Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others
Results suggest that children's communication skills can be increased with a relatiionship enhancement curriculum of relatively short duration. But self-esteem and communication skills are relatively independent phenomena. Teachers interested in increasing self-esteem need to include exercises specifically aimed at self-enhancement. (Author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Prison is societal implementer unit which accommodate care and develop the delinquent children. It was recorded that 57% of children at Blitar Child Prison undergo some self concept problems such as low self esteem. This was caused by some factors such as society’s stigmatization toward criminals, development pattern and education, and less support from family. If the self esteem problem is not being overcome soon, the children may fell useless, disable to control their self and recrime when they are back to society. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of GAT (Group Activity Therapy perception stimulation in increasing the children self esteem at prison. Method: A quasy experimental pre post control design was used in this study. Samples were recruited by using total sampling and there were 22 samples as on inclusion criteria. The independent variable was GAT perception stimulation and the dependent variable was increasing self esteem of these childen. Data were collected by using questionnare and analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Mann Whitney U Test with the significance level α≤0.05.Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level was p=0.654, it is mean there was no self esteem change before and after GAT perception stimulation was given. Whereas treatment group has significance level was p=0.001, it revealed that there was self esteem change before and after GAT perception stimulation was given. The result of Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.000 which means was accepted. Discussion: It can be concluded that perception stimulation can increase the children self esteem at prison. Further studies are recommended to study the effect of GAT perception stimulation modified by skill therapy in increasing children self esteem in prison.
Emara, K; Al Kersh, M A; Emara, A K
The purpose of the study is to assess the long term psychosocial functioning after height increase, using the external fixation then nailing method. Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and a questionnaire to assess social functioning were completed by 28 patients both preoperatively and at a mean follow-up of 7 years. The mean total score of RSE self-esteem for the 28 patients before lengthening was 21.5 (SD 1.03) (20-24). The mean total score of RSE for the patients 1 year after lengthening was 22 (SD 1.17) (20-24) with highly significant difference (p = 0.002).The mean total RSE self-esteem score after 7 years was 21.7 (SD 1.12) (21-25) with no significant difference (p = 0.11) Improvement was an evident in the short term self esteem after 1 year of follow up of the patients with height increase. On the other hand, there was an evident deterioration in the long term psychosocial evaluation during follow up after 7 years of height increase, returning to near pre-operative levels of self esteem.
Romijnders, Kim A; Wilkerson, J Michael; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Bauldry, Jessica; Lawler, Sylvia M
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth too often live in nonsupportive environments. This study reports the influence of social support from primary and secondary social ties on confidence and self-esteem among participants in Hatch Youth, a drop-in group-level intervention for SGM youth. Each 3-hour Hatch Youth meeting consists of a social, educational, and youth-led support hour. Over 14 weeks, these meetings were randomly observed and individual interviews with participating youth ( n = 12) and staff and volunteers ( n = 12) were conducted; data underwent a content analysis. Participants perceived an increase in confidence and self-esteem through enhanced bonding with family and friends, a sense of belonging, and community empowerment because of their involvement with Hatch Youth, suggesting drop-in centers can strengthen secondary social ties and improve confidence and self-esteem.
Scarf, Damian; Kafka, Sarah; Hayhurst, Jill; Jang, Kyungho; Boyes, Mike; Thomson, Ruth; Hunter, John A.
A number of recent studies have revealed that taking part in a sail-training-based Adventure Education Programme elevates youths' self-esteem. Across two studies, we sought to examine the extent to which youths' sense of belonging contributed to this increase in self-esteem. Study 1 revealed that participants who completed the voyage showed an…
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah
Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body ( n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body ( n = 22), two expansive, high power poses ( n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses ( n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Grocott, Andrew C.; Hunter, John A.
Although positive effects are often reported, research assessing the impact of Adventure Education and Outward Bound programmes on self-esteem is fraught with methodological weaknesses pertaining to an emphasis on scales assessing global self-esteem, a lack of follow-up measures to assess the potential long-term benefits of such programmes and…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca; Davis, Beth; McClellan, Warren
Examines findings from a multidisciplinary mentoring program for fourth graders. Students were admitted to the program based on responses to a survey on self-esteem; school, peer, and family connectedness; and risk taking behavior. The program emphasized relationship building, self-esteem enhancement, goal setting, and academic assistance.…
Bengtsson, Mariette; Sjöberg, Klas; Candamio, Martina; Lerman, Annie; Ohlsson, Bodil
Previous research has suggested an interaction between personality factors and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We therefore aimed to elucidate differences in psychological and coping functioning between patients with IBD and IBS, and to assess the relationship of disease activity with these functions. Seventy-four patients with IBD (mean age 43±17 years, range 18-82 years) and 81 patients with IBS (mean age 37±12 years, range 21-66 years) completed the questionnaires; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Toronto Alexithymia, Experiences in Close Relationships, and Sense of Coherence. Disease activity was evaluated either by the Harvey-Bradshaw index, the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, or the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The study revealed that patients with IBS had higher degree of anxiety in close relationships than patients with IBD (p=0.003), and lower self-esteem (p=0.001). No other statistical differences between the whole groups IBS and IBD or between subgroups were seen. The fact that patients with IBS seem to have higher levels of anxiety in relationships and lower self-esteem could influence the way the patient deal with the disease and how the communication with health care professionals works out. A higher awareness of the importance of past negative life events should be taken into consideration. Whether the disease or the personal traits are the primary event should be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heyne, Thomas; Bogner, Franz X.
Our study focused on an educational intervention designed to increase the self-esteem of low-achieving eighth graders. The intervention was a substance-specific life skills program built upon teacher-centered versus student-centered teaching methods. A cluster analysis identified four consumption groups prior to the intervention: A potentially…
Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C
To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.
Baker, Levi R.; McNulty, James K.
Increasing interdependence in an intimate relationship requires engaging in behaviors that risk rejection, such as expressing affection and asking for support. Who takes such risks and who avoids them? Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that self-esteem plays a crucial role in shaping such behaviors, they can be used to make competing predictions regarding the direction of this effect. Six studies reconcile these contrasting predictions by demonstrating that the effects of self-esteem on behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence depend on relational self-construal— i.e., the extent to which people define themselves by their close relationships. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the opportunity to disclose negative personal information (Study 1) and feelings of intimacy (Study 2) to their dating partners. In Study 3, married couples reported the extent to which they confided in one another. In Study 4, we manipulated self-esteem and relational self-construal and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that increase interdependence. In Studies 5 and 6, we manipulated the salience of interpersonal risk and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence. In all six studies, self-esteem was positively associated with behaviors that can increase interdependence among people low in relational self-construal but negatively associated with those behaviors among people high in relational self-construal. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the role of self-esteem in relationships will be most complete to the extent that they consider the degree to which people define themselves by their close relationships. PMID:23586411
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and alcohol dependence was ... Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in self-esteem decreased the ...
Full Text Available Nationally 4-H programs develop educational strategies and provide opportunities for youth and adults to work in partnership as they develop life skills. This study looks at some curricula that enhance self-esteem in at-risk youth ages 8 to 15. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Instrument (CSI measured changes in participants’ self-esteem while the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSl, used only at the onset of the study, alert the staff of potential mental/emotional distress and other behavior that might require an immediate response. The CSI results showed increases in self-esteem. Girls showed a higher increase in self-esteem over the boys.
Full Text Available Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965 and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program, teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre- and post-test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem. The results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure was 11.31, which increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value was -7.51 that was significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention self-esteem score and post-intervention self-esteem score. Further, the results showed that the mean collective self-esteem score was 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which increased to 53.47 in post-intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem was -7.57 that was also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention collective self-esteem scores and post-intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, the results proved the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.
Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel
Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...
Friedman, S; Rogers, P P; Gettys, J
A group of boys and girls (9 to 15 yr. of age) who were identified as emotionally disturbed and in residential enrollment at a short-term (2 to 15 mo.) high-impact residential treatment center displayed a significant gain on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Of the 59 children 37 showed a gain; 19 showed a decrease.
Mills, Bethany; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
The authors present a therapeutic resource for school counselors who need a tangible method to integrate self-esteem strategies into their psychoeducational group programs. The focus of the group is a comprehensive wellness model based on five senses of self and how each self must be addressed to promote healthy life decisions. Special attention…
Lupo, Concetta M.
This study focused on improving students' self-esteem through community building at an elementary school in a low socioeconomic community where over 55% of the students live below the poverty line. Orefield and Yun state in their 1999 article, "Resegregation of America's schools," "school level poverty is related to many…
Agnieszka Golec de Zavala
Full Text Available Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of ‘power poses,’ which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010. The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to ‘high power’ and ‘low power’ poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19, two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22, two expansive, high power poses (n = 21, or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20 for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to ‘power poses’ increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses’ association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.
Shiva Saeghi Mameghani
Full Text Available Objectives: The main purpose of the present study is to consider the rate of impression in group mental rehabilitation based on the regulation of self recognition sources on augmentation of self-respect among 14- to 18-year old female prisoners. Methods: 30 female social seekers were randomly selected from the whole population, 15 of which were gathered in control group and the rest 15 within evidence group. First, GHQ papers (General Health Questionnaire were distributed among the girls in order to evaluate their mental status. Pre- and Post- Cooper Smith self-respect tests were formulated both before and after interventions on experiment group. Interventions were accomplished during 9 sessions within three months by group consulting based on the configuration of self-recognition (collected by Younesi 2007. Considering the point that remedy plans are not utilized for the evidence group and they are evaluated by gathered marks achieved by the two tests to compare average discriminations. Results: After applying remedy interventions, social seekers from experimental group manifested meaningful augmentation during the test of self-esteem invented by Cooper Smith compared with social help seekers from control group. Discussion: The findings indicated that group mental rehabilitation would increase self-esteem in its four dimensions among the subjects. The findings showed that mental rehabilitation based on self knowledge resources is useful for improvement of juvenile detainee's self-esteem.
Green, Kathleen; Kukan, Zoe; Tully, Ruth
Purpose: ‘Negging’ can be described as the purposeful lowering of a woman’s self-esteem to increase perceived attractiveness of the man in order to achieve sexual conquest. Negging has evolved over time. Whilst ‘Original’ negging was intended to be a harmless tool for attracting women, more recently dating companies have been teaching men ‘Evolved’ negging in a potentially damaging way, which could escalate into an abusive intimate relationship. \\ud Design: An online survey involving vignette...
Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P
There is increasing recognition that high self-esteem is heterogeneous. Recent research suggests that individuals who report having high self-esteem (i.e., have high explicit self-esteem) behave more defensively to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The current studies test whether individuals with high explicit self-esteem are more likely to discriminate ethnically, as a defensive technique, to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The results support this prediction. Among participants with high explicit self-esteem, all of whom were threatened by negative performance feedback, those with relatively low implicit self-esteem recommended a more severe punishment for a Native, but not a White, student who started a fist-fight. In Study 2, this pattern was not apparent for participants with relatively low explicit self-esteem.
Bahadir-Yilmaz, Emel; Öz, Fatma
This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of empowerment program on increasing self-esteem, learned resourcefulness, and coping ways in women exposed to domestic violence. This experimental study was conducted between October 2012 and June 2014 in the obstetrics and gynaecology departments of the Giresun Maternity Hospital, and at the Family Counseling Center (FCC) in Turkey. Sixty women who agreed to participate in the study were randomly assigned into two groups. Data were collected by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), The Rosenbaum's Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS), and the Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI). The assessment of the women before and after the empowerment program showed that women in the intervention group showed significant improvements in the SEI, RLRS, and WCI scores compared with controls. These results suggest that the empowerment program is an effective practice for increasing the levels of self-esteem, learned resourcefulness, and coping ways of women exposed to domestic violence.
Kaplan, Julie Bass
The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.
Norwood, Sarah Jane; Murray, Marisa; Nolan, Amanda; Bowker, Anne
The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate a school-based programme that aimed to increase self-esteem and positive body image among preadolescent boys and girls. Participants in grades five and six (N = 77; M [subscript age] = 10.86, 53.2% girls) from a public school in Eastern Ontario completed a battery of validated…
Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.
Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101
Full Text Available Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M= 21.2 years, SD = 1.88 enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.
Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 104(6) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2013-18890-002). The title of the article is incorrect.] Increasing interdependence in an intimate relationship requires engaging in behaviors that risk rejection, such as expressing affection and asking for support. Who takes such risks and who avoids them? Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that self-esteem plays a crucial role in shaping such behaviors, they can be used to make competing predictions regarding the direction of this effect. Six studies reconcile these contrasting predictions by demonstrating that the effects of self-esteem on behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence depend on relational self-construal-that is, the extent to which people define themselves by their close relationships. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the opportunity to disclose negative personal information (Study 1) and feelings of intimacy (Study 2) to their dating partners. In Study 3, married couples reported the extent to which they confided in one another. In Study 4, we manipulated self-esteem and relational self-construal, and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that increase interdependence. In Studies 5 and 6, we manipulated the salience of interpersonal risk, and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence. In all 6 studies, self-esteem was positively associated with behaviors that can increase interdependence among people low in relational self-construal but negatively associated with those behaviors among people high in relational self-construal. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the role of self-esteem in relationships will be most complete to the extent that they consider the degree to which people define themselves by their close relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all
Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to improve the body image and self-esteem among breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Materials & Methods: Our study comprised of 23 breast cancer patients in Imam Hossein Hospital, aged between 30-60 years, all of whom had undergone mastectomy and then radiotherapy. The study participants were selected through purposeful sampling and then randomly assigned to the case (10 and control (13 groups. The intervention program (cognitive behavioral group intervention consisted of 12 sessions of intervention (2 sessions per week each taking 90 minutes, in a 6 week process. Both group members completed the “body image and relationships scale” and the “Pope self- esteem questionnaire” before and after training. Analysis of covariance to eliminate the pretest effect on posttest results and ANOVA to determine the differences between the groups were used through SPSS 18 in this study. Results: This intervention was significantly effective on improving the mean score of body image and self- esteem in the breast cancer/mastectomy patients of the case group compared to that of the control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Thus, cognitive behavioral group intervention can be effective in improving body image and increasing self-esteem among women with breast cancer after mastectomy.
Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.
The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…
This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…
Milošević Nikoleta M.
Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and
Cox, Sara Jane; Glazebrook, Cris; Sheard, Charlotte; Ndukwe, George; Oates, Margaret
To  investigate self-esteem during pregnancy after previous infertility and  establish the relationship among self-esteem, anxiety during pregnancy, and parenting self-efficacy. Limited prospective study. A regional infertility clinic and antenatal clinic. Seventy women who had conceived through assisted reproductive technology and 111 women who had conceived naturally. Measures of self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Women who had conceived through IVF treatment did not differ in terms of self-esteem during pregnancy from those who had conceived naturally. All of the women in the present study displayed levels of self-esteem that were within the normal range. Self-esteem increased as pregnancy progressed. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with anxiety during pregnancy. As self-esteem increased, anxiety decreased. Self-esteem at the start of pregnancy (18 weeks) and anxiety in the early stages of parenthood (6 weeks postpartum) predicted parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem in the early stages of pregnancy, for both women who conceived through IVF and women who conceived naturally, is related to self-reported levels of parenting efficacy. Coaching and mentoring through antenatal clinics in the early stages of pregnancy should be tailored to incorporate advice regarding self-esteem in addition to management of pregnancy and psychological well-being.
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Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Noftle, Erik E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Widaman, Keith F.
The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability was high across all waves of data (Mdn disattenuated correlation = .87). On average, self-esteem levels dropped substantially during the 1st semester (d =−.68), rebounded by the end of the 1st year (d = .73), and then gradually increased over the next 3 years, producing a small (d = .16) but significant mean-level increase in self-esteem from the beginning to the end of college. Individuals who received good grades in college tended to show larger increases in self-esteem. In contrast, individuals who entered college with unrealistically high expectations about their academic achievement tended to show smaller increases in self-esteem, despite beginning college with relatively high self-esteem. With regard to perceived change, 67% reported that their self-esteem increased during college, whereas 12% reported that it declined; these perceptions tended to correspond with actual increases and decreases in their self-esteem scale scores (β= .56). Overall, the findings support the perspective that self-esteem, like other personality characteristics, can change in systematic ways while exhibiting continuity over time. PMID:24377355
Cross-age mentoring programs are peer helping programs in which high school students serve as mentors to younger children. The study in this article compared fall-to-spring changes on connectedness, attachment, and self-esteem between 46 teen mentors and 45 comparison classmates. Results revealed an association between serving as a cross-age peer…
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionnaire to measure students' self-esteem was used. After the pre-test training program assertiveness over 10 weeks, each week, one session, lasting from one hour and half and at the end of the test was performed after 40 days in both groups re-testing were results using software spss case were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor was used. Results: The results showed that participants in the program and self-assertiveness therapy increased. These results were confirmed in a follow up phase. Conclusion: the training of social skills speeds up assertiveness and self-esteem of students.
Overholser, J C; Adams, D M; Lehnert, K L; Brinkman, D C
Self-esteem can play an important role in suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies in 254 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 288 high school students. The direct relationship between self-esteem and suicidal tendencies was examined by assessing suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempts. An indirect relationship between self-esteem and suicidality was examined by assessing depression and hopelessness. Differences were found across gender and hospitalization status, with males reporting higher self-esteem than females and high school students scoring higher in self-esteem than psychiatric inpatients. However, correlations among variables remained similar across gender and hospitalization status. Thus, low self-esteem was related to higher levels of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and an increased likelihood of having previously attempted suicide. Furthermore, self-esteem added to the understanding of suicidal ideation beyond what could be explained by depression and hopelessness. Low self-esteem was closely related to feelings of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal tendencies. Assessment of adolescents should include an evaluation of self-esteem, and therapy should attempt to address any self-esteem deficits.
Biro, Frank M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Franko, Debra L; Padgett, Justina; Bean, Judy A
Self-esteem is a major "predictor" of satisfaction with life. This longitudinal study examined mean and individual changes in self-esteem, and how self-esteem is affected by race and body mass. Girls were recruited at ages 9 and 10 years, and followed to age 22 years. The Harter Self-Perception Profile was administered every other year, analyzing scores from the Global Self-Worth Scale, by age or developmental phase: ages 9-12 (I), 13-16 (II), and 17-22 (III). Regression modeling included main effects and interactions between age/phase, race, and body mass index (BMI). Self-worth was greater in black than white women, and greater with lower BMI in both races. In the model with age ("traditional model") (with race and BMI), significant variables included BMI (inverse relationship) and the interactions between age and race, race and BMI, and the triple interaction between age, race, and BMI. In the model with phase ("transitional model") (with race and BMI), BMI, and the interactions between BMI and race, and race and phase, were significant. For example, self-worth was generally lower in Phase II (middle adolescence) for white women. Self-esteem tracked significantly (correlation 0.22, p self-esteem in adolescent girls, race and BMI are important predictors of self-esteem. Self-esteem is consistent across the phases of adolescence, and comparable with other personality traits. As noted by others, lower levels of self-esteem may increase the vulnerability of adolescents to risky behaviors.
Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the ......-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions....
Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W
The aim of the present study was to examine whether explicit and implicit self-esteem, the interaction between these two constructs, and their discrepancy are associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the Name Letter Task to measure implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess explicit self-esteem. The results indicated that explicit but not implicit self-esteem was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. The interaction of implicit and explicit self-esteem was associated with suicidal ideation, indicating that participants with high implicit self-esteem combined with a low explicit self-esteem showed more suicidal ideation. Furthermore, the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem was positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, results showed that the direction of the discrepancy is an important: damaged self-esteem (high implicit self-esteem combined with low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness, while defensive or fragile self-esteem (high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) was not. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steffenhagen, R. A.
Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…
By "self-esteem" is meant more than an innate sense of self-worth that presumably is a human birthright. Self-esteem is individuals' experience that they are appropriate to life and to the requirements of life. More specifically, self-esteem is confidence in the ability to think; confidence in the ability to cope with the challenges of life; and…
Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...
Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich
Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Self-esteem is an inner attitude at the base of the construction of personality and psychic balance in addition to be responsible of adaptive processes over the course of life. The concept of self-esteem is commonly used in several disciplines however, it seems that the consensus on its conceptualization and its operationalization is not yet reached. In this context, the concept analysis allows to address a phenomenon and to understand its use and its evolution from a unique disciplinary perspective. The aim of this article is therefore to analyze the concept of self esteem from a nursing perspective to identify : definitions of the term and related terms, attributes, model and limit cases proposed here within the community of mental health nurses, antecedents and consequents as well as the empirical references using the Walker and Avant method. The attributes identified allowing a deeper understanding of the concept are : the self-value, the self-acceptance, the self-efficacy, attitude towards oneself and finally, self-respect.
Kyung Min Park, PhD, RN
Conclusions: The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program.
Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Laisné, François
Studies investigating self-esteem in individuals with severe mental illness, either as a treatment goal, outcome or correlate to other variables, have increased over the past few years. One of the main difficulties in assessing self-esteem is the assessment itself, often measuring global and stable self-esteem as in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, or requiring extensive training and long interviews. The present article aims at demonstrating the relevance of the French and English versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form with individuals with severe mental illness. The instrument's reliability and validity were investigated in a sample of 250 French Canadian college students, 247 British college students and three samples of English- or French-speaking individuals with severe mental illness (N=254, N=150 and N=171). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a shorter version of the instrument (20 items), with a positive and a negative self-esteem factor, had a great validity for all the samples studied. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form, with its positive and negative self-esteem subscales, appears to be a valid and reliable self-esteem measure for individuals with mental health problems. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed.
Donnelly, Joseph; Young, Michael; Pearson, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.; Hernandez, Aida
The use of illicit and licit drugs continues to be a major public health concern. Many prevention and drug education programs address this issue by attempting to enhance self-esteem. The idea is that increased levels of self-esteem will serve as a protective factor in decreasing the motivation and increasing the resistance to use drugs. This study…
Tafarodi, Romin W; Milne, Alan B
We argue in this paper for distinguishing two dimensions of global self-esteem, self-competence and self-liking. Studies 1 and 2 identify a corresponding pair of factors in Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale. Studies 3 and 4 examine the predictive value of the two-dimensional approach to self-esteem as reflected in the unique associations of self-competence and self-liking with negative life events and word recognition.
Rodolfo Acosta Padrón; José Alfonso Hernández
The present article gives a panoramic view about self-esteem as a characteristic of the human psyche, and as a social product which is developed in man-world interaction. It also presents some derived results of the researches carried out by the authors about the impact that self-esteem has in the work with individual's self-esteem in the pedagogic contexts.
Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...
In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...
Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala
This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hodges, Linda; Wolf, Carolyn J.
Noting that low self-esteem negatively affects student achievement, this action research project implemented and evaluated a program for increasing student self-esteem through a caring and positive classroom environment incorporating cooperative learning and the use of praise and rewards. The targeted population consisted of fifth grade physical…
Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Self-esteem is frequently targeted in psychological approaches to persecutory delusions (PD). However, its precise role in the formation and maintenance of PD is unclear and has been subject to a number of theories: It has been hypothesized that PD function to enhance self-esteem, that they directly reflect negative conceptualizations of the self, that self-esteem follows from the perceived deservedness of the persecution (poor-me versus bad-me-paranoia) and that the temporal instability of self-esteem is relevant to PD. In order to increase our understanding of the relevance of self-esteem to PD, this article systematically reviews the existing research on self-esteem in PD in the light of the existing theories. We performed a literature search on studies that investigated self-esteem in PD. We included studies that either investigated self-esteem a) within patients with PD or compared to controls or b) along the continuum of subclinical paranoia in the general population. We used a broad concept of self-esteem and included paradigms that assessed implicit self-esteem, specific self-schemas and dynamic aspects of self-esteem. The literature search identified 317 studies of which 52 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies consistently found low global explicit self-esteem and negative self-schemas in persons with PD. The studies therefore do not support the theory that PD serve to enhance self-esteem but underline the theory that they directly reflect specific negative self-schemas. There is evidence that low self-esteem is associated with higher perceived deservedness of the persecution and that PD are associated with instable self-esteem. Only few studies investigated implicit self-esteem and the results of these studies were inconsistent. We conclude by proposing an explanatory model of how self-esteem and PD interact from which we derive clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...
Oxley, G M
The incidence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing among adolescents and young adults with some studies linking sexual risk taking and self-esteem. A convenience sample of 39 ethnically diverse adolescents, ages 14-18, participated in a pilot study designed to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and to build self-esteem. Adolescents selected from two centers in California completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Student Health Questionnaire (SHQ) before beginning and after completing a program of six 2-hour educational sessions. These sessions focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge and building self-esteem. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission increased by 2096 from pretest to posttest. Practitioners addressing the needs of adolescents should focus on in-depth information regarding HIV/AIDS, especially in the area of prevention strategies and cultural factors influencing levels of self-esteem.
Isberg, R S; Hauser, S T; Jacobson, A M; Powers, S I; Noam, G; Weiss-Perry, B; Follansbee, D
Relationships between parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem were analyzed in a group of 95 early adolescents from multiple settings. The study was designed to investigate hypotheses regarding associations between observed parental interactions (e.g., accepting and devaluing) and adolescent self-esteem. Parents' verbal interactions with their adolescents were assessed through application of the constraining and enabling coding system to transcribed family discussions, generated through a revealed differences procedure. Adolescent self-esteem was measured with the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Parent interaction-self-esteem associations were examined in the pooled sample, as well as in specific sub-groups based on gender, health, and ego development (measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test). Boys had more numerous associations between their self-esteem and parental interactions than girls, and psychiatrically ill boys had particularly high associations. Parental interactions were found to be most strongly related to adolescent self-esteem for adolescents at the lowest levels of ego development. Our findings are consistent with the view that increasing individuation in self-esteem regulation occurs during adolescent development, such that adolescents at higher levels of ego development evaluate themselves more independently of parental feedback than do their less mature peers.
Ritchie, M A
Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship.
Surkan, Pamela J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O
The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.
Authors have long noted the human penchant for self-esteem. Experimental research has revealed that this desire for self-esteem has wide-ranging effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Terror management theory explains that this desire for self-esteem results from a fundamental need for psychological security, which is engendered by humans' awareness of their own vulnerability and mortality. A large body of evidence has supported this explanation. Specifically, substantial lines of research have shown that self-esteem buffers anxiety and reduces defenses against death and that reminders of mortality increase efforts to defend and bolster self-esteem. Complementary findings have helped clarify the role of culture in self-esteem striving and the ways in which people can vary in their level, stability, and sources of self-esteem. I conclude by briefly considering how this contemporary knowledge regarding the quest for self-esteem informs current events and daily life. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer
Background: This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending…
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Schmeichel, Brandon J; Gailliot, Matthew T; Filardo, Emily-Ana; McGregor, Ian; Gitter, Seth; Baumeister, Roy F
Three studies tested the roles of implicit and/or explicit self-esteem in reactions to mortality salience. In Study 1, writing about death versus a control topic increased worldview defense among participants low in implicit self-esteem but not among those high in implicit self-esteem. In Study 2, a manipulation to boost implicit self-esteem reduced the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense. In Study 3, mortality salience increased the endorsement of positive personality descriptions but only among participants with the combination of low implicit and high explicit self-esteem. These findings indicate that high implicit self-esteem confers resilience against the psychological threat of death, and therefore the findings provide direct support for a fundamental tenet of terror management theory regarding the anxiety-buffering role of self-esteem. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.
In this research we investigated the interplay between celebrities holding positive vs. negative media images and women’s self-esteem and purchase intensions. Study 1 documents that “good” celebrities decrease consumers’ self-esteem while a “bad” celebrity increase self-esteem. Study 2 shows that
Stake, Jayne E.; And Others
High school teachers and an experienced leader provided assertiveness training for 148 female students in high school business and homemaking classes. Significant changes in performance self-esteem scores were found between pretesting and a three-month folLow-up. Low-self-esteem subjects showed greater increases than high-self-esteem subjects.…
MacMaster, Keith; Donovan, Leslie A.; MacIntyre, Peter D.
This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effect of being diagnosed with a learning disability on elementary school children's self-esteem. Findings indicated that self-esteem increased significantly above prediagnosis of a learning disability while self-esteem levels in a control group of children without learning disabilities…
Full Text Available Introduction: Self-esteem among nursing students is important in providing high-quality serviceto clients, yet each study in this field has described only a portion of existing relevant knowledge.Integrative review studies are the best practice for identification of existing nursing knowledge.The purpose of this study was to determine self-esteem challenges among nursing students. Methods: An integrative review was conducted in this study. The databases ProQuest, Medlineon PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Iran Medix were used for the review. The articleswere retrieved in three steps, including searching by search terms, reviewing the proceedingsbased on inclusion criteria and final retrieval and assessment of the available full texts. We used alist of keywords, including nursing, self-esteem and challenges and mixed them with "AND" and"OR" as a search strategy. Papers were included and eligible if they were associated with problemsrelated to nursing students’ self-esteem. Those studies that focused only on the self-esteem ofregistered nurses or patients were excluded. Search results were limited to the years 1960-2014. Results: Our findings showed three major challenges, including challenges associated withinconsistency in determining the level of students’ self-esteem, self-esteem associated challengesin professionalism of students, and the psychosocial challenges pertaining to the consequences oflow self-esteem. Conclusion: The findings suggest there is a need for more qualitative research to explore thefactors that contribute to self-esteem in nursing students with a particular focus on the factorsthat increase or decrease self-esteem. In addition, strategies to maintain and increase self-esteemneed to be designed, implemented and evaluated.
Acharya Pandey, R; Chalise, H N
Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a persons' life. Academic stress is psychological condition often experienced by college students as, to some extent, being multidimensional variables. Among others are self-esteem and psychological well-being which are considered to have influences in explaining why college students experience stress. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the self-esteem level and academic stress among the nursing students. Method This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Total respondents were 190 nursing students selected randomly from Kathmandu University. Academic stress was assed using 30-item Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS) and Self esteem was assessed using 10 item Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Simple statistics measurement, percentage, means, correlation was used for the data analysis. Result This study shows mean age of the respondent's was 20.44±2.67 years. Majority (88%) of students getting financial support of less than NRs 6000 per month and 64% have low perceived family support. This study found mean score of self esteem and academic stress was 11.9 and 18.4 respectively. Further nearly 78% students have low self esteem and 74% have high academic stress. Significant variable for high academic stress and low self esteem were lower the age, lower the education and low perceived family support. Lower financial support has also high academic stress. Conclusion Nursing students have low self esteem and high academic stress. Intervention to lower the academic stress and increase the self esteem should be carried out so that the learning of students will be efficient.
Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C
Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.
This article explores issues surrounding inconsistencies in the identification and the definition of self-esteem as well as querying the very presence of self-esteem in the United Kingdom-based classroom. It seeks to examine how increased self-esteem leads to increased academic achievement and identifies whether there is a mismatch between teachers’ and pupils’ judgements of self-esteem. Furthermore, the way in which low self-esteem is managed within the classroom is discussed, as well as how...
Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with
Culp, Mara E.
Positive self-esteem helps students succeed in and outside of music classrooms. High self-esteem is associated with a positive self-image and fine musicianship. Conversely, low self-esteem is associated with a negative self-image and poorer musicianship. Because students' self-esteem may affect their participation in music classes, the music…
Johnson, Matthew D; Galambos, Nancy L; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J; Horne, Rebecca M
Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dai, Yong; Nolan, Rebecca F; White, Barzanna
This study investigated the relationship between self-reported self-esteem and academic moral choice by 162 middle school students enrolled in Grades 6, 7, and 8 of public institutions. They were presented nine moral situations (five are school-related) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (School Form). Analysis indicated that four of the five school-related moral situations were statistically significantly related to scores of self-esteem. Students reporting higher self-esteem were more likely to make a moral choice in a given academic situation. It is recommended that support of academic honesty can be encouraged by increasing youth self-esteem.
According to terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, 1986), self-esteem protects people from anxiety associated with the knowledge of certain mortality. A number of studies provide evidence consistent with this assertion, but no studies have experimentally examined the effect of threatened self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the current study, self-esteem was manipulated and death-anxiety measured. A self-esteem threat increased death-anxiety relative to a self-esteem boost and non-self threat control condition.
Coşgun Ögeyik, Muhlise
The aim of this research study is to find out whether the causes of student teachers’ speaking problems in English arise from low self-esteem. In the study, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used as pre-post tests to measure the degree of self-esteem of the student teachers. The pre-test results indicated that most of the student teachers had low self-esteem. The participants were exposed to nine-week classroom treatment in order to increase their global and task self-esteem levels thr...
Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W
Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala
Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural interve...
Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee; Mohsen Mohammadi
Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a que...
Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D
directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it
Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios
Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.
Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.
Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133
Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.
Begley, Cecily M; White, Patricia
Studies on Irish nursing and midwifery professions have demonstrated that stress and bullying are frequent problems that may lead to depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem is linked to social anxiety and is therefore related to fear of negative evaluation. It is important to study nursing students' feelings about self-esteem and negative evaluation, and to assess whether or not both these constructs change as students progress through their preregistration education programme. This study explored nursing students' perceived levels of self-esteem and their fear of negative evaluation prior to, and nearing the completion of, their 3-year preregistration programme. A descriptive, quantitative, comparative survey design was used. All students in the first intake of 1995 in two general nursing schools in Southern Ireland agreed to take part (n = 72). A questionnaire developed from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Watson and Friend Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale was used to collect data at the start of their programme and again 2 months before completion. In general, students' reported self-esteem rose as they neared the end of their education programme and their fear of negative evaluation decreased; however, their overall self-esteem levels at their highest were only average. Many of the studies examining self-esteem have produced contradictory results. An examination of the organizational factors that contribute to self-esteem may increase our understanding of the phenomenon. Self-esteem is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon. While there is no single factor that can increase or decrease a person's self-esteem, this study has explored the potential impact of the fear of negative evaluation on self-esteem. Nursing students' self-esteem might be increased by expansion of intrinsic job characteristics, improving their job satisfaction and providing frequent positive feedback.
Kogler, Lydia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Metzler, Hannah; Thaler, Hanna; Boubela, Roland N; Pruessner, Jens C; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit
Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula. Furthermore, men outperformed women in the stress task and had higher cortisol and testosterone levels than women after stress. Self-esteem had an impact on precuneus, insula and STG activation during stress across the whole group. During stress, men recruit regions associated with emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control more strongly than women. Self-esteem affects stress processing, however in a sex-independent fashion: participants with lower self-esteem show higher activation of regions involved in emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control. Taken together, our data suggest that men are more engaged during the applied stress task. Across women and men, lower self-esteem increases the effort in emotion and stress processing and cognitive control, possibly leading to self-related thoughts in stressful situations.
Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee
Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.
Karpowicz, Ewa; Skärsäter, Ingela; Nevonen, Lauri
Anorexia nervosa (AN) mainly affects girls or women between 13 and 45 years of age. According to previous studies, one of the reasons for the desire to be thin is low self-esteem. The purpose of the study was to examine the self-esteem of 38 female patients with AN between 16 and 25 years of age, before and after 3 months of treatment at a specialist ward for eating disorders in Göteborg, Sweden. A quantitative pre- and post-assessment based on two self-rating questionnaires, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE-S) and three subscales (weight phobia, body dissatisfaction, and ineffectiveness) of Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), together with body mass index (BMI), were used in the study, which was conducted between June 2005 and March 2008. The results reveal that self-esteem, BMI, weight phobia, and body dissatisfaction improved significantly between pre- and post-treatment. The RSE-S and EDI-2 ineffectiveness correlate highly with one another, which lends support to convergent validity, and the internal consistency was high for both the RSE-S and EDI-2 ineffectiveness. The results indicate that the treatment was effective, as both patients' self-esteem and BMI increased after completed treatment, which was the primary goal of the treatment at this ward. Future studies should focus on follow up and the way self-esteem manifests itself at different points in time within an individual.
Lens, I.; Pandelaere, Mario; Warlop, L.
Two experiments investigate the relations between advertising exposure, self-esteem and materialism. Evidence is found that ads for luxury products may influence consumers’ levels of materialism and self-esteem. Consumers who claim being able to buy advertised luxuries report increased levels of materialism and an enhanced self-esteem after the exposure. In contrast, not being able to buy advertised luxuries appears to threaten consumers’ self-esteem and to diminish their materialistic pursui...
Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L L; Yang, Jing
Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r = -.25, p = 1. 10(-10). A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.
Introduction: Suicide is a major Public Health concern and self-esteem is given growing interest in our society.Objectives: To assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicidal intent, independently of depression, and to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social). We also studied whether poor self-esteem was predictive of suicidal risk.Methods: Two studies were conducted among a Suicide Prevention Departme...
Wibowo, Satrio Budi
Self-esteem determines a person's overall mental development, it can even affect human behavior. The debate arose when researchers try to explain, whether student achievement is influenced by self-esteem? The author conducted a meta-analysis studies in attempt to clarify the relationship between the variables of self-esteem with academic achievement variable. This research analyzed over sixteen research journals, in which there are 29 studies that examine a relationship between self-esteem an...
Some philosophers of education have recently argued that educators can more or less ignore children's global self-esteem without failing them educationally in any important way. This paper draws on an attachment theoretic account of self-esteem to argue that this view is mistaken. I argue that understanding self-esteem's origins in attachment…
Street, Sue; Isaacs, Madelyn
The role of self-esteem as a professional and personality construct has been obscured by its panacea role. Definitions of self-esteem and related terms are distinguished. Self-esteem is discussed as a developmental construct, a personality construct, and as a therapeutic goal. Therapeutic, educational, and counseling implications are discussed.…
Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent
Since the construct of "self-esteem" was first introduced over 100 years ago, a wealth of knowledge has been accumulated. Several conclusions about the nature of self-esteem can be reached that provide a foundation for future practice and research. In general, research shows that high self-esteem is associated with the behaviors, goals, and coping…
... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...
Morrison, Thomas L.; Thomas, M. Duane
According to the subscale of the Coopersmith Inventory specifically related to school self-esteem, college students with low self-esteem (1) say less in class, (2) contribute a smaller portion of their thoughts to class discussion, and (3) sit farther back in the classroom than the students with high self-esteem. (RC)
Lundy, Allan; Rosenberg, Judy A.
Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Bem Sex Role Inventory to 194 adults. Found androgyny scale emphasizing masculinity was most predictive of self-esteem, due to strong correlation found between masculinity and self-esteem. Found no effects due to femininity, interaction of femininity and masculinity, or sex. (Author/NB)
Alessandri, Guido; Perinelli, Enrico; De Longis, Evelina; Rosa, Valentina; Theodorou, Annalisa; Borgogni, Laura
A long research tradition has investigated the impact of stress on university students by assuming that individuals have a limited reservoir of resources, and that negative events and circumstances progressively drain resources thereby producing exhaustion. A recent research tradition, instead, has focused on the detrimental consequences of discrepant levels of implicit (ISE) and explicit (ESE) self-esteem on the development of stress-related symptoms. The present research attempted to merge the aforementioned approaches, with the aim of explaining significant predictors of stress. Within the framework of a Longitudinal Structural Equation Model, we followed a moderated-mediated approach. A sample of university students (N = 209; 66% females) completed a questionnaire battery including measures of ISE, ESE, perceptions of negative events, and emotional exhaustion. Participants were assessed once a week for eight consecutive weeks. ISE significantly moderated the relationship between ESE and negative events; in turn, the latter significantly predicted emotional exhaustion. Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation showed that negative events significantly mediated the relationship between incongruent self-esteem and emotional exhaustion. The detrimental role of incongruent self-esteem has been corroborated. Practical implications and suggestions for future research dealing with stress in a university setting were provided.
Pradhan, Prakash V; Shah, Henal; Rao, Pradeep; Ashturkar, Dhananjay; Ghaisas, Pradnya
To evaluate psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness. 60 children and their parents were selected to participate in an open study. 30 children had epilepsy and the other 30 had thalassemia. Both the groups consisted of children randomly selected from the Epilepsy Clinic and Thalassemia Centre respectively, of a teaching general hospital. The children and their parents were interviewed and also rated on Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Rosenberg's self esteem scale. The data was analysed using Pearson's chi square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The children were seen to have high psychopathology on CPMS (average score: thalassemia group = 28.56, epilepsy group = 26.06). Depression was the subscale with the maximum elevation in both groups. Behavior problems were high in epilepsy. In addition, sadness and disinterest in life were common symptoms in thalassemia while irritability and panic were high in epilepsy. Children with epilepsy perceived a change in lifestyle after diagnosis. Self-esteem was moderately affected in both groups and this affected compliance with treatment in thalassemia. Chronic illness affects psychological health and self esteem in children. Hence, in addition to the physical aspects it is necessary also, to focus on the psychological health of the child in order to ensure compliance and thus treat the child comprehensively.
Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay
Terror management theory asserts that attaining self-esteem by adhering to the standards of meaning-providing worldviews helps manage death concerns. Research has shown that mortality salience (MS) increases worldview defense, however, there are conflicting results concerning how trait self-esteem moderates this effect. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that MS increases worldview defense for high, but not low, trait self-esteem individuals. These studies raised the question as to whether those with low trait self-esteem engage in efforts to find meaning in response to MS. Study 3 showed that MS increased the search for meaning for low, but not high, trait self-esteem individuals.
Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen
The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen
The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:27462297
Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi
This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sánchez Queija, María Inmaculada; Oliva Delgado, Alfredo; Parra Jiménez, Agueda
This research studied the development of self-esteem through adolescence and emerging adulthood. It also analyzed sex differences and the role of family and peers in developmental trends in self-esteem. Data comes from a longitudinal study in which we administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to 90 Spanish boys and girls at ages 13, 15, 17 and 21 years old. Results showed a linear increase in self-esteem, higher for boys than for girls, during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Initial v...
González, Iris Tatiana Montes; Ramírez, Viviana Escudero; Martínez, José William
To assess the level of self-esteem of adolescents in a rural school of a district of Pereira. Students were called upon to participate, 292 agreed to undergo the test, while 20 abstained. After a previous reliability test analysis, we found that 47.9% of students had low and very low self esteem. A multivariate model reported that self-esteem was reduced as age increased. The academic community and the family must work together in order to improve self-esteem among teenagers in general. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Duchesne, Annie-Pier; Dion, Jacinthe; Lalande, Daniel; Bégin, Catherine; Émond, Claudie; Lalande, Gilles; McDuff, Pierre
This brief report tests the mediating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A sample of 409 adolescents (females = 58.4%) aged between 14 and 18 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Overall, results for the indirect effects analysis were significant for both anxiety and depression, which confirmed the mediating role of self-esteem. Thus, a negative perception of one's body image has the effect of lowering self-esteem, which in turn increases psychological distress.
Kiviruusu, Olli; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari
The present study examined the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood and its predictors in adolescence in a prospective cohort sample with a 26-year follow-up. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at 16 years (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) years. Self-esteem development was analyzed using latent growth curve models with parental socioeconomic status (SES), parental divorce, school achievement, daily smoking, and heavy drinking as time invariant covariates. Self-esteem grew linearly from 16 to 32 years, but stabilized after that with no growth between 32 and 42 years. Males had significantly higher self-esteem throughout the follow-up, although females had a faster growth rate. Better school performance and higher parental SES were associated with a higher initial level of self-esteem among both genders, while parental divorce among females and daily smoking among males were associated with a lower initial level of self-esteem. Among females the growth rate of self-esteem was practically unaffected by the studied covariates. Among males, however, the initial differences in self-esteem favouring those from a higher SES background were indicated to diminish, while the differences between non-smokers and smokers were indicated to increase. The studied adolescent covariates combined had only limited predictive value for the later self-esteem development. However, the effects of any covariate on the level and slope of the self-esteem trajectory, even if small, should be assessed in combination in order to identify whether they lead to converging, diverging or constantly equidistant self-esteem trajectories. The findings highlight the variety of roles that adolescent behaviours and social environments may have in the developmental process of self-esteem from adolescence into mid-adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
中嶋, 夕湖; 下斗米, 淳; 岡本, 祐子
As people experience various events in everyday life, their assessment of emotion and of self-changes. In recent years, research has increasingly focused on individual fluctuation of short-term emotions as a means of explaining changes in self-esteem. In this study, an association between trait self-esteem (TSE), i.e., self-esteem as a characteristic, and state self-esteem (SSE), the type of self-esteem that is alterable by daily events were examined. Every day for one week, 61 students (23 m...
Vivar, K L; Kruse, L
Pediatric skin disorders can affect children's self-esteem, relationships with caregivers and peers, and performance in school and activities. This review describes common pediatric congenital and acquired dermatologic disorders and the impact that these disorders can have on children's self-esteem. A review of current, English-language literature was conducted with use of the PubMed database. Search terms included atopic dermatitis, acne, infantile hemangiomas, port wine stains, congenital melanocytic nevi, hidradenitis suppurativa, and self-esteem. During infancy and toddlerhood, skin disorders such as infantile hemangiomas primarily affect the attachment between child and caregiver. School-aged children with port wine stains and atopic dermatitis report increased bullying, teasing, and social isolation. Acne and hidradenitis typically affect older children and teens and these conditions are associated with increased risks of depression and suicidal ideation. Effective management of these conditions has been shown to increase patients' self-esteem. Pediatric dermatologic disorders impact self-esteem throughout childhood. In addition to the surgical and medical management of these disorders, clinicians can also take an active role in the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial impact of these skin disorders.
Mroz, Emily L; Poulin, Michael J; Grant, Pei C; Depner, Rachel M; Breier, Jennifer; Byrwa, David J; Wright, Scott T
Longitudinal assessment of patient-caregiver relationships will determine whether caregiver self-esteem determines patient relationship satisfaction at end of life. Research on close relationships and caregiving supports the idea that informal caregivers' self-esteem may influence their relationships with their terminally ill loved ones. However, this connection has not yet been investigated longitudinally, nor has it been applied specifically to care recipients' relationship satisfaction. A sample of 24 caregivers and 24 patients in a hospice home care program were recruited. Multiple patient and caregiver interviews were used to conduct a longitudinal study to measure fluctuations in patient health, changes in patient and caregiver relationship satisfaction, and self-esteem over a three-month period. An interaction between caregiver self-esteem and patient relationship satisfaction demonstrated the role that self-esteem plays between caregivers and patients enrolled in hospice care. Specifically, for patients with caregivers with low self-esteem, patient relationship satisfaction significantly decreased as the patient's physical health decreased, whereas for patients whose caregivers had high self-esteem, patient relationship satisfaction marginally increased during poorer physical health. High self-esteem may allow caregivers to overcome feelings of burden and maladaptive anticipatory grief to remain satisfied in their relationship with the patient. Caregiver self-esteem appears to play a role in fostering patient relationship satisfaction at the end of life.
Neto, Miguel Sabino; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Lemos, Ana Lucia; Garcia, Élvio Bueno; Enout, Mariana Junqueira Reis; Cabral, Nádia Canale; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Currently, the concept of health includes not only the absence of disease but also a complete state of physical, psychological, and social well-being with increased emphasis on the importance of self-esteem. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of surgical treatment on the self-esteem of patients with breast asymmetry, breast hypertrophy, or hypomastia. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem UNIFESP-EPM Scale was administered preoperatively and in the early and late postoperative periods to assess self-esteem. The sample comprised three groups of patients: the breast asymmetry group (n=35), the breast hypertrophy group (n=50), and the hypomastia group (n=40). Surgical treatment had a positive and similar impact on the self-esteem of the patients in the three study groups. Correction of breast asymmetry, breast hypertrophy, and hypomastia improved the patient's self-esteem. All three groups reported a similar increase in self-esteem (decrease in total scores) after breast reconstruction.
Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold
Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...
Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Bentall, Richard P
Self-esteem is a key feature of bipolar symptomatology. However, so far no study has examined the interaction between explicit and implicit self-esteem in individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional design was employed. Thirty children of parents with bipolar disorder and 30 offspring of control parents completed Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale, the Self-esteem Rating Scale and the Implicit Association Test. No differences between groups were revealed in levels of explicit or implicit self-esteem. However, bipolar offspring showed increased levels of symptoms of depression and mania. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were associated with low explicit self-esteem, whilst symptoms of mania were associated with low implicit self-esteem. When self-esteem discrepancies were examined, damaged self-esteem (i.e., low explicit but high implicit self-esteem) was associated with depression, whilst no associations between mania and self-esteem discrepancies were found. Not only explicit, but also implicit self-esteem, and the interactions between the two are of relevance in bipolar symptoms. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Explicit as well as implicit SE, and particularly their relationship, are relevant for mental health. Fluctuations in implicit SE may serve as an early indicator for risk of bipolarity. Psychotherapeutic approaches may be more suitable for one kind of SE challenge than the other. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Analysis of influence of the child’s economic value and motivation on self-esteem of child labor in one of the business center in Bogor District was the goal of this research. The study involved 40 child laborers and their parents that were selected by snowball. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and multiple linear regression test. The results showed that parents' perceptions of child labor related future of child’s economic value and the child’s economic value currently in the moderate category. Motivation of child labors (intrinsic and extrinsic and self-esteem were also in the moderate category. Self-esteem of child labor increased by increasing length of child to attend formal education and decreased in children who was dropping outs of school. Selfesteem of child labor was also decreased with decreasing extrinsic motivation.
The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as
Brown, R. A.
Self-Esteem, both high and low, has been linked with a wide variety of desirable and undesirable conditions and consequences, including happiness, mental health, and even physiological functioning in general.Most studies have been conducted in North America, and the few that have been conductedelsewhere tend to yield anomalous results. Specifically, measurements of Japanese samples invariably indicate low self-esteem. The present essay argues that apparently low Japanese self-esteem is the re...
Morrison, Thomas L.; And Others
Three measures of self-esteem were used to test the hypothesis that college students with low self-esteem would predict getting lower grades on an examination than high-self esteem subjects. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory but not for the Ziller Social Self-Esteem scale or for the subscale of the Coopersmith…
Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled narcissism as “an exaggerated form of high self-esteem,” “inflated self-esteem,” and “defensive high self-esteem.” We review research that challenges this belief by showing that narcissism differs m...
Goštautas, Antanas; Grigaitė, Bronislava; Klasavičienė, Rima
Self-esteem of college students of Lithuania was examined inadequately. Three researches were made and data of 228 students' answers were analyzed, 170 females and 58 males. It was found out that reduced self-esteem dominates among the female as well as male students. Having made the factorial analysis of the data, five main factors of self-esteem of males and females were found out. The legalized and not legalized drugs are used among males irrespectively of self-esteem. Females with low sel...
Full Text Available Having low or high self-esteem is considered to have an effect on one's attitude to wards himself or her self as well as to wards other individuals in the society. The refore, it is importantto determine the factors that improve individuals' self-esteem. Considering that the quality of education obtained by an individual has an impact on self-esteem, it is imperative to pointout what factors in the education process boostone's self-esteem and to execute such factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of sporting activities on self-esteem of police officers with respect to different variables. The total of 266 police officers, 32 female and 234 male, who serve in the City of Erzurum in Turkey participated in this survey. Scale of Self Esteem, developed by Kuzgun (2005, was used in order to gather data. T test and variance analysis were utilized as well. The difference among the groups' choices is evaluated based on P 0.05 significancelevel. Based on the evaluation of the survey results, no difference among police officers was observed in terms of average self-esteem with respect to gender and sporting habits, where as, a difference was observed in terms of average self-esteem with respect to the type of sport performed. Those who perform individual sportst end to have higher self-esteem compared to those who perform team sports or no sport at all. Since, having police officers with high self-esteem serve and interact with individuals will have a positive effect on social interactions in the society. It is imperative to provide opportunities and encoruge policeofficers to do individual sports and to further study the factors that may help increase the self-esteem of such individuals.
Full Text Available Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16. The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77. For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all ps<0.001. The simple correlation between implicit self-esteem and age was significant, r = -.25, p = 1. 10(-10. A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.
Düring, Camilla; Jessop, Donna C
This study explored whether self-esteem would moderate the effectiveness of a self-affirmation manipulation at increasing openness to personally relevant health-risk information. The study employed a prospective experimental design. Participants (N = 328) completed either a self-affirmation manipulation or a control task, prior to reading information detailing the health-related consequences of taking insufficient exercise. They then completed a series of measures assessing their cognitions towards exercise and their derogation of the information. Exercise behaviour was assessed at 1-week follow-up. Self-esteem moderated the impact of self-affirmation on the majority of outcomes. For participants with low self-esteem, the self-affirmation manipulation resulted in more positive attitudes and intentions towards exercise, together with lower levels of derogation of the health-risk information. By contrast, there was no effect of the self-affirmation manipulation on outcomes for participants with high self-esteem. Findings suggest that self-affirmation manipulations might be of particular benefit for those with low self-esteem in terms of promoting openness towards health-risk information. This is promising from a health promotion perspective, as individuals with low self-esteem often represent those most in need of intervention. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-affirmation has been shown to result in more open processing of personally relevant health-risk information. Individuals low in self-esteem tend to process such information more defensively than those high in self-esteem. What does this study add? It explores whether self-esteem moderates the impact of self-affirmation on responses to health-risk information. Findings suggest that individuals with low self-esteem benefit most from the self-affirmation manipulation. This has important applied implications, as individuals with low self-esteem may be most in need of
Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…
Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.
Osborne, Jason W.
Tested hypothesis that African American children protect themselves from failure by detaching their self-esteem from academic outcomes. Analyses revealed a pattern of weakening correlations between self-esteem and academic outcomes from 8th to 10th grade for African American students. Correlations for white students remained stable or increased.…
For more than a generation, the idea that children need nurturance of a high self-esteem in order to be developmentally healthy has had wide acceptance in Western psychology. A generation of parents has been told that one of their key tasks is to increase their children's self-esteem, and teachers have been trained to give accolades, gold stars,…
Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations
Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.
Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard
Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
Brock, Rosalind; Rowse, Georgina; Slade, Pauline
This study aimed to investigate whether paranoid experiences and levels of self-esteem fluctuate over the menstrual cycle and whether levels of self-esteem are lower when perceived persecution is felt to be deserved. Measures of anxiety, depression, persecution, deservedness and self-esteem were completed on-line by 278 women over their menstrual cycle. Responses were compared at the paramenstrual (3 days before and after menses onset) and mid-cycle phase. At the paramenstrual phase persecution, negative self-esteem, anxiety and depression were higher and positive self-esteem was lower than at mid-cycle. A greater proportion of women experienced persecution as deserved at the paramenstrual phase. This was associated with higher depression and negative self-esteem scores. Increased levels of deservedness significantly strengthened the relationship between persecution and negative, but not positive, self-esteem. These findings suggest that the paramenstrual phase is a time of vulnerability to increased paranoid experiences, an increased likelihood that feelings of persecution will feel deserved and lowered self-esteem. The findings support the view that interpersonal sensitivities may be key to menstrual cycle symptoms and have an impact on relationships. Further, the study illustrated that ideas developed for psychosis could make a valuable contribution to understanding and managing this aspect of menstruation-related distress.
Addahri Hafidz Awlawi
Full Text Available The discovery from this research are: (1 condition of self-esteem of high school students in particular 8 students experiment is still relatively low. (2 There were significant differences between students’ Self-Esteem in pre-test and post-test from Experimental group. (3 There was no significant defferences between Self-Esteem in pre-test and post-test from control group students. (4 There were significant differences between students’ Self–Esteem in post-test from Control group and post-test from Experimental group. Based on the discovery above, we can conclude that implemeting role playing is effective to be used in group guidance service to increase students’ Self-Esteem. This research shows that is important to apply role playing in group guidance service that espoused with supervision from teacher and counselor at school, so that it can increase students’ Self-Esteem.
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F
We examined the life-span development of self-esteem and tested whether self-esteem influences the development of important life outcomes, including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, salary, positive and negative affect, depression, and physical health. Data came from the Longitudinal Study of Generations. Analyses were based on 5 assessments across a 12-year period of a sample of 1,824 individuals ages 16 to 97 years. First, growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, reaches a peak at about age 50 years, and then decreases in old age. Second, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that self-esteem is best modeled as a cause rather than a consequence of life outcomes. Third, growth curve analyses, with self-esteem as a time-varying covariate, suggested that self-esteem has medium-sized effects on life-span trajectories of affect and depression, small to medium-sized effects on trajectories of relationship and job satisfaction, a very small effect on the trajectory of health, and no effect on the trajectory of occupational status. These findings replicated across 4 generations of participants--children, parents, grandparents, and their great-grandparents. Together, the results suggest that self-esteem has a significant prospective impact on real-world life experiences and that high and low self-esteem are not mere epiphenomena of success and failure in important life domains. 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Orth, Ulrich; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W
The authors examined the development of self-esteem from young adulthood to old age. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives study, which includes 4 assessments across a 16-year period of a nationally representative sample of 3,617 individuals aged 25 years to 104 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the adult life span, increasing during young and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at about age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort differences in the self-esteem trajectory were found. Women had lower self-esteem than did men in young adulthood, but their trajectories converged in old age. Whites and Blacks had similar trajectories in young and middle adulthood, but the self-esteem of Blacks declined more sharply in old age than did the self-esteem of Whites. More educated individuals had higher self-esteem than did less educated individuals, but their trajectories were similar. Moreover, the results suggested that changes in socioeconomic status and physical health account for the decline in self-esteem that occurs in old age.
Guillon, M S; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Bailey, P E
To examine the relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Seventy-six adolescents (mean age: 16.02 years; range: 12-20) treated in an inpatient unit and presenting with DSM-IV psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, anxious disorder, anorexia nervosa, personality disorder, or conduct disorder were compared with a control group of 119 adolescents drawn from a normal population. All the subjects were assessed with the French translation of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Self-esteem was significantly higher in the control than in the clinical population (P = 0.0001). Female patients showed significantly lower SEI scores than male patients. Self-esteem increased significantly after 12 weeks in patients with a first psychotic episode who responded successfully to antipsychotic drug treatment. In the clinical group, a history of suicide attempts and sexual abuse was associated with significantly lower SEI scores. Lack of boy- or girlfriend, dropping out of school, and social withdrawal were also associated with lower self-esteem. The presence of a psychiatric disorder in adolescents is associated with decreased self-esteem. This decrease in self-esteem varies according to the psychiatric disorder. Appropriate treatment can enhance self-esteem in adolescent patients.
Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro
According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.
Buri, John R.; And Others
Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…
Crocker, Jennifer; Park, Lora E.
Researchers have recently questioned the benefits associated with having high self-esteem. The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and…
This article argues that the teacher is not well served by relying on the construct of self-esteem. Although an important idea in psychological health, self-esteem is not of direct importance to the teacher. More useful constructs would be those of self-concept and self-efficacy; both of which can be related directly to academic achievement.
Maintains that self-esteem is more than simply "feeling good" about oneself. It derives from having experienced meaningful success. A service learning program can accomplish this and avoid the self-preoccupation and narcissism that occasionally accompany self-esteem efforts. Service learning can replace this with empathy and commitment. (MJP)
Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley
Studied were 486 single females aged 13-20 attending ten birth control centers. In this liberal sample, high self-esteem subjects were accepting of premarital intercourse with affection, were more willing to take sexual initiative, and felt less guilt. Those endorsing sexual abstinence had lower self-esteem. (Editor/SJL)
Lee, Annette L.
While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…
Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)
Pepper, Floy C.; Henry, Steven L.
Discusses self-esteem and child development within the context of the Indian perspective of the wholeness of life. Associates the four directions of the Medicine Wheel and common Indian symbols and interpretations of these directions with four social elements related to self-esteem: empowerment, uniqueness, attachment, and role models. (SV)
Palisi, Anthony T.
The components of the self system include self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Learning that adds to identity augments self-concept. Learning that leads to self-appraisal relates to self-esteem. Learning that leads to prediction of achievement belongs to self-efficacy. Courage to persist when confronted by a "Gulp!" experience…
Santos, C.; Hutchinson, K.; Khan, J.V.; Markopoulos, P.
Self-esteem is a personality trait utilized to support the diagnosis of several psychological conditions. With this study we investigate the potential that computer games can have in assessing self-esteem. To that end, we designed and developed a platformer game and analyzed how in-game behavior
Higgins, Keith B.
This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…
Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.
This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…
Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka
Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…
Joshanloo, Mohsen; Daemi, Fatemeh
Self-esteem appears to play a central role in the spiritual life and ethical behaviour of the typical Iranian. For example, for many Iranians, humankind is believed to be the crown of creation, and each person is believed to be individually valued by God. Previous empirical studies also indicate that in Iran spirituality is positively associated with self-esteem. On this basis, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would be one of the mechanisms through which spirituality leads to increased mental well-being. Mediation analysis showed that self-esteem was a partial mediator of the spirituality-well-being relationship. Moreover, results of moderated mediation analysis revealed that this mediation was not significantly moderated by gender, and that the indirect path through self-esteem was significant in both genders. Implications of the results and their relevance to other western and eastern religions (e.g. Christianity and Buddhism) are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M
The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.
Roese, N J; Olson, J M
Two studies examined the relation between self-esteem and counterfactual thinking (consideration of "might-have-been" alternatives to reality). Ss imagined themselves in scenarios with another actor that resulted in either success or failure. Ss then "undid" the outcome by altering events that preceded the outcome. Following success, high self-esteem (HSE) Ss were more likely than low self-esteem (LSE) Ss to mutate their own actions. Following failure, LSE Ss were more likely than HSE Ss to mutate their own actions. Also, the structure of counterfactuals was influenced by outcome valence but not by self-esteem: Subtractive structures (in which antecedents are removed) were elicited by success, whereas additive structures (in which antecedents are added) were elicited by failure. The importance of the self and individual differences in self-esteem to counterfactual thinking is discussed.
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Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E
Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor that took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale. Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80-mm Hg (standard error = 0.09, p self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (standard error = 0.20, p = .015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared with all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure.
Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with a group in the classroom for the experimental group. Child Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire was used to measure problematic behavior. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire, and peer attachment was measured using the Inventory of Parent and Attachment. Measuring was performed right after the program was done (post 1) and 1 month after the program was finished (post 2). To compare the differences in self-esteem and peer attachment between groups, repeated measures analysis of variance was used. Most participants in the experimental group were 10 years old (62.5%, range 10-11), male (52.0%) and with middle grade point average (64.0%). The self-esteem scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 26.64, p < .001). The peer attachment scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 6.48, p = .014). The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.
Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian
Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...
Tobias Altmann; Marcus Roth
Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studie...
Brockmeyer, Timo; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Bents, Hinrich; Kämmerer, Annette; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between self-esteem, motive satisfaction, and body weight in acute (acAN) and recovered (recAN) inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in healthy controls. Both acAN and recAN showed lower levels of self-esteem as compared with healthy controls but did not differ from each other. In acAN, decreased body weight was associated with increased self-esteem. Satisfaction of an achievement motive but not satisfaction of a superiority motive mediated this association. No such correlations could be observed in the other groups. This is the first study to show an often assumed association between decreased body weight and increased self-esteem in AN patients. These preliminary results strengthen the assumption that low body weight may foster self-esteem in patients with acAN, mainly through the satisfaction of an achievement motive. Self-esteem should be focused very early in the treatment of AN since weight gain may deprive the patient of an important source of self-esteem. Treatment interventions should be attuned to underlying motives of threatened self-esteem; in AN patients, the enhancement of self-esteem via weight loss seems to be rather fuelled by the satisfaction of an achievement motive than by the satisfaction of a superiority motive. Specific trainings to improve self-esteem in AN patients seem to be promising as an add-on to regular treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L. L.; Yang, Jing
Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r = −.25, p = 1.0×10−10. A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = −0.19, t = −3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse “U” shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition. PMID:24587169
Dwi Bhakti Indri M
Full Text Available Based on an empirical study, it was found that group counseling done in SMA Negeri Kota Semarang was still using a conventional technique. In addition, the planning in implementing group counseling was still low. It was regarding the ratio of a number of students were unbalanced, even more, what make it more difficult was the students’ positive perspective toward counseling was still low. Regarding the level of students’ self-esteem, there were 19,59% or 87 students were indicated having low self-esteem, and 68,47% or 304 students have medium self-esteem. Nonetheless, there were only 11,94% or 54 students were indicated having high self-esteem according to CSEI (Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory system. In this case, we need more appropriate intervention in handling low self-esteem for some students. Furthermore, it wasn’t found any media which is specifically developed to handle students’ self-esteem. In theoretical perspective, self-esteem is a self-assessment about honor and significant showed through individual’s manner to him self. This study was using experimental group design: pretest and post test control group design. The result of the study showed that experimental group could increase their self-esteem, but control group showed the same result. Wilcoxon test result showed assume sig (2-tailed approximately 0.026 < 0.05, which means was accepted and that was declined in the experimental group. Therefore, this study suggests the counseling teachers implement counseling group by using spirituality-cognitive restructuring to improve students’ self-esteem. The researcher is also expected to implement the integrated approach in wider regions.
Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly
Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Jacono, Andrew; Chastant, Ryan P; Dibelius, Greg
It is well understood that optimal psychological health is imperative to success in aesthetic surgical procedures. Self-esteem is a very sensitive psychological factor that can influence patients' motivations for seeking surgery as well as their perceptions of outcomes. To use the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to correlate the outcome of rhytidectomy as perceived by the patient to further understand the association of self-esteem and the results of aesthetic facial rejuvenation. A prospective study was conducted of 59 consecutive patients undergoing rhytidectomy performed by a single surgeon at a private practice from July 1 to October 31, 2013. The RSES was used to establish preoperative baseline scores and scores at a 6-month postoperative follow-up. A paired t test was used to compare statistical data before and after surgery. Change in self-esteem and the patient's evaluation of the surgical outcome was assessed. Analysis was conducted from July 1 to December 1, 2014. Patients' change in self-esteem level after rhytidectomy, as assessed by the RSES. Of the 59 patients, 50 completed a 6-month postoperative questionnaire; mean age was 58 years (range, 37-73 years); 48 were women; and 44 were nonsmokers. The mean difference between baseline and 6-month scores showed an increase of 0.3 (baseline, 24.3; 6-month follow-up, 24.6), which was not statistically significant (P = .69). Subdivision of patients into groups by self-esteem level showed a statistically significant improvement in self-esteem after surgery in the group with low self-esteem, with a mean difference in the RSES score of 3.7 (P = .01), whereas the group with high self-esteem showed a decrease in the RSES score of -3.1 (P = .03) and the group with average self-esteem showed a nonsignificant increase of 0.5 in the RSES score (P = .59). The perceived change in youthful appearance (mean, 8.9 years) did not correlate with self-esteem changes. Patient's self-esteem before surgery may partially
Naci H. Mocan; Erdal Tekin
Obesity is associated with serious health problems, and it can generate adverse economic outcomes. We analyze a nationally-representative sample of young American adults to investigate the interplay between obesity, wages and self-esteem. Wages can be impacted directly by obesity, and they can be influenced by obesity indirectly through the channel of obesity to self-esteem to wages. We find that female wages are directly influenced by body weight, and self-esteem has an impact on wages in ca...
Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim
Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10-16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence
Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S.; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim
Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence
Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.
Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)
Defines global self-esteem (sense of efficacy, purpose, responsibility, self-acceptance) and trait self-esteem (confidence in specific abilities or talents). Gives examples of how low self-esteem impedes participation in learning and how learning can raise self-esteem. (SK)
Resnick, Harvey; And Others
A positive relationship between vocational crystallization and self esteem was assessed by observing differences on two measures of vocational crystallization in students high and low in self esteem scores. No differences according to self esteem were observed. Differences were observed in the certainty of high and low self esteem students. The…
Rosenberg, Morris; And Others
Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh
Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients. PMID:25276758
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh
Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ(2), t-test and ANCOVA. RESULTS showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.
Full Text Available Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35 and intervention (n=35 groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES. Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention.Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.
Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim
The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...
Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F
Self-esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self-esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self-esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self-words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self-esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self-esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self-esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self-esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost-effective and evidence-based interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ford, Máire B; Collins, Nancy L
In this study, the authors investigated self-esteem as a moderator of psychological and physiological responses to interpersonal rejection and tested an integrative model detailing the mechanisms by which self-esteem may influence cognitive, affective, and physiological responses. Seventy-eight participants experienced an ambiguous interpersonal rejection (or no rejection) from an opposite sex partner in the context of an online dating interaction. Salivary cortisol was assessed at 5 times, and self-reported cognitive and affective responses were assessed. Compared with those with high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem responded to rejection by appraising themselves more negatively, making more self-blaming attributions, exhibiting greater cortisol reactivity, and derogating the rejector. Path analysis indicated that the link between low self-esteem and increased cortisol reactivity was mediated by self-blame attributions; cortisol reactivity, in turn, mediated the link between low self-esteem and increased partner derogation. Discussion centers on the role of self-esteem as part of a broader psychobiological system for regulating and responding to social threat and on implications for health outcomes.
Main objective of this study is to examinate of relationship between self-esteem, life satisfaction of riot police and their approach to dealing with stress. Research data has been obtained through using self-esteem scale and inventory of approach to dealing with stress. The first finding is that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between self-esteem of riot police and their life satisfaction. As the self-esteem increases, so the life satisfaction does. The second finding is that...
Setiawan, Jenny Lukito
This article looks at the practical ways of building self-esteem in the early years. It describes the concepts of self-esteem and characteristics of children with high self-esteem and those with low self-esteem. The practical ways of building self-esteem are discussed under the five essential components of self-esteem pointed out by Reasoner and Dusa (1991), which include sense of security, identity, belonging, purpose, and personal competence.Key words: self-esteem, sense of security, sense ...
Wasson, D; Anderson, M A
The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether self-esteem differs between chemically dependent adolescents and adolescents from the general high school population. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1987) was completed by 119 adolescents (31 inpatient, 31 aftercare, and 57 general high school students) aged 13 to 18. Findings suggest that inpatient, chemically dependent adolescents have lower self-esteem than the other two groups. For the chemically dependent adolescent, nursing case management with communication among and between health care providers, school professionals, and family may facilitate successful, long-term recovery. For adolescents at risk for development of chemical dependence, nursing health promotion behaviors, such as early assessment and implementation of self-esteem-building activities, may assist in prevention of chemical dependency.
In this study, a self-esteem maintenance model is introduced and is used to test predictions about sibling identification, sibling friction, and the closeness of father-son relationships as they relate to sibling performance. (Author/SS)
... topic for: Teens How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Rejection: How Well Do You Cope? (Quiz) How Can I Stop Focusing on My Flaws? Emotional Intelligence View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us ...
Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E
Objective Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Methods Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor which took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. Results On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80 mmHg (SE=0.09, pself-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (SE=0.20, p=0.015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared to all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Conclusions Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure. PMID:26230481
Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T
Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and depression. Self-esteem was operationalized as beliefs about oneself (self-based self-esteem) and beliefs about how other people regard oneself (other-based self-esteem). Each dimension of self-esteem was negatively associated with suicide ideation after controlling for depression and hopelessness. Of the two dimensions of self-esteem, other-based self-esteem was the more robust predictor of suicide ideation. These findings suggest that even in the context of depression and hopelessness, low self-esteem may add to the risk for suicide ideation.
Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Abe, Nobuhito; Kashima, Emiko S; Nomura, Michio
Reminders of death often elicit defensive responses in individuals, especially among those with low self-esteem. Although empirical evidence indicates that self-esteem serves as a buffer against mortality threats, the precise neural mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that self-esteem modulates neural responses to death-related stimuli, especially functional connectivity within the limbic-frontal circuitry, thereby affecting subsequent defensive reactions. As predicted, individuals with high self-esteem subjected to a mortality threat exhibited increased amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) connectivity during the processing of death-related stimuli compared with individuals who have low self-esteem. Further analysis revealed that stronger functional connectivity between the amygdala and the VLPFC predicted a subsequent decline in responding defensively to those who threaten one's beliefs. These results suggest that the amygdala-VLPFC interaction, which is modulated by self-esteem, can reduce the defensiveness caused by death-related stimuli, thereby providing a neural explanation for why individuals with high self-esteem exhibit less defensive reactions to mortality threats. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
McCauley, James B; Harris, Michelle A; Zajic, Matthew C; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay E; Oswald, Tasha; McIntyre, Nancy; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter; Solomon, Marjorie
Self-esteem is a potent indicator of mental health in typically developing (TYP) individuals. It is surprising that there have been few comprehensive investigations of self-esteem in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), given that they are at high risk for comorbid mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. The objectives of the current study were to assess how youth with ASD rate their self-esteem compared to age-matched TYP youth and to examine how self-esteem relates to internalizing psychopathology and theory of mind in the two groups. Seventy-three children and adolescents, ages 9 to 17, were administered a battery of questionnaires assessing self-esteem and internalizing symptoms, as well as tasks designed to measure theory of mind. Results indicated that youth with ASD rated their self-esteem significantly lower than did TYP youth. Self-esteem was strongly related to depression in both groups but was negatively related to theory of mind only for youth with ASD. These results may provide important insights into how individuals with ASD form evaluations of their own self-worth and illustrate how increasing self-awareness in individuals with ASD is not without risks.
Svaldi, J; Zimmermann, S; Naumann, E
Given the theoretically postulated causal pathway from low self-esteem on body dissatisfaction, the aim of the present study was to experimentally test this linkage before and after a mirror exposure in body dissatisfied females. Thirty-six women with high body dissatisfaction (HBD) and 39 women with low body dissatisfaction (LBD) received either a positive or a negative implicit manipulation of self-esteem and participants' actual body dissatisfaction and negative emotions were assessed (T1). Following that, they underwent a one minute mirror exposure and actual body dissatisfaction and emotions were assessed once more (T2). In the HBD group no effects of the self-esteem manipulation were found prior to the mirror exposure. However, the negative manipulation of self-esteem led to a significant increase of body dissatisfaction over the course of the mirror exposure. The positive manipulation of self-esteem did not decrease body dissatisfaction over the course of the mirror exposure. No effects of self-esteem on body dissatisfaction were found in the LBD group. Formal eating disorder diagnosis in study participants was not established. Therefore, the extension of the results to an eating disordered population is recommended. The results yield evidence of a close linkage between negative self-esteem and body dissatisfaction in individuals high on body dissatisfaction. Consistent with cognitive theories, this link is only apparent when shape and weight schemas are activated, e.g. by the confrontation with one's own body. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, C W; Conrad, B
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p attachment behaviors.
Unal, Dilek; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan
Objective Sensitivity about appearance is one of the sine qua non of adolescence and adolescents' self-esteem effecting their socialization processes. We explored if verruca vulgaris, a common visible infectious skin disease, affects social anxiety levels and self-esteem in adolescents compared to controls. Also, the difference in sociodemographic properties between two groups and the effect of clinical properties (the distribution and number of warts) on these parameters were investigated in the patient group. Materials and methods The study group consisted 98 adolescents (49 controls and 49 patients) without other medical/psychiatric diseases. The Sociodemographic form (SDF), the Çapa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (ÇCASPS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed by both groups. Results There was no difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the two groups. Also, the control and patient groups were found matched. However, lower self-esteem was the only factor that increased the risk for social phobia in the patient group. Conclusion Verruca vulgaris distributed in hands and face in adolescents were not found to be related with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem. However, clinicians should monitor psychiatric symptoms and especially lower self-esteem should be taken into account.
Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F
Diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions are marked by a diminished sense of positive self-regard, and reductions in self-esteem are associated with risk for these disorders. Recent evidence has shown that the connectivity of frontostriatal circuitry reflects individual differences in self-esteem. However, it remains an open question as to whether the integrity of these connections can predict self-esteem changes over larger timescales. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography, we demonstrate that the integrity of white matter pathways linking the medial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum predicts changes in self-esteem 8 months after initial scanning in a sample of 30 young adults. Individuals with greater integrity of this pathway during the scanning session at Time 1 showed increased levels of self-esteem at follow-up, whereas individuals with lower integrity showed stifled or decreased levels of self-esteem. These results provide evidence that frontostriatal white matter integrity predicts the trajectory of self-esteem development in early adulthood, which may contribute to blunted levels of positive self-regard seen in multiple psychiatric conditions, including depression and anxiety.
Alavi, Hamid Reza
Addiction, theft and Prostitution are of the most important problems of contemporary society. On the other hand, self-esteem is one of the most important variables and concepts that might have a meaningful influence on these problems. This study aims to investigate the role of self-esteem in the individuals' tendency to addiction, theft and prostitution in Kerman city, Iran. The statistical population of this study is those individuals who had a record of addiction, theft and prostitution in Kerman prison, and the ordinary individuals. The research sample consisted of 300 individuals, 200 of whom were those with record of addiction, theft and prostitution in the central prison of Kerman city, and 100 ordinary people. Because some of the research questionnaires were not returned, only 283 questionnaires were analyzed. The instrument for determining the respondents' self-esteem was Eysenck Self-esteem Inventory. Self-esteem had a meaningful role in the individual's tendency to addiction, theft and prostitution. On the basis of the research results, it can be concluded that those who are involved in addiction, theft and prostitution have a lower self-esteem compared with the ordinary person. Thus, it is necessary to increase an individual's self-esteem in order to decrease their tendency to addiction, theft and prostitution.
Awidat Rose; Awidat Rose; Snait Tamir
This review discusses the issue of self-esteem among Druze women in Israel in light of the challenges faced by the passage from traditional to modern society. It explores how gender roles, cultural dimensions, family structure, education and appearance influence women’s self-esteem. Druze women are breaking the traditional boundaries, while at the same time protecting those boundaries and doing their best to ensure that Druze values are carried, by their community, into the future. They...
Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of cognitive methods on increasing self-esteem and life satisfaction, teaching of these methods is recommended for cognitive rehabilitation, correction of the patterns of irrational thinking and belief and finally increasing mental health.
Wouters, S.; Duriez, B.; Luykx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Colpin, H.; Soenens, B.; Verschueren, K.
The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using
Bailey, Joseph A
Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.
self - esteem is significantly correlated with a number of behaviors. In comparison to an individual with low self - esteem , an individual with high self ...seems to look at himself and say "I like what I see and I am going to give it its desires and needs," whereas the low self - esteem person seems to say...that May identified with low self - esteem . Therefore, high self - esteem will exist with those who have a recognized and
Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri
The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...
Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl
This study investigated associations among adolescents' self-esteem in 6 domains (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth) and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. A multistage stratified sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample of 939 English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking students in Grades 8 and 11 at public high schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants completed the multidimensional Self-Esteem Questionnaire (SEQ; DuBois, Felner, Brand, Phillips, & Lease, 1996) and a self-report questionnaire containing items about demographic characteristics and participation in a range of risk behaviours. It included questions about their use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, solvents and other substances, bullying, suicidal ideation and attempts, and risky sexual behaviour. Data was analysed using a series of logistic regression models, with the estimation of model parameters being done through generalised estimation equations. Scores on each self-esteem scale were significantly associated with at least one risk behaviour in male and female adolescents after controlling for the sampling strategy, grade and race. However, specific self-esteem domains were differentially related to particular risk behaviours. After taking the correlations between the self-esteem scales into account, low self-esteem in the family and school contexts and high self-esteem in the peer domain were significantly independently associated with multiple risk behaviours in adolescents of both sexes. Low body-image self-esteem and global self-worth were also uniquely associated with risk behaviours in girls, but not in boys. Overall, the findings suggest that interventions that aim to protect adolescents from engaging in risk behaviours by increasing their self-esteem are likely to be most effective and cost-efficient if they are aimed at the family and school domains.
Hill, Sarah E; Durante, Kristina M
Two studies measured self-esteem across the menstrual cycle to test the prediction that self-esteem will vary interindividually as a positive function of mate value and intraindividually as a negative function of fertility status. Study 1 (n = 52) found that self-esteem was positively related to mate value between women but that women experienced a self-esteem decrease nearest to ovulation, when women tend to be more attractive to men. Study 2 (n = 59) replicated these results and demonstrated that the self-esteem decrease at high fertility was positively related to women's reported long-term mating motivation. Additionally, the magnitude of the self-esteem decrease at high fertility was found to be related to increased willingness to spend money on items to enhance attractiveness at high fertility. A self-esteem decrease at high fertility may motivate mate value enhancement efforts when such efforts are most critical.
Kiviruusu, Olli; Berg, Noora; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari
This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces. Participants were grouped using latent profile analysis to those having "consistently low", "decreasing", or "increasing" number of interpersonal conflicts from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models and autoregressive cross-lagged models. Among both females and males the self-esteem growth trajectory was most favorable in the group with a consistently low number of interpersonal conflicts. Compared to the low group, the group with a decreasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a self-esteem trajectory that started and remained at a lower level throughout the study period. The group with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a significantly slower self-esteem growth rate compared to the other groups, and also the lowest self-esteem level at the end of the study period. Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated small, but significant lagged effects from low self-esteem to later interpersonal conflicts, although only among males. There were no effects to the opposite direction among either gender. Our results show that those reporting more and an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts have a lower and more slowly developing self-esteem trajectory from adolescence to mid-adulthood. While the result was expected, it does not seem to imply an effect from interpersonal conflicts to low self-esteem. Rather, if anything, our results
A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…
Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Guo, Shenyang
The current study examines individual-, social-, and school-level characteristics influencing symptoms of depression and self-esteem among a large sample (N = 4,321) of U.S. youth living in two rural counties in the South. Survey data for this sample of middle-school students (Grade 6 to Grade 8) were part of the Rural Adaptation Project. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that being female, having a low income, and having negative relationships with parents and peers are risk factors that increase the probability of reporting high levels of depressive symptoms and low levels of self-esteem. In contrast, supportive relationships with parents and peers, high religious orientation, ethnic identity, and school satisfaction increased the probability of reporting low levels of depressive symptoms and high levels of self-esteem. There were few school-level characteristics associated with levels of depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Implications are discussed.
Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.
Thompson, Angus H
It has not been made clear whether self-esteem is associated with the severity of suicidal behavior. To test the association between responses to a self-esteem inventory and levels of suicidal behavior as conceptualized in the notion of the suicide process. Questions on the severity of suicidal behavior over the lifespan (death wishes, ideation, plans, and attempts), as well as a self-esteem inventory, were administered to 227 university undergraduates. A negative relationship was found between the level of suicidality and self-esteem. As hypothesized, there were fewer cases in each succeeding level of seriousness of suicidal behavior. However, nearly all cases from any particular level were contained in the cohort of individuals who had displayed suicidal behavior at a less serious level. This suggests a possible progression through each of the stages of suicidal behavior, with very few cases showing a level of suicidal behavior that was not associated with a previous, less serious, form. It was hypothesized that early entry into the suicidal process may be indicated by low self-esteem, thus, allowing for a more timely preventive intervention.
Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer
This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.
The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents…
Edins, Cynthia A.
According to the social-cognitive theory, students increase or decrease their self-efficacy and self-esteem based on previous performance, comparison with peers, and feedback from their learning environment. Similar studies have looked at self-efficacy and/or self-esteem; for example, a study was done at the University of Georgia in which they…
Lorr, M; Wunderlich, R A
Two scales were constructed to assess self-esteem, conceptualized as reflecting (a) feelings of competence and efficacy, and (b) perceived positive appraisal from significant others. To control for response bias a paired choice format was chosen for the items constructed. A buffer scale designed to measure social assertiveness was also included. Data were collected on three samples of high school boys. The item intercorrelations were subjected to principal component analyses followed by Varimax rotations. In each of the three analyses factors of Confidence, Popularity (Social Approval), and Social Assertiveness emerged. The revised self-esteem scales, each defined by 11 items, have been shown to have acceptable reliability and some concurrent validity based on correlations with the well-known Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz
To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.
Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold
Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...
Elvira Rosyida MR
Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence
Joaquín Caso Niebla
Full Text Available The present study intended to explore construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents and update psychometric properties found in previous studies. 1581 Mexican students (850 women and 731 men of a public high school in Mexico City responded to the scale. The sample was split randomly in half. EFA was applied using one sample´s data, and CFA to the other sample´s data. The model, assumed to underlie responses to the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents, satisfactorily fit the data, confirming a structure of 4 factors: self-cognitions, competence cognitions, family relations and rage. Results of the present study corroborate previous data concerning content, criterion-related and construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents.
Tripković, Ingrid; Roje, Romilda; Krnić, Silvana; Nazor, Mirjana; Karin, Željka; Čapkun, Vesna
Depression prevalence has increased in the last few decades, affecting younger age groups. The aim of this research was to determine the range of depression and low self-esteem in elementary school children in the city of Split. Testing was carried out at school and the sample comprised 1,549 children (714 boys and 832 girls, aged 13). Two psychological instruments were used: the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) and the Children and Adolescent Depression Scale (SDD). The average value of scores obtained by SEI test was 17.8 for all tested children. No statistically significant difference was found be-tween boys and girls. It was found that 11.9% of children showed signs of clinically significant depression, and 16.2% showed signs of depression. Statistically significant association between low self-esteem and clinically significant depression was found. No statistically significant difference among boys and girls according to dimension of cognitive depression was found, whereas statistically significant level of emotional depression was higher in girls than boys. It was found that both dimensions of depression decreased proportionally with the increase of SEI test score values: cognitive and emotional dimension of depression. The results of this study show that it is necessary to provide early detection of emotional difficulties in order to prevent serious mental disorders. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
Wagner, Jenny; Lüdtke, Oliver; Jonkmann, Kathrin; Trautwein, Ulrich
Several recent studies have illustrated a general increase in self-esteem from after adolescence until midlife. However, the specific pattern and possible conditions of self-esteem development from the important transition out of high school into young adulthood are still not well understood. In a longitudinal study (Transformation of the Secondary School System and Academic Careers; TOSCA), German students were interviewed 4 times beginning with their senior high school year (at Time 1 [T1]: N = 4,532; age: M = 19.6 years, SD = 0.9; 55% female). Conditional latent change models were applied and established 3 main findings. First, self-esteem showed a gradual increase across the transition, with both the self-esteem intercept and slope indicating substantial interindividual variability in the transition to young adulthood. Second, structural (having a partnership) as well as personality (Big Five) characteristics were substantially related to self-esteem development in emerging adulthood. Third, there were gender-specific associations between self-esteem and partnership status as well as between self-esteem and neuroticism and agreeableness. Findings point to a general upward development of self-esteem yet show interdependencies with the accomplishment of age-specific challenges in the transition to young adulthood.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigation of the effectiveness of emotional intelligence training on the self-esteem of deaf students in Tehran province. Materials & Methods: The present research was an experimental study by pre-test, post-test design with control group. The study population included of boys deaf students from secondary schools (2ed grade in Tehran province. Subjects were selected randomly by cluster sampling method. In this study were participated 40 students. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomly (experimental and control group, each of which was consisted of 20 students. Experimental group received emotional intelligence training in 12 sessions while control group did not. The instruments of present research were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and Cooper Smith self-esteem questionnaire. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by MANCOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increase in self-esteem scores mean of experimental group in the post intervention in comparison with control group (P<0.05. Also scores mean of experimental group increased significantly in ego self-esteem, social self-esteem, family self-esteem and academic self-esteem (P<0.05. Conclusion: The emotional intelligence training program led to improvement the self-esteem and their subscales of deaf students. Therefore, planning for providing of emotional intelligence training is a particular importance.
Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim
The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations. Pregnant women who had low scores for self-esteem were 60% of all subjects. As for the sociodemographic data, women with fewer years of education presented higher frequency of lower self-esteem scores, which disagrees with other studies. Pregnant women who report having an unplanned pregnancy presented higher prevalence of low self-esteem than those who reported having planned their pregnancy. The lack of support from the partner to look after the baby was also associated to the pregnant women's low self-esteem. Other associations between variables were not statistically significant.
Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi
Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.
Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22433387
Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Erin M. Myers
The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem...
Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M B; Guo, Jen; McAdams, Dan P; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Trzesniewski, Kali H
The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self-esteem, which predicted relative increases in self-esteem 16 months later, on average. Finally, parent support also predicted residual increases in self-esteem. Findings extend prior research by including younger ages and uncovering a process by which two theoretically relevant parenting behaviors impact self-esteem development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
EYLEM GENCER; Ekrem Levent İLHAN
The purpose of this study is to examine badminton athletes’ self-esteem according to some variables. The research was carried out in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship where 12 clubs and 87 athletes participated in 2009. 42 national and 14 non-national totaly 56 badminton athletes whose mean age 18.78±3.46 that participated in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship in 2009 constitute our research sample. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, that was developed by Rosenberg (1963) and adapted to Turkish ...
Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja
This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction research, conducted on a sample of 133 high school seniors, consisted of two phases. In phase one, participants were given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Appearance Satisfaction Scale and Appearance Relevance Scale, and in phase two, one month later, they were exposed to photographs of attractive and unattractive individuals. Two groups of boys and girls each assessed attractive or unattractive individuals of their own gender, while two control groups (of both genders were not exposed to any photographs. Immediately after assessing the photographs, the participants were again given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and Appearance Satisfaction Scale. We found that forced social comparison had an impact on self-esteem and a marginally significant effect on appearance satisfaction in the group of participants (of both genders assessing the photographs of unattractive individuals, while no effects were found in the either the control group or the group assessing the photographs of attractive individuals. We also examined the impact of self-esteem, appearance satisfaction and appearance relevance as moderating variables on the effect size of social comparison and showed that higher pretest self-esteem and appearance relevance and lower appearance satisfaction predict higher posttest self-esteem scores, regardless of the participants’ group membership. The group of participants exposed to photographs of unattractive people, however, showed the opposite pattern - those participants who had initially lower self-esteem have increased it more as a result of the experimental exposure.
Khajehdaluee, Mohammad; Zavar, Abbas; Alidoust, Mahbobeh; Pourandi, Razieh
Adolescence is the period of stress and strain. Researchers have shown that adolescents without strong social supports would have tendency towards smoking and drug abuse. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between low self-esteem and illegal drug abuse. Participants were 943 grades nine to 12 high school students, from Sarakhs during 2010 - 2011. Adolescents participated in the study, completed two self-report questionnaires. The first questionnaire included questions about individual and family information, smoking and illegal drug abuse history, and the second was the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. 53.8% of participants were male (507 individuals). The mean Rosenberg self-esteem score was 19.8 + 5.2, and the most frequent obtained scores were from 22 to 30. The difference of Rosenberg self-esteem score test between students who did not use any substance and those who had a history of smoking or drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohols, betel nut (Nas) and other drugs (such as Pan and Hookah) was significant (P self-esteem scores between adolescents who lived with both or one of the parents, and those who did not live with any of parents, was significant (P = 0.04). There was also a significant association between the number of children in the family and self-esteem score. The current study showed significant association between the Rosenberg self-esteem test results and smoking, and illegal drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohol, Nas, and other substances. Therefore, increasing self-esteem is essential for preventing the adolescents' emotional and behavioral disorders. This fact could guide us to the new approaches for smoking and drug-abuse prevention in adolescents.
Turunen, J; Fransson, E; Bergström, M
Parental support has been shown to be important for children's self-esteem, which in turn is related to later important life outcomes. Today, an increasing number of children in the Western world spend time in both the parents' respective households after a separation. Children who live with both parents report more parental support than children who live only with one parent after a divorce. We took the opportunity of the commonness of children sharing their time between their parents' homes in Sweden to investigate children's self-esteem in relation to family type. With nationally representative survey data (ULF) collected from both parents and children, we analyze differences in children's self-esteem among 4823 10-18 year olds in nuclear families, joint physical custody and those living mostly or only with one parent after a separation using ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We found no significant difference in self-esteem between children who lived equally much with both parents, mostly with one parent and those in nuclear families, whereas children in single care showed lower self-esteem compared with children in the other living arrangements. The difference was not explained by socioeconomic factors. The self-esteem of children who share their time between their parent's respective homes after a separation does not deviate from that in their peers in nuclear families. Instead, those in single care reported lower self-esteem than those in the other living arrangements. These differences were not explained by socioeconomic factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish pre- and post-separation family characteristics that influence self-esteem and well-being in young people. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clasen, Peter C.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Beevers, Christopher G.
Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants’ smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression. PMID:26131724
Clasen, Peter C; Fisher, Aaron J; Beevers, Christopher G
Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.
Peter C Clasen
Full Text Available Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology. In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.
Werner, Perla; Aviv, Alex; Barak, Yoram
The relationship between self-stigma and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia is receiving increased attention. However, studies to date have been limited to samples of persons under the age of 65. To examine the relationship between self-stigma and self-esteem in people with schizophrenia in both younger and older age groups. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 86 inpatients with schizophrenia in a psychiatric hospital (mean age = 54, 55% female). Self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Self-stigma was assessed using an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Health (ISMI) scale. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics and psychiatric history and symptomatology was collected. Self-stigma was moderate with only 20-33% of the participants reporting high levels of stigmatization. Older participants reported lower levels of self-stigma than younger participants. A relatively strong association between self-stigma and self-esteem was found. The findings point to the complexity of the association between self-stigma, self-esteem and age in people with schizophrenia. This study stresses the importance of clinicians taking the issue of self-stigma into consideration when treating young and old patients with schizophrenia.
Nursing students with high levels of self-esteem and a strong ego-identity maintain a level of self-integrity that enables them to participate successfully in shared group values and interests while simultaneously meeting their own needs. Self-esteem and ego-identity are associated with academic achievement, major (area of study) satisfaction, and life satisfaction in undergraduate students. This study evaluated a brief group program for Korean nursing students that focused on promoting positive self-esteem and ego-identity development. Twenty-three Korean nursing school students participated. Changes in the students' ego-identity and self-esteem were quantitatively examined. Scores for ego-identity and self-esteem increased significantly for the students who participated in the group, while scores in the control group remained the same. The program is judged as an effective method for nursing educators or college mental health providers to utilize in order to promote affirmative ego-identity and self-esteem in nursing students. Additionally, the program contributes to helping students achieve developmental goals during their college life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hale, Willie J; Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Garza, Raymond T
Men exhibit higher rates of smoking relative to women (CDC, 2014). Given the associated health and socio-economic consequences, it would be valuable to explore the psychological factors underlying this variance. We contend that positive beliefs about smoking influence this difference, and that self-esteem moderates these beliefs. As part of a multi-institutional collaborative study funded by the American Legacy Foundation, 445 participants who reported being either steady or occasional smokers completed a series of questionnaires assessing their beliefs and behaviors involving smoking as well as several dispositional variables. Moderated mediation was used to test for conditional indirect effects. The total, indirect, and direct effects of gender were significant for individuals with lower, but not higher self-esteem. Males with lower self-esteem exhibited more positive beliefs and smoking behavior than females with lower self-esteem. No differences between males and females with higher self-esteem were observed. The gender gap in smoking behavior appears to occur primarily among individuals with lower self-esteem. It is a particularly detrimental risk factor for males, as it is related to higher positive views about smoking and increased tobacco consumption. These results highlight the importance of developing multifaceted gender specific belief-based preventative interventions to address smoking related behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Li, Haijiang; Yang, Juan
Previous findings are generally consistent with the notion that individuals with low self-esteem tends to easily orient their attention on negative stimuli. The main objective of the present study was to further investigate the time course of attention deployment to positive (happy) and negative (angry) facial expressions in visual probe task using event-related potentials (ERP) technology in 15 high versus 15 low self-esteem participants while they viewed pairs of faces (e.g., happy face paired with neutral face or angry face paired with neutral face) shown for 500 ms and followed by a probe. Behavioral results showed that individuals with low self-esteem simply had faster manual reaction times on the entire task. ERP results showed that individuals with low self-esteem, but not high self-esteem, displayed increased P1 and N1 activity to both happy and angry facial expression. These findings suggest that emotional stimuli (angry faces and happy faces) elicited greater mobilization of attentional resources in individuals with low self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K
Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.
Dunkley, David M; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Zuroff, David C
This study of university students (64 men, 99 women) examined the role of self-critical (SC) and personal standards (PS) higher order dimensions of perfectionism in daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect. Participants completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 7 consecutive days. Trait and situational influences were found in the daily reports of self-esteem, attachment, and affect. In contrast to PS perfectionism, SC perfectionism was strongly related to aggregated daily reports of low self-esteem, attachment fears (fear of closeness, fear of dependency, fear of loss), and negative affect as well as instability indexes of daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect. Multilevel modeling indicated that both SC and PS perfectionists were emotionally reactive to decreases in self-esteem, whereas only SC perfectionists were emotionally reactive to increases in fear of closeness with others. These results demonstrate the dispositional and moderating influences of perfectionism dimensions on daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goodday, Sarah M; Bentall, Richard; Jones, Steven; Weir, Arielle; Duffy, Anne
This study investigated whether there were differences in coping strategies and self-esteem between offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high-risk) and offspring of unaffected parents (control), and whether these psychological factors predicted the onset and recurrence of mood episodes. High-risk and control offspring were followed longitudinally as part of the Flourish Canadian high-risk bipolar offspring cohort study. Offspring were clinically assessed annually by a psychiatrist using semi-structured interviews and completed a measure of coping strategies and self-esteem. In high-risk offspring, avoidant coping strategies significantly increased the hazard of a new onset Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition twice revised mood episode or recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.89, p = 0.04), while higher self-esteem significantly decreased this hazard (hazard ratio: 2.50, p Self-esteem and avoidant coping significantly interacted with one another ( p self-esteem. A reduction of avoidant coping strategies in response to stress and improvement of self-esteem may be useful intervention targets for preventing the new onset or recurrence of a clinically significant mood disorder among individuals at high familial risk.
Gavric, Anja; Mirceta, Dubravka; Jakobovic, Mario; Pavlic, Andrej; Zrinski, Magda Trinajstic; Spalj, Stjepan
Self-esteem is a psychological trait that may develop in interaction with craniodentofacial esthetics. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem in adolescents and young adults. The study was cross-sectional; the sample included 200 pupils and university students (58% female) aged 13 to 33 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire were used. Craniodentofacial features were estimated by the method of Martin and Saller, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need. When malocclusion severity increases, dental esthetics-related quality of life decreases. The multiple linear regression showed that with the control of all other predictors in the model, the social impact of dental esthetics, borderline dental self-confidence, and facial type contribute the most to explain the variability of self-esteem, accounting for 3.2%, 1.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, of the variability values. The whole model accounts for 24.2% of the variability of self-esteem. In adolescents and young adults, self-esteem appears to be more influenced by the self-perceived psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics than the normative level of malocclusion, craniofacial typology, sex, or age. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín
Assuming that suicide is the result of a series of factors acting cumulatively, the aim of this paper was to study the association of self-esteem, resilience and locus of control with the risk of suicidal behavior in a sample of nursing students. Observational, cross-sectional and correlational study with 186 nursing students who answered a questionnaire that contained, in addition to demographic data, the Spanish forms of Rosenberg self-esteem scale, the brief resilient coping scale, the Plutchik scale of suicide risk and the Rotter's internal-external locus of control scale. The scores of males and females are very similar on all scales except Locus of Control, where a significantly greater tendency of females attributed to external control. 6.4% of students have scores indicating suicide risk. Suicide risk scores correlated negatively and significantly with self-esteem and resilience and positively with locus of control. The multiple linear regression analysis identified self-esteem as the main variable related to suicide risk. The results suggest that students who have low self-esteem, have difficulty in adjusting to adverse situations and tend to the external attribution of the consequences of their actions may have an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Furthermore, the identification of self-esteem as the important factor involved in suicide risk can help in designing prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Richardson, Chris G; Kwon, Jae-Young; Ratner, Pamela A
To investigate differences in the relationship between self-esteem and the initiation of substance use (tobacco, alcohol and marijuana) among male and female secondary school students in British Columbia. The data were collected in the 2010 fall and 2011 spring cycles of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (BASUS). The sample consisted of 1,267 adolescents (57% female) in Grades 8 and 9. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the extent to which self-esteem and gender, and their interaction, influenced the odds of having initiated substance use at baseline and at follow-up 6 months later. For each one-point increase on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, there was a reduction in the odds of initiating substance use by up to 9% for tobacco, 3% for alcohol, and 7% for marijuana. The relationships between self-esteem and the initiation of tobacco and alcohol use varied by gender, with boys having slightly less robust associations at the baseline assessment. The results suggest that self-esteem is protective against the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Researchers are advised to consider the interactive effects of gender in future longitudinal research examining the relationship between self-esteem and the initiation of substance use, including implications related to the development of substance use prevention programs.
Robinson, R B; Frank, D I
This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.
Berger, Charles R.
Two experiments were conducted which assumed that persons with extremely high or low self-esteem would be more defensive than moderate self-esteem persons when receiving ego-threatening communication. (Editor)
Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ... completed a questionnaire comprising of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the General ... in social competence or interpersonal relationship skills and psychological well ...
Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...
Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young adults. ... The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and three surveys: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the premarital sex scale.
Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral Development of ... The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.
One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)
Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.
Donnellan, M Brent; Kenny, David A; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Lucas, Richard E; Conger, Rand D
The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development.
Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.
The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development. PMID:23180899
Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara
Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women – Study 1 – and men – Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration. PMID:27872665
Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara
Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men ( N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.
Becker, Manfred R.
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis presents a literature review of self-esteem, primarily as it relates to organizations and management. Based on this literature review, self-esteem is defined as the emotional valuation individuals have of themselves and the degree of certainty of this valuation. Several models of self-esteem are presented. The relationship of coping and avoidance to self-esteem is considered. Coping is presented as being one of the primary so...
Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur
This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...
Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi
Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for...
Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…
This study examines the differences in self-esteem development between adopted and looked after orphans in Dar es Salaam. The relationship between psychosocial support and self esteem development, as well as the effects of social demographic variables to self esteem were also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative ...
Eckart, M. L.
The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…
Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.
Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…
Sonstroem, Robert J.
A review of selected research in the area of exercise and self-esteem illustrates recommendations made for improving research in this area. Studies concerning self-esteem theory and static and dynamic relationships between exercise and self-esteem are reported. (CJ)
Fox, Kenneth R.
The article outlines recent theoretical developments in self-esteem research that have not yet been applied to the youth fitness problem, including concepts of self-esteem multidimensionality and hierarchical structuring, and personalization processes. Programmatical implications related to self-esteem promotion and exercise motivation are…
The results show no significant differences between corporal punishment and academic performance and self-esteem of the students. Whereas self-esteem and academic performance were found to be positively related, there was no significant variation in self-esteem across gender. The implications of the findings are ...
In two studies which were designed to identify behavioral manifestations of self-esteem, experienced teachers were asked to perform a criterion sort of an 84-item behavioral Q-set, with high and low self-esteem as the criteria. Aims included: (1) identification of classroom behaviors of preschool children associated with self-esteem; (2)…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
Valett, Robert E.
Self-esteem, well managed, is a powerful force for effective learning. Research has shown that good self-esteem is associated with analytical thinking, persistence, creative ability, social independence, stability and high expectations, and that the antecedents of positive self-esteem are found in parental models who provide firm guidance in the…
Barlow, Alexandra; Woods, Susan E.
There have been mixed results concerning any association between self-esteem and smoking prevalence in young people. The aim of this paper was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between self-esteem and the uptake of smoking in childhood, and how various sub-components of self-esteem are related to smoking. A sample of…
Beane, James A.
Current efforts to enhance children's self-esteem are critiqued, and an alternative direction is proposed that is based on the notion of self-esteem as a crucial aspect of human dignity. This approach connects self-esteem to both cultural and social conditions and works toward the reconstruction of school and society. (LB)
This account follows on from the research report "Visual impairment and its impact on self-esteem" (Bowen, 2010) published in this journal. The original article reported the results of an investigation of self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with visual impairment. Four children, whose self-esteem was measured as…
Smeijers, D.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I. van; Isaac, L.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.
Background and objectives: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the
Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.
The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)
Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled
When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…
Palisi, Anthony T.
Like a fire out of control, jealousy can reduce a marriage to rubble. It can leave self-esteem ruined. Although oversimplified, the pathologically jealous person regards even slight signs as conclusive evidence of betrayal. Where jealousy arises exclusively within a relationship then a counselor might examine the jealous person's self-concept and…
Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled
Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.
Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)
Drury, Darrel W.
Discusses a study to determine attitudes among Black and White students in 194 southern high schools regarding desegregation. Data are presented on differences between schools; test-score achievement; and variations in self-esteem among students in predominantly White, Black, and racially mixed schools. Findings are interpreted in light of…
Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.
The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…
Tobias, Randolf; Turner, Thomas M.
Describes Network in the Schools (NIS), a project to enhance teens' academic achievement and self-esteem, which uses small group classroom discussions regarding self-affirmation, social concerns, self-improvement, and reflection, and meetings for group sharing and self-expression. Presents findings that the program results in enhanced parent…
Bushman, B.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Crocker, J.
Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than
de Ruiter, Naomi M.P.; van Geert, Paul L.C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia
The current article proposes a theoretical model of self-esteem called the Self-Organizing Self-Esteem (SOSE) model. The model provides an integrative framework for conceptualizing and understanding the intrinsic dynamics of self-esteem and the role of the context across 3 levels of development: The
Lundgren, D C; Schwab, M R
Questionnaire data from 595 male and female college students were used to test four hypotheses regarding interpersonal sources of anxiety--i.e., that high anxiety occurs as a function of (a) low subjective public-esteem (perceived negative appraisals of self by others); (b) low self-esteem; (c) discrepancies where subjective public-esteem is more negative than self-esteem; and (d) absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem, regardless of evaluative direction. The results suggested that level of self-esteem and absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem are important and relatively independent factors in anxiety.
Awick, Elizabeth A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Lloyd, Gillian R; McAuley, Edward
Physical activity (PA) has been consistently associated with improved self-esteem in breast cancer survivors. However, this relationship is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in PA and self-efficacy influenced changes in self-esteem in breast cancer survivors across 6 months. Increases in PA were hypothesized to result in increases in self-efficacy, which were hypothesized to influence increases in physical self-worth (PSW) and global self-esteem. Breast cancer survivors (n = 370; M age = 56.04) wore accelerometers to measure PA and completed measures of self-efficacy (e.g., exercise and barriers self-efficacy), PSW, and global self-esteem at baseline and 6 months. The hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data (χ 2 = 67.56, df = 26, p self-efficacy. In turn, more efficacious women reported significantly higher PSW (β = 0.26, 0.16). Finally, higher PSW was significantly associated with greater global self-esteem (β = 0.47). Relationships were similar among changes in model constructs over 6 months. After controlling for covariates, the hypothesized model provided an excellent fit to the data (χ 2 = 59.93, df = 33, p = 0.003; comparative fit index = 0.99; standardized root mean residual = 0.03). Our findings provide support for the role played by PA and self-efficacy in positive self-esteem, a key component of well-being. Highlighting successful PA mastery experiences is likely to enhance self-efficacy and improve self-esteem in this population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Antonio Serrano Muñoz
Full Text Available The following study proposes describing the levels of self-esteem in children and analyzing whether there are differences based on their sex. The sample consists of 1,757 children aged from 3 to 7. For self-esteem assessment, the EDINA questionnaire was administrated, which shows an appropriate reliability rate (0.803. The self-esteem of girls and boys studied is high. Statistical analyzes showed: a significantly higher scores on self-esteem of girls; b a decrease on self-esteem associated to age of children; c significant differences depending on the socioeconomic status; and d higher level of self-esteem in children when they have a woman as advisor of class group. In future researches, we suggest the need to study in depth the evolution of sex differences in relation to self-esteem.
Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda
To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.
Full Text Available Screen time is a central activity of children’s daily life and jeopardizes mental health. However, results appear inconclusive and are often based on small cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the temporal sequence of the association between screen time and self-esteem taking into account further indirect effects through family or friendship relationship. In our population-based birth cohort study (baseline November 2000–November 2001, Ulm, Germany, these relationships were explored in n = 519 11- and 13-year-old children and their parents who both provided information on children’s screen time: time spent watching television or videos (TV, time spent on computers, video game consoles, mobile devices, or cell phones; so called “other screen time”, and children’s self-esteem (KINDL-R. Time watching TV (self-reported at age 11 was negatively associated with girls’ self-esteem at the same age but positively with an increase of self-esteem between age 11 and 13. However, the latter association was restricted to low to moderate TV viewers. In boys, a higher increase of other screen time between age 11 and age 13 was associated with lower self-reported self-esteem at age 13. Additionally, friendship relationship mediated the association between watching TV and self-esteem in girls. For parental reports similar associations were observed. These findings indicate that time sequence and potential mediators need further investigation in cohort studies with multiple assessments of screen time and self-esteem.
Braig, Stefanie; Genuneit, Jon; Walter, Viola; Brandt, Stephanie; Wabitsch, Martin; Goldbeck, Lutz; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich
Screen time is a central activity of children’s daily life and jeopardizes mental health. However, results appear inconclusive and are often based on small cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the temporal sequence of the association between screen time and self-esteem taking into account further indirect effects through family or friendship relationship. In our population-based birth cohort study (baseline November 2000⁻November 2001, Ulm, Germany), these relationships were explored in n = 519 11- and 13-year-old children and their parents who both provided information on children’s screen time: time spent watching television or videos (TV), time spent on computers, video game consoles, mobile devices, or cell phones; so called “other screen time”, and children’s self-esteem (KINDL-R). Time watching TV (self-reported) at age 11 was negatively associated with girls’ self-esteem at the same age but positively with an increase of self-esteem between age 11 and 13. However, the latter association was restricted to low to moderate TV viewers. In boys, a higher increase of other screen time between age 11 and age 13 was associated with lower self-reported self-esteem at age 13. Additionally, friendship relationship mediated the association between watching TV and self-esteem in girls. For parental reports similar associations were observed. These findings indicate that time sequence and potential mediators need further investigation in cohort studies with multiple assessments of screen time and self-esteem.
Uçar, Halit Necmi; Eray, Şafak; Vural, Ayşe Pınar; Kocael, Ömer
In this study, our objective is to assess the perception of family environments by adolescents with ADHD based on perceived expressed emotion (EE) and the self-esteem of the adolescents. Uludag University Medical Faculty Hospital completed this study with 41 adolescents with ADHD and 35 control group participants who were matched based on age and gender. The total scores of perceived EE, described as a lack of emotional support, irritability, and intrusiveness, were significantly higher in ADHD group than in the control group. The group with ADHD also showed significantly lower self-esteem. There was a negative correlation between self-esteem scores and total perceived EE scores in the ADHD group and the control group. This study showed that the adolescents with ADHD perceive less emotional support and higher levels of intrusiveness, with patients also describing their families as more irritating. Other results in this study show that adolescents with less emotional support possess lower self-esteem, as do adolescents with more irritable parents.
Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O
To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self-esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Myers, Erin M
The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self- esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.
Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus
Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.
Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-esteem and surveys appropriate interventions in this area. This study was semi experimental and the sample was 3rd grade elementary students who were randomly assigned into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. The instrument was Rosenberg self-esteem scale [Rosenberg, M. (1965. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61.]. Independent variable was 12 group sessions of self-esteem games executed among experimental group. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that self-esteem games in α ≤ 0.05 were affected on self-esteem of children. Self-esteem game can be effective intervention for children self-esteem that with them control of factors such as time and children interactions with parent and teachers in future investigations could lead to greater confidence in its effectiveness discussed.
Full Text Available Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS, a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826, we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.
Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus
Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian
Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.
Kernis, Michael H
In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian
Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716
Bonsaksen, Tore; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners
Living with chronic illnesses can be stressful and may negatively impact persons' self-esteem. Personal factors, like self-efficacy and illness perceptions, and also factors related to the environment, activity, and participation may be associated with self-esteem in chronic illness populations. This cross-sectional comparative study explored sociodemographic variables, work, physical activity, illness perceptions, and general self-efficacy in relation to self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study had a cross-sectional design. A total of 223 eligible participants were recruited from patient education courses, and data were collected at baseline. Self-esteem was measured with The Rosenberg self-esteem scale; the general self-efficacy scale was used to measure self-efficacy, and brief illness perception questionnaire was also used. This is an instrument assessing cognitions about the illness and emotional responses towards it. Multivariate linear regression was used in the statistical analyses. In obese participants (n = 134), higher self-esteem was associated with lower emotional response, a shorter timeline, and higher general self-efficacy. In COPD participants (n = 89), higher self-esteem was associated with higher general self-efficacy. The independent variables accounted for 42.9% (morbid obesity) and 49.4% (COPD) of the self-esteem variance. In participants in both illness groups, higher self-efficacy was associated with increased self-esteem. A shorter timeline and lower emotional response to illness was related to higher self-esteem only for the obese participants. The results indicate that believing in one's capacity to cope with everyday challenges is important for self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with COPD, whereas illness perceptions related to the duration of illness and the coping with emotions also is important for self-esteem in persons with morbid
Kamaludin Reza Sauqi
Full Text Available The purpose from this research is to see the effectiveness of group guidance service within increase child self esteem at Yayasan Setara, Semarang. This type of research is experimental research with pre experimental design with a kind of one group pre test and post test design. Subject of this research is 5 grade student of PL Servatius Elementary School. Collecting data technique in this research using a psychological scale and collecting data tool using likert scale with 42 number of declaration point that has been tested before. Data analysis methods is using with wilcoxon test. Research has done to see self esteem before group guidance with film media given show that self esteem criteria in middle level (67,91%. Child self esteem after group guidance with film media given counted to high criteria (80,43%. Self esteem increased 12,52% after group guidance with film media given. Highest increase occurred in self improvement indicator with 16% percentage. Lowest increase indicator with 10,67% is self adjustment indicator. Wilcoxon test result tcount= 55 and ttable= 8, tcount> ttable, so Ho rejected and Ha accepted.
Kiviruusu, Olli; Konttinen, Hanna; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari
This study examined the developmental trajectories of self-esteem and body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to mid-adulthood and the way the association between self-esteem and BMI changed during a 26-year follow-up. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at 16 years (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471), and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures at each time point covered self-esteem and self-reported weight and height. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models (LGM) and difference scores. In LGM analyses among females both the initial levels (r = -0.13) and slopes (r = -0.26) of the self-esteem and BMI trajectories correlated negatively. Among males, there were no significant correlations between self-esteem and BMI growth factors. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing self-esteem among females was strongest between ages 22 and 32 (r = -0.16), while among males, increases in BMI and self-esteem correlated positively (r = 0.11) during that period. Among females, cross-sectional correlations between self-esteem and BMI showed an increasing trend (p self-esteem. This association is not restricted to adolescent years but persists and gets stronger in mid-adulthood. Among males, associations are weaker but indicate more age-related differences. The results highlight the need for interventions that tackle weight-related stigma and discrimination, especially among women with higher body weight and size.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.
Full Text Available School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22 = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060 or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140. During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23 = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071. For lunch (F(1,22 = 24,11; P<0.001; np2 = 0.523 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 33.67; P<0.001; np2 = 0.616 there was a significant effect of environment. There was also a significant main effect of sex during lunch (F(1,22 = 11.56; P<0.01; np2 = 0.344 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 12.37; P<0.01; np2 = 0.371. MVPA was higher on the field and boys were more active than girls. Play on the field leads to increases in MVPA, particularly in girls. The promising trend for the effect of the natural environment on MVPA indicates that interventions aimed at increasing MVPA should use the natural environment and that schools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente
Having a distant relationship with parents seems to increase the risk of developing a more negative global self-esteem. This article describes a longitudinal study of 1,090 Norwegian adolescents from the age of 13-23 (54 % males) that explored whether peer acceptance can act as a moderator and protect global self-esteem against the negative effects of experiencing low closeness in relationships with parents. A quadratic latent growth curve for global self-esteem with closeness to parents and peer acceptance as time-varying covariates was modeled, taking partial measurement invariance in global self-esteem into account. Peer acceptance was found to have a general protective effect on global self-esteem for all adolescents. In addition, at most ages, peer acceptance was found to have a protective-stabilizing effect on the relationship between closeness to parents and global self-esteem. This indicates that peer acceptance can be an especially valuable source of global self-esteem when closeness to parents is low.
Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad
Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277
Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad
Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them.
Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Child maltreatment can have a lasting impact, which is why it is important to understand factors that may exacerbate or mitigate self-esteem difficulties in adulthood. Although there is tremendous benefit that can come from religion and spirituality, few studies examine religious views after child maltreatment. Subsequent interpersonal difficulties may also affect self-esteem in maltreatment survivors. This study sought to examine interpersonal problems and religiosity as mediators in the link between childhood maltreatment and self-esteem in adulthood. The study recruited 718 women (M = 19.53 years) from a large public university. Participants completed questionnaires related to child abuse and neglect, interpersonal problems, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results demonstrated that all forms of maltreatment were associated with negative views of God and with more interpersonal difficulties. Viewing God as a punishing figure mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and low adult self-esteem, along with several areas associated with interpersonal problems. Further, for both child emotional neglect and physical abuse, viewing God as less supportive mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and low adult self-esteem. The results may help in intervention for child maltreatment survivors by increasing awareness of the importance of religiosity in treatment to self-esteem issues in both childhood and adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo
Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.
Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo
School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; Psex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; Pschools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.
Estévez, Manuel; Muros, José Joaquín; Torres, Beatriz; Pradas, Francisco; Zurita, Félix; Cepero, Mar
Self-esteem seems to be an important predictor of depressive symptoms in adolescents, especially in females. Some authors suggest that there is a relationship between adolescents with overweight or obesity and lower self-esteem. In addition, sports participation has been associated with a higher self-esteem. To analyses the relationships between BMI, gender, acceptance for physical education classes and self-esteem in a representative sample of 14-16 years students of the Alicante city. Research was conducted with a representative sample of 1,150 students (15.1 ± 0.8 years) of the Alicante city. Data included their socio-demographic background, anthropometric measurements, self-esteem and acceptance for physical education classes. There is a positive correlation between acceptance for physical education classes and self-esteem (r= .319) and there is a negative correlation between this acceptance and gender (r= -.289), lower scores were shown in a female group. There is a negative correlation between self-esteem and BMI (r= -.083) and gender (r= -.308), lower self-esteem were shown in a female group. It is necessary to plan actions aimed as reinforcing and increasing self-esteem during the adolescent period, focusing on the group of girls and the group of young adults with overweight and obesity problems and especially in the girl group. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente
Having a distant relationship with parents seems to increase the risk of developing a more negative global self-esteem. This article describes a longitudinal study of 1,090 Norwegian adolescents from the age of 13–23 (54 % males) that explored whether peer acceptance can act as a moderator and protect global self-esteem against the negative effects of experiencing low closeness in relationships with parents. A quadratic latent growth curve for global self-esteem with closeness to parents and ...
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with weight and looks is common amongst young people. Particularly for girls, low self-esteem and poor body image have been identified to be risk factors for development of eating disorders. This thesis sought to answer two broad aims. The first aim was to explore if a specific group based intervention (“Girls on the Go!” program), led by health professionals and delivered from a community setting increased self-esteem and related self-per...
Ortega Becerra, M A; Muros, J J; Palomares Cuadros, J; Martín Sánchez, J A; Cepero González, M
During the last decades, the increase in the rate of children and adolescents that are overweight or obese is alarming and it is related with a lower social competency, and low self-esteem. A transversal study was conducted with a representative sample of 292 students enrolled in years 8 and 9 at secondary school (13.05±0.97 years) in the city of Jaen, Spain. Girls wanted a thinner figure than boys (P < .001). Regarding self-esteem we observed statistically lower values in the case of girls (P < .000) as compared to their male counterparts. Regarding the BMI, students with a healthy weight have a statistically higher self-esteem score than students that are overweight and these have a slightly higher score than those that are obese. Positive correlation exists between the perceived silhouette and the desired silhouette (r=.485) and a negative correlation between the BMI and self-esteem (r=-.248). It is necessary to plan actions aimed as reinforcing and increasing self-esteem, focusing on the group of girls and the group of young adults with overweight and obesity problems. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18-25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well.
Furnham, A; Cheng, H
This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.
Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye
The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.
Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike
Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nursing requires high self-esteem and effective coping strategies for the quality of health services that they deliver. Self -esteem and stress coping mechanism developed during education period is foundation for professional practice. So, this study was conducted to identify self-esteem, coping activities, and their relationship. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 287 PCL nursing students currently studying in different level in nursing campuses of the Institute of Medicine during June and July 2013. Self administered semi structured questionnaire and rating scales were used for the data collection. Findings showed that 21 (7.31%), 194 (67.5%), and 67 (23.34%), students had have very high, high and moderate, self-esteem and only five (1.74%) have low self-esteem.The difference in self-esteem level was insignificant with the level of the students. Students most frequently used problem focused (3.36±0.54) followed by emotion focused (3.04±0.45) and avoidance coping activities (2.91±0.63). The relationship of use of coping activities and level of students was statistically insignificant. Self-esteem level had positive relation with problem focused and emotion focused coping activities (Pearson r: 0.114 and 0.118), though the correlation was significant with emotion focused coping activities only. Bicytopenia and pancytopenia were seen in two cases each of myelodysplastic syndrome. Chronic myeloid leukemia and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed anemia and pancytopenia respectively. Majority of PCL nursing students have high level of self-esteem. They used problem focused coping activities most however, use of it decreased with increased level of students. Students with high self -esteem used problem focused followed by emotion focused coping activities. Students should be encouraged to use problem focused coping activities.
McMullen, Tara; Resnick, Barbara
To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.
McVeigh, C; Smith, M
To investigate the similarities and differences between teenage and adult mothers and their level of self-esteem and satisfaction with social support at six weeks and six months postpartum. A two group comparative study. Maternal child health, immunisation and midwives' clinics in New South Wales, Australia. 173 adult mothers and 72 adolescent mothers who had experienced a normal pregnancy, labour and delivery and delivered a healthy baby near term. Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Brown's Support Behavior Inventory and a personal information form were used. Irrespective of age, breast-feeding rates and satisfaction with social support decreased significantly during the early months postpartum. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship was noted between maternal age and satisfaction with support and a positive relationship was identified between maternal age and self-esteem. Maternal self-esteem may be challenged by the demands of motherhood and dissatisfaction with social support could contribute to the decline in breast-feeding practices. Developing a postnatal support plan, including fathers in education programmes and offering courses and workshops designed to enhance self-esteem and parentcraft may assist mothers to assume baby care responsibilities and increase their satisfaction with support.
van Scheppingen, Manon A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Chung, Joanne M; Tambs, Kristian; Bleidorn, Wiebke
In the current study, we used 5 waves of longitudinal data from a large representative sample of Norwegian mothers (N = 84,711) to examine the association between romantic relationship satisfaction and self-esteem before and after childbirth in subgroups of first-, second-, third-, and fourth-time mothers. Maternal self-esteem showed a highly similar change pattern across subgroups. Specifically, self-esteem decreased during pregnancy, increased until the child was 6 months old, and then gradually decreased over the following years. The replication of this trajectory across subgroups and pregnancies suggests that this is a normative change pattern. For relationship satisfaction, the birth of the first child seemed to have the strongest impact compared with the birth of subsequent children. In first-time mothers, relationship satisfaction was high during pregnancy, sharply decreased around childbirth, and then gradually decreased in the following years. In second-, third-, and fourth-time mothers, the decrease in relationship satisfaction after childbirth was more gradual and linear compared with the sharp decrease found in first-time mothers. Moderate positive correlated changes between self-esteem and relationship satisfaction indicated that these constructs were linked over time. Discussion focuses on the implications of the results for theory and future research on self-esteem, relationship satisfaction, and personality-relationship transactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Falci, Christina D.
Using longitudinal data from 769 white adolescents in the Midwest, this research applies a social structure and personality perspective to examine variation in self-esteem and mastery trajectories by gender and SES across the high school years. Analyses reveal that high SES adolescents experience significantly steeper gains in self-esteem and mastery compared to low SES adolescents, resulting in the reversal of SES differences in self-esteem and the emergence of significant SES differences in mastery. Pre-existing gender differences in self-esteem narrow between the 9th and 12th grade because self-esteem increases at a faster rate among girls than boys during high school. These SES and gender differences in self-concept growth are explained by changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality and stress exposure. Specifically, boys and adolescents with lower SES backgrounds experienced steeper declines in parent-adolescent relationship quality and steeper gains in chronic work strain compared to girls and low SES adolescents, respectively. PMID:21423844
Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl
Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116) completed the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (SEQ) and a questionnaire that asked about their participation in a range of risk behaviors. Logistic regression analyses indicated that particular domains of self-esteem were differentially associated with indicators of alcohol, cigarette and drug use and suicidal ideation or behaviors in adolescents. Family self-esteem showed the strongest overall pattern of associations with the risk behaviors. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that interventions which aim to protect adolescents from engaging in risk behaviors by increasing their self-esteem are likely to be most effective and cost-efficient if they are aimed at the family and school domains.
Flett, R; Biggs, H; Alpass, F
We examined perceptions of job-related tension among a non-random sample of 52 New Zealand rehabilitation service providers. We considered the relations between job tension and psychological distress and the extent to which feelings of self-esteem moderated this relationship. Major findings are that (a) there is a consistent positive relationship between job tension and general psychological distress; (b) there is a consistent negative relationship between self-esteem and both job tension and general distress; (c) self-esteem moderates the effect of job tension on general distress in that high levels of job tension were associated with increases in psychological distress among respondents with low self-esteem while among respondents with high-self esteem, job-related tension had little negative impact on feelings of psychological distress. Despite a number of limitations, the findings have a number of important implications for professional functioning among rehabilitation service providers and highlight the need for appropriate staff development and training initiatives which focus specifically on service provider wellbeing.
Anderson, E H
Self-esteem and optimism have been associated with appraisal and outcomes in a variety of situations. The degree to which the contribution of self-esteem and optimism to outcomes over time is accounted for by the differences in threat (primary) or resource (secondary) appraisal has not been established in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To examine the longitudinal relationship of personality (self-esteem and optimism) on primary and secondary appraisal and outcomes of well-being, mood, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and selected activities. Men (n = 56) and women (n = 42) infected with HIV completed eight self-report measures twice over 18 months. Hierarchical Multiple Regressions were used to examine the relationship of personality variables on appraisals and outcomes. The mediating effects of primary and secondary appraisals were explored. Self-esteem uniquely accounted for 6% of the variance in primary appraisal and 5% in secondary appraisal. Optimism accounted for 8% of the unique variance in secondary appraisal. Primary and secondary appraisal mediated differently between personality and outcome variables. A strong predictor of well-being, mood disturbance, and activity disruption at Time 2 was participants' initial level of these variables. Socioeconomic status was a strong predictor of mood. Self-esteem and optimism are important but different resources for adapting to HIV disease. Strategies for reducing threats and increasing resources associated with HIV may improve an individual's mood and sense of well-being.
Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources are the most valuable assets to any organisation, identifying factors that affect job performance of these resources has become increasingly important. Aim: To determine the relationship between self-esteem and success with job performance in the staff of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (SKUMS Headquarters, Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical (correlational study, based on structural equation modeling, was conducted in 2015. The study population included 240 of the staff of SKUMS Headquarters, Shahrekord, Iran. From these people, 86 were selected by simple random sampling. A questionnaire of demographic characteristics, Paterson job performance, Radsyp career success and Eysenck selfesteem questionnaire were used to evaluate the concepts of job performance, success and self-esteem. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0. Results: A total of 86 out of which 49 were female (57% and 37 (43% male, with a mean age of 39.85±7.6 (range 24-55 years. There was no significant relationship between demographic characteristics and job performance, career success and selfesteem. Self-esteem could be predicted positively and career success could be predicted negatively. Job performance and selfesteem had a significant positive correlation relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the direct relationship between job performance and self-esteem in this study, officials can improve job performance of staff through supporting them and reinforcing their self-esteem and thus providing career success.
Erickson, Molly A; Lysaker, Paul H
Though it is known that symptom profiles in schizophrenia change throughout the course of the illness, it is not yet clear which psychological antecedents predict these changes. The purpose of the present study was to explore "level of insight into mental illness" and "self-esteem" as predictors of positive symptom change in schizophrenia patients. Fifty-seven schizophrenia patients completed assessments of self-esteem, insight into mental illness, positive symptoms and paranoia once every four weeks for a total of eight individual testing sessions. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that changes in self-esteem predicted future changes in paranoia as well as positive symptoms more broadly; decreases in self-esteem at any given time point were associated with an increase in persecutory beliefs and other positive symptoms at the following assessment. On the other hand, decreases in insight were not significantly associated with paranoia or positive symptoms, either as a stable trait of the mental illness or as a predictor of change over time. Taken together, these results suggest that change in self-esteem, but not insight, has a significant and unique association with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and may be a valuable target for future treatment.
Wagner, Jenny; Lüdtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Göllner, Richard; Trautwein, Ulrich
When considering that social inclusion is a basic human need, it makes sense that self-esteem is fueled by social feedback and the sense of being liked by others. This is particularly true with respect to early adolescence, when peers become increasingly important. In the current article, we tested which components of social inclusion are particularly beneficial for the development of self-esteem by differentiating between intrapersonal components (i.e., self-perceptions of social inclusion) and interpersonal components (i.e., perceiver and target effects of liking). Using longitudinal data from 2,281 fifth graders and 1,766 eighth graders (TRAIN; Jonkmann et al., 2013), we tested mean-level self-esteem development and the role of intrapersonal components in this development. Using classroom round-robin data on liking from subsamples of 846 (689) fifth-(eighth-)grade students nested in 46 (39) classes, we tested effects of interpersonal relationship components on self-esteem development in the classroom context. The three major findings demonstrated, first, no consistent trends in mean levels of self-esteem in early to middle adolescence; second, constant positive effects of intrapersonal components between students and within students across time; and third, no stable effects of interpersonal components. The discussion highlights the role of intrapersonal components and the methodological challenges of our study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J
A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.
Wilburn, Victor R; Smith, Delores E
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the effects of life stressors on suicidal ideation was supported at the .06 level. A significant minority of the sample indicated having thoughts severe enough to be classified as clinical suicidal ideation. In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.
Raudah Zaimah Dalimunthe
Full Text Available Bullying behavior is influenced by many factors. This study purpose to describe: 1 Parenting, Self-Esteem and bullying behavior, 2 Parenting and Self-esteem either individually or collectively contributed to the bullying behavior. The population of study is focus in students of SMP Negeri 6 Percut Sei Tuan, with a sample 193 of students, by using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument in this study used a Likert Scale model and inventory (CFSEI. The results of reliability test on parenting 0901 and 0938 for bullying behavior. The validity of instrument on parenting and self-esteem is 0361 and 0.361 for self- esteem. These results indicate that parenting is in good enough category and self-esteem is at a low category, bullying in middle category, and parenting and self-esteem either singly or collectively that contribute to bullying behavior.
Toback, Rebecca L; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Patel, Paresh D
Mental health treatment approaches based on character strengths can be used to complement the traditional focus on functional impairment. The study tested use of a character strengths-based intervention to enhance the self-esteem and self-efficacy of psychiatrically hospitalized youths. Eighty-one hospitalized adolescents were randomly assigned to intervention or comparison groups. The intervention used the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth to discover character strengths and incorporate them into coping skills. Self-efficacy and self-esteem were measured at baseline, postintervention, two weeks, and three months. Self-esteem and self-efficacy initially increased in both groups, but only the intervention group showed sustained improvement. The intervention was associated with increased self-efficacy at two weeks and increased self-efficacy and self-esteem at three months. A brief, easily administered character strengths-based intervention may be an adjunctive tool in the treatment of psychiatrically hospitalized youths.
Full Text Available Purpose : study the effect of increasing the level of self-esteem on the efficiency of competitive activity of high class players. Material : the study involved sixteen athletes (Atlanta, Moscow region. - Continental Hockey League. Results : it was found that the application of special training self-esteem increases the level of implementation of technical and tactical action games. Number of goals increased by 8.92%, assists - 21.5%, the total number of shots on goal - to 20.02%. Conclusions : it is recommended specialized program correction level of self-esteem from 10 separate studies. Classes have different target setting: habit forming positive attitudes towards themselves, develop skills of active life position, securing high self-esteem. The program is used for two weeks in the preparatory period of training.
OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha
The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...
Rodrigues, Yara; Veiga, Feliciano; Fuentes, María C.; García, Fernando
This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39 %), and aged 11 to 18 years. We used the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) to assess the parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and negligent), and the Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale Form-5 (AF5) that assesses five dimensions of self-esteem: academic, social, emotional, fa...
Weiss (1977, 1978) has shown that low self esteem workers are more likely to model the role behaviors and work values of superiors than are high self ...task where search is functional. Results showed that, as expected, low self esteem subjects searched for more information, search was functional and low ...situation. He has also argued that high self esteem individuals search for less information on problem solving tasks and are therefore less likely to
Hirschmüller, Sarah; Schmukle, Stefan C; Krause, Sascha; Back, Mitja D; Egloff, Boris
Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. Ninety-nine target participants (77 female; M age = 23.5 years) were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged targets' self-esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M = 23s, SD = 7.7). Results showed that both self-reported (r = .31, p = .002) and informant-reported self-esteem (r = .21, p = .040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self-esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self- and informant-reported self-esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self-esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers' accuracy in inferring informant-reported self-esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets' physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers' self-esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self-assuredness. Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals' self-reported and informant-reported self-esteem when targets are observed in a public self-presentational situation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Davidowitz, Cara; Childs, Jessica
Research surrounding the Self Esteem Hypothesis has produced conflicting results and unresolved issues. Whilst the original hypothesis posited that it is individuals low in self-esteem that are motivated to show intergroup discrimination, subsequent research has found evidence to suggest a pattern of individuals high in self esteem showing greater amounts of intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, the Social Identity Theory suggests that this intergroup discrimination will occur between membe...
Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneli...
Er, Lim Xing; Zakaria, Sheridean
Dalam kehidupan dan pergaulan harian, sesetengah murid menghadapi masalah tahap self-esteem yang rendah sehingga mempengaruhi prestasi diri dan keyakinan diri untuk melakukan apa-apa sahaja. Kajian ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk meningkatkan self-esteem murid. Pemilihan peserta kajian adalah berdasarkan hasil temubual, pemerhatian dan borang soal selidik yang dapat mengenal pasti tahap self-esteem murid yang rendah. Peserta kajian terdiri daripada 2 orang murid lelaki Tahun 4 dan seorang muri...
Ramanauskienė, Ramunė; Valantinas, Antanas; Endriulaitienė, Auksė
The purpose of this research was to measure the relationships among late adolescents' self-esteem, peer and parents relations. The subjects were 199 students from 9th and 11th grades. Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, Index of peer relations and Child's attitude toward mother and father scales was used in the investigation. The analysis of the results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem, and peer relations and, for girls only, a significant positive correlation between ...
Stewart, C; Rogers, F; Pilch, M; Stewart, I; Barnes-Holmes, Y; Westermann, S
The relationship between self-esteem and paranoia may be influenced by social stress. This study aimed to replicate previous research on the impact ofsocial exclusion on paranoia and self-esteem in a non-clinical sample and to extend this work by examining the effect of exclusion on self-esteem at the 'implicit' level. Non-clinical participants (N = 85) were randomly allocated to the Inclusion or Exclusion condition of a virtual ball-toss game ('Cyberball'). They completed self-reportmeasures of state paranoia and self-esteem, and two implicit measures of self-esteem - theImplicit Association Task (IAT) and Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) -prior to and after exposure to Cyberball. Social exclusion increased state paranoia. This effect was moderated by distress associated with trait paranoia. Exclusion was also associated with decreased self-reported self-esteem, as well as reduced implicit self-esteem on the IAT. Changes in self-reported self-esteem were associated with state paranoia at post-Cyberball. The IRAP indicated that reductions in implicit self-esteem may be due to increases in 'Me-Negative' and 'Others-Positive' biases (rather than reductions in 'Me-Positive' bias). The current study involved a non-clinical sample and so findings cannot be generalized to clinical paranoia. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that paranoia is associated with negative self-evaluations, whereas positive self-evaluations can persist in paranoia. They also provide support for the suggestion that investigations of self-esteem in paranoia should extend beyond global self-esteem and might benefit from a distinction between positive and negative components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiggins, James D.; Giles, Therese A.
Assigned high or low self-esteem counselors (N=8) to high or low self-esteem sixth-grade students (N=16), who completed the Self-Esteem Inventory after four counseling sessions. Results showed students assigned to high self-esteem counselors showed greater gains in self-esteem. (JAC)
Li, Jing-Ping; Li, Fei; Guo, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Qi-Zhao; Liu, Cun-Dong; Mao, Xiang-Ming; Tan, Wan-Long; Zheng, Shao-Bin
To explore the effects of low-dose oral tadalafil on self-esteem, confidence and sexual relationship in ED patients. We treated 17 ED patients with oral tadalafil at the low dose of 5 mg once daily for 12 weeks, and used the paired t test to compare their scores on The Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire (SEAR) and IIEF-5 and the results of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) obtained by nocturnal electrobioimpedance volumetric assessment (NEVA) before and after the medication. The scores on SEAR and IIEF-5 were significantly increased (P P Low-dose oral tadalafil once daily can significantly improve the self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction and NPT of ED patients.
Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Craven, Rhonda G; Maïano, Christophe
This study examines the development of self-esteem in a sample of 138 Australian adolescents (90 males; 48 females) with cognitive abilities in the lowest 15% (L-CA) and a matched sample of 556 Australian adolescents (312 males; 244 females) with average to high levels of cognitive abilities (A/H-CA). These participants were measured annually (Grade 7 to 12). The findings showed that adolescents with L-CA and A/H-CA experience similar high and stable self-esteem trajectories that present similar relations with key predictors (sex, school usefulness and dislike, parenting, and peer integration). Both groups revealed substantial gender differences showing higher levels of self-esteem for adolescent males remaining relatively stable over time, compared to lower levels among adolescent females which decreased until midadolescence before increasing back.
Kolt, G S; Roberts, P D
A volunteer sample of 50 competitive field hockey players completed the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory at pre- and postseason and prospectively collected injury data over a 20-wk. season. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between scores on Self-esteem and the number of injuries, the participation time affected due to injury, and sex of players. Further multiple regression analysis showed that frequency of the more severe injuries significantly predicted scores on Self-esteem. This finding can be interpreted as evidence of the relationship between low self-esteem and injury in sport.
Valiente, Carmen; Cantero, Dolores; Sánchez, Alvaro; Provencio, María; Wickham, Sophie
Psychological models have implicated negative self-esteem as an important factor underlying paranoia. However, research investigating the role of self-esteem in paranoia suffers from poor conceptual and methodological understanding, resulting in conflicting findings. Central to this problem is the use of measures investigating global self-esteem and self-evaluative beliefs interchangeably. In the present study we aimed to analyze differences in self-esteem domains and self-evaluation. The present study used interviews and questionnaires to compare a clinical sample of participants who were currently paranoid (n = 55) with healthy controls (n = 57) on global self-esteem domains and negative evaluative beliefs, in order to investigate the multi-faceted role of "the self". There was no significant difference in self-esteem domains between groups, highlighting that self-esteem is preserved in currently paranoid individuals. However, the paranoid group had significantly more negative evaluative beliefs. Interestingly, our global measures of self-esteem and measures of negative evaluative beliefs were uncorrelated, highlighting the importance of understanding the differences underlying these concepts. This study does not address dynamic aspects of self-esteem and self-evaluation. The present study provides undeniable evidence to investigate self-concept dimensions separately. These findings must be considered by researchers interested in the role of the self in the onset and maintenance of paranoia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schafer, R B; Keith, P M
This is a longitudinal investigation of self-esteem change in an adult population. The analysis addresses two limitations in earlier studies: the use of convenience samples of children and adolescents, and cross-sectional or short-duration longitudinal studies of self-esteem change. Participants are 97 randomly selected married couples interviewed at two points in time separated by 13 years. Two components of the self were measured: self-esteem and reflected appraisals (perception of others' evaluation). Contrary to previous research on self-esteem change, a significant decline was found in all components of the self for both husbands and wives. The decline in self-esteem was not a function of age, education or income. The decline was more likely to occur for high, rather than low, self-esteem participants. This finding is attributed to the demands on higher self-esteem participants to maintain or enhance self-esteem and the caution of low self-esteem participants to engage in behaviours that would threaten the self.
Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.
Self-esteem has long been considered an essential component of good mental health. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory and Wellingham-Jones Self-esteem Values List applied to handwritings were given to 15- to 19-yr.-old students to explore the former's usefulness in designing programs to enhance self-esteem. Students were from 4 high schools representing the socioeconomic range of a small rural California city. Handwritings of the 25 students scoring highest and the 25 scoring lowest on self-esteem were graphometrically evaluated. Chi squared showed total agreement between the two tests in 62% of the cases, partial agreement in 30%, complete disagreement in 8%. This suggests Coopersmith's inventory may be a useful tool for school administrators, provided its limitations are understood. Similarities and differences between and within the high and low self-esteem groups were discussed.
Thomson, Margareta Maria
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the existing relationships between main concepts associated with labelling exceptional students and impact on their self-esteem. The aim was to examine how these concepts are presented in the existing research literature, and what the implications are for educational practice of labelling…
Masselink, M.; Van Roekel, E.; Oldehinkel, A. J.
Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms.
Masselink, M.; van Roekel, G.H.; Oldehinkel, A. J.
Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms.
Jansen, D.; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.
Background: The aim was to develop a psychological intervention for ESRD patients and their partners aimed at maintaining/widening patients’ daily activities including work, and increasing patients’ autonomy and self-esteem. Methods: The intervention was based on self-regulation theory, social learning theory, selfdetermination theory and results of a cross-sectional study on the role of illness/treatment perceptions, and social support/overprotection in perceived autonomy, state self-esteem ...
Malak, Arzu Tuna; Bektash, Murat; Turgay, Ayshe San; Tuna, Asli; Genç, Rabia Ekti
To estimate associations among peer education, social support and self-esteem and their influences on performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Seven volunteer peer educators were given the BSE training programme and in turn educated 65 women students in the university. BSE knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer were applied for evaluation. Other data were collected with questionnaires for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Scale of Perceived Social Support over three months. Knowledge level points of students and the BSE practice ratio were increased by peer support. There was a positive relationship between average BSE knowledge points and social support and self-esteem. The results showed positive relationships among BSE knowledge, social support and self-esteem, these affecting the BSE performance level.
Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J
This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly judged by a jury consisting of popular and unpopular peers. Participants randomly received negative, neutral, or positive feedback from the jury. Next, they could examine the feedback that each individual judge gave them. As expected, peer disapproval decreased self-esteem, especially in children high in narcissism. In contrast, peer approval increased self-esteem. Moreover, disapproved children's self-esteem recovery was dependent on the extent to which they subsequently viewed positive feedback from popular judges. These findings support sociometer theory.
Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H
This article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with alterations in the measure. The LSE is a 4-item measure with a 5-point response format using items inspired by established self-esteem scales. The scale is essentially unidimensional and internally consistent, and it converges with existing self-esteem measures across ages 5 to 93 (N = 2,714). Thus, the LSE appears to be a useful measure of global self-esteem suitable for use across the lifespan as well as contexts where a short measure is desirable, such as populations with short attention spans or large projects assessing multiple constructs. Moreover, the LSE is one of the first global self-esteem scales to be validated for children younger than age 8, which provides the opportunity to broaden the field to include research on early formation and development of global self-esteem, an area that has previously been limited.
Self-esteem has been conceptualized as a "social vaccine". The belief is that high self-esteem can inoculate young people, against vulnerability to a wide range of social illnesses. This study gives a contribution in the understanding of the causal relation between self-esteem and sexual behaviour among American adolescents. I analyzes the impact of different levels of early self-esteem on a wide set of risky sexual behaviours. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Hea...
Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen
This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194 were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656, 32 (N = 1471 and 42 (N = 1334 using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces. Participants were grouped using latent profile analysis to those having "consistently low", "decreasing", or "increasing" number of interpersonal conflicts from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models and autoregressive cross-lagged models. Among both females and males the self-esteem growth trajectory was most favorable in the group with a consistently low number of interpersonal conflicts. Compared to the low group, the group with a decreasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a self-esteem trajectory that started and remained at a lower level throughout the study period. The group with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a significantly slower self-esteem growth rate compared to the other groups, and also the lowest self-esteem level at the end of the study period. Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated small, but significant lagged effects from low self-esteem to later interpersonal conflicts, although only among males. There were no effects to the opposite direction among either gender. Our results show that those reporting more and an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts have a lower and more slowly developing self-esteem trajectory from adolescence to mid-adulthood. While the result was expected, it does not seem to imply an effect from interpersonal conflicts to low self-esteem. Rather, if
Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith
Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ju, Soyoung; Lee, Yanghee
The purpose of this study is to identify the developmental trajectories of peer attachment, self-esteem, depression, and child maltreatment, and to understand the longitudinal mediation effects that peer attachment and self-esteem have on the influence of perceived abuse on early adolescent depression. This study uses Year 1 to Year 5 data of the 4th grader panel of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) and utilizes a multivariate latent growth model to analyze the main variables in the applicable data between 5th (i.e., Year 2) and 8th (i.e., Year 5) grades. The results indicate that from the 5th to the 8th grade, the degree of abuse and depression increases while self-esteem gradually decreases with slowly lowering peer attachment. A significant distribution of the initial values and the rate of change were present for all main variables of the study, confirming individual differences in time wise changes. Further, more exposure to abuse correlated with a decrease in self-esteem, while an increase in self-esteem greatly reduced depression. The initial value of self-esteem showed a partial mediation effect, whereas the rate of change indicated a full mediation effect with a significant longitudinal mediation effect. More experience of abuse during early adolescence indicated a lower degree of peer attachment, and a higher peer attachment was related to decreased depression. A significant partial mediation effect was present for both the initial value and the rate of change of peer attachment, and a longitudinal mediation effect was present. This study confirmed that self-esteem in early adolescents is an important protective factor that can greatly reduce the degree of depression, and suggests continuous interventions conducted to increase self-esteem in adolescence. Furthermore, by determining that peer attachment decreases the degree of depression in children at risk, the study emphasizes the healing aspect of adolescent peer attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
While it is known that informal caregiving is associated with care-derived self-esteem cross-sectionally, little is known about the impact of informal caregiving on general self-esteem longitudinally. Thus, we aimed at examining whether informal caregiving affects general self-esteem using a longitudinal approach. Data were gathered from a population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and over in Germany from 2002 to 2014 (n = 21 271). General self-esteem was quantified using the Rosenberg scale. Individuals were asked whether they provide informal care regularly. Fixed effects regressions showed no significant effect of informal caregiving on general self-esteem longitudinally. General self-esteem decreased with increasing morbidity, increasing age, decreasing social ties, whereas it was not associated with changes in employment status, marital status and body mass index. Additional models showed that decreases in self-esteem were associated with decreases in functional health and increases in depressive symptoms. Our longitudinal study emphasises that the occurrence of informal caregiving did not affect general self-esteem longitudinally. Further research is needed in other cultural settings using panel data methods. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Hesapçıoğlu, Selma Tural; Tural, Mustafa Kemal; Kandil, Sema
In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the quality of life and self-esteem in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic motor or vocal tic disorders in comparison with the control group. This is the first study examining the effects of quality of life and self-esteem on each other in chronic tic disorders. Among 62 patients aged between 6 and 16 years who were diagnosed with chronic tic disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, 57 patients who met the study inclusion criteria constituted the study group and 57 age- and gender-matched individuals constituted the control group (Ethics committee file number: 2009/69; ethics committee meeting number: 2009/14 (11.06.2009); ethics committee decision number: 16). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version were applied to the children and adolescents. In the study group, all quality of life subtests were found to be lower compared to the control group both in children and adolescents except for self-reported emotional functionality and social functionality. Being below the age of 12 years and female gender were found to be predictors of low self-esteem in tic disorder. In the reports obtained from the children and adolescents, low self-esteem was related with decreased quality of life in all areas except for academic functionality. Children and adolescents with tic disorder experience functional disruption with a higher rate compared to the group without a psychiatric disorder or severe medical condition. Applying holistic approaches considering other clinical psychiatric symptoms as a part of chronic tic disorder will be useful in increasing the quality of life and self-esteem of these children.
Beard, Charlotte L; Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert E; Stavropoulos, Vasileios
The link between early initiation and problematic use has been observed for substance use disorders; however, this link has not been as clearly established for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Available studies indicate that individuals who initiate Internet use at younger ages exhibit an increased risk for general Internet addiction. Prior research also suggests unique cognitive processes in online gaming, such that an individual's overall sense of self-worth can become contingent upon self-esteem derived from the gaming environment. The current research examines the mediational role of self-esteem variables in the relationship between age of initiation and IGD symptomatology. Data were analyzed from 1,044 adult participants (mean age = 30.90; standard deviation: 9.28; 35.0% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk who reported playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Age of gaming initiation is directly linked to IGD, as earlier age predicted overall IGD symptom severity (b = -0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI: -0.17, -0.03]), controlling for self-esteem factors. In addition, self-esteem factors emerged as mediators of the effect, where global self-esteem served as a protective factor (b = -0.05, 95% CI: [-0.07, -0.02]) and high gaming-contingent self-worth (GCSW; b = -0.10, 95% CI: [-0.15, -0.04]) was associated with more negative outcomes. Earlier age of gaming initiation is associated with IGD symptomatology. Although risks of screen time are often referred to in terms of physical consequences, the present study provides support regarding the inclusion of self-esteem factors in the link between early use and IGD.
Hiller, Thomas S; Steffens, Melanie C; Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich
Cognitive models assume that negative self-evaluations are automatically activated in individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) during social situations, increasing their individual level of anxiety. This study examined automatic self-evaluations (i.e., implicit self-esteem) and state anxiety in a group of individuals with SAD (n = 45) and a non-clinical comparison group (NC; n = 46). Participants were randomly assigned to either a speech condition with social threat induction (giving an impromptu speech) or to a no-speech condition without social threat induction. We measured implicit self-esteem with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Implicit self-esteem differed significantly between SAD and NC groups under the speech condition but not under the no-speech condition. The SAD group showed lower implicit self-esteem than the NC group under the speech-condition. State anxiety was significantly higher under the speech condition than under the no-speech condition in the SAD group but not in the NC group. Mediation analyses supported the idea that for the SAD group, the effect of experimental condition on state anxiety was mediated by implicit self-esteem. The causal relation between implicit self-esteem and state anxiety could not be determined. The findings corroborate hypotheses derived from cognitive models of SAD: Automatic self-evaluations were negatively biased in individuals with SAD facing social threat and showed an inverse relationship to levels of state anxiety. However, automatic self-evaluations in individuals with SAD can be unbiased (similar to NC) in situations without social threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tejvani, Ravishankar; Metri, Kashinath G; Agrawal, Jyotsna; Nagendra, H R
There has been an increase in a number of orphanages and children living in orphanages in last few years. The children living in orphanages often have psychological problems among which anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem are considered to be most prominent. Yoga is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and safe intervention among complementary and alternative medicine which is known to have a positive impact on psychological problems. The present pilot study intended to assess the effect of a two week Yoga intervention on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of adolescents and young adults living in an orphanage. Adolescent and young adults participants who were the permanent residents of an orphanage ( n = 34; males = 27, females = 7) between age ranges of 12-20 years underwent 2 week of Yoga intervention. Yoga intervention comprised Asana (Yogic postures), Pranayama (Yogic breathing practices), and Dharana-Dhyana (Yogic relaxation techniques) for 1 h daily over 15 days. Hospital anxiety and depression and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were administered at baseline and after the intervention to assess anxiety, depression, and self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant reduction ( P = 0.001) in anxiety, depression, and significant improvement in self-esteem ( P = 0.001) at the end of 2 weeks Yoga intervention. This pilot study suggests that 2 weeks of Yoga practice potentially reduced anxiety and depression and improved self-esteem of orphanage adolescents and young adults. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in university students‟ self - esteem and psychosomatic symptoms in terms of some demographic variables. A total of 660 students - 334 female and 326 male - , who were randomly chosen from the students of Sport Sciences and Theology Faculties studying in Ondokuz Mayıs University during the academic year 2013 - 2014, participated in the study voluntarily. The data was collected through a “Demographic Information Form” developed by the researcher and “Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale” which was developed in 1963, checked for validity and reliability in 1965 in USA by Morris Rosenberg and checked for validity and reliability in Turkey by Çuhadaroğlu (1986. The data was statistically analyzed by Kolmogorov Smirnov, Ma nn Whitney U, Kruskal Vallis and Bonferronni correction test. The level of significance was taken as 0.05. The finding that there was no significant difference in the self - esteem levels of Sports Sciences Faculty students is in parallel with the findings o f Yüksekkaya (1995:48 who reported that the variable of gender did not cause a significant difference on self - esteem. In the other result, it was seen a significant difference in sport science faculty students‟ scores when students‟ self - esteem compared t o the level of the class variables but hasn‟t seen in the faculty of theology. However, as noted in studies similar to our study, students' grade level progresses, levels of self - esteem increased. These findings were discussed in the light of literature an d suggestions were made for future studies.
Kiviruusu, Olli; Berg, Noora; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari
This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces. Participants were grouped using latent profile analysis to those having “consistently low”, “decreasing”, or “increasing” number of interpersonal conflicts from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models and autoregressive cross-lagged models. Among both females and males the self-esteem growth trajectory was most favorable in the group with a consistently low number of interpersonal conflicts. Compared to the low group, the group with a decreasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a self-esteem trajectory that started and remained at a lower level throughout the study period. The group with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a significantly slower self-esteem growth rate compared to the other groups, and also the lowest self-esteem level at the end of the study period. Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated small, but significant lagged effects from low self-esteem to later interpersonal conflicts, although only among males. There were no effects to the opposite direction among either gender. Our results show that those reporting more and an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts have a lower and more slowly developing self-esteem trajectory from adolescence to mid-adulthood. While the result was expected, it does not seem to imply an effect from interpersonal conflicts to low self-esteem. Rather, if anything
Naeimi, Alireza Farsad; Haghighian, Hossein Khadem; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Rouzitalab, Tohid
Eating disorders are rapidly increasing in young adults. But, a few studies have examined the risk of eating disorders and body image in university students of non-Western societies. The current study aimed to assess eating disorders risk in relation to body image and self-esteem among Iranian university students. The participants were 430 students from Tabriz, between April and May 2015. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Questionnaires were used. EAT-26 score of 20 or more was considered as eating disorders risk cutoff. Majority of the students (68 %) were females. The overall eating disorders risk was 9.5 % (7.5 and 10.5 % in men and women, respectively). Further, the prevalence of poor body image and low self-esteem was 34.2 and 16 %, respectively. Neither of the gender differences was statistically significant (p > 0.05). In simple logistic regression, there were significant associations between self-esteem, body image, parental education and eating disorders risk (p self-esteem (OR = 0.37, 95 % = 0.16-0.87) and mother's education level (OR = 2.78, 95 % = 1.30-5.93) were predictors of eating disorders risk. The findings revealed that low self-esteem and mother's higher education may increase eating disorders risk and the predictive role of body image possibly is by other mediators such as self-esteem. This warrants awareness improvement and developing appropriate interventions targeting self-esteem and self-respect of students.
Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H
While perceived social support has received considerable research as a protective factor for suicide ideation, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that mediate its effects. We integrated two theoretical models, Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide and Leary's (Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995) sociometer theory of self-esteem to investigate two hypothesized mechanisms, utilization of social support and self-esteem. Specifically, we hypothesized that individuals must utilize the social support they perceive that would result in increased self-esteem, which in turn buffers them from suicide ideation. Participants were 172 college students who completed measures of social support, self-esteem, and suicide ideation. Tests of simple mediation indicate that utilization of social support and self-esteem may each individually help to mediate the perceived social support/suicide ideation relationship. Additionally, a test of multiple mediators using bootstrapping supported the hypothesized multiple-mediator model. The use of a cross-sectional design limited our ability to find true cause-and-effect relationships. Results suggested that utilized social support and self-esteem both operate as individual moderators in the social support/self-esteem relationship. Results further suggested, in a comprehensive model, that perceived social support buffers suicide ideation through utilization of social support and increases in self-esteem.
Self-esteem in adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during open-label atomoxetine treatment: psychometric evaluation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and clinical findings.
Dittmann, Ralf W; Wehmeier, Peter M; Schacht, Alexander; Lehmann, Martin; Lehmkuhl, Gerd
To report on (1) psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) studied in adolescents with ADHD, (2) correlations of SES with ADHD scale scores, and (3) change in patient-reported self-esteem with atomoxetine treatment. ADHD patients (12-17 years), treated in an open-label study for 24 weeks. Secondary analyses on ADHD symptoms (assessed with ADHD-RS, CGI, GIPD scales) and self-esteem (SES) were performed. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated. A dichotomous structure of the SES could be confirmed. Reliability and internal consistency were moderate to excellent. Highest coefficients were found for the correlation between SES and GIPD scores. Self-esteem significantly increased over time, accompanied by an improvement of ADHD symptoms and related perceived difficulties. The Rosenberg SES was shown to be internally consistent, reliable, and sensitive to treatment-related changes of self-esteem. According to these findings, self-esteem may be an important individual patient outcome beyond the core symptoms of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Pantic, Igor; Milanovic, Anita; Loboda, Barbara; Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Nesic, Dejan; Mazic, Sanja; Dugalic, Stefan; Ristic, Sinisa
Internet addiction is a novel and relatively uninvestigated form of dependence that is fairly common in adolescent population. Previous research has indicated that it may be associated with other mental health problems, such as dysthymic mood and narcissistic behavior. In our study, we tested the existence and strength of relationship between Internet addiction, self-esteem and narcissism in a student population. On a sample of 244 students, we also investigated social networking activities, such as number of self-portrait photographs ("selfies"), and their potential connection with self-esteem and narcissism. Each participant completed a questionnaire consisting of Young Internet Addiction Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and Narcissistic Personality Inventory. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between internet addiction score and self-esteem. Internet addiction increased as self-esteem decreased and vice versa. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between internet addiction and narcissism. NPI score and number of self-portrait photographs (selfies) on Facebook were also in a positive relationship. Conversely, NPI score increased as the self-esteem decreased. The results of the study are in accordance with our previous findings on Internet use and mental health, confirming that Internet addiction is a potentially a serious public health problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub - elite in - door soccer players. For this aim, 18 – 28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in - door soccer champio nship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly. Participants were performed socio - demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self - Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS (versi on 20.0. Spearman Correlation parameter calculated in order to comment the relationship with data, Multiple regretion analysis was performed for the predictive power of self - esteem for assertiveness levels of participants. According to analysis, a positi ve relationship was found between self esteem and assertivenes levels and it was found that self - esteem levels predictived assertiveness levels substantially. As a result of this study, high self - eseteemed athletes could transfer their feelings to others a nd could increase their assertiveness levels. It was known that highly self - esteemed athletes could increase their performance. Therefore, we could say that necessary studies about athletes’ gaining assertiveness behaviors, should take part of primary stud ies of trainers.
Smith, Erin I; Crosby, Robert G
In developmental research, religiousness is typically measured with omnibus affiliation or attendance variables that underspecify how the religious cultural contexts and experiences that affiliation represents influence developmental outcomes. This study explores associations between five aspects of a religious cultural context (family religiosity, religious schooling, church-based relationships with peers and adults, and view of God) in 844 seven- to 12-year-old Christian children to examine how they differentially predict self-esteem. Results of a structural equation model (SEM) analysis indicated that God image and peer church relationships directly predicted self-esteem, whereas God image mediated the influence of adult church relationships and family religious practices on self-esteem. A multiple group SEM analysis met the criterion for weak, but not strong, evidence that self-esteem is more related to younger children's adult church relationships but older children's peer church relationships. God image tended to be more related to younger children's family religious practices but older children's adult church relationships. Implications for developmental researchers and practitioners are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious affiliation is an omnibus variable representing multiple contexts of development. Self-esteem is an important outcome variable with different influences across development. Religious affiliation is associated with increased self-esteem. What does this study add? Children's experience in the contexts of religious affiliation influences development differently. It is not just affiliation, but specific religious contexts that influence children's self-esteem. The role of religious contexts in shaping children's self-esteem shifts across development. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Althof, Stanley E; O'Leary, Michael P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Crowley, Arthur R; Tseng, Li-Jung; Collins, Suzanne
The first double-blind, placebo controlled trial in the United States of the Self-Esteem And Relationship questionnaire revealed that treatment with sildenafil citrate improves erectile function and measures of quality of life in men with erectile dysfunction. We investigated long-term improvement, and correlations between improved erectile function and confidence, self-esteem and sexual relationship satisfaction in men with erectile dysfunction. This was a 36-week open label extension of the double-blind, placebo controlled trial. The blind was not broken. Patients were 18 years or older with clinically diagnosed erectile dysfunction. Erectile function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function. Self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction were assessed using the Self-Esteem And Relationship questionnaire. Correlations were determined using Pearson's product moment coefficients. A total of 204 participants were enrolled in the open label extension, including 108 on placebo and 96 on sildenafil. In men who received placebo in the double-blind, placebo controlled phase mean erectile function scores and self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction scores were increased significantly at week 36 of the open label extension (p self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction were strong and positive (p self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction. Following an initial 12 weeks of double-blind, placebo controlled sildenafil therapy for erectile dysfunction improvements were sustained an additional 9 months. Positive correlations between erectile function, and self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction suggest that improved erectile quality can improve long-term psychosocial quality of life.
Khosravi, Ahmad; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
Identification of the causal impact of self-esteem on smoking stages faces seemingly insurmountable problems in observational data, where self-esteem is not manipulable by the researcher and cannot be assigned randomly. The aim of this study was to find out if weaker self-esteem in adolescence is a risk factor of cigarette smoking in a longitudinal study in Iran. In this longitudinal study, 4,853 students (14-18 years) completed a self-administered multiple-choice anonym questionnaire. The students were evaluated twice, 12 months apart. Students were matched based on coarsened exact matching on pretreatment variables, including age, gender, smoking stages at the first wave of study, socioeconomic status, general risk-taking behavior, having a smoker in the family, having a smoker friend, attitude toward smoking, and self-injury, to ensure statistically equivalent comparison groups. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg 10-item questionnaire and were classified using a latent class analysis. After matching, the effect of self-esteem was evaluated using a multinomial logistic model. In the causal fitted model, for adolescents with weaker self-esteem relative to those with stronger self-esteem, the relative risk for experimenters and regular smokers relative to nonsmokers would be expected to increase by a factor of 2.2 (1.9-2.6) and 2.0 (1.5-2.6), respectively. Using a causal approach, our study indicates that low self-esteem is consistently associated with progression in cigarette smoking stages.
Adriaensens, Stefanie; Beyers, Wim; Struyf, Elke
The theory that self-esteem is substantially constructed based on social interactions implies that having a stutter could have a negative impact on self-esteem. Specifically, self-esteem during adolescence, a period of life characterized by increased self-consciousness, could be at risk. In addition to studying mean differences between stuttering and non-stuttering adolescents, this article concentrates on the influence of stuttering severity on domain-specific and general self-esteem. Subsequently, we investigate if covert processes on negative communication attitudes, experienced stigma, non-disclosure of stuttering, and (mal)adaptive perfectionism mediate the relationship between stuttering severity and self-esteem. Our sample comprised 55 stuttering and 76 non-stuttering adolescents. They were asked to fill in a battery of questionnaires, consisting of: Subjective Screening of Stuttering, Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, Erickson S-24, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Stigmatization and Disclosure in Adolescents Who Stutter Scale. SEM (structural equation modeling) analyses showed that stuttering severity negatively influences adolescents' evaluations of social acceptance, school competence, the competence to experience a close friendship, and global self-esteem. Maladaptive perfectionism and especially negative communication attitudes fully mediate the negative influence of stuttering severity on self-esteem. Group comparison showed that the mediation model applies to both stuttering and non-stuttering adolescents. We acknowledge the impact of having a stutter on those domains of the self in which social interactions and communication matter most. We then accentuate that negative attitudes about communication situations and excessive worries about saying things in ways they perceive as wrong are important processes to consider with regard to the self-esteem of adolescents who stutter. Moreover, we provide evidence that these covert
Wu, Yi-Le; Chen, Jian; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan
Childhood has been targeted as an especially important period for self-esteem formation. The aim of this study is to examine the change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted with a general elementary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children aged between 7 and 16 years. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine relationships between low self-esteem and socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. On average, self-esteem level among children was increased across three assessments. Multivariable analysis (GEE) showed that low self-esteem in children was clearly associated with male gender (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.12-1.89), moderate and severe family dysfunction (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.40-2.51; OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.25-2.83, respectively), quality of life (OR = .97, 95%CI = .96-.98), depression (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.32-2.70), anxiety (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.51-2.77), positive coping styles (OR = .91, 95%CI = .89-.94), and negative coping styles (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.03-1.07). Self-esteem is a dynamic rather than a static construct during childhood. Low self-esteem among children was associated with a number of socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. Further studies exploring the pathways and mechanisms by which the effect of these factors impact on self-esteem among children are warranted.
Lindfred, H; Saalman, R; Nilsson, S; Reichenberg, K
To compare the self-esteem of adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with that of healthy adolescents, and to identify factors affecting self-esteem in the presence of IBD. A self-assessment questionnaire, 'I think I am' (ITIA), was completed by 71 (41 boys) out of 77 adolescents (10-16 years) with IBD. Of the participating adolescents, 23 had Crohn's disease, 44 had ulcerative colitis and 4 had indeterminate colitis. The self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was compared with that of 1037 school children. In this population-based study, children with IBD estimated their self-esteem in the same range as healthy adolescents. Using a multiple regression analysis, the self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was related to disease course severity and cohabitation status of parents. Children with severe disease and children of single parents were found to be most at risk of low self-esteem. This study shows that, as a group, adolescents with IBD have self-esteem in the same range as their healthy peers, but that there are some adolescents with IBD who are at risk of low self-esteem. Special attention should be given to adolescents with a severe disease course and to those with separated parents.
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr
A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.
Howells, Kristy; Bowen, Jo
Previous research has proposed that physical exercise can raise self-esteem. This paper will examine the extent to which physical activity interventions, within one case study primary school supported the development of self-esteem of a (junior) year 5 child over a period of five months. Jonny was 10 years old when the physical activity…
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Researchers have assumed that global self-esteem (often labeled as general self-concept), being a general aggregate of perceptions of the self, is content free. Recent research has, however, shown that responses to self-esteem survey items are influenced by the context in which the respondents are asked to make their responses--a chameleon effect.…
Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F
A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Focusing on the goal of character education, this book provides the Catholic educational community with a resource for building in students a strong sense of self, including self-identity, self-worth, and self-esteem. Four pillars of self-esteem are presented: security, autonomy, initiative, and industry. These pillars are illustrated with…
van Zyl, Jacob D.; Cronje, Elsje M.; Payze, Catharine
In this article, the story of 11 male psychotherapeutic patients with low self-esteem is told within the context of the research process. The literature suggests that the concept of "self-esteem" has a significant influence on the way an individual experiences his/her world. Therefore, the meaning that the psychotherapeutic patients…
Lee, Kimberly E.
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the self-esteem of junior high and high school students. The independent variables investigated were quality of family life, birth order, family size, maternal employment, grade level and family structure. The dependent variables were the self-esteem scores from the following sub-scales of the Texas…
This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…
Whelan, Anne; Haywood, Pennie; Galloway, Scott
This article will describe a self-esteem cognitive behavioural therapy group run with adults with learning disabilities. The aim is to show how a group of this nature can be organized and run, using theory to inform practice. An introduction to the concept of self esteem will be given and then explored in relation to adults with learning…
Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest
The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…
Bell, Nancy J.; And Others
Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…
Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances
This study investigated the relationships between psychosocial factors and self-esteem for 1,672 Taiwanese senior high school students (779 boys, 893 girls). Students from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, completed a Chinese version of the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), which measures self-esteem, depression, anxiety, stereotyped thinking,…
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente
Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent…
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Cooperative Extension Service.
This document presents "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem," an informal, personal study course designed to strengthen the reader's ability to nurture self-esteem in children from birth through adolescence. Special emphasis is given to four parenting skills: acceptance, encouragement, empowerment, and love. Weekly activities are provided…
Jackman, Danielle M.; MacPhee, David
This study's purpose was to examine the relations among future orientation, self-esteem, and later adolescent risk behaviors, and to compare two mediational models involving self-esteem versus future orientation as mediators. An ethnically diverse sample of 12- to 14-year-olds (N = 862, 54% female, 53% ethnic minority) was assessed longitudinally.…
Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo
Results of a study with 640 Spanish high school students suggest the existence of a global self-esteem factor underlying responses to Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Esteem Scale, although the inclusion of method effects is needed to achieve a good model fit. Method effects are associated with item wording. (SLD)
Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others
Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…
Olthuis, G.J.; Leget, C.J.W.; Dekkers, W.J.M.
This article discusses the relationship between personal and professional qualities in hospice nurses. We examine the notion of self-esteem in personal and professional identity. The focus is on two questions: (1) what is self-esteem, and how is it related to personal identity and its moral
Risch, A.K.; Bubal, A.; Birk, U.; Morina, N.; Steffens, M.C.; Stangier, U.
Negative self-esteem is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of depressive episodes. This study investigated whether repeated experiences of a negative view of the self within a recurrent course of depression might cause implicit self-esteem to be impaired and negative
The aims of the study were to investigate self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with Visual Impairment (VI). The group was made up of equal numbers of boys and girls from primary and secondary schools. Each child's self-esteem was measured using the BG STEEM Questionnaire (Maines and Robinson, 1993). The results showed that…
Bredehoft, David J.
Over the past decade parent education programs, following either a democratic or behavior modification model, have gained in recognition and support. To investigate the effectiveness of Jean Illsley Clarke's parent education program, Self Esteem: A Family Affair, on self-esteem, conflict resolution, and family togetherness and flexibility, 27…
Creemers, D.H.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Prinstein, M.J.; Wiers, R.W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation,
Davis, Clare; Kellett, Stephen; Beail, Nigel
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) continues to be used to purportedly measure self-esteem of people with intellectual disabilities, despite the lack of sound evidence concerning its validity and reliability when employed with this population. The psychometric foundations of the RSES were analyzed here with a sample of 219 participants with…
Medora, Nilufer P.; von der Hellen, Cheryl
Examined teen mothers' (N=94) romanticism and self-esteem so as to investigate these variables' relationships among ten independent variables, (e.g., age and sexual activity). Results indicate that five variables were significantly related to romanticism (previous abortion, etc.), whereas two variables were connected to self-esteem (age and birth…
generalized, there is evidence that it may be beneficial to offer self esteem training to children of low SES populations....This replication study examined the effect of a self esteem enhancement program on mid-western sixth graders’ self esteem scores (n=29). The...Coopersmith Self esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to determine pre and post test self esteem scores for students who participated in a four month self esteem
Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred
The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.
Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Okazaki, Sumie; Ryce, Patrice; Sirin, Selcuk R
We conducted a 3-wave, longitudinal study to examine the role of ethnic collective self-esteem and United States (U.S.) collective self-esteem on anxious-depressed symptoms over time among Asian and Latino immigrant-origin adolescents (n = 171). Growth curve analysis revealed that anxious-depressed symptoms first decreased between 10th and 11th grade and then increased over time for both groups. Additionally higher levels of ethnic collective self-esteem were associated with lower levels of anxious-depressed symptoms only for Asian adolescents. There was a differing pattern for U.S. collective self-esteem such that for Latino adolescents, higher U.S. collective self-esteem was associated with higher anxious-depressed symptoms, whereas for Asian adolescents there was an inverse relationship with anxious-depressed symptoms. The results expand the literature on ethnic and U.S. collective self-esteem and their link to mental health. Implications of the findings for research in general, and for counseling immigrant youth and families in particular, are discussed.
Zhang, Xinghui; Xuan, Xin; Chen, Fumei; Zhang, Cai; Luo, Yuhan; Wang, Yun
Perceptions of school safety have an important effect on students' development. Based on the model of "context-process-outcomes," we examined school safety as a context variable to explore how school safety at the school level affected students' self-esteem. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the link between school safety at the school level and students' self-esteem, including school liking as a mediator. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 6618 fourth- to fifth-grade students in 79 schools were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Multilevel mediation analyses showed that the positive relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem was partially mediated by school liking, controlling for demographics at both student and school levels. Furthermore, a sex difference existed in the multilevel mediation model. For boys, school liking fully mediated the relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem. However, school liking partially mediated the relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem among girls. School safety should receive increasing attention from policymakers because of its impact on students' self-esteem. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abuse, self-esteem, and object relation models. Results: We found an inverse relationship between self-esteem and Internet addiction scores. We did not find significant associations between problematic Internet use and specific object relation models. Conclusions: It seems appropriate that psychodynamic research on problematic Internet use should focus on variables that may have a negative impact on self-esteem (e.g., real life experiences and that may foster problematic Internet use among adolescents.
Coopersmith, S; Sakai, D; Beardslee, B; Coopersmith, A
Figure drawings were obtained from 97 preadolescent males who differed in self and behavioral assessments of self-esteem. These subjects had been selected from a much larger sample and represented five different types of self-esteem. The figure drawings were scored for 15 variables, dealing with formal characteristics, content, and global-interpretations of the total drawings. Five significant differences were obtained, with the content and global-interpretative categories proving more differentiating between self-esteem groups than did the formal characteristics. Behavioral expressions of self-esteem were more associated with figure drawing characteristics than were subjective evaluations. Discussion focuses on the nature of self-concept and self-esteem in children as a sensorimotor rather than symbolic expression.
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Schwaba, Ted
We examined the course of self-esteem during the transition to retirement in a sample of 690 retirees (ages 51-81) and a propensity-score matched-comparison group of 515 nonretirees drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal study in the Netherlands. The average retiree decreased in self-esteem in the 5 years before retirement and remained stable in self-esteem in the 5 years following retirement. We also found significant individual differences in retirees' self-esteem trajectories but failed to identify moderators that may account for these individual differences. We discuss the implications of these results for theory and future research on life span self-esteem development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examined the level of global self-esteem of Arab adolescents in Israel and its relationship to perceived academic status and aspirations, interpersonal relationships, community type, and various demographic variables. A group of 1,560 11th- and 12th-grade Israeli-Arab adolescents answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). The results revealed significant relationships (a) between global self-esteem and students' evaluations of their scholastic levels, their schools' academic levels, and their plans to take matriculation exams and (b) between self-esteem and family and peer relations. There was a significant relationship between self-esteem and community type. Participants living in cities and villages scored higher than those living in Bedouin townships. There were no significant gender differences or differences among grade levels.
James, Spencer L; Amato, Paul R
Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States.
James, Spencer L.; Amato, Paul R.
Objective Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Method Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Results Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Conclusion Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States. PMID:25568500
Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent-child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7-11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge. Supporting the self-deflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted lower self-esteem in children. Partly supporting the self-inflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted higher narcissism-but only in children with high self-esteem. Noninflated praise predicted neither self-esteem nor narcissism. Thus, inflated praise may foster the self-views it seeks to prevent. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Taft, L B
Self-esteem provides a measure for the quality of life of the elderly in long-term care. This article defines self-esteem in relation to self-concept and identifies the antecedents that affect its development. Elements of labeling theory, activity theory, and social exchange theory are explored to account for a potential decline in self-esteem among the elderly. According to this electric theoretical framework, stigmatization, decreased social interaction, and loss of control over the environment are all negatively correlated with self-esteem. Institutionalization intensifies the effect of these forces. Nursing is in a unique position to promote self-esteem by combating ageism, promoting social interaction, and maximizing the control and participation of elderly residents.
Lee, G R; Shehan, C L
This study employs survey data from a sample of persons 55 years of age and older to examine the antecedents of self-esteem. Hypotheses are derived from a theoretical orientation that hinges on the ability of the individual to terminate relations that might be productive of negative reflected appraisals. Consistent with hypotheses, friendship interaction is positively related to self-esteem, whereas kinship interaction is not. Marital satisfaction also affects self-esteem positively; among men, this effect is stronger for the retired than for the employed. Finally, never-married and nonemployed older women have lower self-esteem than other women have. Implications are drawn regarding the importance and role of self-esteem in theories of psychological well-being among older persons.
Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena
The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.
Reiland, Sarah; Lauterbach, Dean
Self-esteem is often lower among persons who have experienced trauma, but religiosity may ameliorate these psychological effects. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships among religiosity, self-esteem, and childhood exposure to trauma, utilizing data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a large (N = 8,098) nationally representative population survey in the 48 contiguous states of the USA that assessed religious practices, self-esteem, and exposure to trauma. Exposure to trauma in childhood was assessed through self-report of presence or absence of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect. Religiosity was assessed as the sum of responses to 4 self-report items (religious service attendance, use of religion for comfort and guidance, and importance of religion). Self-esteem was assessed on 9 self-report items adapted from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Analysis of variance compared scores for persons who reported exposure to childhood abuse and differed in the value they placed on various religious practices on self-esteem. Persons who reported physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood had significantly lower mean self-esteem than those who did not report these events. There was also a main effect for religiosity in a comparison of persons who reported childhood sexual abuse with those who reported none. The High Religiosity group had higher mean self-esteem than the Medium and Low Religiosity groups. There was a significant interaction as those who reported childhood sexual abuse had lower mean self-esteem than peers who reported none in the Low and Medium Religiosity groups. Mean self-esteem for those who reported childhood sexual abuse was comparable to that of those who reported none in the High Religiosity group.
Discussion: It seems that play therapy is an effective method to increase self esteem in children with intellectual disability. Therefore, educators and teachers are advised to use this method as an adjunctive therapy for such children in rehabilitation centers and schools.
Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy
Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)
With the trend toward globalization and the continual change of the ethnic composition of the U.S. population, there is increasing awareness in the U.S. that not every child is raised in an English-only family. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem in the…
Reeder, Glenn D.; Mangiarcina, Janet
Although self-concept is traditionally viewed as being fairly stable over time and situations, a more recent position takes note of the variability or inconsistency characteristic of certain aspects of the self-concept. To determine whether spontaneous self-esteem (SSE) increases when a valued aspect of self is made salient, college students…
Ito, Masaya; Kawasaki, Naoki; Kodama, Masahiro
Previous research and theory (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001; Kernis, 2003) suggests that adaptive self-esteem stems from just being oneself, and is characterized by a sense of authenticity (SOA). Maladaptive self-esteem is derived from meeting external standards and social comparisons, and is characterized by a sense of superiority (SOS). Thus, the qualitative difference between SOA and SOS depends on the sources of self-esteem. We hypothesized that SOA is related to internal sources of self-esteem, while SOS is related to external sources. In order to control for covariance, global self-esteem was also examined in a questionnaire survey of self-esteem that was administered to 273 university students. The results of a partial correlation analysis showed that SOA was positively correlated with internal sources of self-esteem such as committed activities and efforts for self-development. In contrast, SOS was positively correlated with external sources of self-esteem such as approval from others and appearance. These results mainly support our hypotheses.
Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.
Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…
Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer
Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self-esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). PMID:21950264
Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A
The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on
Afari, Ernest; Ward, Graeme; Khine, Myint Swe
We investigated the relationships between global self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and academic performance among a sample of 255 college students in the United Arab Emirates. The widely used Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) and an academic self-efficacy scale, modified from (Jinks and Morgan, 1999) were used to assess…
Karakaş, Sibel Asi; Okanlı, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Emine
This study has been conducted to determine the relationship between internalized stigma and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia. This study was conducted using 60 patients with schizophrenia who were diagnosed as schizophrenic according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria in the psychiatric clinics of hospitals in Erzurum. The data were collected using the "Questionnaire on Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale" (ISMI) that determines the socio-demographic characteristics of patients, and the "Short Form of Self-Esteem Scale" (SF-SES). The mean Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale score was high; the mean of the positive dimension of the self-esteem scale score was lower than negative dimension. A negative significant relationship was found (r=-.758, pself-esteem and internalized stigma levels of the patients. There is a significantly positive relationship between the mean scores of the stigma resistance and SERS-SF (r=.339, pself-esteem decreases with the increasing levels of internalized stigma. In particular, the high level of accepting stereotyped judgments and the low stigma resistance can be associated with low self-esteem. Based on these results, increasing psychoeducation and counseling services for patients with schizophrenia, and increasing the public awareness of this issue are recommended. Advanced quantitative studies should be conducted to determine the factors related to fighting stigma. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa
In recent years, the problem of youth violence has been a cause of increasing concern for educational and mental health professionals worldwide. The main objective of the study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of an anti-bullying/cyberbullying program (Cyberprogram 2.0; Pirámide Publishing, Madrid, Spain) on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem. A randomly selected sample of 176 Spanish adolescents aged 13-15 years (93 experimental, 83 control) was employed. The study used a repeated measures pretest-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program (19 one-hour sessions), two assessment instruments were administered: the questionnaire for measuring conflict management message styles and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The analyses of covariance of the posttest scores confirmed that the program stimulated an increase of cooperative conflict resolution strategies, a decrease in aggressive and avoidant strategies, and an increase of self-esteem. The change was similar in both sexes. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to improve the capacity for conflict resolution and self-esteem. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote socioemotional development and to prevent violence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hutteman, Roos; Nestler, Steffen; Wagner, Jenny; Egloff, Boris; Back, Mitja D
Previous studies on self-esteem development show substantial changes as well as interindividual differences in change from adolescence to young adulthood. However, the processes underlying these developmental trajectories are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the macro- and microprocesses of self-esteem development. We investigated a sample of 876 German high school students (M = 16.0 years at Time 1) participating in an international exchange year. Exchange students provided 3 waves of trait self-esteem data (shortly before they departed, immediately after return, and 1 year later), as well as 9 monthly state measures of self-esteem and social inclusion during their stay abroad. In addition, a control group of high school students who stayed in Germany (N = 714) provided 2 waves of trait self-esteem data. From a macroperspective, results showed an effect of student exchange on trait self-esteem development: Exchange students showed a steeper mean-level increase and a lower rank-order stability compared with control students. Zooming in on the microprocesses underlying these developmental patterns, we found trait changes in exchange students to be mediated by state changes in self-esteem during their exchange. These fluctuations in state self-esteem were found to be predicted by feelings of social inclusion in the host country, and vice versa, providing support for both sociometer and self-broadcasting perspectives on self-esteem dynamics. In sum, our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating a microanalytical approach when investigating self-esteem development by showing that the environment triggers changes in this relatively stable personality trait through changes in states. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, the Therapeutic Community(TC has become a widespread treatment alternative for drug addicts. TC have been widely studied with emphasis on thair effectiveness. The aims of the present study was to examined effectiveness of TC on self esteem and decrease of relapse. Materials & Methods: Research Statistics universe constitutes of all the substance abusers who have come to the TC centers of Tehran and Mashad. samples is chosen as stratified sampling of the cities of Tehran & Mashad. This study conducted among 165 substance abuser, examined their drug use 2 years. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design with one group, clients were tested at 3 points in time pretest (at admission time, posttest (3-6 months after treatment and 1-year Follo-up (1-year after treatment using the self esteem questionnaire. Results: The findings show that (a about half (50% the clients were clean at follow-up (b significant linear increases on self esteem After 3 to 6 months of treatment(P<0.05. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that TC could effective approach to increases on self esteem and decrease of relapse.
Syme, Maggie L; Delaney, Eileen; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer
Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing sociodemographic, medical, stress/burden (cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and resource (social support, post-traumatic growth) variables. Twenty-one (51.2%) Veteran cancer survivors reported lowered sexual self-esteem as a result of cancer, which corresponded to significantly higher levels of depression and cancer-related PTSD. The lowered sexual self-esteem group also indicated significantly lower social support. Veteran cancer survivors with lowered sexual self-esteem tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of resources, putting them at risk for lowered quality of life. This increased risk highlights the importance of addressing sexual well-being in the survivorship care of Veterans.
N Ifantopoulou, Parthena; K Artemiadis, Artemios; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Chrousos, George; Papanastasiou, Ioannis; Darviri, Christina
Previous studies have showed that perceived stress (PS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) constitutes an important factor for disease onset, relapse, symptomatology and psychological adjustment. The aim of this pilot cross-sectional study was to examine the role of self-esteem in PS, after controlling for sociodemographical characteristics, depression and personality in MS patients. Sixty-six relapsing-remitting MS patients (66.67% females, mean age of 40 ± 11.1 years old, mean duration of disease 133.6 ± 128.8 months) were studied. Perceived stress, self-esteem, depression and personality type were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Hierarchical multivariate regression modelling was used. Higher education and depression and lower self-esteem were independently and significantly associated with increased PS, accounting for 40.5% of its variance. Univariate analyses revealed that low extroversion and openness and higher neurotism were associated with higher PS, although no significant after adjusting for other factors. Although our findings need further confirmation, psychological interventions targetting self-esteem are strongly encouraged.
DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R
Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.
Stinson, Danu Anthony; Logel, Christine; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V; Forest, Amanda L; Gaucher, Danielle; Fitzsimons, Grainné M; Kath, Jennifer
The authors draw on sociometer theory (e.g., Leary, 2004) and self-verification theory (e.g., Swann, 1997) to propose an expanded model of the regulatory function of self-esteem. The model suggests that people not only possess an acceptance signaling system that indicates whether relational value is high or low but also possess an epistemic signaling system that indicates whether social feedback is consistent or inconsistent with chronic perceived relational value (i.e., global self-esteem). One correlational study and 5 experiments, with diverse operationalizations of social feedback, demonstrated that the epistemic signaling system responds to self-esteem consistent or inconsistent relational-value feedback with increases or deceases in epistemic certainty. Moreover, Studies 3-6 demonstrated that the acceptance and epistemic signaling systems respond uniquely to social feedback. Finally, Studies 5 and 6 provide evidence that the epistemic signaling system is part of a broader self-regulatory system: Self-esteem inconsistent feedback caused cognitive efforts to decrease the discrepancy between self-views and feedback and caused depleted self-regulatory capacity on a subsequent self-control task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Brown, Eoin G; Creaven, Ann-Marie
This study sought to examine the effects of performance feedback and individual differences in self-esteem on cardiovascular habituation to repeat stress exposure. Sixty-six university students (n = 39 female) completed a self-esteem measure and completed a cardiovascular stress-testing protocol involving repeated exposure to a mental arithmetic task. Cardiovascular functioning was sampled across four phases: resting baseline, initial stress exposure, a recovery period, and repeated stress exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to receive fictional positive feedback, negative feedback, or no feedback following the recovery period. Negative feedback was associated with a sensitized blood pressure response to a second exposure of the stress task. Positive feedback was associated with decreased cardiovascular and psychological responses to a second exposure. Self-esteem was also found to predict reactivity and this interacted with the type of feedback received. These findings suggest that negative performance feedback sensitizes cardiovascular reactivity to stress, whereas positive performance feedback increases both cardiovascular and psychological habituation to repeat exposure to stressors. Furthermore, an individual's self-esteem also appears to influence this process.
Drawing on theorizing and research suggesting that people are motivated to view their world as an orderly and predictable place in which people get what they deserve, the authors proposed that (a) random and uncontrollable bad outcomes will lower self-esteem and (b) this, in turn, will lead to the adoption of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. Four experiments demonstrated that participants who experienced or recalled bad (vs. good) breaks devalued their self-esteem (Studies 1a and 1b), and that decrements in self-esteem (whether arrived at through misfortune or failure experience) increase beliefs about deserving bad outcomes (Studies 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b). Five studies (Studies 3–7) extended these findings by showing that this, in turn, can engender a wide array of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors, including claimed self-handicapping ahead of an ability test (Study 3), the preference for others to view the self less favorably (Studies 4–5), chronic self-handicapping and thoughts of physical self-harm (Study 6), and choosing to receive negative feedback during an ability test (Study 7). The current findings highlight the important role that concerns about deservingness play in the link between lower self-esteem and patterns of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24956317
Full Text Available Postpartum period is the most risky time for mental and psychological disorders including sadness, depression and psychosis. Postpartum depression is the most common postpartum disorder that may disturb relationship of mother with child and family and in the absence of appropriate attention and treatment may have irreparable damages. Therefore, the purpose of this study is investigating the relationship between self-esteem and postpartum depression. This study is cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic and was conducted in 2014 with 322 available samples from the research population, consisted of women who gave birth at Mobini Hospital, Sabzevar. The data collection tools were demographic and midwifery questionnaire, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale. Questionnaire within the first 24 hours after giving birth, in the situation where the mother was able to answer the questions, on the third, seventh and tenth day after childbirth, were completed. Then the data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and descriptive and Pearson tests, T-test, and Chi-squared test. The significance level was considered (p=0.05. Blues of giving birth in different days did not differ significantly (p > 05. The relationship between self-esteem and postpartum depression was significant (p < 0.001. Results showed that increased self-esteem in pregnant women results in a reduction in postpartum depression.
Callan, Mitchell J; Kay, Aaron C; Dawtry, Rael J
Drawing on theorizing and research suggesting that people are motivated to view their world as an orderly and predictable place in which people get what they deserve, the authors proposed that (a) random and uncontrollable bad outcomes will lower self-esteem and (b) this, in turn, will lead to the adoption of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. Four experiments demonstrated that participants who experienced or recalled bad (vs. good) breaks devalued their self-esteem (Studies 1a and 1b), and that decrements in self-esteem (whether arrived at through misfortune or failure experience) increase beliefs about deserving bad outcomes (Studies 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b). Five studies (Studies 3-7) extended these findings by showing that this, in turn, can engender a wide array of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors, including claimed self-handicapping ahead of an ability test (Study 3), the preference for others to view the self less favorably (Studies 4-5), chronic self-handicapping and thoughts of physical self-harm (Study 6), and choosing to receive negative feedback during an ability test (Study 7). The current findings highlight the important role that concerns about deservingness play in the link between lower self-esteem and patterns of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Shimura, Akiyoshi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Murakoshi, Akiko; Ono, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi
The association between trait anxiety and parental bonding has been suggested. However, the mechanism remains uncertain and there is no study focused on general adult population. We investigated the association and the mechanism between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety in the general adult population. A cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2014 with 853 adult volunteers from the general population. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y) were self-administered. Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. Childhood parental bonding affected adulthood trait anxiety indirectly mediated by self-esteem. Trait anxiety was decreased by parental care and increased by parental overprotection through self-esteem. This model explained 51.1% of the variability in STAI-Y trait anxiety scores. This study suggests an important role of self-esteem as a mediator between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu
HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to provide holistic care.
Maria D. Teixeira
Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. Method: A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Results: High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339, socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175, self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211, and low self-esteem (r = -0.292 (all p < 0.001. Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusion: In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.
Teixeira, Maria D; Pereira, Ana T; Marques, Mariana V; Saraiva, Jorge M; Macedo, António F de
Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175), self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211), and low self-esteem (r = -0.292) (all p self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.
Chadwick, Paul M; Smyth, Arlene; Liao, Lih-Mei
To evaluate a brief intervention to improve the self esteem of women diagnosed with Turner syndrome (TS). Prospective observational study. Turner Syndrome Support Society, UK. 30 women aged 18-60 years. A 1-day psychology workshop targeting problems of self-esteem in women diagnosed with TS. The workshop drew on cognitive-behavioral therapy and narrative therapy skills and emphasized increased self-awareness of interpersonal difficulties and improved capacity for self-management. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); bespoke user experiences questionnaire. All 30 women provided baseline data, 27/30 provided immediate post-intervention data and 22/30 provided follow-up data at 3 months. The intervention improved RSS and HADS scores at 3 months. Generic skills-based psychological interventions have the potential to be adapted to provide brief and low-cost interventions to improve self-esteem and reduce psychological distress in women diagnosed with TS. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Papazisis, Georgios; Nicolaou, Panagiotis; Tsiga, Evangelia; Christoforou, Theodora; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina
Research of the role of religious belief and/or spirituality has been conducted on a wide range of health-related topics, across many disciplines, and in many countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between religious beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression in nursing students in Cyprus. One hundred and twenty-three nursing students were asked to complete a survey consisting of four self-report questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). The lowest levels of depression were observed in the third and fourth study year. Normal self-esteem levels were found in the majority of the students (71.3%) and most of them perceived current stress at mild levels. No significant differences on the basis of sex were observed. The vast majority (98.2%) of the students stated a strong religious and/or a spiritual belief that was strongly positively correlated with increased self-esteem and negatively correlated with depression, current stress, and stress as personality trait. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel
This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Todorović Jelisaveta A.
Full Text Available The aim of investigations was to examine what upbringing styles and socio-economic parameters correlate with adolescents’ unstable self-esteem. Self-esteem is an evaluative measure of self-concept whose stability in time reflects personality’s autonomy and integrity. Using the sample of 280 secondary school students, the SSES scale was administered twice, at a 30-day interval, the EMBU scale of upbringing styles, a questionnaire with general data on respondents and socioeconomic parameters. It proved that upbringing style and parental tenderness (of both father and mother correlate with unstable self-esteem in adolescents. Significant correlation between upbringing styles and unstable self-esteem was also found in inconsistency, low control and protection on the part of father. Stable self-esteem is significantly negatively correlated with inconsistency of mother. Of diverse socioeconomic parameters, educational level of father and his profession are of critical importance for stable self-esteem. Upbringing styles produce greater influence on self-esteem level than socio-economic parameters do.
Taibah, Salwa Mahmoud; Al-Hummayani, Fadia Mohammed
Esthetics plays an essential role in orthodontic treatment. The psychological effects of malocclusion are an inspiration to improve one's esthetics and seek treatment. This study aimed to assess relationships between self-esteem and malocclusion severity and type in adolescents using a self-esteem measurement scale and the index of treatment need (IOTN) and to investigate the influence of age, sex, and school type in these relationships. Adolescent students aged 12-19 years randomly selected from four private and two governmental schools were enrolled for this study. After completing the self-esteem questionnaire, participants were examined by researchers to evaluate malocclusion severity and type using the IOTN. The sample consisted of 886 participants: 558 females (62.9%) and 328 males (37.1%) with a mean age of 16 years. Chi-square analysis showed that 17.1% of males and 31% of females showed low levels of self-esteem, with a statistically significant difference ( P self-esteem ( P = 0.018) compared with single-category malocclusion. Anterior teeth spacing, crowding, and overjet malocclusion showed the highest percentages of low self-esteem. The present study supports that malocclusion has negative effects on self-esteem; multiple malocclusions with spacing, crowding, and overjet had the greatest effects.
Merwin, Rhonda M; Ellis, Jon B
Attitudes toward violence and reasons for living in young adolescents with high, moderate, and low self-esteem were examined. The authors devised an Attitudes Toward Violence questionnaire; the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSE) and the Brief Reasons for Living in Adolescents (BRFL-A) was used to assess adaptive characteristics. The independent variables were gender and self-esteem. The dependent variables were total Reasons for Living score and Attitudes Toward Violence score. Participants included 138 boys and 95 girls, ages 11 to 15 years (M = 13.3) from a city middle school. The results showed that for the dependent variable attitudes toward violence, main effects were found for both gender and self-esteem. For the dependent variable reasons for living, a main effect was found for self-esteem but not for gender. An inverse relationship was found between violence and reasons for living. Being male and low self-esteem emerged as predictors of more accepting attitudes toward violence. Low self-esteem was significantly related to fewer reasons for living.
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Andrea D. Warner-Czyz
Full Text Available Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years. Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002 and attention (r = .45, p = .001 temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001. No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.
Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025
Sun, Bingli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Xingyun; Hu, Bin; Zhu, Tingshao
Self-esteem is an important aspect of individual's mental health. When subjects are not able to complete self-report questionnaire, behavioral assessment will be a good supplement. In this paper, we propose to use gait data collected by Kinect as an indicator to recognize self-esteem. 178 graduate students without disabilities participate in our study. Firstly, all participants complete the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS) to acquire self-esteem score. After completing the RRS, each participant walks for two minutes naturally on a rectangular red carpet, and the gait data are recorded using Kinect sensor. After data preprocessing, we extract a few behavioral features to train predicting model by machine learning. Based on these features, we build predicting models to recognize self-esteem. For self-esteem prediction, the best correlation coefficient between predicted score and self-report score is 0.45 (pself-esteem with a fairly good criterion validity. The gait predicting model can be taken as a good supplementary method to measure self-esteem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Women with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA have a complex psychosocial burden and a tendency to negative self-esteem, possibly resulting in mental and emotional problems. They need family support to deal with the HIV/AIDS infection and its psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to determine chacteristics of family support, self-esteem, and depression of WLWHA and the relationship between family support and self-esteem and depression. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 99 WLWHA infected through their husbands/partners, with no history of drug abuse. The data was taken by a consecutive sampling of two proportions test at Dharmais Cancer Hospital from November 2013 – January 2014. The instruments comprised a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and a family support questionnaire. The data was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Results There were 99 respondents with mean age of 36 years, of whom 44.4% were high school graduates, 54.5% unemployed, and 91.9% had HIV/AIDS for more than a year. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no significant relationship between family support and self-esteem (p=0.700 and depression (p=0.396. Good family support has a protective effect of 1.3 times (OR=0.772; 95%CI: 0.138-3.770 towards increasing self-esteem, whereas poor family support increases the risk of depression 1.5 times (OR=1.477; 95%CI: 0.598-3.645 in WLWHA infected with HIV/AIDS from their husband/partner. Conclusions Good family support tend to have a protective effect towards increasing self-esteem, whereas poor family support increases the risk of depression in WLWHA infected with HIV/AIDS from their husband/partner.
Sheslow, D; Hassink, S; Wallace, W; DeLancey, E
It has been suggested that obese children have increased problems with self-esteem and depression when compared to the normal pediatric population. Fifty-one consecutive patients enrolled in a hospital based weight management program received the CDI and the PHSCS as part of their initial evaluation. There were 24 males and 27 females with ages ranging from 5-17 years and BMI (kg/m2) of 22-63 (mean 33.3). Results of the CDI were classified into three groups. Children with CDI scores greater than 13 were classified as depressed (n = 16). Scores between 9 and 12 were considered borderline depression (n = 11). Scores less than 9 were considered normal (n = 24). The children in the depressed and borderline groups were significantly different from the children in the normal group in their level of self-esteem. As depression increased, self-esteem decreased, indicating an inverse relationship between self-esteem and depression. Depressed and borderline depressed children were also more anxious (i.e., nervous, worried) and had more perceived behavior problems (increased frequency of punishment, difficulty obeying orders) than the normal group. They also had fewer interests in school and felt their physical appearance was not acceptable. The depressed group's scores were significantly lower on the happiness and popularity scales of the PHSCS than the normal group. Scores on the CDI did not correlate with age, race, sex, Tanner stage, socioeconomic status, or body mass index. In this study obese pediatric patients showed significant depression and lowered self-esteem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Erik Franck; Rudi De Raedt; Catherine Barbez; Yves Rosseel
Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as...
Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement. Keywords: Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, Achievement
Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A
According to empirical literature, low self-esteem is highly correlated to behavioural and emotional problems in gifted children and adolescents. Since self-esteem is an indicator of social and emotional adjustment, it would be interesting to better understand the meaning of this construct, as it is evaluated explicitly with the use of self-report questionnaires. In order to explore the psychological processes underlying the explicit self-esteem, we studied the relation of a self-report questionnaire and an indirect measure of self and interpersonal perception using the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). The participants were 93 children, aged between 9 and 15 years old, with an IQ≥130. They were attending regular classes (no curriculum difference). Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). We used the Rorschach CS measures of self and interpersonal perception. The results showed no significant correlation between self-esteem and high IQ. A negative correlation between self-esteem evaluated on the SEI and the Rorschach Vista responses was found, which reflected self-critical introspection and painful self-appraisal. Then a positive correlation was observed between self-esteem and reflection answers on the Rorschach (Fr+rF>0), which are related to narcissistic-like features of personality. We also found a positive correlation between self-esteem and the Rorschach egocentricity index (EGO), which provides an estimate of self-concern. Finally, the strongest correlation was found between self-esteem and the dominance of good over poor human representations (GHR>PHR), which reveals effective interpersonal behaviour. The psychological processes which seem to be related to low self-esteem in gifted children and adolescents are maladaptive interpersonal behaviours, painful experience of introspection focusing on perceived negative aspects of the self, absence of narcissistic-like features of the personality and low self-concern. These
Kesting, Marie-Luise; Bredenpohl, Marcel; Klenke, Julia; Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M
Vulnerability-stress models propose that social stress triggers psychotic episodes in high risk individuals. Previous studies found not only stress but also a decrease in self-esteem to precede the formation of delusions. As evidence for causal conclusions has not been provided yet, the present study assessed the direct impact of social stress on paranoid beliefs using an experimental design and considered a decrease in self-esteem as a mediator and the proneness to psychosis and paranoia as moderators of the effect. A nonclinical population sample (n = 76) was randomly assigned to an experimental (EG) or a control group condition (CG). In the EG, participants were excluded during a virtual ball game (Cyberball) by the other two players and received a negative feedback after performing a test. The CG was included in the game and received a neutral feedback. Before and after the experimental conditions, emotions, self-esteem and paranoid beliefs were assessed using state-adapted questionnaires. After the social stress induction, the EG reported a higher increase in subclinical paranoid beliefs compared to the CG. The impact of social stress on paranoid ideation was mediated by a decrease in self-esteem and moderated by proneness to paranoia. Individuals who felt distressed by paranoid thoughts at baseline were more likely to react with an increase in paranoid ideation under social stress. The results need to be confirmed in a patient sample to draw conclusions about the processes involved in the formation of delusions in clinically relevant stages. The impact of social stress on symptom formation and self-esteem is discussed in terms of recent models of symptom formation and interventions in psychosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.
Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu
The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15(st) and June 26(st) 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.
Neugebauer, Sabina Rak
Present conceptualizations and measures of self-esteem do not account for linguistic self-esteem, an aspect of the self specifically relevant for bilingual students. This study examines the utility of a newly developed measure of linguistic self-esteem. This novel measure is compared with a commonly used self-esteem measure, two standardized…
Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen
Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…
Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma; van Os, Jim
Research on the association between paranoia and self-esteem has yielded inconsistent findings. Some studies have indicated an association between paranoia and low self-esteem, while other studies have shown an association with high self-esteem. A plausible explanation for these inconsistencies is that self-esteem is unstable in paranoid individuals.
Steffenhagen, L. A.; Steffenhagen, R. A.
Measured self-esteem in 61 Vermont alcoholics using the Cornell Index and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Results indicated depression is an intervening variable between self-esteem and alcoholism. A theoretical model describing the relationship of residence, occupation, income, self-esteem, and depression to alcoholism is presented. (JAC)
Scheepers, D.; Spears, R.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Doosje, B.
This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are
Scheepers, Daan; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Doosje, Bertjan
This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are
Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela
Investigates the relationship between birth order and self-esteem among 209 11- to 13-year-old girls attending a private high school in the central Philippines. The Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-esteem. No evidence of any influence of birth order, family size, or their interaction with self-esteem was found. (Author/RH)
Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Bibi, Fariha; Gul, Asma
One of the characteristics of teachers having great bearing upon students' learning is their professional self-esteem. Various instruments are available for measuring general self-esteem and professional self-esteem of teachers. For the present study it was deemed appropriate to use a Turkish professional self-esteem scale developed by Aricak…
Tirlea, Loredana; Truby, Helen; Haines, Terry P
To test the effectiveness of an intervention delivered by health professionals outside the school environment to girls identified with issues such as poor body image, low self-esteem, low self-confidence, nonparticipation in sports, or being overweight or underweight. The study's design was a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an intervention on self-esteem, impairment induced by eating disorders, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, and dieting behaviors. The study took place at the community health center located in a culturally diverse area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Participants were 122 primary and secondary school girls between 10 and 16 years of age. Girls on the Go! is a 10-week program designed to improve self-esteem, body image, and confidence, using an empowerment model that involved interactive and experiential learning approaches. Weekly themes included body image and self-esteem, safety and assertiveness, a healthy mind, physical activity, healthy eating, trust and confidence, and connections. Measurements were made using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, clinical interview assessment, health self-efficacy (included mental health and physical health self-efficacy scales), body esteem scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children. A linear mixed model was used. The intervention led to a significant increase (p self-esteem and self-efficacy (mental and physical health self-efficacy subscales), for both primary and secondary school-aged participants and reduced dieting behaviors (secondary school participants). These gains were retained after 6 months of follow-up. This group-based, low-dose intervention, which, although targeting girls with a range of psychological issues and including both overweight and underweight participants, is a successful means of improving self-esteem among girls from diverse cultural backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists upon graduation. A quantitative survey, which includes two standardized instruments, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), was administered to students at five schools of pharmacy in the northeast United States, resulting in a total of 399 responses. The findings confirm the significance of paid experiences and increased levels of a student's self-efficacy in a pharmacy setting. The other finding was related to ethnicity where the Asian/Pacific Islander students showed lower self-efficacy than other ethnic groups, which may be due to a cultural difference in displaying traits of high self-efficacy. Self-esteem also showed a positive finding for students with paid experiences and students who were older. There was an ethnicity finding where Asian/Pacific Islanders scored lower on the self-esteem scale, while the African-Americans scored higher than all the other groups. The results show that students improve their levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem through extended practical experiences. Schools should provide structured experiences of a sufficient length, beyond the present 300 hours, to prepare students for their transition into a professional role. Educators should be aware of the difference in Asian/Pacific Islander culture and encourage students to demonstrate their self-efficacy and self-esteem so other professionals can recognize them for their attributes.
Positive in-group distinctiveness has been associated with self-esteem increases among adolescents and adults. To examine whether in-group biases are associated with self-esteem enhancement among minority group children, Native Canadian children (N = 414, 209 female) age 6-11 completed each year for 5 years, measures assessing their level of concrete operational thought, racial-ethnic identity, racial-ethnic centrality, implicit and explicit self-esteem, and implicit and explicit in-group attitudes. According to cognitive developmental theory, increases in the level of concrete operational thought will predict increases in racial-ethnic identity, and increases in identity should, in turn, predict more favorable in-group attitudes. Social identity theory predicts that more favorable in-group attitudes should predict increases in self-esteem. Multi-level structural equation modelling revealed support for these hypotheses. Cognitively mature children who identify closely with their group enhanced their level of self-esteem by positively differentiating between group members on dimensions that favor their group. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future studies are also presented.
Samaneh Moein; Mohammad Reza Abedi; Iran Baghban
Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-estee...
Blackhart, Ginette C; Nelson, Brian C; Knowles, Megan L; Baumeister, Roy F
Competing predictions about the effect of social exclusion were tested by meta-analyzing findings from studies of interpersonal rejection, ostracism, and similar procedures. Rejection appears to cause a significant shift toward a more negative emotional state. Typically, however, the result was an emotionally neutral state marked by low levels of both positive and negative affect. Acceptance caused a slight increase in positive mood and a moderate increase in self-esteem. Self-esteem among rejected persons was no different from neutral controls. These findings are discussed in terms of belongingness motivation, sociometer theory, affective numbing, and self-esteem defenses.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the self-esteem and social support of the elderly residing in boarding centers and living in their homes. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 120 elderly individuals residing in boarding facilities and living he their homes in the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling and responded to demographic, social support, and self-esteem questionnaires.Results: The findings show that there was a significant difference between self-esteem and social support in both groups of the elderly residing in their homes and those living in boarding centers.Conclusion: The elderly living at home have greater self-esteem and social support than the elderly residing in boarding facilities.
Regan, Judith Weiner
Consistency and self-esteem theories make contrasting predictions about the relationship between a person's self-evaluation and his liking for an evaluator. Laboratory experiments confirmed predictions about these theories. (Editor/RK)
The aim of this study was to examine the relation between self-esteem appraisal and physical activity testing a convenience sample of 211 individuals, ages 19 to 35 years and selected from the general population after a brief structured interview. They were grouped by sport habits into three distinct groups named Athletes, Nonathletes, and Sedentary people, and then were examined for significant differences in self-esteem scores measured via the Heatherton and Polivy State Self-esteem Scale which assesses three correlated factors, respectively, Performance, Social, and Appearance. As hypothesized, self-esteem scores between-groups differences emerged for the Appearance factor only, and the Sedentary group scored comparatively lower than the other two groups.
Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio De Castro, Bram
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to
Conclusions: Obesity in school-aged children reveals alterations associated with physical performance, fat mass and negative trends on self-esteem. Despite developing at an early stage, the consequences associated with this condition can already be seen.
Full Text Available This study is based on students’ problem who undergone the decreasing of self-esteem due to bullying that students receive in their environment. The long-term goal which going to be achieved is related to self esteem problem of students bullying victims that is capable to solve problem by using effective and tested product through counseling with assertive training technique. This study used research and development method. The steps are: (1 preliminary research; (2 designing model; (3 developing model; (4 testing model restrictively; (5 analysing model; (6 revising model; (7 testing model widely; (8 dissemination of model; and (9 recommending tested model. The result of study showed that the model of counseling through assertive training was empirically proven effective to improve self esteem of students bullying victims.Keywords: Self Esteem, Bullying, Assertive Training
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 216 subjects from 108 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Ways of Coping Checklist. The results confirm the presence of a relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment in men and women. High self-esteem and marital adjustment are associated with the use of problem solving strategies and less avoidance as a way of coping. Moreover, cross analyses reveal that one’s feelings of self-worth are associated with his/her spouse's marital adjustment. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
Malik, Sadia; Kaiser, Aneeqa
To investigate the impact of emotional maltreatment on self-esteem among adolescents, and to see if gender makes a difference in this context. The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2014, and comprised adolescents in the age range of 14 to 18 years who were selected using purposive sampling from various government and private schools and colleges of Sargodha, Punjab. The questionnaire on seven dimensions of emotional maltreatment at home and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used. There were 400 subjects; 200(50%) boys and as many girls. The overall mean age was 16.14±1.36 years (range: 14-18 years). Correlation coefficient indicated significant negative relationship between emotional maltreatment and self-esteem (degrading r= -0.33, pself-esteem (isolating?= -0.12, pself-esteem. Emotional maltreatment strongly predicted negative self-esteem among adolescents. Gender was a significant factor in the domain of degrading.
Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)
Meisenhelder, J B
Self-esteem, a positive regard for oneself, is a universal need for every human being and a key component in restoring and maintaining mental and physical health. Yet, this important concept is remarkably neglected in nursing literature and easily overlooked in clinical practice. This article examines the existing research on the antecedents of self-esteem and compiles a list of factors which can facilitate the nurse's therapeutic effect on her client's positive self-concept. From this list, specific nursing interventions are provided for raising and maintaining a client's self-esteem. Since the impact of nursing interventions varies with clinical circumstances, the nursing actions are correlated with their most effective health care settings. This article provides a global and practical approach to the enhancement of clients' self-esteem.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.
Wu, Xin; Chen, Yujie; Chen, Bing; Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang
According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE) and collective (CSE) self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.
Full Text Available According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE and collective (CSE self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.
van Schie, C C; Chiu, C D; Rombouts, S A R B; Heiser, W J; Elzinga, B M
The way we view ourselves may play an important role in our responses to interpersonal interactions. In this study, we investigate how feedback valence, consistency of feedback with self-knowledge and global self-esteem influence affective and neural responses to social feedback. Participants (N = 46) with a high range of self-esteem levels performed the social feedback task in an MRI scanner. Negative, intermediate and positive feedback was provided, supposedly by another person based on a personal interview. Participants rated their mood and applicability of feedback to the self. Analyses on trial basis on neural and affective responses are used to incorporate applicability of individual feedback words. Lower self-esteem related to low mood especially after receiving non-applicable negative feedback. Higher self-esteem related to increased PCC and precuneus activation (i.e., self-referential processing) for applicable negative feedback. Lower self-esteem related to decreased mPFC, insula, ACC and PCC activation (i.e, self-referential processing) during positive feedback and decreased TPJ activation (i.e., other referential processing) for applicable positive feedback. Self-esteem and consistency of feedback with self-knowledge appear to guide our affective and neural responses to social feedback. This may be highly relevant for the interpersonal problems that individuals face with low self-esteem and negative self-views.
van Schie, Charlotte C; Chiu, Chui-De; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Heiser, Willem J; Elzinga, Bernet M
Abstract The way we view ourselves may play an important role in our responses to interpersonal interactions. In this study, we investigate how feedback valence, consistency of feedback with self-knowledge and global self-esteem influence affective and neural responses to social feedback. Participants (N = 46) with a high range of self-esteem levels performed the social feedback task in an MRI scanner. Negative, intermediate and positive feedback was provided, supposedly by another person based on a personal interview. Participants rated their mood and applicability of feedback to the self. Analyses on trial basis on neural and affective responses are used to incorporate applicability of individual feedback words. Lower self-esteem related to low mood especially after receiving non-applicable negative feedback. Higher self-esteem related to increased posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus activation (i.e. self-referential processing) for applicable negative feedback. Lower self-esteem related to decreased medial prefrontal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex activation (i.e. self-referential processing) during positive feedback and decreased temporoparietal junction activation (i.e. other referential processing) for applicable positive feedback. Self-esteem and consistency of feedback with self-knowledge appear to guide our affective and neural responses to social feedback. This may be highly relevant for the interpersonal problems that individuals face with low self-esteem and negative self-views. PMID:29490088