability-related incidences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  2. Anorectal pain and irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, and pruritus ani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, C

    1999-03-01

    Anal fissures, proctalgia fugax, levator ani syndrome, and pruritus ani are common causes of anorectal pain and irritation. The clinician who obtains a thorough history and performs a complete examination can accurately diagnose these disorders. Ancillary tests seldom are helpful and rarely are necessary. Most patients suffering from these conditions readily respond to conservative therapy provided in the primary care practitioner's office.

  3. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  4. Habitual diet and diet quality in Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard

  5. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  6. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mohamed Sammour

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  7. [Efficiency of autogenous training in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, I V; Aĭvazian, T A; Zaĭtsev, V P; Gusakova, E V; Molina, L P

    2008-01-01

    It was established that use of autogenous training makes possible to increase efficiency of the therapy, leading to considerable more evident improvement of somatic and psychotic state, decrease of pain syndrome. Predictors of efficiency of autogenous training were marked out. Indications for use the method in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance were elaborated.

  8. Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Mesmer, Christina; Morley, Stephen; Dowzer, Clare; Hamilton, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This study conducted a systematic review to assess the quality of existing literature on psychological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome and to quantify the evidence for their efficacy. Three independent reviewers (2 from England, 1 from the United States) coded the quality of 32 studies, 17 of which provided data suitable for meta-analysis.…

  9. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Goncalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact

  10. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many

  11. A molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Codling, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this study were, firstly, to determine the diversity of the host\\'s gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using a culture-independent method (DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene) and, secondly, to examine mucosal biopsies of IBS patients and compare them to their own fecal microbiota.

  12. The Sub-Regional Functional Organization of Neocortical Irritative Epileptic Networks in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, R.; Kršek, P.; Ježdík, P.; Čmejla, R.; Tomášek, M.; Komárek, V.; Marusič, P.; Jiruška, Přemysl

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Mar 23 (2018), č. článku 184. ISSN 1664-2295 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : interictal epileptiform discharges * brain networks * epilepsy surgery * irritative zone * propagation * neocortical epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.552, year: 2016

  13. Ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation response: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Kim, S; Lee, J; Cho, S-A; Shin, K

    2014-08-01

    Due to global marketing in the cosmetics industry, it is important to assess ethnic population susceptibility when evaluating the safety of cosmetic products or chemicals. To investigate ethnic variations in skin irritation response to positive irritants. Clinical testing was performed in four countries on two ethnic groups - Asian and Caucasian. We performed patch tests on the subjects' back with 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and 0.15% retinol prepared in 1,3-butylene glycol. Stinging tests were performed using 5% aqueous lactic acid and 0.001% (w/v) capsaicin prepared in 10% ethanol solution separately. The incidence of self-perceived skin sensitivity was similar in the two ethnic groups. However, the incidence of adverse skin reaction to cosmetics appeared significantly higher in Asian (33.0%) than in Caucasian subjects (11.3%). For standard positive irritants such as 0.5% aqueous SLS solution, Asian subjects showed significantly higher scores than Caucasian subjects. The incidence of positive reaction to the 0.15% retinol patch test tended to be higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Our data also showed that neurosensitivity to 5% lactic acid and 0.001% capsaicin was higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Although self-reported skin sensitivity does not appear to differ according to ethnicity, there are ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation responses to several standard positive materials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R; Herman, Jake P; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Churchill, Mair E A; Silver, Wayne L; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2010-02-16

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl-homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either G alpha-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms.

  15. Chronic cough management: dealing with a sensation of irritation in the throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Among the various types of laryngeal paraesthesia suffered by chronic cough patients, we often encounter 'a sensation of irritation in the throat (SIT)'. Our study indicated that capsaicin cough threshold was significantly (P sensation. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2006-01-01

    dermatitis was induced with 10 min daily exposure for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekends) to 3% SLS aq. on the right and 30% nonanoic acid (NON) in n-propanol on the left volar forearm. Clinical scoring was performed daily; evaporimetry (total epidermal water loss (TEWL)), hydration and colorimetry were...

  17. Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhner, Sabine; Braak, Breg; Li, Qin; Kugler, Eva Maria; Klooker, Tamira; Wouters, Mira; Donovan, Jemma; Vignali, Sheila; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Grundy, David; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Schemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Based on the discomfort/pain threshold during rectal distension, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be subtyped as normo- or hypersensitive. We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from IBS patients activated enteric and visceral afferent neurons. We tested the hypothesis that

  18. Hypnotherapy for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Arine M.; Menko-Frankenhuis, Carla; Wolfkamp, Simone C. S.; Tromp, Ellen; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are highly prevalent in childhood. A substantial proportion of patients continues to experience long-lasting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of adult

  19. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.

  20. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamester, M.R.R.; Becker, D.

    2010-01-01

    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  1. Structural shell analysis understanding and application

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauwendraad, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical description of the properties of a shell is much more elaborate than those of beam and plate structures. Therefore many engineers and architects are unacquainted with aspects of shell behaviour and design, and are not familiar with sufficiently reliable shell theories for the different shell types as derived in the middle of the 20th century. Rather than contributing to theory development, this university textbook focuses on architectural and civil engineering schools. Of course, practising professionals will profit from it as well. The book deals with thin elastic shells, in particular with cylindrical, conical and spherical types, and with elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids. The focus is on roofs, chimneys, pressure vessels and storage tanks. Special attention is paid to edge bending disturbance zones, which is indispensable knowledge in FE meshing. A substantial part of the book results from research efforts in the mid 20th century at Delft University of Technology. As such, it is a valua...

  2. Semiclassical shell structure in rotating Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magner, A. G.; Sitdikov, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.; Bartel, J.

    2010-01-01

    The collective moment of inertia is derived analytically within the cranking model for any rotational frequency of the harmonic-oscillator potential well and at a finite temperature. Semiclassical shell-structure components of the collective moment of inertia are obtained for any potential by using the periodic-orbit theory. We found semiclassically their relation to the free-energy shell corrections through the shell-structure components of the rigid-body moment of inertia of the statistically equilibrium rotation in terms of short periodic orbits. The shell effects in the moment of inertia exponentially disappear with increasing temperature. For the case of the harmonic-oscillator potential, one observes a perfect agreement of the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the free energy and the moment of inertia for several critical bifurcation deformations and several temperatures.

  3. Optical properties of core-shell and multi-shell nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Shehata, Nader

    2018-05-01

    We report a first-principles time dependent density functional theory study of the optical response modulations in bimetallic core-shell (Na@Al and Al@Na) and multi-shell (Al@Na@Al@Na and Na@Al@Na@Al: concentric shells of Al and Na alternate) nanorods. All of the core-shell and multi-shell configurations display highly enhanced absorption intensity with respect to the pure Al and Na nanorods, showing sensitivity to both composition and chemical ordering. Remarkably large spectral intensity enhancements were found in a couple of core-shell configurations, indicative that optical response averaging based on the individual components can not be considered as true as always in the case of bimetallic core-shell nanorods. We believe that our theoretical results would be useful in promising applications depending on Aluminum-based plasmonic materials such as solar cells and sensors.

  4. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  5. Faraday Wave Turbulence on a Spherical Liquid Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. Glynn; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Millimeter-radius liquid shells are acoustically levitated in an ultrasonic field. Capillary waves are observed on the shells. At low energies (minimal acoustic amplitude, thick shell) a resonance is observed between the symmetric and antisymmetric thin film oscillation modes. At high energies (high acoustic pressure, thin shell) the shell becomes fully covered with high-amplitude waves. Temporal spectra of scattered light from the shell in this regime exhibit a power-law decay indicative of turbulence.

  6. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2015)202.

  7. Stability of accelerated metal shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahsiri, H.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic treatment has been developed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated liner. It is applicable to one-dimensional models either compressible or incompressible. With this model several points have been clarified. For an incompressible liner model, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability will have about five e-folding periods and the usual growth rate is independent of the current distribution or current rise time. Adequate stability will therefore depend on the magnitude of the initial perturbations or the precision of the initial liner and the thickness over which the shell is accelerated. However, for a compressible model, theory predicts that the current rise time is important and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is suppressed if the current rise time is less than the shock transit time

  8. Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace - an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Xaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory irritants represent a major cause of occupational obstructive airway diseases. We provide an overview of the evidence related to irritative agents causing occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Methods We searched MEDLINE via PubMed. Reference lists of relevant reviews were also screened. The SIGN grading system was used to rate the quality of each study. The modified RCGP three-star system was used to grade the body of evidence for each irritant agent regarding its causative role in either occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Results A total of 474 relevant papers were identified, covering 188 individual agents, professions or work-sites. The focus of most of the studies and the predominant diagnosis was occupational asthma, whereas occupational COPD arose only incidentally. The highest level assigned using the SIGN grading was 2+ (well-conducted systematic review, cohort or case–control study with a low risk of confounding or bias. According to the modified RCGP three-star grading, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent, profession or work-site (“**” was found for 17 agents or work-sites, including benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylicacid-1,2-anhydride, chlorine, platinum salt, isocyanates, cement dust, grain dust, animal farming, environmental tobacco smoke, welding fumes or construction work. Phthalic anhydride, glutaraldehyde, sulphur dioxide, cotton dust, cleaning agents, potrooms, farming (various, foundries were found to be moderately associated with occupational asthma or occupational COPD (“*[+]”. Conclusion This study let us assume that irritant-induced occupational asthma and especially occupational COPD are considerably underreported. Defining the evidence of the many additional occupational irritants for causing airway disorders will be the subject of continued studies with implications for diagnostics and preventive measures.

  9. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Novel vehicle based on cubosomes for ophthalmic delivery of flurbiprofen with low irritancy and high bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shun; Shen, Jin-qiu; Gan, Yong; Geng, Hai-ming; Zhang, Xin-xin; Zhu, Chun-liu; Gan, Li

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel vehicle based on cubosomes as an ophthalmic drug delivery system for flurbiprofen (FB) to reduce ocular irritancy and improve bioavailability. Methods: FB-loaded cubosomes were prepared using hot and high-pressure homogenization. Cubosomes were then characterized by particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, particle morphology, inner cubic structure and in vitro release. Corneal permeation was evaluated using modified Franz-type cells. Ocular irritation was then evaluated using both the Draize method and histological examination. The ocular pharmacokinetics of FB was determined using microdialysis. Results: The particle size of each cubosome formulation was about 150 nm. A bicontinuous cubic phase of cubic P-type was determined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. In vitro corneal permeation study revealed that FB formulated in cubosomes exhibited 2.5-fold (F1) and 2.0-fold (F2) increase in Papp compared with FB PBS. In the ocular irritation test, irritation scores for each group were less than 2, indicating that all formulations exhibited excellent ocular tolerance. Histological examination revealed that neither the structure nor the integrity of the cornea was visibly affected after incubation with FB cubosomes. The AUC of FB administered as FB cubosome F2 was 486.36±38.93 ng·mL−1·min·μg−1, which was significantly higher than that of FB Na eye drops (P<0.01). Compared with FB Na eye drops, the Tmax of FB cubosome F2 was about 1.6-fold higher and the MRT was also significantly longer (P<0.001). Conclusion: This novel low-irritant vehicle based on cubosomes might be a promising system for effective ocular drug delivery. PMID:20686524

  11. Sensory irritating potency of some microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and a mixture of five MVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, A; Kasanen, J P; Alarie, Y; Kosma, V M; Pasanen, A L

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability/potencies of 3 microbial volatile organic compounds and a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds to cause eye and upper respiratory tract irritation (i.e., sensory irritation), with an animal bioassay. The authors estimated potencies by determining the concentration capable of decreasing the respiratory frequency of mice by 50% (i.e., the RD50 value). The RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 182 mg/m3 (35 ppm), 1359 mg/m3 (256 ppm), and 17586 mg/m3 (3360 ppm), respectively. Recommended indoor air levels calculated from the individual RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 100, 1000, and 13000 microg/m3, respectively-values considerably higher than the reported measured indoor air levels for these compounds. The RD50 value for a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds was also determined and found to be 3.6 times lower than estimated from the fractional concentrations and the respective RD50s of the individual components. The data support the conclusion that a variety of microbial volatile organic compounds may have some synergistic effects for the sensory irritation response, which constrains the interpretation and application of recommended indoor air levels of individual microbial volatile organic compounds. The results also showed that if a particular component of a mixture was much more potent than the other components, it may dominate the sensory irritation effect. With respect to irritation symptoms reported in moldy houses, the results of this study indicate that the contribution of microbial volatile organic compounds to these symptoms seems less than previously supposed.

  12. Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gminski, Richard; Marutzky, Rainer; Kevekordes, Sebastian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Bürger, Werner; Hauschke, Dieter; Ebner, Winfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-01

    Due to the reduction of air change rates in low-energy houses, the contribution to indoor air quality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from oriented strand boards (OSB) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory irritations, pulmonary effects and odor annoyance of emissions from OSB in healthy human volunteers compared to clean air. Twenty-four healthy non-smokers were exposed to clean air and OSB emissions for 2 h under controlled conditions in a 48 m(3) test chamber at three different time points: to fresh OSB panels and to the same panels after open storage for 2 and 8 weeks. Chemosensory irritation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, eye blink frequency, lung function and subjective perception of irritation of eyes, nose and throat were examined before, during and after exposure. Additionally, olfactory perception was investigated. Total VOC exposure concentrations reached 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/m(3) for the fresh OSB panels. Emissions consisted predominantly of α-pinene, Δ(3)-carene and hexanal. Two-hour exposure to high VOC concentrations revealed no irritating or pulmonary effects. All the subjective ratings of discomfort were at a low level and the medians did not exceed the expression 'hardly at all.' Only the ratings for smell of emissions increased significantly during exposure in comparison to clean air. In conclusion, exposure of healthy volunteers to OSB emissions did not elicit sensory irritations or pulmonary effects up to a VOC concentration of about 9 mg/m(3). Sensory intensity of OSB emissions in the chamber air was rated as 'neutral to pleasant.'

  13. Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)

  14. Importance-truncated shell model for multi-shell valence spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Christina; Vobig, Klaus; Roth, Robert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The valence-space shell model is one of the work horses in nuclear structure theory. In traditional applications, shell-model calculations are carried out using effective interactions constructed in a phenomenological framework for rather small valence spaces, typically spanned by one major shell. We improve on this traditional approach addressing two main aspects. First, we use new effective interactions derived in an ab initio approach and, thus, establish a connection to the underlying nuclear interaction providing access to single- and multi-shell valence spaces. Second, we extend the shell model to larger valence spaces by applying an importance-truncation scheme based on a perturbative importance measure. In this way, we reduce the model space to the relevant basis states for the description of a few target eigenstates and solve the eigenvalue problem in this physics-driven truncated model space. In particular multi-shell valence spaces are not tractable otherwise. We combine the importance-truncated shell model with refined extrapolation schemes to approximately recover the exact result. We present first results obtained in the importance-truncated shell model with the newly derived ab initio effective interactions for multi-shell valence spaces, e.g., the sdpf shell.

  15. Free vibration analysis of delaminated composite shells using different shell theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Namita; Sahu, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Free vibration response of laminated composite shells with delamination is presented using the finite element method based on first order shear deformation theory. The shell theory used is the extension of dynamic, shear deformable theory according to the Sanders' first approximation for doubly curved shells, which can be reduced to Love's and Donnell's theories by means of tracers. An eight-noded C 0 continuity, isoparametric quadrilateral element with five degrees of freedom per node is used in the formulation. For modeling the delamination, multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated in the finite element code. The natural frequencies of the delaminated cylindrical (CYL), spherical (SPH) and hyperbolic paraboloid (HYP) shells are determined by using the above mentioned shell theories, namely Sanders', Love's, and Donnell's. The validity of the present approach is established by comparing the authors' results with those available in the literature. Additional studies on free vibration response of CYL, SPH and HYP shells are conducted to assess the effects of delamination size and number of layers considering all three shell theories. It is shown that shell theories according to Sanders and Love always predict practically identical frequencies. Donnell's theory gives reliable results only for shallow shells. Moreover, the natural frequency is found to be very sensitive to delamination size and number of layers in the shell.

  16. Long-term repetitive sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritation of the skin: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nara; Lee, Ivy; Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-11-01

    Skin may adapt to topical irritants through accommodation. This study focuses on long-term exposure to irritants and attempts to demonstrate accommodation. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induced irritant contact dermatitis at 3 concentrations (0.025% to 0.075%). Distilled water, acetone and an empty chamber served as controls. Experimental compounds were applied to forearms of 7 healthy volunteers for 24 hr before replacing by a fresh chamber for 6 non-consecutive weeks over 103 days. Possible accommodation was quantified by visual scoring (erythema and dryness) and by bioengineering parameters: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, chromametry and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Significant erythema, dryness, elevated TEWL, skin colour reflectance and LDF values occurred during the exposure periods. Upon repeat exposure, an immediate and augmented response in erythema, TEWL, skin colour reflectance and LDF developed. However, irritant skin changes were not sustained. Irritation parameters return to baseline after cessation of exposure. There was no evidence of sustained irritation or accommodation after the last exposure. Study findings do not document sustained accommodation or adaptive hyposensitivity after long-term repetitive irritant exposure under these test conditions. Alternative models should be developed to prove or disprove the accommodation hypothesis.

  17. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement.

  18. A new 3D reconstituted human corneal epithelium model as an alternative method for the eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Su-Hyon; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Han, Ju-Hee; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Youngsook; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts are being made to develop new alternative in vitro test methods for the eye irritation test. Here we report a new reconstructed human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE model) prepared from primary-cultured human limbal epithelial cells as a new alternative in vitro eye irritation test method. In histological and immunohistochemical observation, MCTT HCE model displayed a morphology and biomarker expressions similar to intact human cornea. Moreover, the barrier function was well preserved as measured by high transepithelial electrical resistance, effective time-50 for Triton X-100, and corneal thickness. To employ the model as a new alternative method for eye irritation test, protocol refinement was performed and optimum assay condition was determined including treatment time, treatment volume, post-incubation time and rinsing method. Using the refined protocol, 25 reference chemicals with known eye irritation potentials were tested. With the viability cut-off value at 50%, chemicals were classified to irritant or non-irritant. When compared with GHS classification, the MCTT HCE model showed the accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%. These results suggest that the MCTT HCE model might be useful as a new alternative eye irritation test method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. 2015 FRAME.

  20. Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for Hazard Identification of Eye Irritating Chemicals using Reconstructed Human Cornea-like Epithelial (RhCE) Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Kearney, Paul; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-08-23

    To comply with the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and EU REACH legislation, validated non-animal alternative methods for reliable and accurate assessment of ocular toxicity in man are needed. To address this need, we have developed an eye irritation test (EIT) which utilizes a three dimensional reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial (RhCE) tissue model that is based on normal human cells. The EIT is able to separate ocular irritants and corrosives (GHS Categories 1 and 2 combined) and those that do not require labeling (GHS No Category). The test utilizes two separate protocols, one designed for liquid chemicals and a second, similar protocol for solid test articles. The EIT prediction model uses a single exposure period (30 min for liquids, 6 hr for solids) and a single tissue viability cut-off (60.0% as determined by the MTT assay). Based on the results for 83 chemicals (44 liquids and 39 solids) EIT achieved 95.5/68.2/ and 81.8% sensitivity/specificity and accuracy (SS&A) for liquids, 100.0/68.4/ and 84.6% SS&A for solids, and 97.6/68.3/ and 83.1% for overall SS&A. The EIT will contribute significantly to classifying the ocular irritation potential of a wide range of liquid and solid chemicals without the use of animals to meet regulatory testing requirements. The EpiOcular EIT method was implemented in 2015 into the OECD Test Guidelines as TG 492.