WorldWideScience

Sample records for irrigated agriculture processes

  1. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  2. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  3. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  4. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  5. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  6. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  7. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation

  8. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  9. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  10. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. The treatment process achieved 3.5 logs removal of heterotrophic bacteria and up to 3.5 logs removal of fecal coliforms. The final chlorinated effluent had 1.8×102 MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms and fulfils the required quality for restricted irrigation. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus) were detected at relative abundance ranging from 0.014 to 21 % of the total microbial community in the influent. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the highest approximated cell number in the influent but decreased to less than 30 cells/100mL in both types of effluent. A culture-based approach further revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mainly found in the influent and non-chlorinated effluent but was replaced by other Pseudomonas spp. in the chlorinated effluent. Aeromonas hydrophila could still be recovered in the chlorinated effluent. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) determined that only chlorinated effluent should be permitted for use in agricultural irrigation as it achieved an acceptable annual microbial risk lower than 10-4 arising from both P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila. However, the proportion of bacterial isolates resistant to 6 types of antibiotics increased from 3.8% in the influent to 6.9% in the chlorinated effluent. Examples of these antibiotic-resistant isolates in the chlorinated effluent include Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. Besides the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates, tetracycline resistance genes tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetH, tetZ were also present at an average 2.5×102, 1.6×102, 4.4×102, 1

  11. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  12. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  13. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Trash-polluted irrigation: characteristics and impact on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, D.; Arif, SS; Sudarmadji

    2018-04-01

    Trash pollution has been a problem in sustainable water resources management. Trash pollutes not only rivers, lakes and seas, but also irrigation canals and rice fields. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of solid waste (type, time of occurrence and sources of trash) and its impact on agriculture. The study was conducted in four irrigation areas, namely Gamping, Merdiko, Nglaren and Karangploso in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Region. We applied the Irrigation Rapid Trash Assessment (IRTA) as our field survey instrument. The results showed that trash was found throughout irrigation canals and rice fields, and the occurrence was influenced by water flow, time and farmer activities. The irrigation was dominantly polluted by plastic trash (52.2%), biodegradable waste (17.91%) and miscellaneous trash (12.3%). The IRTA score showed that Gamping Irrigation Area was at marginal condition, bearing a high risk of disturbing the operation and maintenance of the irrigation canals as well as farmers’ health. Trash in irrigation also generated technical impact of the irrigation operation and maintenance, environmental quality, and social life. This research also offered environmental policy integration approach and water-garbage governance approach as an alternative solution to manage water resources and agriculture in a sustainable manner, under the pressure of increasing amount of trash.

  15. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  16. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  17. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  18. Climate change reduces water availability for agriculture by decreasing non-evaporative irrigation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Adam, Jennifer C.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Peters, R. Troy

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity. However, the impacts of climate change on the efficiency of irrigation systems, particularly on the partitioning between evaporative and non-evaporative losses, have received little attention. In this study, we incorporated a process-based irrigation module into a coupled hydrologic/agricultural modeling framework (VIC-CropSyst). To understand how climate change may impact irrigation losses, we applied VIC-CropSyst over the Yakima River basin, an important agricultural region in Washington State, U.S. We compared the historical period of 1980-2010 to an ensemble of ten projections of climate for two future periods: 2030-2060 and 2060-2090. Results averaged over the watershed showed that a 9% increase in evaporative losses will be compensated by a reduction of non-evaporative losses. Therefore, overall changes in future efficiency are negligible (-0.4%) while the Evaporative Loss Ratio (ELR) (defined as the ratio of evaporative to non-evaporative irrigation losses) is enhanced by 10%. This higher ELR is associated with a reduction in return flows, thus negatively impacting downstream water availability. Results also indicate that the impact of climate change on irrigation losses depend on irrigation type and climate scenarios.

  19. Irrigation in the Lower Durance: positive impacts of the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Blavoux, B.

    1995-01-01

    The water of river Durance is used to produce hydroelectricity and as stretch of water for tourism and since the thirteenth century for irrigation. The inherited situation is a well extended network of gravitation irrigation canals. This system is spendthrift of water, the water supplies are roughly 5 times the farming needs. The impact of this irrigation on the alluvial aquifer of the Lower Durance is the generalisation of the highest level of the water table in summer on the plain though the water budget has an average deficit of 550 mm. In addition, the nitrate concentration is maintained to an average of 17 mg/l in groundwater and 5 mg/l in streams by dilution. In fact, the irrigation dictates an average input of water with 25.4 mg/l of NO 3- . The natural isotopic tracing (oxygen 18) allows to say that 50 to 75% of the water of the alluvial aquifer come from irrigation. To improve the knowledge about the efficiency of irrigation, a mathematical groundwater model has been created. As a result, 53% of the water is lost while reaching the agricultural parcels, 19% is infiltrated during watering at the parcel and only 28% are used to satisfy the needs of plants. The realisation of this model has allowed to simulate the impact on groundwater of changes in irrigation practices which would lead to reduce the consummation of water. In the case of Lower Durance, the reduction of irrigation losses would have a strong impact on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer. (J.S.). 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A risk assessment framework for irrigated agriculture under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Zennaro, F.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Santini, M.; Trabucco, A.; Zollo, A. L.; Galluccio, G.; Marcomini, A.

    2017-12-01

    In several regions, but especially in semi-arid areas, raising frequency, duration and intensity of drought events, mainly driven by climate change dynamics, are expected to dramatically reduce the current stocks of freshwater resources, limiting crop development and yield especially where agriculture largely depends on irrigation. The achievement of an affordable and sustainable equilibrium between available water resources and irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. The present study proposed a state-of-the art conceptual framework and computational methodology to assess the potential water scarcity risk, due to changes in climate trends and variability, on irrigated croplands. The model has been tested over the irrigated agriculture of Puglia Region, a semi-arid territory with the largest agricultural production in Southern Italy. The methodology, based on the Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) approach, has been applied within a scenario-based hazard framework. Regional climate projections, under alternative greenhouse gas concentration scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and for two different timeframes, 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 compared to the baseline 1976-2005 period, have been used to drive hydrological simulations of river inflow to the most important reservoirs serving irrigation purposes in Puglia. The novelty of the proposed RRA-based approach does not simply rely on the concept of risk as combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, but rather elaborates detailed (scientific and conceptual) framing and computational description of these factors, to produce risk spatial pattern maps and related statistics distinguishing the most critical areas (risk hot spots).. The application supported the identification of the most affected areas (i.e. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia under RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario), crops (fruit trees and vineyards), and, finally, the vulnerability

  1. Impacts of agricultural irrigation on nearby freshwater ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorente, Carmen; Causape, Jesus; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    A small hydrological basin (Lerma, NE Spain), transformed from its natural state (steppe) to rain-fed agriculture and recently to irrigation agriculture, has been monitored across four seasons of an agricultural year. The goal of this study was to assess how and whether agricultural activities....... In this way, PICT can serve to establish causal linkages between pollutants and the observed biological impacts. The periphyton presented significantly different sensitivities against terbuthylazine through the year in accord with the seasonal application of this herbicide in the crops nowadays....... The sensitivity of already banned herbicides, atrazine and simazine does not display a clear seasonality. The different sensitivities to herbicides were in agreement with the expected exposures scenarios, according to the agricultural calendar, but not with the concentrations measured in water, which altogether...

  2. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  3. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  4. Irrigated agriculture with limited water supply:Tools for understanding and managing irrigation and crop water use efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water availability for irrigated agriculture is declining in both China and the United States due to increased use for power generation, municipalities, industries and environmental protection. Persistent droughts have exacerbated the situation, leading to increases in irrigated area as farmers atte...

  5. Can plastic mulching replace irrigation in dryland agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Daryanto, S.; Jacinthe, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is a key strategy to maintaining crops yield without over-exploiting the scarce water resource. Plastic mulching technology for wheat and maize has been commonly used in China, but their effect on yield, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), and WUE has not been compared with traditional irrigation method. Using a meta-analysis approach, we quantitatively examined the efficacy of plastic mulching in comparison with traditional irrigation in dryland agriculture. Our results showed that plastic mulching technique resulted in yield increase comparable to irrigated crops but used 24% less water. By covering the ridges with plastic and channeling rainwater into a very narrow planting zone (furrow), plastic mulching increased WUE and available soil moisture. Higher WUE in plastic-mulched croplands was likely a result of greater proportion of available water being used for transpiration than evaporation. If problems related to production costs and residual plastic pollution could be managed, plastic mulching technology would become a promising strategy for dryland farming in other regions.

  6. Changes in East Asian Food Consumption: Some Implications for Australian Irrigated Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Taylor; Christopher Findlay

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the implications of economic growth for food consumption in Asia, the East Asian supply responses and the determinants of Australian competitiveness in meeting Asian demand from production in Australia. Our special interests are to draw out some implications for Australia’s irrigated agriculture and for the organisation of the export business of that sector of the economy. A key question is the scope for increased exports of fresh rather than processed products. Sources of ...

  7. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process.

  8. Integrating irrigation and drainage management to sustain agriculture in northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah; Ritzema, Henk

    2018-01-01

    In Iran, as in the rest of the world, land and water for agricultural production is under pressure. Integrating irrigation and drainage management may help sustain intensified agriculture in irrigated paddy fields. This study was aimed to investigate the long-term effects of such management

  9. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Irrigated Agriculture Suitability to Achieve Food Security in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Aldababseh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at assessing land suitability for large-scale agriculture using multiple spatial datasets which include climate conditions, water potential, soil capabilities, topography and land management. The study case is in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, in the UAE. The aridity of climate in the region requires accounting for non-renewable sources like desalination and treated sewage effluent (TSE for an accurate and realistic assessment of irrigated agriculture suitability. All datasets were systematically aggregated using an analytical hierarchical process (AHP in a GIS model. A hierarchal structure is built and pairwise comparisons matrices are used to calculate weights of the criteria. All spatial processes were integrated to model land suitability and different types of crops are considered in the analysis. Results show that jojoba and sorghum show the best capabilities to survive under the current conditions, followed by date palm, fruits and forage. Vegetables and cereals proved to be the least preferable options. Introducing desalinated water and TSE enhanced land suitability for irrigated agriculture. These findings have positive implications for national planning, the decision-making process of land alteration for agricultural use and addressing sustainable land management and food security issues.

  10. AgIIS, Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System, design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Julio Andres

    Remote sensing is a tool that is increasingly used in agriculture for crop management purposes. A ground-based remote sensing data acquisition system was designed, constructed, and implemented to collect high spatial and temporal resolution data in irrigated agriculture. The system was composed of a rail that mounts on a linear move irrigation machine, and a small cart that runs back and forth on the rail. The cart was equipped with a sensors package that measured reflectance in four discrete wavelengths (550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, all 10 nm bandwidth) and an infrared thermometer. A global positioning system and triggers on the rail indicated cart position. The data was postprocessed in order to generate vegetation maps, N and water status maps and other indices relevant for site-specific crop management. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate images of the field on any desired day. The system was named AgIIS (A&barbelow;gricultural I&barbelow;rrigation I&barbelow;maging S&barbelow;ystem). This ground based remote sensing acquisition system was developed at the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department at the University of Arizona in conjunction with the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in Phoenix, as part of a cooperative study primarily funded by the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. A second phase of the study utilized data acquired with AgIIS during the 1999 cotton growing season to model petiole nitrate (PNO3 -) and total leaf N. A latin square experimental design with optimal and low water and optimal and low N was used to evaluate N status under water and no water stress conditions. Multivariable models were generated with neural networks (NN) and multilinear regression (MLR). Single variable models were generated from chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD) and from the Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI). All models were evaluated against observed PNO3- and total leaf N levels. The NN models

  11. Problems of irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas: farmers' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Yasin, M.; Ahmad, M.M.; Hussain, Z.; Khan, Z.; Akbar, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research study was conducted using participatory interactive dialogue in the brackish groundwater area of Mona SCARP-II, Bhalwal district Sargodha, Pakistan. The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in thirteen villages to identify macro- and micro-level issues related to irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas. SCARP tube wells have been abandoned or few have been handed over to farmers' organizations. Groundwater in the Indus basin contributes around 35% to the total water available for agriculture. Water quality of 60% area of the Indus basin is marginal to brackish. Minimum land holding of cultivated land in the elected villages varied from 0.10 to 4 ha. The maximum land holding of cultivated area in selected villages varied for 6 to 50 ha. However, the average size of farm was around 4 ha. The average salt-affected area per household was 17% of the total cultivated area. The salt-affected lands in 8 villages out of 13 were barren, where mainly rice crop is grown during kharif season. About 67% farms had access to conjunctive use of water, as water from both canal and private tube wells is available. In addition, 10% farms were having tube well water only. Therefore, 77% farms are having access to the groundwater. According to the farmers' perceptions, 100% villages have fresh groundwater to a depth of 7.5 m and 62% villages had depth ranging from 15-30 m. Furthermore, in all thirteen selected villages, groundwater quality beyond 30 m depth was brackish. Laboratory analysis confirmed the farmer's perception that groundwater quality is a function of depth. About 92% farmers groups indicated that non-availability and high price of inputs was a major problem. The second major issue was related to the shortage of canal water supplies and 77% villages are facing this problem. Moreover, 31% farmers' groups of selected villages indicated that water logging and salinity are the major concerns affecting agricultural productivity. This figure is

  12. Experimental Assessment of the Use of a Novel Superabsorbent polymer (SAP for the Optimization ofWater Consumption in Agricultural Irrigation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannazza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an innovative cellulose-based superabsorbent polymer (SAP was experimentally assessed as an environmentally friendly alternative to acrylate-based SAPs, for the optimization of water consumption in agriculture. The cellulose-based SAP was synthesized and tested for its swelling capability in different aqueous media. The effectiveness of the SAP in agricultural applications was then evaluated by analyzing its performance after several absorption/desorption cycles, over a period of approximately 80 days, upon addition to different types of soil, i.e., white and red soil, for the cultivation of two varieties of plants typical of the Mediterranean area (tomatoes and chicory. The results confirmed that SAP-amended soil can store a considerable amount of water and can release it gradually to the plant roots when needed. The adoption of the proposed SAP in cultivations could thus represent a promising solution for the rationalization of water resources, especially in desert areas.

  13. African Farmer-led Irrigation Development: re-framing agricultural policy and investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, Gert Jan; Venot , Jean-Philippe; Brockington, Daniel; Komakech, Hans; Manjichi , Ângela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food supplies to increasing instability in international commodity markets are driving pan-African agricultural investment initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program...

  14. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Djalalov, Sandjar

    1998-01-01

    Irrigation in Uzbekistan is of great importance since the country is an arid zone. The use of water in agriculture is described and its relationship as a constraint to economic development discussed. The current technical and organizational characteristics of irrigation systems need study and analysis to identify opportunities for improvements. The characteristics of demand for water at the farm level are described and irrigation and land improvement activities are outlined. Reform of water u...

  15. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.; Bielza, J.; Garrido, A.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk. (Author)

  16. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk.

  17. African farmer-led irrigation development: reframing agricultural policy and investment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Venot, J.P.J.N.; Brockington, Dan; Komakech, Hans Charles; Manjichi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food

  18. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilcox, Edmund [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  19. Observations of cloud and rainfall enhancement over irrigated agriculture in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    The impact of irrigated agriculture on clouds and rainfall remains uncertain, particularly in less studied arid regions. Irrigated crops account for 20% of global cropland area, and non-renewable groundwater accounts for 20% of global irrigation water demand. Quantifying the feedbacks between agriculture and the atmosphere are therefore not only necessary to better understand the climate impacts of land-use change, but are also crucial for predicting long-term water use in water-scarce regions. Here we use high spatial-resolution satellite data to show the impact of irrigated crops in the arid environment of northern Saudi Arabia on cloud cover and rainfall patterns. Land surface temperatures over the crops are 5-10 K lower than their surroundings, linked to evapotranspiration rates of up to 20 mm/ month. Daytime cloud cover is up to 30% higher over the cropland compared to its immediate surroundings, and this enhancement is highly correlated with the seasonal variability in leaf area index. The cloud enhancement is associated with a much more rapid cloud cloud development during the morning. Afternoon rainfall is 85% higher over, and just downwind, of the cropland during the growing season, although rainfall remains very low in absolute terms. The feedback sign we find is the opposite to what has been observed in tropical and semiarid regions, where temperature gradients promote convergence and clouds on the warmer side of land-surface type discontinuities. This suggests that different processes are responsible for the land-atmosphere feedback in very dry environments, where lack of moisture may be a stronger constraint. Increased cloud and rainfall, and associated increases in diffuse radiation and reductions in temperature, can affect vegetation growth thus producing an internal feedback. These effects will therefore need to be taken into account to properly assess the impact of climate change on crop productivity and water use, as well as how global land

  20. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  1. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Marlorgio, F.; Battista, P.; Bacci, L.; Rapi, B.; Marzialetti, P.; Hemming, J.; Balendonck, J.

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of

  2. Endangered Species and Irrigated Agriculture, Water Resource Competition in Western River Systems

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1995-01-01

    This report characterizes several aspects of water allocation tradeoffs between fish species listed under the Federal Endangered Species Act and agriculture in the American West. The geographic intersection between endangered/threatened (E/T) fish and agricultural production reliant on surface water for irrigation is identified. Three findings are: (1) 235 counties, representing 22 percent of the West's counties, contain irrigated production that relies on water from rivers with E/T fish, ...

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  4. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp. and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems’ products (1.72E+05 sej/J and 1.42E+05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R, emergy yield ratio (EYR, emergy investment ratio (EIR, environmental load ratio (ELR, and environmental sustainability index (ESI. The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  5. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  6. Determination of optimal irrigation rates of agricultural crops under consideration of soil properties and climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Kruashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of increasing water shortage, further development of irrigated agriculture production is impossible without improving the methods of cultivation of agricultural crops, primarily irrigation technology. In 2015 the experiment have been conducted on the territory of irrigation farming area of village Tamarisi (Marneuli Municipality, according to which comprehensive study of local climatic and soil conditions were conducted. Received data were used for computation crop water requirements for tomato and melon under the different irrigation treatments. Obtained results have shown the possibility of water use efficiency and obtaining sufficiently high yields of crops that participated in the experiment that became possible in a case of usage of drip irrigation technology in combination with plastic mulch.

  7. Coupled Hydro-Economic Dynamics of Groundwater Irrigated Agriculture in a Hard Rock Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V.; Fishman, R.; Siegfried, T. U.; Raj, P.; Vasquez, V.; Narula, K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics of groundwater and irrigated agriculture in a semi-arid, hard rock region of India, which is characterized by low-yield, limited storativity aquifers. Telengana, in western Andhra Pradesh has witnessed a relentless expansion of the total irrigated area. Total crop irrigation water requirements have increased by more than 50 percent over the last 30 years. Nowadays, more than 80 percent of the net irrigated area in the region is irrigated from groundwater. Given limited, period monsoonal recharge to the aquifers, it can be estimated that groundwater irrigation intensity is surpassing sustainable allocation levels by a factor of 3. It is not further surprising that the region is increasingly affected by widespread groundwater depletion, with negative consequences for farmers and the energy sector as well as the natural environment. Using data on water tables, precipitation and agricultural land use, we show how both rainfall and farmers’ choices effect water tables and how these, in turn, re-effect farmers choices and agricultural outcomes in a dynamic relationship that allows us to model the interaction between the natural hydrological and agricultural-social dynamics. We use the model to elucidate and quantify the meaning of groundwater mining in this hard rock environment. In contrast to deep alluvial aquifers, excessive extraction does not lead to sustained long term deepening of the water table, but to increased fluctuations in the supply of groundwater for irrigation and the loss of the buffering capacity. For the farmers, this potentially translates into increasingly perilous agricultural production outcomes during monsoonal failures. Furthermore, the dry season agricultural production that entirely depends on the availability of sufficient amounts of irrigation water is progressively threatened under the current allocation scenario. Alternative management practices to address the aquifer depletion issues are discussed. We show that

  8. Impact of Potentially Contaminated River Water on Agricultural Irrigated Soils in an Equatorial Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Trujillo-González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their potential toxicity and persistence in the environment. The Villavicencio region (Colombia is an equatorial area where rainfall (near 3000 mm/year and temperature (average 25.6 °C are high. Soil processes in tropical conditions are fast and react quickly to changing conditions. Soil properties from agricultural fields irrigated with river water polluted by a variety of sources were analysed and compared to non-irrigated control soils. In this study, no physico-chemical alterations were found that gave evidence of a change due to the constant use of river water that contained wastes. This fact may be associated with the climatic factors (temperature and precipitation, which contribute to fast degradation of organic matter and nutrient and contaminants (such as heavy metals leaching, or to dilution of wastes by the river.

  9. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Törnqvist

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N, due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2 semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000 of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here

  10. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  11. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  12. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Polk County, Florida, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berry, Darbi; Dixon, Joann F.

    2017-08-16

    An accurate inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to better estimate agricultural water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. A detailed digital map and summary of irrigated acreage was developed for Polk County, Florida, during the 2016 growing season. This cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Office of Agricultural Water Policy of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is part of an effort to improve estimates of water use and projections of future demands across all counties in the State. The irrigated areas were delineated by using land-use data provided by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, along with information obtained from the South and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts consumptive water-use permits. Delineations were field verified between April and December 2016. Attribute data such as crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system were assigned to the irrigated areas.The results of this inventory and field verification indicate that during the 2016 growing seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter), an estimated 88,652 acres were irrigated within Polk County. Of the total field-verified crops, 83,995 acres were in citrus; 2,893 acres were in other non-citrus fruit crops (blueberries, grapes, peaches, and strawberries); 621 acres were in row crops (primarily beans and watermelons); 1,117 acres were in nursery (container and tree farms) and sod production; and 26 acres were in field crops including hay and pasture. Of the total inventoried irrigated acreage within Polk County, 98 percent (86,566 acres) was in the Southwest Florida Water Management District, and the remaining 2 percent (2,086 acres) was in the South Florida Water Management District.About 85,788 acres (96.8 percent of the acreage inventoried) were irrigated by a microirrigation system, including drip, bubblers, and

  14. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  15. Remote Sensing of Irrigated Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Cervantes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, remote sensing has emerged as an effective tool to monitor irrigated lands over a variety of climatic conditions and locations. The objective of this review, which summarizes the methods and the results of existing remote sensing studies, is to synthesize principle findings and assess the state of the art. We take a taxonomic approach to group studies based on location, scale, inputs, and methods, in an effort to categorize different approaches within a logical framework. We seek to evaluate the ability of remote sensing to provide synoptic and timely coverage of irrigated lands in several spectral regions. We also investigate the value of archived data that enable comparison of images through time. This overview of the studies to date indicates that remote sensing-based monitoring of irrigation is at an intermediate stage of development at local scales. For instance, there is overwhelming consensus on the efficacy of vegetation indices in identifying irrigated fields. Also, single date imagery, acquired at peak growing season, may suffice to identify irrigated lands, although to multi-date image data are necessary for improved classification and to distinguish different crop types. At local scales, the mapping of irrigated lands with remote sensing is also strongly affected by the timing of image acquisition and the number of images used. At the regional and global scales, on the other hand, remote sensing has not been fully operational, as methods that work in one place and time are not necessarily transferable to other locations and periods. Thus, at larger scales, more work is required to indentify the best spectral indices, best time periods, and best classification methods under different climatological and cultural environments. Existing studies at regional scales also establish the fact that both remote sensing and national statistical approaches require further refinement with a substantial investment of

  16. Irrigation management in Mediterranean salt affected agriculture: how leaching operates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a crop rotation currently applied in a farm of the Apulian Tavoliere (Southern Italy, this paper reports the effect of brackish water irrigation on soil, outlines the corresponding salinity balance, formulates quantitative relations to model salt outflow below the soil root-layer and defines operational criteria to optimize irrigation management at farm level in order to control soil salinity through leaching. The general aim is to contribute to a sustainable use of the available water resources and a proper soil fertility conservation. A three-year trial (2007-2010 was carried out on a farm located close to the coast of the Manfredonia gulf (Mediterranean - Adriatic sea, where irrigation with brackish water is frequently practiced due to seawater intrusion into the groundwater. An especially designed experimental field-unit was set-up: the bottom of three hydraulically insulated plots was covered with a plastic sheet to intercept the percolating water and collect it into tanks by means of drain tubes. Each year a double crop cycle was applied to the soil; a spring-summer crop (tomato, zucchini and pepper, respectively was followed by a fall-winter crop (spinach, broccoli and wheat. Short “fallow” periods (completely bare soil were inserted between two crop cycles. Irrigation or rain completely restored crop water consumptions (with the exception of wheat, considered a rainfed crop and leaching was performed both unintentionally (by rainfalls or intentionally (supplying higher irrigation volumes whenever the soil electrical conductivity exceeded a fixed threshold. The soil electrical conductivity was periodically measured together with volume and electrical conductivity of irrigation and drainage water. All these measures allowed to draw-up the salt-balance of the soil, respectively at the beginning and the end of each crop cycle. Absolute and relative variations in soil salt content were interpreted with respect to absolute

  17. Status and Causes of Soil Salinization of Irrigated Agricultural Lands in Southern Baja California,Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Fujiyama, H.; Honna, T.; Larrinaga, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Selected farmlands in southern Baja California, Mexico, were surveyed to determine the levels and the causes of salinization/sodication in irrigated agricultural soil. The salt dynamics observed in profiles differed from farm to farm. Low EC and high ph levels were observed in the profiles of sandy fields, because the salt composition of these soils can easily change when salts are leached by irrigation water that contains carbonates of sodium. On the other hand, high levels of salinity and sodicity were observed in the soils of clayey fields. Soil salinization/sodication is complexly interrelated with soil characteristics, the amount and composition of salts in the soil, the quantity and quality of irrigation water applied, and the irrigation methods used. Our findings indicate that irrigation water in Baja California should be supplied at a rate that is sufficient to meet crop requirements without exacerbating salt accumulation.

  18. Irrigation and drainage in agriculture: a salinity and environmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Stofberg, S.F.; Yang, X.; Liu, Y.; Islam, M.N.; Hu, Yin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Whereas irrigation and drainage are intended to address the shortage and surplus of soil water, respectively, an important aspect to address is also the management of salinity. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an

  19. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  20. Infra-red thermography for detecting drought in agricultural crops and scheduling irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal imaging is a fast growing and potentially important tool in various fields of agriculture. The technology visually identified the rise of temperature in crop canopy which occurs as a result of drought and allows the precise scheduling of crop irrigation. The aim of presenting paper was to demonstrate the application of these techniques on potato plants and to point out on the necessity of irrigation for potato sustainable and economically justified production.

  1. Arsenic accumulation in irrigated agricultural soils in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casentini, B; Hug, S J; Nikolaidis, N P

    2011-10-15

    The accumulation of arsenic in soils and food crops due to the use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for irrigation has created worldwide concern. In the Chalkidiki prefecture in Northern Greece, groundwater As reach levels above 1000μg/L within the Nea Triglia geothermal area. While this groundwater is no longer used for drinking, it represents the sole source for irrigation. This paper provides a first assessment of the spatial extent of As accumulation and of As mobility during rainfall and irrigation periods. Arsenic content in sampled soils ranged from 20 to 513mg/kg inside to 5-66mg/kg outside the geothermal area. Around irrigation sprinklers, high As concentrations extended horizontally to distances of at least 1.5m, and to 50cm in depth. During simulated rain events in soil columns (pH=5, 0μg As/L), accumulated As was quite mobile, resulting in porewater As concentrations of 500-1500μg/L and exposing plant roots to high As(V) concentrations. In experiments with irrigation water (pH=7.5, 1500μg As/L), As was strongly retained (50.5-99.5%) by the majority of the soils. Uncontaminated soils (500mg/kg) could not retain any of the added As. Invoked mechanisms affecting As mobility in those soils were adsorption on solid phases such as Fe/Mn-phases and As co-precipitation with Ca. Low As accumulation was found in collected olives (0.3-25μg/kg in flesh and 0.3-5.6μg/kg in pits). However, soil arsenic concentrations are frequently elevated to far above recommended levels and arsenic uptake in faster growing plants has to be assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. irrigated agriculture and poverty reduction in kassena nankana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-09-08

    Sep 8, 2010 ... a considerable extent, created a platform for employment and high agricultural output. How- ever, the high agricultural output has not ..... District Agriculture Extension Office, and food crop sellers in the Navrongo Central .... pled project farmers were dissatisfied with their household economic situation and ...

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  4. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebo, A. L.; Drechsel, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2014-11-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range.

  5. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebo, A L; Drechsel, P; Lambin, E F

    2014-01-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range. (letter)

  6. Climate change, irrigation, and Israeli agriculture. Will warming be harmful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Mendelsohn, Robert [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2008-04-15

    This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)

  7. Climate change, irrigation, and Israeli agriculture. Will warming be harmful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)

  8. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  9. Agriculture and irrigation as potential drivers of urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Buzan, J. R.; Mishra, V.; Kumar, R.; Shindell, D. T.; Huber, M.

    2017-12-01

    More than half the population are urban dwellers and are most vulnerable to global environmental changes. Urban extents are more prone to intense heating as compared to the surroundings rural area. Presently about 33% of India's population lives in the urban area and is expected to rise steeply, so a better understanding of the phenomenon affecting the urban population is very much important. Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a well-known phenomenon which potentially affects energy consumption, spreading of diseases and mortality. In general, almost all (90%) of the major urban area of the country faces UHI at night time in the range (1-5 °C) while 60% of the regions face Urban Cool Island (UCI) in the range of -1 to 6 °C in day time. Our observations and simulations show that vegetation and irrigation in the surrounding non urban directly affects day time Urban Cool Island effects. This is due to the relative cooling by vegetation and irrigated lands in the vicinity of these urban regions. There is a contrasting variation in UHI/UCI intensities in different seasons and in different time of the day. Most of the urban regions face UHI effect in summers whereas this phenomenton reverses in winters. Daytime UCI is more prominent in the months of April and May due to minimum availability of moisture. We observed that apart from vegetation and irrigation, aerosol is also an important factor governing UHI phenomenon.

  10. Analysis Of The Socioeconomic And Environmental Impacts Of Irrigated Agriculture In The Irrigated Perimeter Of Pau Dos Ferros (Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobson Garcia de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Government implemented irrigated perimeters to ameliorate problems of drought and poverty in the Northeast. In this sense, the objective of this work was to analyze the social, economic and environmental impacts generated by the practice of irrigated agriculture in the municipality of Pau dos Ferros-RN, resulting from the impacts caused by the activity. Obtained references on the topic, on-site visits and interviews with producers of the perimeter. It was observed the presence of negative impacts in the area, such as waste, contamination and water salinisation, compaction and soil erosion, deforestation caused by the removal of the native vegetation, high consumption of energy and public health problems.

  11. Decreasing Agricultural Irrigation has not reversed Groundwater Depletion in the Yellow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Z.; Xie, X.; Zhu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigation is considered as the major water use sector accounting for over 60% of the global freshwater withdrawals. Especially in the arid and semiarid areas, irrigation from groundwater storage substantially sustain crop growth and food security. China's Yellow River Basin (YRB) is a typical arid and semiarid area with average annual precipitation about 450 mm. In this basin, more than 52 million hm2 of arable land needs irrigation for planting wheat, cotton, paddy rice etc, and groundwater contributes over one-third irrigation water. However, agricultural irrigation remained a certain level or decreased to some degree due to water-saving technologies and returning farmland to forest projects. Then an interesting question arises: has the groundwater storage (GWS) in YRB kept a consistent variation with the agricultural irrigation? In this study, to address this question, we employed multi-source data from ground measurements, remote sensing monitoring and large-scale hydrological modeling. Specifically, groundwater storage variation was identified using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and ground observations, and groundwater recharge was estimated based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) modeling. Results indicated that GWS in YRB still holds a significant depletion with a rate of about -3 mm per year during the past decade, which was consistently demonstrated by the GRACE and the ground observations. Ground water recharge shows negligible upward trends despite climate change. The roles of different sectors contributing to groundwater depletion have changed. Agricultural irrigation accounting for over 60% of groundwater depletion, but its impact decreased. However, the domestic and the industrial purposes play an increasing role in shaping groundwater depletion.

  12. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  13. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi'i

    2017-11-01

    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  14. Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: Development of a Regional Water Reuse Decision-Support Model (RWRM) for Cost-Effective Irrigation Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Schwabe, Kurt A; Jassby, David

    2016-09-06

    Water scarcity has become a critical problem in many semiarid and arid regions. The single largest water use in such regions is for crop irrigation, which typically relies on groundwater and surface water sources. With increasing stress on these traditional water sources, it is important to consider alternative irrigation sources for areas with limited freshwater resources. One potential irrigation water resource is treated wastewater for agricultural fields located near urban centers. In addition, treated wastewater can contribute an appreciable amount of necessary nutrients for plants. The suitability of reclaimed water for specific applications depends on water quality and usage requirements. The main factors that determine the suitability of recycled water for agricultural irrigation are salinity, heavy metals, and pathogens, which cause adverse effects on human, plants, and soils. In this paper, we develop a regional water reuse decision-support model (RWRM) using the general algebraic modeling system to analyze the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment trains to generate irrigation water from reclaimed wastewater, with the irrigation water designed to meet crop requirements as well as California's wastewater reuse regulations (Title 22). Using a cost-minimization framework, least-cost solutions consisting of treatment processes and their intensities (blending ratios) are identified to produce alternative irrigation sources for citrus and turfgrass. Our analysis illustrates the benefits of employing an optimization framework and flexible treatment design to identify cost-effective blending opportunities that may produce high-quality irrigation water for a wide range of end uses.

  15. Applicability of 87Sr/86Sr in examining return flow of irrigation water in highly agricultural watersheds in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Nakano, T.; Shin, K. C.; Tsuchihara, T.; Miyazu, S.; Kubota, T.

    2017-12-01

    Water flows in watersheds containing extensive areas of irrigated paddies are complex because of the substantial volumes involved and the repeated cycles of water diversion from, and return to, streams. For better management of low-flow conditions, numerous studies have attempted to quantify the return flow using the stable isotopes of water; however, the temporal variation in these isotopic compositions due to fractionation during evaporation from water surfaces hinders their application to watersheds with extensive irrigated paddies. In this study, we tested the applicability of the strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr, hereafter Sr ratio) for studying hydrological processes in a typical agricultural watershed located on the alluvial fan of the Kinu River, namely the Gogyo River, in central Japan. The Sr ratio of water changes only because of interactions with the porous media it flows through, or because of mixing with water that has different Sr ratios. We sampled water both at a single rice paddy, and on the watershed scale in the irrigated and non-irrigated periods. The soil water under the paddy decreased as sampling depth increased, and the soil water at a depth of 1.5 m showed a similar Sr ratio to the spring. The water sampled in the drainage channel with a concrete lined bottom showed a similar Sr ratio to the irrigation water, whereas that with a soil bottom was plotted between the plots of the irrigation water and shallow aquifer. These results suggest the Sr ratio decreases as it mixes with the soil water through percolation; whereas the Sr ratio will be less likely to change when water drains from paddies via surface pathways. The streamflow samples were plotted linearly on the Sr ratio and 1/Sr plot, indicating that the streamflow was composed of two end-members; the irrigation water and the shallow aquifer. The continuous decline in the Sr ratio along the stream suggests an exfiltration of water from the shallow aquifers. The stream water during the non-irrigated

  16. Irrigated agriculture and future climate change effects on groundwater recharge, northern High Plains aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Zachary H.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Woodward, Duane; Wolf, Cassandra

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the controls of agriculture and climate change on recharge rates is critically important to develop appropriate sustainable management plans for groundwater resources and coupled irrigated agricultural systems. In this study, several physical (total potential (ψT) time series) and chemical tracer and dating (3H, Cl−, Br−, CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) methods were used to quantify diffuse recharge rates beneath two rangeland sites and irrigation recharge rates beneath two irrigated corn sites along an east-west (wet-dry) transect of the northern High Plains aquifer, Platte River Basin, central Nebraska. The field-based recharge estimates and historical climate were used to calibrate site-specific Hydrus-1D models, and irrigation requirements were estimated using the Crops Simulation Model (CROPSIM). Future model simulations were driven by an ensemble of 16 global climate models and two global warming scenarios to project a 2050 climate relative to the historical baseline 1990 climate, and simulate changes in precipitation, irrigation, evapotranspiration, and diffuse and irrigation recharge rates. Although results indicate statistical differences between the historical variables at the eastern and western sites and rangeland and irrigated sites, the low warming scenario (+1.0 °C) simulations indicate no statistical differences between 2050 and 1990. However, the high warming scenarios (+2.4 °C) indicate a 25% and 15% increase in median annual evapotranspiration and irrigation demand, and decreases in future diffuse recharge by 53% and 98% and irrigation recharge by 47% and 29% at the eastern and western sites, respectively. These results indicate an important threshold between the low and high warming scenarios that if exceeded could trigger a significant bidirectional shift in 2050 hydroclimatology and recharge gradients. The bidirectional shift is that future northern High Plains temperatures will resemble present central High Plains

  17. Aligning the multiplicities in natural resource governance: a study on the governance of water and land resources in irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, irrigated agriculture is crucial for food security and poverty reduction. Despite these socio-economic prospects, irrigation agriculture often leads to negative impacts that threaten environmental sustainability. Particularly in semi-arid and arid regions, the coupled problems of

  18. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  19. Recent trends/challenges in irrigated agriculture-Why is irrigation important in a discussion of agricultural migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States agriculture contributes 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of U.S. exports, and 17% of employment while providing food to all citizens, despite the fact that only 2% of the U.S. workforces is on farms. Agricultural productivity has grown by 240% since 1948, while agricul...

  20. Performing and updating an inventory of Oregon's expanding irrigated agricultural lands utilizing remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    An inventory technique based upon using remote sensing technology, interpreting both high altitude aerial photography and LANDSAT multispectral scanner imagery, is discussed. It is noted that once the final land use inventory maps of irrigated agricultural lands are available and approximately scaled they may be overlaid directly onto either multispectral scanner or return beam vidicon prints, thereby providing an inexpensive updating procedure.

  1. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their

  2. Scalar alignment and sustainable water governance: The case of irrigated agriculture in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture plays a significant role in global food security and poverty reduction. At the same time its negative impacts on water and land resources threaten environmental sustainability. With the objective of improving the understanding on the complexity of governing water resources for

  3. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  5. Investigating the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Human's innovative abilities do not only enable rapid expansion of civilization, but also lead to enormous modifications on the natural environment. Technology, while a key factor embedded in socioeconomic developments, its impacts have been rarely appropriately considered in river basin management. This research aims to examine the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China, and how its characteristics interacted with the river basin environment. It adopts a content analysis approach to collect and summarize quantitative technological information in the Heihe River Basin across a time span of more than 2000 years from the Han Dynasty (206 BC) to 2015. Two Chinese academic research databases: Wan Fang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were chosen as data sources. The results show that irrigated agricultural technologies in Heihe River Basin have shifted from focusing on developing new farming tools and cultivation methods to adapting modernized, water-saving irrigation methods and water diversion infrastructures. In additions, the center of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe river basin has moved from downstream to middle stream since the Ming Dynasty (1368AD) as a result of degraded natural environment. The developing trend of technology in the Heihe River Basin thus coincides with the change of societal focus from agricultural production efficiency to the human-water balance and environmental remediation. This research demonstrates that irrigated agricultural technologies had a twisted evolutionary history in the Heihe River Basin, influenced by a diverse range of environmental and socioeconomic factors. It provides insights into the fact that technology exhibits a co-evolutionary characteristic with the social development history in the region, pointing towards the urgent need to maintain the balance between human and environment.

  6. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The use of urban wastewater in agriculture is a centuries-old practice that is ... and water quality in Mexico, India, Nepal, Jordan, and the United States over the ... over 18 years experience in the planning and management of environmental ...

  7. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t 1/2 ) between 0.2–9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism. Highlights: • Some pharmaceuticals are highly persistent in arable soils. • Weak acid pharmaceuticals are readily degradable in agricultural soils. • Irrigation with treated wastewater does not enhance degradation of pharmaceuticals. • Degradation of pharmaceuticals in soil is probably occurred via co-metabolism. -- Some pharmaceutical compounds are persistent in arable soils when introduced via irrigation with treated wastewater

  8. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  9. Heavy-metal contamination of agricultural soils irrigated with industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, G.; Ashraf, M.; Aslam, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a thread of degradation of water and land-resources by industrial effluents. To evaluated the suitability of these effluents as a source of irrigation for agriculture and the study their effects on soil chemical properties, experiments were conducted in the industrial area of Sheikhupura, where effluent from Paper and Board Mill (PBM), Leather Industry (LI) and Fertilizer Industry (FI) were being used for irrigation. At each site, two fields were selected, one irrigated with industrial effluents and the other with tube-well/canal water. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for pH, ECe, SAR and for heavy metals, such as Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Al and Ni. Soil receiving effluent from LI showed higher ECe and SAR values, as compared to the soils receiving other effluents. The concentration of Al was high in the soil irrigated with LI effluent. The Mn and Fe contents were higher in soils irrigated with PBM effluent. Effluent from LI is not fit for irrigation, since its recipient soil showed high concentration of Cr and also high sodicity values. Except Cr, the heavy metals were not of environmental concern. (author)

  10. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schütze

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  11. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L −1 and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L −1 , on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from −1 , with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  12. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  13. Matching agricultural freshwater supply and demand: using industrial and domestic treated wastewater for sub-irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Worm, Bas; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van Loon, Arnaut; Raat, Klaasjan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Climate change leads to more prolonged drought periods that alternate with more intensive rainfall events. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to drought stress will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities search for opportunities to manage risks of decreasing crop yields. Available groundwater sources for irrigation purposes are increasingly under pressure due to the regional coexistence of land use functions that are critical to groundwater levels or compete for available water. At the same time, treated wastewater from industries and domestic wastewater treatment plants are quickly discharged via surface waters towards sea. Exploitation of these freshwater sources may be an effective strategy to balance regional water supply and agricultural water demand. We present results of two pilot studies in drought sensitive regions in the Netherlands, concerning agricultural water supply through reuse of industrial and domestic treated wastewater. In these pilots, excess wastewater is delivered to the plant root zone through sub-irrigation by drainage systems. Sub-irrigation is a subsurface irrigation method that can be more efficient than classical, aboveground irrigation methods using sprinkler installations. Domestic wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands produce annually 40-50mm freshwater. A pilot project has been setup in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in which treated wastewater is applied to a corn field by sub-irrigation during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, using a climate adaptive drainage system. The chemical composition of treated domestic wastewater is different from infiltrating excess rainfall water and natural groundwater. In the pilot project, the bromide-chloride ratio and traces of pharmaceuticals in the treated wastewater are used as a tracer to describe water and solute transport in the

  14. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  15. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    . This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium......Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers...

  16. Irrigated agriculture and groundwater resources - towards an integrated vision and sustainable relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduño, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is the largest abstractor, and predominant consumer, of groundwater resources, with large groundwater-dependent agro-economies now having widely evolved especially in Asia. Such use is also causing resource depletion and degradation in more arid and drought-prone regions. In addition crop cultivation practices on irrigated land exert a major influence on groundwater recharge. The interrelationship is such that cross-sector action is required to agree more sustainable land and water management policies, and this paper presents an integrated vision of the challenges in this regard. It is recognised that 'institutional arrangements' are critical to the local implementation of management policies, although the focus here is limited to the conceptual understanding needed for formulation of an integrated policy and some practical interventions required to promote more sustainable groundwater irrigation.

  17. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, B.M.; Fuerhacker, M.; Mentler, A.; Karki, K.B.; Shrestha, R.R.; Blum, W.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from -1 where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg -1 . The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots > shoots > leaves > edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg -1 ) > onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg -1 ) > cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg -1 ) > rice (0.18 mg As kg -1 ) > brinjal (0.09 mg As kg -1 ) > potato ( -1 ). - The arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water

  18. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  19. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daccache, A; Ciurana, J S; Knox, J W; Rodriguez Diaz, J A

    2014-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m 3 kg −1 ) and energy (CO 2 kg −1 ) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km 3 yr −1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO 2 emissions yr −1 , with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO 2 /t) and cotton (60 kg CO 2 /t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm −3 and emissions of 31 kg CO 2 /t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km 3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO 2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km 3 yr −1 (+137%) whilst CO 2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water–energy–food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO 2 emissions and/or intensify food production. (letter)

  20. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  1. Carbon and water fluxes and footprints in tropical agricultural systems under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Morillas, L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; D'Acunha, B.; Kim, Y.; Suarez, A.; Couto, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk, we will summarize results obtained using three tropical agricultural water observatories in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and Mato Grosso, Brazil. These flux towers and associated sensors enable detailed assessments of carbon use and water use efficiencies for crops under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. In addition to directly assessing water consumption from crops via eddy covariance, determination of water footprints and water use efficiencies using sensors and integrating it with remotely sensed data make it possible to (i) evaluate and compare different irrigation systems used in the study regions (drip, pivot and flood irrigation), (ii) assess the effect of irrigation over the local water balance to identify vulnerabilities associated with intensive water extraction for irrigation, and (iii) study the effect of inter-annual water availability fluctuations on crop water use. We conclude by comparing volumetric water footprints for crops, their carbon footprints, and water and carbon use efficiencies of crops produced under business-as-usual and alternative soil and water management scenarios.

  2. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes.

  3. A California Statewide App to Simulate Fate of Nitrate in Irrigated Agricultural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, E.; Walkinshaw, M.; Harter, T.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources are very important for California's economic development and environmental sustainability. Nitrate is by far the most widespread anthropogenic groundwater pollutant in California's mostly alluvial groundwater basins. Major sources are synthetic fertilizer and dairy manure, but also septic systems and urban wastewater effluent. Here, we evaluate agricultural soils in California according to their risk for nitrate leaching. We conducted over 1 million numerical simulations taking into account the effect of climate, crop type, irrigation and fertilization management scenarios across all 4,568 agricultural soil profiles occurring in California. The assessment was done solving 1-D Richards equation and the advection-dispersion equation numerically. This study is focused on the complex water and nitrate dynamics occurring at the shallow vadose zone (rootzone). The results of this study allow the construction of state-wide maps which can be used for the identification of high-risk regions and the design of agricultural nutrient management policy. We investigate how pollution risk can be minimized by adopting simple irrigation and fertilization methods. Furthermore, we show that these methods are more effective for the most permeable soil profiles along with high demanding crops in terms of fertilization amount and irrigation water. We also present how seasonal (winter) climate conditions contribute on nitrate leaching.

  4. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  5. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  6. Agroecological Substantiation for the Use of Treated Wastewater for Irrigation of Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Domashenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the agroecological substantiation of the use of treated wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land. As the result of the experimental research, it was established that the soil microfloraplays an essential role in strengthening or weakening the biological activity of soil. Therefore, with an irrigation rate of 250 m 3 /ha of wastewater, a 1.5 times increase in the number of microbiota colonies is observed on average both in hog farms and cattle breeding complexes; with a rate of 350 m 3 /ha – a 2-fold increase; with a rate of 450 m 3 /ha – a 3.5–4-fold increase. An increase in nitrifying soil features has also been observed. Thus, if the value on the control in the soil layer from 0 cm to 60 cm is 27.2 mg of nitrate per 1 kg of arid soil, in the version with wastewater irrigation it reaches 46.7 mg. According to the research results, the use of defecate, the waste of sugar production, in the treatment of wastewater of livestock farms does not have a negative agroecological impact on the soil. Therefore, the method of wastewater treatment of pig-breeding complexes and farms can be recommended for use in irrigation reclamation, which includes treatment of wastewater with burnt defecate in the dose of 50–200 mg/dm 3 , with the pH value varying in the range of 7.5–8.5. After settling-out of the obtained mixture in settlers, it is divided into a transparent liquid fraction and the sediment, i.e. an organomineral fertilizer. Afterwards, the fluidbody is fed to irrigation of agricultural land, and its excess is discharged into waterways and reservoirs. The sediment is fed to the vortex layer equipment with mobile ferromagnetic particles or thermolized, where their complete disinfection takes place.

  7. Secondary salinisation in the Indus basin of Pakistan: an environmental issue of irrigated agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Kahlown, M.A.; Prathapar, S.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing awareness of environmental issues has created a serious concern about the adverse social and environmental impacts of irrigation and water resources development projects in many developing countries. In Pakistan, development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS), which serves 16 million ha, and distributes 172 billion cubic meters of high quality river water per annum, has caused the secondary salinization. An area of about 2 Mha is estimated to be severely salinized. In most of the cases, secondary salinity is caused by shallow saline groundwater and inadequate amounts of irrigation water for leaching salts from root zone. However, intensive use of poor quality groundwater without improving its quality also converts good agricultural lands into salt-affected lands. About 70 to 80 percent of tube wells of the Indus Plain pump sodic water, as a result of which large tracts of irrigated land have become sodic. The secondary salinity has devoured the potential of agricultural lands causing poor yield of crops. The affected lands are either lying barren or give poor yield of crops. As a result of salinization about 28,000 to 40,000 ha of irrigated land are going out of production per year. In response, researchers, policy makers, agency personnel and farmers in Pakistan have continuously devised strategies to mitigate secondary salinization. In this paper, nature and causes of secondary salinization, and review of strategies developed and tested in the IBIS to mitigate salinization are presented. Appropriate combination of strategies for various canal commands, and areas requiring further investigations are identified. (author)

  8. Cooling effect of agricultural irrigation over Xinjiang, Northwest China from 1959 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Songjun; Yang Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The influences of agricultural irrigation on trends in surface air temperature from 1959 to 2006 over Xinjiang, Northwest China are evaluated using data from 90 meteorological stations. The 90 stations are located in landscapes with markedly different cultivated land uses. The increasing trends in daily average temperature (T a ), maximum temperature (T max ), and minimum temperature (T min ) for May–September (the main growing season) are negatively correlated with cultivated land proportions within 4 km of the meteorological stations, as indicated by year 2000 land use data. The correlations between the trends in T max and cultivated land proportions are the most significant. The trends in T a , T max , and T min for May–September are expected to decrease by −0.018, −0.014, and −0.016 ° C per decade, respectively, along with a 10% increase in cultivated land proportion. As irrigated cultivated land occupies over 90% of total cultivated land, the dependence of temperature trends on cultivated area is attributed to irrigation. The cooling effects on stations with cultivated land proportion larger than 50% are compared to temperature trends in a reference group with cultivated land proportion smaller than 10%. The irrigation expansion from 1959 to 2006 over Xinjiang is found to be associated with cooling of May–September T a , T max , and T min by around −0.15 ° C to −0.10 ° C/decade in the station group with extensive irrigation. Short periods of rapid irrigation expansion co-occurred with the significant cooling of the May–September temperature. (letter)

  9. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  10. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  11. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  12. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  13. Factors Affecting the Ability of Agriculture to Pay Irrigation-Water Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagood, M. A. [Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1967-11-15

    There are no universally acceptable standard criteria for determining how much agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Justification of cost will depend upon the country's need to develop its soil and water resources for food, for international trade, and for its cumulative effect on other industries in comparison with other possible uses and their over-all contributions to the economy. Social and political conditions often have as much or more influence on development cost decisions than do strictly economic analyses. Many studies indicate that US $0.10/1000 US gal is an upper limit of acceptable costs for developing irrigation water at present economic levels. Under private development and on projects where water users must pay total water costs, methods are available for making feasibility budgets based on present prices. Because of inflation, world food shortage, recessions, future population and other unknown factors, it is hazardous to predict how much farmers or agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Better utilization of water available now offers opportunities for ''developing'' sources at costs much less than those for sources such as sea-water conversion. (author)

  14. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-07-28

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to accurately estimate agricultural water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. A detailed digital map and summary of irrigated acreage during the 2015 growing season was developed for 13 of the 15 counties that compose the Suwannee River Water Management District. The irrigated areas were delineated using land-use data, orthoimagery, and information obtained from the water management district consumptive water-use permits that were then field verified between May and November of 2015. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results indicate that an estimated 113,134 acres were either irrigated or had potential for irrigation in all or part of the 13 counties within the Suwannee River Water Management District during 2015. This estimate includes 108,870 acres of field-verified, irrigated crops and 4,264 acres of irrigated land observed as (1) idle (with an irrigation system visible but no crop present at the time of the field-verification visit), (2) acres that could not be verified during field visits, or (3) acres that were located on publicly owned research lands.

  15. Impacts of Irrigation and Climate Change on Water Security: Using Stakeholder Engagement to Inform a Process-based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.; Flores, A. N.; Han, B.; Som Castellano, R.; Steimke, A.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation is an essential component for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, accounting for a majority of global freshwater withdrawals used for human consumption. Since climate change affects both the spatiotemporal demand and availability of water in irrigated areas, agricultural productivity and water efficiency depend critically on how producers adapt and respond to climate change. It is necessary, therefore, to understand the coevolution and feedbacks between humans and agricultural systems. Integration of social and hydrologic processes can be achieved by active engagement with local stakeholders and applying their expertise to models of coupled human-environment systems. Here, we use a process based crop simulation model (EPIC) informed by stakeholder engagement to determine how both farm management and climate change influence regional agricultural water use and production in the Lower Boise River Basin (LBRB) of southwest Idaho. Specifically, we investigate how a shift from flood to sprinkler fed irrigation would impact a watershed's overall agricultural water use under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. The LBRB comprises about 3500 km2, of which 20% is dedicated to irrigated crops and another 40% to grass/pasture grazing land. Via interviews of stakeholders in the LBRB, we have determined that approximately 70% of irrigated lands in the region are flood irrigated. We model four common crops produced in the LBRB (alfalfa, corn, winter wheat, and sugarbeets) to investigate both hydrologic and agricultural impacts of irrigation and climatic drivers. Factors influencing farmers' decision to switch from flood to sprinkler irrigation include potential economic benefits, external financial incentives, and providing a buffer against future water shortages. These two irrigation practices are associated with significantly different surface water and energy budgets, and large-scale shifts in practice could substantially impact regional

  16. Recycled Urban Wastewater for Irrigation of Jatropha curcas L. in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dorta-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a global context in which obtaining new energy sources is of paramount importance, the production of biodiesel from plant crops is a potentially viable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Among the species used to produce the raw material for biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL has enjoyed increased popularity in recent years, due partly to its ability to grow in degraded zones and under arid and semi-arid conditions. The present study evaluates the potential for JCL production under irrigation with non-conventional water resources in abandoned agricultural soils of the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain, which is one of the most arid parts of the European Union. JCL growth and productivity are compared during the first 39 months of cultivation in two soil types (clay-loam and sandy-loam and with two irrigation water qualities: recycled urban wastewater (RWW and desalinated brackish water (DBW. The results indicate that JCL growth (in terms of plant height and stem diameter was significantly influenced both by soil type and water quality, with better development observed in the sandy-loam soil under RWW irrigation. Productivity, measured as cumulative seed production, was not affected by soil type but was affected by water quality. Production under RWW irrigation was approximately seven times greater than with DBW (mean ~2142 vs. 322 kg·ha−1. The higher nutrient content, especially P, K and Mg, and lower B content of the RWW were found to be key factors in the greater productivity observed under irrigation with this type of water.

  17. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  18. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Helminth eggs as parasitic indicators of fecal contamination in agricultural irrigation water, biosolids, soils and pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, María Claudia; Beltrán, Milena; Fuentes, Nancy; Moreno, Gerardo

    2018-03-15

    A very common practice in agriculture is the disposal of wastewater and biosolids from water treatment systems due to their high nutrient content, which substantially improves crop yields. However, the presence of pathogens of fecal origin creates a sanitary risk to farmers and consumers. To determine the presence and concentration of helminth eggs in irrigation waters, biosolids, agricultural soils, and pastures. Water, biosolids, soil, and pasture samples were collected and analyzed for helminth egg detection, total eggs and viable eggs counts. The behavior of helminth eggs was evaluated in irrigation waters and dairy cattle grassland, where biosolids had been used as an organic amendment. Concentrations between 0.1-3 total helminth eggs/L, and 0.1-1 viable helminth eggs/L were found in water. In biosolids and soil, we found 3-22 total helminth eggs/4 g of dry weight, and 2-12 viable helminth eggs/4 g of dry weight, and in grass, we found <2-9 total helminth eggs/g of fresh weight, and <1-3 viable helminth eggs/g of fresh weight. The presence of helminth eggs in each matrix varied from days to months, which may represent a sanitary risk to farmers as well as to consumers. The presence of helminth eggs in the assessed matrixes confirms the sanitary risk of such practices. Therefore, it is important to control and incorporate regulations related to the use of wastewater and biosolids in agriculture.

  20. Controls on denitrification potential in nitrate-rich waterways and riparian zones of an irrigated agricultural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Alex J; Groffman, Peter M; Cadenasso, Mary L

    2018-02-21

    Denitrification, the microbial conversion of NO 3 - to N gases, is an important process contributing to whether lotic and riparian ecosystems act as sinks for excess NO 3 - from agricultural activities. Though agricultural waterways and riparian zones have been a focus of denitrification research for decades, almost none of this research has occurred in the irrigated agricultural settings of arid and semi-arid climates. In this study, we conducted a broad survey of denitrification potential in riparian soils and channel sediment from 79 waterway reaches in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley. With this approach, we sought to capture the wide range of variation that arose from diverse waterway management and fluctuating flow conditions, and use this variation to identify promising management interventions. We explored associations of denitrification potentials with surface water NO 3 - -N, organic matter, flow conditions, vegetation cover, near-channel riparian bank slope, and channel geomorphic features using generalized linear mixed models. We found strong associations of sediment denitrification potentials with reach flow conditions, which we hypothesize was the result of variation in microbial communities' tolerance to dry-wet cycles. Denitrification potentials in riparian soils, in contrast, did not appear affected by flow conditions, but instead were associated with organic matter, vegetation cover, and bank slope in the riparian zone. These results suggest a strong need for further work on how denitrification responds to varying flow conditions and dry-wet cycles in non-perennial lotic ecosystems. Our findings also demonstrate that denitrifier communities respond to key features of waterway management, which can therefore be leveraged to control denitrification through a variety of management actions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-05

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  2. Assessment and Monitoring of Nutrient Management in Irrigated Agriculture for Groundwater Quality Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Davis, R.; Smart, D. R.; Brown, P. H.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient fluxes to groundwater have been subject to regulatory assessment and control only in a limited number of countries, including those in the European Union, where the Water Framework Directive requires member countries to manage groundwater basis toward achieving "good status", and California, where irrigated lands will be subject to permitting, stringent nutrient monitoring requirements, and development of practices that are protective of groundwater. However, research activities to rigorously assess agricultural practices for their impact on groundwater have been limited and instead focused on surface water protection. For groundwater-related assessment of agricultural practices, a wide range of modeling tools has been employed: vulnerability studies, nitrogen mass balance assessments, crop-soil-system models, and various statistical tools. These tools are predominantly used to identify high risk regions, practices, or crops. Here we present the development of a field site for rigorous in-situ evaluation of water and nutrient management practices in an irrigated agricultural setting. Integrating groundwater monitoring into agricultural practice assessment requires large research plots (on the order of 10s to 100s of hectares) and multi-year research time-frames - much larger than typical agricultural field research plots. Almonds are among the most common crops in California with intensive use of nitrogen fertilizer and were selected for their high water quality improvement potential. Availability of an orchard site with relatively vulnerable groundwater conditions (sandy soils, water table depth less than 10 m) was also important in site selection. Initial results show that shallow groundwater concentrations are commensurate with nitrogen leaching estimates obtained by considering historical, long-term field nitrogen mass balance and groundwater dynamics.

  3. Dominant control of agriculture and irrigation on urban heat island in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Mishra, Vimal; Buzan, Jonathan; Kumar, Rohini; Shindell, Drew; Huber, Matthew

    2017-10-25

    As is true in many regions, India experiences surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect that is well understood, but the causes of the more recently discovered Urban Cool Island (UCI) effect remain poorly constrained. This raises questions about our fundamental understanding of the drivers of rural-urban environmental gradients and hinders development of effective strategies for mitigation and adaptation to projected heat stress increases in rapidly urbanizing India. Here we show that more than 60% of Indian urban areas are observed to experience a day-time UCI. We use satellite observations and the Community Land Model (CLM) to identify the impact of irrigation and prove for the first time that UCI is caused by lack of vegetation and moisture in non-urban areas relative to cities. In contrast, urban areas in extensively irrigated landscapes generally experience the expected positive UHI effect. At night, UHI warming intensifies, occurring across a majority (90%) of India's urban areas. The magnitude of rural-urban temperature contrasts is largely controlled by agriculture and moisture availability from irrigation, but further analysis of model results indicate an important role for atmospheric aerosols. Thus both land-use decisions and aerosols are important factors governing, modulating, and even reversing the expected urban-rural temperature gradients.

  4. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, B.M. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), P.O. Box 4102, Kathmandu (Nepal); Fuerhacker, M. [Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Mentler, A. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Karki, K.B. [Soil Science Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Nepal); Shrestha, R.R. [UN Habitat-Nepal, UN House, Pulchwok, P.O. Box 107, Kathmandu (Nepal); Blum, W.E.H. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: winfried.blum@boku.ac.at

    2008-09-15

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from <0.005 to 1.014 mg L{sup -1} where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg{sup -1}. The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots > shoots > leaves > edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg{sup -1}) > onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg{sup -1}) > cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg{sup -1}) > rice (0.18 mg As kg{sup -1}) > brinjal (0.09 mg As kg{sup -1}) > potato (<0.01 mg As kg{sup -1}). - The arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water.

  5. A new approach for assessing the future of aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Whittemore, Donald O.; Wilson, Blake B.; Bohling, Geoffrey C.

    2016-03-01

    Aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture are under stress worldwide as a result of large pumping-induced water deficits. To aid in the formulation of more sustainable management plans for such systems, we have developed a water balance approach for assessing the impact of proposed management actions and the prospects for aquifer sustainability. Application to the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in the state of Kansas in the United States reveals that practically achievable reductions in annual pumping (determining the net inflow (capture) component of the water balance. The HPA is similar to many aquifers supporting critically needed agricultural production, so the presented approach should prove of value far beyond the area of this initial application.

  6. Natural resource management issues of pakistan's agriculture: the cases of land, labour and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifullah, S.A.; Farid, N.

    2009-01-01

    With the objective to understand the optimization behavior of farmers in allocating land, labor and irrigation water, Linear Programming (LP) analytic technique was applied to 13 Kharif and 7 Rabi crops, using national level data from 1990-2005. The crops included in the analysis have been occupying 80 - 85 percent of Pakistan's cropped area for the last three to four decades. The optimization analysis resulted in bringing up three major natural resource management issues of the Pakistan's crop sector to the forefront. First, Basmati rice, mung, fodders of millet and sorghum, onion and IRRI rice were found optimal Kharif crops relative to sugarcane, maize, maize fodder, millet, sorghum, cotton and tomato. For Rabi wheat, potato, gram, rapeseed and berseem proved to be optimal relative to barley and sugarcane, for this period. The results imply that to have an efficient agriculture base Pakistan should either replace the sub-optimal crops with the optimal ones, or the resource management side of such crops should be improved with the help sensitivity analysis. Second, cotton and tomato appeared to be relatively sensitive to labor availability than other crops; they seemed to establish a direct correlation between the optimality status and labor availability. And third, irrigation emerged as a critical input for IRRI rice in Kharif and for potato and gram in Rabi season; for these crops the crop optimality was directly correlated to the number of irrigations applied. In contrast, its opportunity cost is higher than the per unit return in cotton, tomato, wheat and berseem. This signified that irrigation needs to be managed efficiently in the latter four crops; whereas in the former three crops use of extra water would help in optimizing. (author)

  7. The Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation and Changes in Agricultural Land of Garmsar basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bakhshandehmehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, due to the reduction in surface water, utilization of groundwater has been increased to meet the growing demand of irrigation water. The quality of these water resources is continually changing, due to the geological formations, the amount of utilization, and climatic parameters. In many developing countries, the irrigation water is obtained from poor quality groundwater resources, which in turn, creates unfavorable circumstances for plant growth and reduces the agricultural yield. Providing adequate water resources for agricultural utilization is one of the most important steps needed to achieve the developmental targets of sustainable agriculture. Thus, this necessitates the assessment and evaluation of the quality of irrigation water. There are many proposed methods to determine the suitability of water for different applications, such as Piper, Wilcox, and Schoeller diagrams. Zoning of quality and suitability of irrigation water could represent the prone and critical areas to groundwater exploitation. Garmsar alluvial fan is one of the most sensitive areas in the country where traditional agriculture practices had turned into modern techniques and excessive exploitation of groundwater has caused an intensepressure on aquifers and increased water salinity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of groundwater for irrigation in a 10-year period (2002-2012 and its changes in this basin. Materials and Methods: Garmsar alluvial fan is located in the North-West of Semnan Province. Semnan is situated in the Southern hillside of the Alborz Mountains, in North of Iran. The study area includes the agricultural land on this alluvial fan and covers over 3750 hectares of this basin. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in this area, the electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio of 42 sample wells were calculated. The raster maps of these indicators were obtained using Geo

  8. Management Strategies to Sustain Irrigated Agriculture with Combination of Remote Sensing, Weather Monitoring & Forecasting and SWAP Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, Olga; Zeyliger, Anatoly

    2017-04-01

    Today world's water systems face formidable threats due to climate change and increasing water withdraw for agriculture, industry and domestic use. Projected in many parts of the earth increases in temperature, evaporation, and drought frequency shrunk water availability and magnify water scarcity. Declining irrigation water supplies threaten the sustainability of irrigated agricultural production which plays a critical role in meeting global food needs. In irrigated agriculture there is a strong call for deep efforts in order on the one hand to improve water efficiency use and on the other to maximize yields. The aim of this research is to provide tool to optimize water application with crop irrigation by sprinkling in order to sustain irrigated agriculture under limited water supply by increasing net returns per unit of water. For this aim some field experimental results of 2012 year growing season of alfalfa, corn and soya irrigated by sprinkling machines crops at left bank of Volga River at Saratov Region of Russia. Additionally a combination of data sets was used which includes MODIS images, local meteorological station and results of SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant) modeling. This combination was used to estimate crop water stress defined as ratio between actual (ETa) and potential (ETc) evapotranspiration. By this way it was determined the effect of applied irrigation scheduling and water application depths on evapotranspiration, crop productivity and water stress coefficient. Aggregation of actual values of crop water stress and biomass data predicted by SWAP agrohydrological model with weather forecasting and irrigation scheduling was used to indicate of both rational timing and amount of irrigation water allocation. This type of analysis facilitating an efficient water management can be extended to irrigated areas by developing maps of water efficiency application serving as an irrigation advice system for farmers at his fields and as a decision support

  9. Managed aquifer recharge through off-season irrigation in agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Morway, Eric D.; Triana, Enrique; Huntington, Justin L.

    2017-08-01

    Options for increasing reservoir storage in developed regions are limited and prohibitively expensive. Projected increases in demand call for new long-term water storage to help sustain agriculture, municipalities, industry, and ecological services. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an integral component of water resources around the world. However, MAR faces challenges, including infrastructure costs, difficulty in enhancing recharge, water quality issues, and lack of available water supplies. Here we examine, through simulation modeling of a hypothetical agricultural subbasin in the western U.S., the potential of agricultural managed aquifer recharge (Ag-MAR) via canal seepage and off-season field irrigation. Weather phenomenon in many regions around the world exhibit decadal and other multiyear cycles of extreme precipitation. An ongoing challenge is to develop approaches to store greater amounts of water during these events. Simulations presented herein incorporate Ag-MAR programs and demonstrate that there is potential to enhance regional recharge by 7-13%, increase crop consumptive use by 9-12%, and increase natural vegetation consumption by 20-30%, where larger relative increases occur for lower aquifer hydraulic conductivity and higher specific yield values. Annual increases in groundwater levels were 7 m, and sustained levels following several years of drought were greater than 2 m. Results demonstrate that Ag-MAR has great potential to enhance long-term sustainability of water resources in agricultural basins.

  10. Managed aquifer recharge through off-season irrigation in agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswonger, Richard; Morway, Eric D.; Triana, Enrique; Huntington, Justin L.

    2017-01-01

    Options for increasing reservoir storage in developed regions are limited and prohibitively expensive. Projected increases in demand call for new long-term water storage to help sustain agriculture, municipalities, industry, and ecological services. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an integral component of water resources around the world. However, MAR faces challenges, including infrastructure costs, difficulty in enhancing recharge, water quality issues, and lack of available water supplies. Here we examine, through simulation modeling of a hypothetical agricultural subbasin in the western U.S., the potential of agricultural managed aquifer recharge (Ag-MAR) via canal seepage and off-season field irrigation. Weather phenomenon in many regions around the world exhibit decadal and other multiyear cycles of extreme precipitation. An ongoing challenge is to develop approaches to store greater amounts of water during these events. Simulations presented herein incorporate Ag-MAR programs and demonstrate that there is potential to enhance regional recharge by 7–13%, increase crop consumptive use by 9–12%, and increase natural vegetation consumption by 20–30%, where larger relative increases occur for lower aquifer hydraulic conductivity and higher specific yield values. Annual increases in groundwater levels were 7 m, and sustained levels following several years of drought were greater than 2 m. Results demonstrate that Ag-MAR has great potential to enhance long-term sustainability of water resources in agricultural basins.

  11. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  12. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation's irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western's wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western's power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage

  13. Implications of non-sustainable agricultural water policies for the water-food nexus in large-scale irrigation systems: A remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zayed, Islam Sabry; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a novel monitoring tool based on Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data to examine the status of water distribution and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) under changing water policies in large-scale and complex irrigation schemes. The aim is to improve our understanding of the water-food nexus in such schemes. With a special reference to the Gezira Irrigation Scheme (GeIS) in Sudan during the period 2000-2014, the tool devised herein is well suited for cases where validation data are absent. First, it introduces an index, referred to as the Crop Water Consumption Index (CWCI), to assess the efficiency of water policies. The index is defined as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over agricultural areas to total ETa for the whole scheme where ETa is estimated using the Simplified Surface Energy Balance model (SSEB). Second, the tool uses integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI), as a proxy for crop productivity, and ETa to assess the WUE. Third, the tool uses SSEB ETa and NDVI in an attempt to detect wastage of water. Four key results emerged from this research as follows: 1) the WUE has not improved despite the changing agricultural and water policies, 2) the seasonal ETa can be used to detect the drier areas of GeIS, i.e. areas with poor irrigation water supply, 3) the decreasing trends of CWCI, slope of iNDVI-ETa linear regression and iNDVI are indicative of inefficient utilization of irrigation water in the scheme, and 4) it is possible to use SSEB ETa and NDVI to identify channels with spillover problems and detect wastage of rainwater that is not used as a source for irrigation. In conclusion, the innovative tool developed herein has provided important information on the efficiency of a large-scale irrigation scheme to help rationalize laborious water management processes and increase productivity.

  14. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Duwig, C; Prado, B; Siebe, C; Hidalgo, C; Etchevers, J

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years with sorption to a non-irrigated (P0) Phaeozem soil under rainfed agriculture. The use of bromide as an inert water tracer in column experiments and the subsequent analysis of the tracers' breakthrough curves allowed the calibration of the hydrodynamic parameters of a two-site non equilibrium convection-dispersion model. The quality of the irrigation water significantly altered the soils' hydrodynamic properties (hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and the size of pores that are hydraulically active). The impacts on soil chemical properties (total organic carbon content and pH) were not significant, while the sodium adsorption ratio was significantly increased. Sorption and desorption isotherms, determined in batch and column experiments, showed enhanced atrazine sorption and reduced and slower desorption in wastewater-irrigated soils. These effects increased with the length of irrigation. The intensified sorption-desorption hysteresis in wastewater-irrigated soils indicated that the soil organic matter developed in these soils had fewer high-energy, easily accessible sorption sites available, leading to lower and slower atrazine desorption rates. This study leads to the conclusion that wastewater irrigation decreases atrazine mobility in the Mezquital valley Phaeozems by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity and increasing the soil's sorption capacity.

  15. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  16. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  17. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be

  18. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Wangyang River (WYR basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  19. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gorriz, B.; Soto-García, M.; Martínez-Alvarez, V.

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  20. Evaluating the impact of irrigation on surface water - groundwater interaction and stream temperature in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I; Caldwell, Rodney R

    2017-12-01

    Changes in groundwater discharge to streams caused by irrigation practices can influence stream temperature. Observations along two currently flood-irrigated reaches in the 640-square-kilometer upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational fishing area in west-central Montana, showed a downstream temperature decrease resulting from groundwater discharge to the stream. A watershed-scale coupled surface water and groundwater flow model was used to examine changes in streamflow, groundwater discharge to the stream and stream temperature resulting from irrigation practices. The upper Smith River watershed was used to develop the model framework including watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties and current irrigation practices. Model results were used to compare watershed streamflow, groundwater recharge, and groundwater discharge to the stream for three scenarios: natural, pre-irrigation conditions (PreIrr); current irrigation practices involving mainly stream diversion for flood and sprinkler irrigation (IrrCurrent); and a hypothetical scenario with only groundwater supplying sprinkler irrigation (IrrGW). Irrigation increased groundwater recharge relative to natural PreIrr conditions because not all applied water was removed by crop evapotranspiration. Groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream increased relative to natural PreIrr conditions when the source of irrigation water was mainly stream diversion as in the IrrCurrent scenario. The hypothetical IrrGW scenario, in which groundwater withdrawals were the sole source of irrigation water, resulted in widespread lowering of the water table and associated decreases in groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream. A mixing analysis using model predicted groundwater discharge along the reaches suggests that stream diversion and flood irrigation, represented in the IrrCurrent scenario, has led to cooling of stream temperatures

  1. The effect of naturally acidified irrigation water on agricultural volcanic soils. The case of Asembagus, Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, A.M.D.; Vriend, S.P.; Bergen, M.J.; Gaans, R.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acid water from the Banyuputih river (pH similar to 3.5) is used for the irrigation of agricultural land in the Asembagus coastal area (East Java, Indonesia), with harmful consequences for rice yields. The river water has an unusual composition which is caused by seepage from the acidic Kawah Ijen

  2. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are

  3. Integrating Growth Stage Deficit Irrigation into a Process Based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose R.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Elliott, Joshua; Ruane, Alex C.; Porter, Cheryl; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Current rates of agricultural water use are unsustainable in many regions, creating an urgent need to identify improved irrigation strategies for water limited areas. Crop models can be used to quantify plant water requirements, predict the impact of water shortages on yield, and calculate water productivity (WP) to link water availability and crop yields for economic analyses. Many simulations of crop growth and development, especially in regional and global assessments, rely on automatic irrigation algorithms to estimate irrigation dates and amounts. However, these algorithms are not well suited for water limited regions because they have simplistic irrigation rules, such as a single soil-moisture based threshold, and assume unlimited water. To address this constraint, a new modeling framework to simulate agricultural production in water limited areas was developed. The framework consists of a new automatic irrigation algorithm for the simulation of growth stage based deficit irrigation under limited seasonal water availability; and optimization of growth stage specific parameters. The new automatic irrigation algorithm was used to simulate maize and soybean in Gainesville, Florida, and first used to evaluate the sensitivity of maize and soybean simulations to irrigation at different growth stages and then to test the hypothesis that water productivity calculated using simplistic irrigation rules underestimates WP. In the first experiment, the effect of irrigating at specific growth stages on yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in maize and soybean was evaluated. In the reproductive stages, IWUE tended to be higher than in the vegetative stages (e.g. IWUE was 18% higher than the well watered treatment when irrigating only during R3 in soybean), and when rainfall events were less frequent. In the second experiment, water productivity (WP) was significantly greater with optimized irrigation schedules compared to non-optimized irrigation schedules in

  4. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulating the reactive transport of nitrogen species in a regional irrigated agricultural groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    The fate and transport of nitrogen (N) species in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems is governed by irrigation patterns, cultivation practices, aquifer-surface water exchanges, and chemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction, volatilization, and sorption, as well as the presence of dissolved oxygen (O2). We present results of applying the newly-developed numerical model RT3D-AG to a 50,400-ha regional study site within the Lower Arkansas River Valley in southeastern Colorado, where elevated concentrations of NO3 have been observed in both groundwater and surface water during the recent decade. Furthermore, NO3 has a strong influence on the fate and transport of other contaminants in the aquifer system such as selenium (Se) through inhibition of reduction of dissolved Se as well as oxidation of precipitate Se from outcropped and bedrock shale. RT3D-AG, developed by appending the multi-species reactive transport finite-difference model RT3D with modular packages that account for variably-saturated transport, the cycling of carbon (C) and N, and the fate and transport of O2 within the soil and aquifer system, simulates organic C and organic N decomposition and mineralization, oxidation-reduction reactions, and sorption. System sources/sinks consist of applied fertilizer and manure; crop uptake of ammonium (NH4) and NO3 during the growing season; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 associated with irrigation water and canal seepage; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 transferred to canals and the Arkansas River from the aquifer; and dead root mass and after-harvest stover mass incorporated into the soil organic matter at the end of the growing season. Chemical reactions are simulated using first-order Monod kinetics, wherein the rate of reaction is dependent on the concentration of the reactants as well as temperature and water content of the soil. Fertilizer and manure application timing and loading, mass of seasonal crop uptake, and end-of-season root mass and stover mass are

  6. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  7. Influence of sustainable irrigation regimes and agricultural practices on the soil CO2 fluxes from olive groves in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Serrano-Ortíz, Penelope; Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; Chamizo, Sonia; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2017-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is the dominant agriculture plantation in Spain and its main product, olive oil, is vital to the economy of Mediterranean countries. Given the extensive surface dedicated to olive plantations, olive groves can potentially sequester large amounts of carbon and contribute to mitigate climate change. Their potential for carbon sequestration will, however, largely depend on the management and irrigation practices in the olive grove. Although soil respiration is the main path of C release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and a suitable indicator of soil health and fertility, the interaction of agricultural management practices with irrigation regimes on soil CO2 fluxes have not been assessed yet. Here we investigate the influence of the presence of herbaceous cover, use of artificial fertilizers and their interaction with the irrigation regime on the CO2 emission from the soil to the atmosphere. For this, the three agricultural management treatments were established in replicated plots in an olive grove in the SE of Spain: presence of herbaceous cover ("H"), exclusion of herbaceous cover by using herbicides ("NH"), and exclusion of herbaceous cover along with addition of artificial fertilizers (0.55 kg m-2 year-1 of N, P, K solid fertilizer in the proportion 20:10:10, "NHF"). Within each management treatment, three irrigation regimes were also implemented in a randomized design: no-irrigation ("NO") or rain fed, full irrigation (224 l week-1 per olive tree, "MAX"), and a 50% restriction (112 l week-1 per olive tree, "MED"). Soil respiration was measured every 2-3 weeks at 1, 3, and 5 meters from each olive tree together with soil temperature and soil moisture in order to account for the spatial and seasonal variability over the year. Soil respiration was higher when herbaceous cover was present compared to the herbaceous exclusion, whereas the addition of fertilizer did not exert any significant effect. Although the different

  8. Microbial community of high arsenic groundwater in agricultural irrigation area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina Miseq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and TOC. Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 OTUs were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing As-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high As groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate analysis and co-inertia analysis. Other geochemical

  9. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  10. Agricultural water use, crop water footprints and irrigation strategies in the seasonally dry Guanacaste region in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Laura; Johnson, Mark S.; Hund, Silja V.; Steyn, Douw G.

    2017-04-01

    micrometeorological variables, vegetative status, and soil conditions. In this presentation, we present measured crop water footprints (total crop water consumption as blue and green water), crop water use efficiencies (water used per unit of agricultural production), and crop physiological status (PRI and NDVI index) under drought conditions (2015) and under average rainfall conditions (2016). We will use these data to evaluate the resilience to drought of these crops, which is crucial for the economy of the region. We will also evaluate the impact of agricultural water use for the local water balance and implications of irrigation practices for catchment-scale hydrological processes. Finally, we will explore the feasibility and potential of using CROPWAT 8.0 modelling software to generate estimates of crops water footprint for regional water planning decision-making and farm irrigation planning. The implications of these findings will be discussed in the context of the regional socio-hydrological system that is facing a likely increase in water scarcity due to climate change and demand intensification.

  11. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  12. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, this article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting, have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to respond quickly to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical, as this will significantly affect agricultural income. In terms of policy, we recommend that the governments of Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, which cover the Chinyanja Triangle, formulate policies that will enhance the adoption of sustainable small scale-irrigation

  13. Policy Incentives for Reducing Nitrate Leaching in Agricultural Lands: A Case Study of Irrigation and Drainage Dorudzan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhzeinoddin, A.; Esmaeili, A.; Zibaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural activities increasingly use water, fertilizers and pesticides, which may generate negative impacts on environment. Nowadays, nitrogen leaching from agricultural lands is a widespread global problem. Therefore, alternative land management practices such as nutrient management (rate, method and time of application), tillage operations (conservation and no-tillage), and irrigation management are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. In fact, a number of studies have illustrated the positive effects of best management practices on water and nutrient losses. The objective of this paper is to develop a bio-economic model and introducing the policy instrument for reducing nitrate from irrigation and drainage Dorudzan. We aim to identify ‘‘win–win’’ opportunities for improving farm profitability and reducing nitrate leaching.

  14. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  15. Nutrient and salt mass balance on the Lower Arkansas River and a contributing tributary in an irrigated agricultural setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Hulzenga; Ryan T. Bailey; Timothy K. Gates

    2016-01-01

    The Lower Arkansas River Basin is an irrigated, agricultural valley suffering from high concentrations of nutrients and salts in the coupled groundwater-surface water system. The majority of water quality data collection and associated spatial analysis of concentrations and mass loadings from the aquifer to the stream network has been performed at the regional scale (...

  16. Identification of Decisive Factors Determining the Continued Use of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Agriculture Irrigation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of operating a rainwater harvesting system (RWH depends on both technological and non-technological factors. The importance of non-technological factors in attaining sustainable RWH operation is rarely emphasized. This study aims to assess the contribution of non-technological factors through determining decisive factors involved in the use of RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing. The RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing are not operating as well as expected. If the decisive factors are identified to be non-technological, the significance of non-technological factors will be highlighted. Firstly, 10 impact factors comprising non-technological and technological factors are selected according to both a literature review and interviews with RWH managers. Following this, through an artificial data mining method, rough set analysis, the decisive factors are identified. Results show that two non-technological factors, “doubts about rainwater quality” and “the availability of groundwater” determine whether these systems will continue or cease RWH operation in Beijing. It is, thus, considered necessary to improve public confidence in and motivation on using rainwater for agriculture irrigation, as this is the main obstacle in the sustainable and successful operation of RWHs. Through a case study of RWHs in Beijing, the study verifies the importance of acknowledging non-technological factors to achieve sustainable water management and considers that such factors should receive more attention by decision makers and researchers.

  17. Spectral entropy as a mean to quantify water stress history for natural vegetation and irrigated agriculture in a water-stressed tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Spectral entropy (Hs) is an index which can be used to measure the structural complexity of time series data. When a time series is made up of one periodic function, the Hs value becomes smaller, while Hs becomes larger when a time series is composed of several periodic functions. We hypothesized that this characteristic of the Hs could be used to quantify the water stress history of vegetation. For the ideal condition for which sufficient water is supplied to an agricultural crop or natural vegetation, there should be a single distinct phenological cycle represented in a vegetation index time series (e.g., NDVI and EVI). However, time series data for a vegetation area that repeatedly experiences water stress may include several fluctuations that can be observed in addition to the predominant phenological cycle. This is because the process of experiencing water stress and recovering from it generates small fluctuations in phenological characteristics. Consequently, the value of Hs increases when vegetation experiences several water shortages. Therefore, the Hs could be used as an indicator for water stress history. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for a natural area in comparison to a nearby sugarcane area in seasonally-dry western Costa Rica. In this presentation we will illustrate the use of spectral entropy to evaluate the vegetative responses of natural vegetation (dry tropical forest) and sugarcane under three different irrigation techniques (center pivot irrigation, drip irrigation and flood irrigation). Through this comparative analysis, the utility of Hs as an indicator will be tested. Furthermore, crop response to the different irrigation methods will be discussed in terms of Hs, NDVI and yield.

  18. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  19. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... 8--Salmon and Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project Project... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District...

  20. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains. Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone. However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer. The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from

  1. Assessing gaps in irrigated agricultural productivity through satellite earth observations-A case study of the Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Fliemann, Elisabeth; Lamers, John P. A.; Conrad, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Improving crop area and/or crop yields in agricultural regions is one of the foremost scientific challenges for the next decades. This is especially true in irrigated areas because sustainable intensification of irrigated crop production is virtually the sole means to enhance food supply and contribute to meeting food demands of a growing population. Yet, irrigated crop production worldwide is suffering from soil degradation and salinity, reduced soil fertility, and water scarcity rendering the performance of irrigation schemes often below potential. On the other hand, the scope for improving irrigated agricultural productivity remains obscure also due to the lack of spatial data on agricultural production (e.g. crop acreage and yield). To fill this gap, satellite earth observations and a replicable methodology were used to estimate crop yields at the field level for the period 2010/2014 in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia, to understand the response of agricultural productivity to factors related to the irrigation and drainage infrastructure and environment. The results showed that cropping pattern, i.e. the presence or absence of multi-annual crop rotations, and spatial diversity of crops had the most persistent effects on crop yields across observation years suggesting the need for introducing sustainable cropping systems. On the other hand, areas with a lower crop diversity or abundance of crop rotation tended to have lower crop yields, with differences of partly more than one t/ha yield. It is argued that factors related to the infrastructure, for example, the distance of farms to the next settlement or the density of roads, had a persistent effect on crop yield dynamics over time. The improvement potential of cotton and wheat yields were estimated at 5%, compared to crop yields of farms in the direct vicinity of settlements or roads. In this study it is highlighted how remotely sensed estimates of crop production in combination with geospatial technologies

  2. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  3. Minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge - Towards a water reuse regulatory instrument at EU level Réédition

    OpenAIRE

    ALCALDE SANZ LAURA; GAWLIK BERND

    2017-01-01

    As an input to the design of a Legal Instrument on Water Reuse in Europe, this report recommends minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge based on a risk management approach.

  4. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  5. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Bodar and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Batavia) were seasonally surveyed in 4 farm plots in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona. A pristine site, where rain-groundwater is used for irrigation, was selected for background concentrations. The average concentration levels of TEs and CECs in the irrigation water impacted by treated wastewater (TWW) were 3 (35±75μgL -1 ) and 13 (553±1050ngL -1 ) times higher than at the pristine site respectively. Principal component analysis was used to classify the irrigation waters by chemical composition. To assess the impact of the occurrence of these contaminants on agriculture, a seed germination assay (Lactuca sativa L) and real field-scale study of crop productivity (i.e., lettuce and tomato) were used. Although irrigation waters from the peri-urban area exhibited a higher frequency of detection and concentration of the assessed chemical contaminants than those of the pristine site (P1), no significant differences were found in seed phytotoxicity or crop productivity. In fact, the crops impacted by TWW showed higher productivity than the other farm plots studied, which was associated with the higher nutrient availability for plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  7. Decadal Variation of Precipitation in Saudi Arabia induced by Agricultural Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wey, H. W.; Wada, Y.; IM, E. S.; Chien, R. Y.; Wu, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Decadal variation of wet-season precipitation has been found in the arid region of central Saudi Arabia. 1980s has been a rather wet decade compared with the decades before. Previous studies have mentioned that the irrigation moisture may contribute to the precipitation anomalies in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, we show from observational data that the contribution of the variation comes mostly from February to May. As the irrigation is a localized forcing, we therefore use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to simulate the response of the land-atmosphere interaction to the wet soil moisture resulted from additional irrigation moisture supply. Preliminary result shows in the irrigated simulation that precipitation in central Saudi Arabia is enhanced, indicating the possible link between irrigation expansion in the 1980s and the decadal precipitation variation over central Saudi Arabia. We propose it is the anomalous convergence induced by irrigation as well as additional moisture that contribute to the enhanced precipitation over heavily irrigation region in the central Saudi Arabian. In addition, analysis on the daily precipitation from the WRF outputs indicates that positive rainfall anomalies tend to happen when there is rainfall originally; that is, irrigation enhances rainfall but not creates rainfall.

  8. Simulating Changes in Land-Atmosphere Interactions From Expanding Agriculture and Irrigation in India and the Potential Impacts on the Indian Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, E. M.; Beltran-Przekurat, A.; Niyogi, D.; Pielke, R. A.

    2006-05-01

    With over 57 million hectares under irrigation in 2002, India has the largest irrigated agricultural area on the planet. Between 80 and 90% of India's water use goes to support irrigated agriculture. The Indian monsoon belt is a home to a large part of the world's population and agriculture is the major land-use activity in the region. Previous results showed that annual vapor fluxes in India have increased by 17% (340 km3) over that which would be expected from a natural (non-agricultural) land cover. Two-thirds of this increase was attributed to irrigated agriculture. The largest increases in vapor and latent heat fluxes occurred where both cropland and irrigated lands were the predominant contemporary land cover classes (particularly northwest and north-central India). Our current study builds upon this work by evaluating possible changes in near-surface energy fluxes and regional atmospheric circulation patterns resulting from the expansion of irrigated agriculture on the Indian sub-continent using a regional atmospheric model RAMS. We investigate three separate land- use scenarios: Scenario 1, with a potential (pre-agricultural) land cover, Scenario 2: the potential land-cover overlain by cropland and Scenario 3: potential land-cover overlain by cropland and irrigated area. We will assess the impact of agricultural land-cover conversion and intensive irrigation on water and energy fluxes between the land and the atmosphere and how these flux changes may affect regional weather patterns. The simulation period covers July 16-20, 2002 which allow us to assess potential impacts of land-cover changes on the onset of the Indian Monsoon.

  9. A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

    2015-03-01

    Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and

  10. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  11. Valuing Groundwater Services and Water Portfolio in Irrigated Agriculture with a Hedonic Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Monobina

    2013-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the processes and functioning of the Earth's ecosystems. Only one percent of the earth's fresh water resources are available for human activity. The gap between water supply and demand is increasing due to population growth, development pressure and climate change. Poor water quality aggravates this imbalance even more. A serious concern that naturally arises is how will agriculture, which consumes 70% of world's freshwater withdrawals, respond to these issues. Thi...

  12. The Influence of Groundwater Depletion from Irrigated Agriculture on the Tradeoffs between Ecosystem Services and Economic Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant

    2016-01-01

    An irrigated agricultural landscape experiencing groundwater overdraft generates economic returns and a suite of ecosystem services (in particular, groundwater supply, greenhouse gases reduction, and surface water quality). Alternative land cover choices indicate tradeoffs among the value of ecosystem services created and the economic returns. These tradeoffs are explored using efficiency frontiers that determine the least value in ecosystem services that must be given up to generate additional economic returns. Agricultural producers may switch to irrigation with surface water using on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery systems in response to groundwater overdraft, and this has consequences for the bundle of ecosystem service values and economic returns achievable from the landscape. Planning that accounts for both ecosystem service value and economic returns can achieve more value for society, as does the adoption of reservoirs though lowering the costs of irrigation, increasing groundwater levels, and reducing fuel combustion and associated GHG emissions from groundwater pumping. Sensitivity analyses of per unit value of ecosystem services, crop prices, and the groundwater and water purification model parameters indicate tradeoff among ecosystems service values, such as the use of a high-end social cost of carbon ultimately lowers groundwater supply and water purification value by more than 15%.

  13. The Influence of Groundwater Depletion from Irrigated Agriculture on the Tradeoffs between Ecosystem Services and Economic Returns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Kovacs

    Full Text Available An irrigated agricultural landscape experiencing groundwater overdraft generates economic returns and a suite of ecosystem services (in particular, groundwater supply, greenhouse gases reduction, and surface water quality. Alternative land cover choices indicate tradeoffs among the value of ecosystem services created and the economic returns. These tradeoffs are explored using efficiency frontiers that determine the least value in ecosystem services that must be given up to generate additional economic returns. Agricultural producers may switch to irrigation with surface water using on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery systems in response to groundwater overdraft, and this has consequences for the bundle of ecosystem service values and economic returns achievable from the landscape. Planning that accounts for both ecosystem service value and economic returns can achieve more value for society, as does the adoption of reservoirs though lowering the costs of irrigation, increasing groundwater levels, and reducing fuel combustion and associated GHG emissions from groundwater pumping. Sensitivity analyses of per unit value of ecosystem services, crop prices, and the groundwater and water purification model parameters indicate tradeoff among ecosystems service values, such as the use of a high-end social cost of carbon ultimately lowers groundwater supply and water purification value by more than 15%.

  14. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  15. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  16. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the δ 18 O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 ± 0.5 per-thousand), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high 18 O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low 18 O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in δ 18 O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are ∼10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for ∼40 years, creating cones of depression ∼25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low 18 O water (-11.0 per-thousand) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp 18 O gradients in our groundwater isotope map

  17. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  18. The potential implications of reclaimed wastewater reuse for irrigation on the agricultural environment: The knowns and unknowns of the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Agüera, Ana; Bayona, Josep Maria; Cytryn, Eddie; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Lambropoulou, Dimitra; Manaia, Célia M; Michael, Costas; Revitt, Mike; Schröder, Peter; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2017-10-15

    The use of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) for the irrigation of crops may result in the continuous exposure of the agricultural environment to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In recent years, certain evidence indicate that antibiotics and resistance genes may become disseminated in agricultural soils as a result of the amendment with manure and biosolids and irrigation with RWW. Antibiotic residues and other contaminants may undergo sorption/desorption and transformation processes (both biotic and abiotic), and have the potential to affect the soil microbiota. Antibiotics found in the soil pore water (bioavailable fraction) as a result of RWW irrigation may be taken up by crop plants, bioaccumulate within plant tissues and subsequently enter the food webs; potentially resulting in detrimental public health implications. It can be also hypothesized that ARGs can spread among soil and plant-associated bacteria, a fact that may have serious human health implications. The majority of studies dealing with these environmental and social challenges related with the use of RWW for irrigation were conducted under laboratory or using, somehow, controlled conditions. This critical review discusses the state of the art on the fate of antibiotics, ARB and ARGs in agricultural environment where RWW is applied for irrigation. The implications associated with the uptake of antibiotics by plants (uptake mechanisms) and the potential risks to public health are highlighted. Additionally, knowledge gaps as well as challenges and opportunities are addressed, with the aim of boosting future research towards an enhanced understanding of the fate and implications of these contaminants of emerging concern in the agricultural environment. These are key issues in a world where the increasing water scarcity and the continuous appeal of circular economy demand answers for a long-term safe use of RWW for irrigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  19. ADAPTATION PROCESS TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE- AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variations affect agriculture in a process with no known end means. Adaptations help to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Unfortunately, adaptation has never been considered as a process. Current study empirically identified the adaptation process and its different stages. Moreover, little is known about the farm level adaptation strategies and their determinants. The study in hand found farm level adaptation strategies and determinants of these strategies. The study identified three stages of adaptation i.e. perception, intention and adaptation. It was found that 71.4% farmers perceived about climate change, 58.5% intended to adapt while 40.2% actually adapted. The study further explored that farmers do adaptations through changing crop variety (56.3%, changing planting dates (44.6%, tree plantation (37.5%, increase/conserve irrigation (39.3% and crop diversification (49.2%. The adaptation strategies used by farmers were autonomous and mostly determined perception to climate change. It was also noted that the adaptation strategies move in a circular process and once they are adapted they remained adapted for a longer period of time. Some constraints slow the adaptation process so; we recommend farmers should be given price incentives to speed-up this process.

  20. Evapotranspiration measurements in rainfed and irrigated cropland illustrate trade-offs in land and water management in Southern Amazonia's agricultural frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Black, T. A.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Hawthorne, I.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Amazonia, Brazil, is home to a rapidly expanding agricultural frontier in which tropical forest and savanna landscapes have been increasingly replaced by agricultural land since the 1990s. One important impact of deforestation is the reduction in water vapour transferred to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) from rainfed agriculture landscapes compared to natural vegetation, leading to a reduction in regional precipitation recycling. Here, we discuss land and water management choices for future agricultural production in Southern Amazonia and their potential effects on the atmospheric water cycle. We illustrate these choices by presenting ET measurements on an agricultural landscape by eddy covariance (EC) between September 2015 and February 2017. Measurements were made for two fields adjacent to one micrometeorological EC tower: (1) one rainfed field containing a succession of soybean, maize, brachiara and soybean, and (2) one irrigated field with a succession of soybean, rice, beans, and soybean. Over the time period, total ET in the rainfed and irrigated fields was 1266 ± 294 mm and 1415 ± 180 mm, respectively for a total precipitation of 3099 mm. The main difference in ET between the fields was attributed to the application of 118 mm of surface water irrigated for bean production in the irrigated field between June and September 2016. In the rainfed field, soybean ET was 332 ± 82 mm (2015-2016) and 423 ± 99 mm (2016-2017) for 824 mm and 1124 mm of precipitation, respectively. In the irrigated field, soybean ET was 271 ± 38 mm (2015) and 404 ± 60 mm (2016-2017) with supplemental irrigation added in 2015. Our results illustrate how supplemental irrigation can favour early soybean planting while transferring additional water vapour to the atmosphere at levels similar to natural vegetation. We conclude by discussing our results in the context of future land and water trade-offs for agricultural intensification in Brazil's "arc-of-deforestation".

  1. Impact of potentially contaminated river water on agricultural irrigated soils in an equatorial climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Mahecha-Pulido, Juan D.; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Brevik, Eric C.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their

  2. Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water for irrigated agriculture: Risk aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.; Young, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    In examining the South Platte system in Colorado where surface water and groundwater are used conjunctively for irrigation, we find the actual installed well capacity is approximately sufficient to irrigate the entire area. This would appear to be an overinvestment in well capacity. In this paper we examine to what extent groundwater is being developed as insurance against periods of low streamflow. Using a simulation model which couples the hydrology of a conjunctive stream aquifer system to a behavioral-economic model which incorporates farmer behavior in such a system, we have investigated the economics of an area patterned after a reach of the South Platte Valley in Colorado. The results suggest that under current economic conditions the most reasonable groundwater pumping capacity is a total capacity capable of irrigating the available acreage with groundwater. Installing sufficient well capacity to irrigate all available acreage has two benefits: (1) this capacity maximizes the expected net benefits and (2) this capacity also minimizes the variation in annual income: it reduces the variance to essentially zero. As pumping capacity is installed in a conjunctive use system, the value of flow forecasts is diminished. Poor forecasts are compensated for by pumping groundwater.

  3. Arsenic adsorption and plant availability in an agricultural soil irrigated with As-rich water: Effects of Fe-rich amendments and organic and inorganic fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco-Lázaro, Elena; Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, Ma Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The use of As-rich water for irrigation in agricultural soils may result in As accumulation in soil and crops, with the consequent risk of its entry into the food chain. The effectiveness of three different Fe-based materials (a commercial iron oxide (Bayoxide ® ), lamination slag (a by-product of the hot rolling of steel) and a commercial red mud derivative (ViroBind™)) used as soil amendments to minimise the impact of irrigation with As-rich water in an agricultural soil-plant system was evaluated in a pot experiment. Simultaneously, the influence of organic and inorganic fertilisation (olive oil mill waste compost versus NPK fertiliser) on the effectiveness of iron oxide in As adsorption processes was also assessed. The As adsorption capacity of the amendments was determined in a preliminary batch experiment using sorption isotherms. Then, a pot experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using an agricultural soil (arenosol) from Segovia province (central Spain), amended with the different materials, in which Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was grown for two months. The As adsorption capacity was higher in the commercial iron oxide and in the red mud derivative, which fitted the Freundlich model (no saturation), than in the lamination slag, which fitted the Langmuir model (limited adsorption). All the materials decreased the pore water As concentration compared to the control (by 29-80%), but only iron oxide reduced As availability in the soil, and none of the amendments decreased the As concentration in plant leaves. The combination of iron oxide and compost did not significantly improve plant growth, but increased nutrients (N, K, Ca, Na and Mg) concentrations and availability in the soil and their concentration in the plants, relative to the other treatments and the control. Therefore, this seems to be a viable option to prevent As leaching and improve the plant nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of a nanofibrous composite membrane to the fertilizer-driven forward osmosis process for irrigation water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Chang-Gu; Park, Seong-Jik

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nanofibrous composite (NFC) membrane as a substrate to produce forward osmosis (FO) membranes, and we also assessed the use of liquid fertilizer as a draw solution for the FO process in order to produce agricultural irrigation water. Commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin-film composite (TFC) FO membranes were included in this study. Under FO tests, the NFC, CTA, and TFC membranes achieved initial osmotic water flux values of 35.31, 6.85, and 3.31 L/m 2 ·h and final osmotic water flux values of 12.62, 6.31, and 3.85 L/m 2  h, respectively. The reason for the high osmotic water flux of the NFC membrane is because its nanofiber layer has low tortuosity, high porosity, and a low thickness, resulting in a reduction in the internal concentration polarization phenomenon. When liquid fertilizer was used as the draw solution, the water flux values in the FO experiments for the NFC, CTA, and TFC membranes were 15.54, 5.46, and 2.54 L/m 2  h. Finally, our results revealed that the FO process using liquid fertilizer as a draw solution can be applied to produce agricultural irrigation water from brackish water and the newly fabricated NFC membrane can be applied to the FO process.

  5. Viewpoint – The Right Irrigation? Policy Directions for Agricultural Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lankford

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In July 2009, in the closing moments of the G8 meeting in Italy, President Obama responded to a question from the floor regarding investments in Africa to tackle food security and poverty. His answer (quoted below included the phrase "the right irrigation". This opinion piece reflects on the phrase, places it within a policy debate and suggests that the development community can respond to Obama’s call for the 'right irrigation' in sub‐ Saharan Africa by taking a comprehensive approach that utilises a mixture of technologies, builds on local capabilities, brings sound engineering know‐how, is supported by a range of other services, and acknowledges other water needs within catchments. Cost‐effectiveness and community ownership will be important.

  6. The improvement of the quality of polluted irrigation water through a phytoremediation process in a hydroponic batch culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningdyah, Catur

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a phytoremediation process using some local hydro macrophytes to reduce fertilizer residue in irrigation water in order to support healthy agriculture and to prevent eutrophication and algae bloom in water. A phytoremediation process was carried out in a hydroponic floating system by using transparent plastic bags of 1 m in diameter and 1 m in height that were placed in collecting ponds before they were used for agricultural activities. Paddy soils were used as substrates in this system. The irrigation water was treated with nutrient enrichment (Urea and SP-36 fertilizers). Then, the system was planted with remediation actors (Azolla sp., Ipomoea aquatica, Limnocharis flava, Marsilea crenata, polyculture of those hydro macrophytes and control). The improvement of the water quality as a result of the phytoremediation process was characterized by a decline in the concentration of some physicochemical parameters, which were measured at 7 days after incubation, as well as an increase in the plankton diversity index value. The results showed that all of the hydro macrophytes used in this research, which was grown in the hydroponic batch culture system for a period of 7 days, were able to significantly improve the irrigation water quality, which was enriched by the synthetic fertilizers Urea and SP36. This was reflected by a significant decrease in the concentration of water TSS, nitrate, BOD, COD and total phosphate and an increase in the value of water DO at 7 days after incubation. Improvement of the water quality is also reflected in the increasing plankton diversity index value as a bioindicator of water pollution indicating a change in the pollution status from moderately polluted to slightly polluted at 7 days after incubation.

  7. Brackish groundwater membrane system design for sustainable irrigation: Optimal configuration selection using analytic hierarchy process and multi-dimension scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni eLew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent high demands for reuse of salty water for irrigation affected membrane producers to assess new potential technologies for undesirable physical, chemical and biological contaminants removal. This paper studies the assembly options by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model and the multi-dimension scaling (MDS techniques. A specialized form of MDS (CoPlot software enables presentation of the AHP outcomes in a two dimensional space and the optimal model can be visualized clearly. Four types of 8 membranes were selected: (i Nanofiltration low rejection and high flux (ESNA1-LF-LD, 86% rejection, 10,500gpd; (ii Nanofiltration medium rejection and medium flux (ESNA1-LF2-LD, 91% rejection, 8,200gpd; (iii Reverse Osmosis high rejection and high flux (CPA5-MAX, 99.7 rejection, 12,000gpd ; and (iv Reverse Osmosis medium rejection and extreme high flux (ESPA4-MAX, 99.2 rejection, 13,200gpd. The results indicate that: (i Nanofiltration membrane (High flux and Low rejection can produce water for irrigation with valuable levels of nutrient ions and a reduction in the sodium absorption ratio (SAR, minimizing soil salinity; this is an attractive option for agricultural irrigation and is the optimal solution; and (ii implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables is consequently useful to characterize membrane system design.

  8. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, J N; Mosha, F W; Lindsay, S W

    2002-03-01

    Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection indoors (18.00-06.00 hours) and outdoors (18.00-24.00 hours); from daytime resting-sites indoors and outdoors; by CDC light-traps over sleepers. Anopheles densities and rates of survival, anthropophily and malaria infection were compared between three villages representing different agro-ecosystems: irrigated sugarcane plantation; smallholder rice irrigation scheme, and savannah with subsistence crops. Respective study villages were Mvuleni (population 2200), Chekereni (population 3200) and Kisangasangeni (population approximately/= 1000), at least 7 km apart. Anopheles arabiensis Patton was found to be the principal malaria vector throughout the study area, with An. funestus Giles sensu lato of secondary importance in the sugarcane and savannah villages. Irrigated sugarcane cultivation resulted in water pooling, but this did not produce more vectors. Anopheles arabiensis densities averaged four-fold higher in the ricefield village, although their human blood-index was significantly less (48%) than in the sugarcane (68%) or savannah (66%) villages, despite similar proportions of humans and cows (ratio 1:1.1-1.4) as the main hosts at all sites. Parous rates, duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survival rates of An. arabiensis were similar in villages of all three agro-ecosystems. The potential risk of malaria, based on measurements of vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis and An.funestus combined, was four-fold higher in the ricefield village than in the sugarcane or savannah villages nearby. However, the more realistic estimate of malaria risk, based on entomological inoculation rates, indicated that exposure to

  9. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  10. Arsenic contamination in irrigation water, agricultural soil and maize crop from an abandoned smelter site in Matehuala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Huerta, Esther Aurora; de la Garza Varela, Alonso; Gómez-Bernal, Juan Miguel; Castillo, Francisco; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; SenGupta, Bhaskar; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia

    2017-10-05

    Mobility of Arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastes in Matehuala, Mexico has been accounted for ultra-high concentration of As in water (4.8-158mg/L) that is used for recreational purposes as well as cultivation of maize. In this study, we (i) measured As concentrations in soils irrigated with this water, (ii) investigated the geochemical controls of available As, and (iii) measured bioaccumulation of As in maize. Water, soil, and maize plant samples were collected from 3 different plots to determine As in environmental matrices as well as water soluble As in soils. Soil mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioaccumulation of As in maize plants was estimated from the bioconcentration and translocation factors. We recorded As built-up in agricultural soils to the extent of 172mg/kg, and noted that this As is highly soluble in water (30% on average). Maize crops presented high bioaccumulation, up to 2.5 times of bioconcentration and 45% of translocation. Furthermore, we found that water extractable As was higher in soils rich in calcite, while it was lower in soils containing high levels of gypsum, but As bioconcentration showed opposite trend. Results from this study show that irrigation with As rich water represents a significant risk to the population consuming contaminated crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Authorities’ Pricing Strategies to Recover Supply Costs in the Absence of Water Metering for Irrigated Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lika

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the irrigated agricultural regions in Europe are supplied by surface irrigation networks managed by local water authorities (WAs. Under such conditions, WAs are not able to fully monitor water usage and farmers have an information advantage vis-a-vis the WA. This results in the water authority suffering ‘pricing failure’ if it decides to apply an incentive pricing strategy (tariffs proportional to the alleged water uses. Indeed, farmers could exploit their information advantage by behaving in an opportunistic manner, withdrawing more water than declared, and ultimately paying less than they should. This situation could also undermine the efficacy and the efficiency of the WA incentive pricing strategies. This paper analyses incentive water pricing schemes under asymmetric information by the means of a Principal-Agent model. The Agency problem between the WA and farmers is addressed by introducing a monitoring strategy that would enable the WA to detect farms action. In doing so, we compare incentive strategies with flat rate water pricing and investigate under what conditions the WA might provide/not provide incentive water pricing in the absence of water metering.

  12. Per-field crop classification in irrigated agricultural regions in middle Asia using random forest and support vector machine ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Schorcht, Gunther; Michel, Ulrich; Dech, Stefan; Conrad, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Accurate crop identification and crop area estimation are important for studies on irrigated agricultural systems, yield and water demand modeling, and agrarian policy development. In this study a novel combination of Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers is presented that (i) enhances crop classification accuracy and (ii) provides spatial information on map uncertainty. The methodology was implemented over four distinct irrigated sites in Middle Asia using RapidEye time series data. The RF feature importance statistics was used as feature-selection strategy for the SVM to assess possible negative effects on classification accuracy caused by an oversized feature space. The results of the individual RF and SVM classifications were combined with rules based on posterior classification probability and estimates of classification probability entropy. SVM classification performance was increased by feature selection through RF. Further experimental results indicate that the hybrid classifier improves overall classification accuracy in comparison to the single classifiers as well as useŕs and produceŕs accuracy.

  13. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  14. Impacts of agricultural irrigation on nearby freshwater ecosystems: the seasonal influence of triazine herbicides in benthic algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Carmen; Causapé, Jesús; Glud, Ronnie N; Hancke, Kasper; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Val, Jonatan; Navarro, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    A small hydrological basin (Lerma, NE Spain), transformed from its natural state (steppe) to rain-fed agriculture and recently to irrigation agriculture, has been monitored across four seasons of an agricultural year. The goal of this study was to assess how and whether agricultural activities impacted the nearby freshwater ecosystems via runoff. Specifically, we assessed the toxicity of three triazine herbicides, terbuthylazine, atrazine and simazine on the photosynthetic efficiency and structure of algal benthic biofilms (i.e., phototropic periphyton) in the small creek draining the basin. It was expected that the seasonal runoff of the herbicides in the creek affected the sensitivity of the periphyton in accord with the rationale of the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT): the exposure of the community to pollutants result in the replacement of sensitive species by more tolerant ones. In this way, PICT can serve to establish causal linkages between pollutants and the observed biological impacts. The periphyton presented significantly different sensitivities against terbuthylazine through the year in accord with the seasonal application of this herbicide in the crops nowadays. The sensitivity of already banned herbicides, atrazine and simazine does not display a clear seasonality. The different sensitivities to herbicides were in agreement with the expected exposures scenarios, according to the agricultural calendar, but not with the concentrations measured in water, which altogether indicates that the use of PICT approach may serve for long-term monitoring purposes. That will provide not only causal links between the occurrence of chemicals and their impacts on natural communities, but also information about the occurrence of chemicals that may escape from traditional sampling methods (water analysis). In addition, the EC50 and EC10 of periphyton for terbuthylazine or simazine are the first to be published and can be used for impact assessments

  15. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO 4 2- and Ni but in negative with NH 4 + , suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  16. Effects of biochar, waste water irrigation and fertilization on soil properties in West African urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häring, Volker; Manka'abusi, Delphine; Akoto-Danso, Edmund K; Werner, Steffen; Atiah, Kofi; Steiner, Christoph; Lompo, Désiré J P; Adiku, Samuel; Buerkert, Andreas; Marschner, Bernd

    2017-09-06

    In large areas of sub-Saharan Africa crop production must cope with low soil fertility. To increase soil fertility, the application of biochar (charred biomass) has been suggested. In urban areas, untreated waste water is widely used for irrigation because it is a nutrient-rich year-round water source. Uncertainty exists regarding the interactions between soil properties, biochar, waste water and fertilization over time. The aims of this study were to determine these interactions in two typical sandy, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient depleted soils under urban vegetable production in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over two years. The addition of biochar at 2 kg m -2 made from rice husks and corn cobs initially doubled SOC stocks but SOC losses of 35% occurred thereafter. Both biochar types had no effect on soil pH, phosphorous availability and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) but rice husk biochar retained nitrogen (N). Irrigation with domestic waste water increased soil pH and exchangeable sodium over time. Inorganic fertilization alone acidified soils, increased available phosphorous and decreased base saturation. Organic fertilization increased SOC, N and CEC. The results from both locations demonstrate that the effects of biochar and waste water were less pronounced than reported elsewhere.

  17. Balancing lake ecological condition and agriculture irrigation needs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Omer, A.R.; Killgore, K.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley includes hundreds of floodplain lakes that support unique fish assemblages and high biodiversity. Irrigation practices in the valley have lowered the water table, increasing the cost of pumping water, and necessitating the use of floodplain lakes as a source of water for irrigation. This development has prompted the need to regulate water withdrawals to protect aquatic resources, but it is unknown how much water can be withdrawn from lakes before ecological integrity is compromised. To estimate withdrawal limits, we examined descriptors of lake water quality (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, turbidity, Secchi visibility, chlorophyll-a) and fish assemblages (species richness, diversity, composition) relative to maximum depth in 59 floodplain lakes. Change-point regression analysis was applied to identify critical depths at which the relationships between depth and lake descriptors exhibited a rapid shift in slope, suggesting possible thresholds. All our water quality and fish assemblage descriptors showed rapid changes relative to depth near 1.2–2.0 m maximum depth. This threshold span may help inform regulatory decisions about water withdrawal limits. Alternatives to explain the triggers of the observed threshold span are considered.

  18. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  19. Potential impacts of wintertime soil moisture anomalies from agricultural irrigation at low latitudes on regional and global climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Hao-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Lee, Shih-Yu; Yu, Jin-Yi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic water management can change surface energy budgets and the water cycle. In this study, we focused on impacts of Asian low-latitude irrigation on regional and global climates during boreal wintertime. A state-of-the-art Earth system model is used to simulate the land-air interaction processes affected by irrigation and the consequent responses in atmospheric circulation. Perturbed experiments show that wet soil moisture anomalies at low latitudes can reduce the surface temperature on a continental scale through atmospheric feedback. The intensity of prevailing monsoon circulation becomes stronger because of larger land-sea thermal contrast. Furthermore, anomalous upper level convergence over South Asia and midlatitude climatic changes indicate tropical-extratropical teleconnections. The wintertime Aleutian low is deepened and an anomalous warm surface temperature is found in North America. Previous studies have noted this warming but left it unexplained, and we provide plausible mechanisms for these remote impacts coming from the irrigation over Asian low-latitude regions.

  20. Evaluation of fog and rain water collected at Delta Barrage, Egypt as a new resource for irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Talaat A.; Omar, Mohie El Din M.; El Gammal, H. A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Alternative clean water resources are needed in Egypt to face the current water shortage and water quality deterioration. Therefore, this research investigates the suitability of harvesting fog and rain water for irrigation using a pilot fog collector for water quantity, water quality, and economic aspects. A pilot fog collector was installed at one location at Delta Barrage, Egypt. Freeze liquid nitrogen was fixed at the back of the fiberglass sheet to increase the condensation rate. The experiment was conducted during the period from November 2015 to February 2016. In general, all physicochemical variables are observed with higher values in the majority of fog than rain water. The fog is assumed to contain higher concentrations of anthropogenic emissions. TDS in both waters collected are less than 700 mg/l at sodium content less than 60%, classifying these waters as good for various plants under most conditions. In addition, SAR calculated values are less than 3.0 in each of fog and rain water, which proves the water suitability for all irrigated agriculture. Al and Fe concentrations were found common in all samples with values less than the permissible limits of the guidelines. These metals originate from soil material, ash and metal surfaces. The sensitive heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were within the permissible limits of the guideline in fog water, indicating this water is suitable for irrigation. On the contrary, rain water that has heavy metals is not permitted in irrigation water as per the Egyptian law. As per WQI, the rain water is classified as good quality while fog is classified as medium quality. Regarding the water quantity, a significant increase in the harvested fog quantity was observed after cooling the collector surface with freeze liquid nitrogen. The current fog collector produced the lowest water quantity among different fog collectors worldwide. However, these comparative results confirmed that quantity is different from one location to another

  1. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Mango; Clifton Makate; Lulseged Tamene; Powell Mponela; Gift Ndengu

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of s...

  2. Circles of live buffer strips in a center pivot to improve multiple ecosystem services and sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the southern great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining Ogallala Aquifer has threatened sustainability of highly productive irrigated agriculture in the region. The region, known for the dust bowl of thirties, is scared of its return. Lower well outputs and increasing pumping costs have compelled farmers to adapt alternative conservation strate...

  3. Linking hydrology of traditional irrigation canals and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use around Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Jerome; Scharsich, Valeska; Huwe, Bernd; Bogner, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Traditional irrigation network around Mt. Kilimanjaro has been an important resource for both ecosystem functioning and agricultural production. However, a number of irrigation furrows can no longer maintain their discharge throughout the year and their future sustainability is uncertain. The actual efforts to improve the water supply were unsuccessful. We attribute this failure to a lack of information about the actual causes and extent of the problem. We suppose that there is a strong link between the socio-economic aspects like institutional and community management of the furrows and conflicts about water use. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the relationship between current hydrological patterns and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use. We measured discharge at 11 locations along an altitudinal gradient on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions with participants from 15 villages and key informants interviews (n = 15). We found that the mean discharge did not differ significantly between dry and rainy seasons (ANOVA, p = 0.17). The overall discharge pattern indicated that furrows located in lower altitude had higher mean monthly discharge rate of 65 l s-1 compared to 11.5 l s-1 at the source area of the canals. This is due to the convergence of canals downstream. 41% of furrows were seasonal, 22% dry and only 37% perennial. Despite of a seemingly better water resource availability downstream, water conflicts are a major challenge across the whole mountain communities. Key informants and group discussions reported poor management of water on the district level. The Rural Moshi and Hai District Councils operate on a top down approach that give less power to the local water management committees. However, the latter have been an important part of the traditional management system for decades. Since 1990, the district authorities are using 65% of springs from the catchment to abstract water

  4. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, J.; Deryng, D.; Muller, C.; Frieler, K.; Konzmann, M.; Gerten, D.; Glotter, M.; Florke, M.F.; Wada, Y.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement

  5. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mayzelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use conversion and resulting flood control result in gains of at least $2.3 billion, as compared to costs of $0.3 to $0.7 billion for treatment options over a 20 year period. Buffer zones would maintain the economic integrity of the region and concur with prevailing policy options. Thus, managed agricultural recharge buffer zones are a potentially attractive option for communities facing financial constraint and needing to diversify their portfolio of policy and infrastructure approaches to meet drinking water quality objectives.

  6. MIRCA2000—Global monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000: A new high-resolution data set for agricultural and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; DöLl, Petra

    2010-03-01

    To support global-scale assessments that are sensitive to agricultural land use, we developed the global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000). With a spatial resolution of 5 arc min (about 9.2 km at the equator), MIRCA2000 provides both irrigated and rainfed crop areas of 26 crop classes for each month of the year. The data set covers all major food crops as well as cotton. Other crops are grouped into categories (perennial, annual, and fodder grasses). It represents multicropping systems and maximizes consistency with census-based national and subnational statistics. According to MIRCA2000, 25% of the global harvested areas are irrigated, with a cropping intensity (including fallow land) of 1.12, as compared to 0.84 for the sum of rainfed and irrigated harvested crops. For the dominant crops (rice (1.7 million km2 harvested area), wheat (2.1 million km2), and maize (1.5 million km2)), roughly 60%, 30%, and 20% of the harvested areas are irrigated, respectively, and half of the citrus, sugar cane, and cotton areas. While wheat and maize are the crops with the largest rainfed harvested areas (1.5 million km2 and 1.2 million km2, respectively), rice is clearly the crop with the largest irrigated harvested area (1.0 million km2), followed by wheat (0.7 million km2) and maize (0.3 million km2). Using MIRCA2000, 33% of global crop production and 44% of total cereal production were determined to come from irrigated agriculture.

  7. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  8. Structure of Fungal Communities in Sub-Irrigated Agricultural Soil from Cerrado Floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Cristina A. M. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of soybean cultivation on the fungal community structure in a tropical floodplain area. Soil samples were collected from two different soybean cropland sites and a control area under native vegetation. The soil samples were collected at a depth of 0–10 cm soil during the off-season in July 2013. The genetic structure of the soil fungal microbial community was analyzed using the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA technique. Among the 26 phylotypes with abundance levels higher than 1% detected in the control area, five were also detected in the area cultivated for five years, and none of them was shared between the control area and the area cultivated for eight years. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed differences in fungal community structure between the control area and the soybean cropland sites, and also between the soybean cropland sites. ANOSIM results were confirmed by multivariate statistics, which additionally revealed a nutrient-dependent relation for the fungal community structure in agricultural soil managed for eight consecutive years. The results indicated that land use affects soil chemical properties and richness and structure of the soil fungal microbial community in a tropical floodplain agricultural area, and the effects became more evident to the extent that soil was cultivated for soybean for more time.

  9. Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration based on Spatiotemporal Fusion of ASTER and MODIS Images over Irrigated Agricultural Areas in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; LI, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for allocating and managing water resources in irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions. In this study, continuous daily ET at a 90-m spatial resolution was estimated using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images with high temporal resolution and Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) images with high spatial resolution. The spatiotemporal characteristics of these sensors were obtained using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The performance of this approach was validated over a heterogeneous oasis-desert region covered by cropland, residential, woodland, water, Gobi desert, sandy desert, desert steppe, and wetland areas using in situ observations from automatic meteorological systems (AMS) and eddy covariance (EC) systems in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. The error introduced during the data fusion process based on STARFM is within an acceptable range for predicted LST at a 90-m spatial resolution. The surface energy fluxes estimated using SEBS based on predicted remotely sensed data that combined the spatiotemporal characteristics of MODIS and ASTER agree well with the surface energy fluxes observed using EC systems for all land cover types, especially for vegetated area with MAP values range from 9% to 15%, which are less than the uncertainty (18%) of the observed in this study area. Time series of daily ET modelled from SEBS were compared to that modelled from PT-JPL (one of Satellite-based Priestley-Taylor ET model) and observations from EC systems. SEBS performed generally better than PT-JPL for vegetated area, especially irrigated cropland with bias, RMSE, and MAP values of 0.29 mm/d, 0.75 mm/d, 13% at maize site, -0.33 mm/d, 0.81 mm/d, and 14% at vegetable sites.

  10. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mousavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water. Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system. Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L. Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  11. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2015-09-18

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to accurately estimate water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. This report provides a detailed digital map and summary of irrigated areas for 2014 within Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama. The irrigated areas were delineated using land-use data and orthoimagery that were then field verified between June and November 2014. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results of the 2014 study indicate that an estimated 31,608 acres were irrigated in Jackson County during 2014. This estimate includes 25,733 acres of field crops, 1,534 acres of ornamentals and grasses (including pasture), and 420 acres of orchards. Specific irrigated crops include cotton (11,759 acres), peanuts (9,909 acres), field corn (2,444 acres), and 3,235 acres of various vegetable (row) crops. The vegetable acreage includes 1,714 acres of which 857 acres were planted with both a spring and fall crop on the same field (double cropped). Overall, groundwater was used to irrigate 98.6 percent of the total irrigated acreage in Jackson County during 2014, whereas surface water and wastewater were used to irrigate the remaining 1.4 percent.

  12. Impact of rising groundwater on sustainable irrigated agriculture in the command area of gadeji minor, sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    A study has been conducted in the command area of Gadeji minor, Sindh, Pakistan to compute the amount of net groundwater recharge and its effect on sustainable irrigated agriculture. In this connection, Water budget equation was used and three groundwater recharging components along with one discharging component were computed for both Rabi and Kharif crop seasons for the period (2001-2013). Data shows that groundwater is rising at rapid rate during the Kharif season. The percolation rate through cropped fields is the major recharge component; accounting for 81% in the total mean recharge of 8.42 million m3, moreover the rice area is the major contributor to net groundwater recharge during Kharif season. The contributions of canal seepage and rainfall are estimated to be 16 and 04% respectively for the above period. However, during the Rabi season groundwater is rising at low rate where canal seepage is the major recharging component with an average contribution of 48% in the total mean recharge of 2.32 million m3, the contribution of deep percolation from cropped fields is estimated to be 47% as compared to the rainfall of only 05%. Survey shows non-functionality of most of the tubewells, groundwater withdrawal is not sufficient to fully offset groundwater recharge which has increased water table and caused waterlogging and soil salinity in more than 40% of agricultural land. To overcome this rising water table problem, it is recommended: to change existing cropping pattern (i.e. minimize or no cultivation of rice crop), lining of minor and all its watercourses, adopt salt tolerant crops and increase groundwater withdrawals by operating tube-wells on emergency basis. (author)

  13. Development process and achievements of China nuclear agricultural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the creation of our nuclear agricultural sciences and the development process as well as the main results for agricultural applications of nuclear technology. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China began in 1956, after 50 years of development, the collaborative research network, the academic exchange network, and the international exchange network have been formatted. These three networks comprehensively have promoted the formation and development of China nuclear agricultural sciences. Remarkable results have been achieved in the fields of radiation mutation breeding, space mutation breeding, isotope tracer technique application in agriculture, agricultural products storage and preservation of irradiation processing, irradiation sterile insect technique, low-doses of radiation to stimulate output. In addition, the concept of suggestions on the future development of China nuclear agricultural sciences, as well as the priorities of research fields are put forward. (authors)

  14. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, K.; Duwig, Céline; Prado, B.; Siebe, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Etchevers, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years wi...

  15. Flora, life form characteristics, and plan for the promotion of biodiversity in South Korea's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System, the traditional Gudeuljang irrigated rice terraces in Cheongsando

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chul PARK; Choong Hyeon OH

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the biodiversity of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces in Cheongsando,South Korea's representative GIAHS (Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System) site,with reference to position and land-use features,and to develop a plan to promote agricultural biodiversity in the region.We confirmed approximately 54,000 m2 of Gudeuljang paddy fields by an on-site survey.Of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces confirmed by onsite inspection,our survey showed that approximately 24,000 m2 are currently being used as paddy fields,approximately 15,000 m2 are being used as dry fields,and approximately 14,000 m2 are fallow.In terms of other non-agricultural land use,there was grassland,including graveyards;artificial arboreal land,such as orchards,rivers and wetlands,and man-made facilities,such as roads and residences.We also confirmed that the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces had higher plant species diversity than conventional terraced rice paddies,and there was a difference in life form characteristics between the two types.Although the superficial topsoil structure is the same for the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces (TGIRTs) and conventional terraced rice paddies,it is thought that the differences in the subsurface structure of the TGIRTs contribute greatly to species and habitat diversity.However,the TGIRTs in Cheongsando are facing degeneration,due to damage and reduction in agricultural activity.The main cause is the reduction in the number of farming households due to an aging population in Cheongsando.In order to address this problem,we proposed a management plan,related to fallow paddy fields in South Korea,to initiate voluntary activities in the TGIRTs.

  16. Features of financial support of reproduction processes in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the financing of reproduction processes in agriculture, arising from the specific production in the industry. Considered and analyzed the main sources of financial resources for the implementation of the reproduction processes in the agricultural sector, including bank lending, leasing, public financial support.

  17. Trend Detection for the Extent of Irrigated Agriculture in Idaho’s Snake River Plain, 1984–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Chance

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding irrigator responses to changes in water availability is critical for building strategies to support effective management of water resources. Using remote sensing data, we examine farmer responses to seasonal changes in water availability in Idaho’s Snake River Plain for the time series 1984–2016. We apply a binary threshold based on the seasonal maximum of the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI using Landsat 5–8 images to distinguish irrigated from non-irrigated lands. We find that the NDMI of irrigated lands increased over time, consistent with trends in irrigation technology adoption and increased crop productivity. By combining remote sensing data with geospatial data describing water rights for irrigation, we show that the trend in NDMI is not universal, but differs by farm size and water source. Farmers with small farms that rely on surface water are more likely than average to have a large contraction (over −25% in irrigated area over the 33-year period of record. In contrast, those with large farms and access to groundwater are more likely than average to have a large expansion (over +25% in irrigated area over the same period.

  18. Farm-based measures for reducing microbiological health risks for consumers from informal wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2010-01-01

    in developing countries as part of a multiple-barrier approach for health-risk reduction along the farm to fork pathway. Measures discussed include treatment of irrigation water using ponds, filters and wetland systems; water application techniques; irrigation scheduling; and crop selection. In addition...

  19. Innovations in Agriculture in Oregon: Farmers Irrigation District Improves Water Quality, Maximizes Water Conservation, and Generates Clean, Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hood River Farmers Irrigation District used $36.2 million in CWSRF loans for a multiple-year endeavor to convert the open canal system to a piped, pressurized irrigation system to maximize water conservation and restore reliable water delivery to crops

  20. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  1. Water and agriculture in arid systems: a dynamic model of irrigation of Mazarron and Aguilas; Agua y agricultural en sistemas aridos: un modelo dinamico del regadio de Mazarron y Aguilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, J.; Esteve Selma, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The intensive use of groundwater resources in the new irrigated lands of Mazarron-Aguilas has led to the over-exploitation of the local aquifer and thus, to seawater intrusion, water salinization and falling off water tables, all of them key processes of desertification. The simulation results show that the unrealistic perceptions about the relationships between irrigated land and water resources constitutes a key factor to explain the highly unsustainable dynamics of irrigated lands in Mazarron and Aguilas and the whole SE Spain. The increase in water resources does not eliminate the problem because the feedback loops and endogenous factors of the system lead to a further increase in irrigated land and continuation of the water deficit, which shows a highly counter-intuitive behaviour. (Author) 3 refs.

  2. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL MARKET FORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers institutional aspects of the organized agricultural market formation process. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes of the “organization” phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutional environment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized market formation. Author researches theoretical approaches to the institutional staff. In order to structure the most common approaches and theoretical knowledge of this problem author proposes few schemes. Author’s points of view for many questions of the organized market formation process are proposed. Researcher analyzes effectiveness of the institutes and governmental regulation of the agricultural market. Readers can find strategically new approach to the agricultural market formation policy from the governmental point of view. Essence of the socioeconomic formation of agricultural market is considered. Main factors of agriculture market formation are outlined. Agricultural market structural parts consideration systematic approach is proposed. Ineffectiveness of the agriculture market relations without regulation process is proved. The most unfavorable reasons of the agricultural market formation are determined.

  3. Applications of Information and Communication Technology for Improvements of Water and Soil Monitoring and Assessments in Agricultural Areas—A Case Study in the Taoyuan Irrigation District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee high-quality agricultural products and food safety, efforts must be made to manage and maintain healthy agricultural environments under the myriad of risks that they face. Three central system components of sustainable agricultural management schemes are real-time monitoring, decision-making, and remote access. Information and Communications Technology (ICT systems are a convenient means of providing both these and other functions, such as wireless sensor networking, mobile phone applications, etc., to agricultural management schemes. ICT systems have significantly improved in recent years and have been widely used in many fields, including environmental monitoring and management. Moreover, ICT could benefit agricultural environment management by providing a platform for collaboration between researchers and stakeholders, thereby improving agricultural practices and environments. This article reviews and discusses the way in which ICT can efficiently improve monitoring systems and risk assessments of agricultural environment monitoring, as well as the technological and methodological improvements of ICT systems. Finally, we develop and apply an ICT system, referred to as the agricultural environment protection system—comprised of a cloud, six E-platforms, three mobile devices, automatic monitoring devices, indigenous wireless sensor nodes, and gateways in agricultural networks—to a case study in the Taoyuan irrigation district, which acts as a pilot area in Taiwan. Through the system, we use all available information from the interdisciplinary structured cloud database to classify the focal area into different agricultural environmental risk zones. We also conducted further analysis based on a hierarchical approach in order to classify the agricultural environments in the study area, to allocate additional sampling with resin packages and mobile devices, as well as to assist decision makers and stakeholders. The main

  4. Analysis of Groundwater Resources Vulnerability from Agricultural Activities in the Large Irrigation District along the Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    He, Bin; Oki, Taikan; Kanae, Shinjiro; Runkle, Benjamin; Liang, Xu; Zeng, Ayan; Hao, Fanghua

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater forms an important source of water supply in arid and semi-arid region. Optimum conjunctive utilization of surface and groundwater resources has become extremely important to fill the gap between water demand and supply. Hetao Irrigation District (HID) is the largest irrigation district along the Yellow River and its groundwater table is shallow. The project of Water Saving Reconstruction (WSR) has been conducted for the purpose of keeping the Yellow River free from drying up. The...

  5. Romania's Agriculture and its Role in the Convergence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN POSTOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of agriculture in Romania is linked to the fact that 45% of its population is in the rural area, mostly dependent on agricultural activities. This paper aims to determine in what extent agriculture influences the convergence process of Romania with the euro area. The structural convergence index is computed in order to assess the degree in which the structure of the Romanian economy resembles the one of the euro area in terms of both gross value added and employment. Research indicates that Romania has the lowest score in terms of structural convergence with the euro area. The main reason is the oversized agricultural sector which employs almost a third of the active population. The productivity of the Romanian agriculture is then assessed in order to identify its possible effect on the country’s overall competitiveness and on the whole convergence process.

  6. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the implications of decision making process on employees' turnover in the Institute of ... Involvement in Decision Making and Agricultural Employees' Turnover in Ibadan, Nigeria 37 ..... Lack of motivation.

  7. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  8. A major challenge for modeling conservation-based water use reductions in aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture: The specific yield quandary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. J., Jr.; Whittemore, D. O.; Wilson, B. B.; Bohling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Many large regional aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture are experiencing high rates of water-level decline. The primary means of moderating these rates is to reduce pumping. The key question is what percent pumping reduction will significantly impact decline rates. We have recently developed a water-balance approach to address this question for subareas (100s to 1000s km2 in size) of seasonally pumped aquifers (Butler et al., GRL, 2016). This approach also provides an estimate of specific yield (Sy), which has been difficult to estimate from field data at the scale of modeling analyses. When applied to subareas of the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, this approach reveals that the Sy estimate is much lower (as much as a factor of five or more) than expected for an unconsolidated aquifer. One explanation is that the aquifer is heterogeneous with considerable amounts of fine material, whereas field data, such as drillers' logs, are often biased towards coarser intervals. An additional explanation, which appears to have received little attention, is the impact of entrapped air. In seasonally pumped systems, water levels pass through the same aquifer intervals multiple times, giving ample opportunity for air to be entrapped. This entrapped air imbues the aquifer with a specific yield that is considerably lower than what would be expected from lithology. If unrecognized, a larger-than-actual Sy value is input into the aquifer model. This can lead to the inadvertent use of the same-year recharge assumption, which may not be appropriate for many conditions (e.g., large depths to water), and can also result in artificially low estimates of net inflow for a depleting aquifer. Moreover, failure to recognize this condition can bedevil efforts to model conservation-based water use reductions. In that case, models will leave the range of conditions for which they have been calibrated and can become more vulnerable to parameter errors. Conservation-based water use reductions

  9. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chukalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the water footprint (WF of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha−1 per season or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t−1 of crop. This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip; irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation; and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching. The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour. Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato; four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel; three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam. For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF

  10. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha-1 per season) or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t-1 of crop). This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip); irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation); and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching). The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour). Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato); four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel); three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years) and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam). For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF by reducing water

  11. Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzourra, Hazar; Bouhlila, Rachida; Elango, L; Slama, Fairouz; Ouslati, Naceur

    2015-02-01

    Coastal aquifers are at threat of salinization in most parts of the world. This study was carried out in coastal shallow aquifers of Aousja-Ghar El Melh and Kalâat el Andalous, northeastern of Tunisia with an objective to identify sources and processes of groundwater salinization. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 shallow dug wells during July and September 2007. Chemical parameters such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), Br(-), and F(-) were analyzed. The combination of hydrogeochemical, statistical, and GIS approaches was used to understand and to identify the main sources of salinization and contamination of these shallow coastal aquifers as follows: (i) water-rock interaction, (ii) evapotranspiration, (iii) saltwater is started to intrude before 1972 and it is still intruding continuously, (iv) irrigation return flow, (v) sea aerosol spray, and finally, (vi) agricultural fertilizers. During 2005/2006, the overexploitation of the renewable water resources of aquifers caused saline water intrusion. In 2007, the freshening of a brackish-saline groundwater occurred under natural recharge conditions by Ca-HCO3 meteoric freshwater. The cationic exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. The sulfate reduction process and the neo-formation of clays minerals characterize the hypersaline coastal Sebkha environments. Evaporation tends to increase the concentrations of solutes in groundwater from the recharge areas to the discharge areas and leads to precipitate carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  12. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture : Guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce

  13. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L, Ca (175.00 mg/L, Cd (1.87 mg/L, Co (2.23 mg/L, Cu (1.71 mg/L, Fe (1.64 mg/L, K (20.50 mg/L, and Pb (2.81 mg/L. According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  14. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity

  15. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  16. The big data processing platform for intelligent agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jintao; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-08-01

    Big data technology is another popular technology after the Internet of Things and cloud computing. Big data is widely used in many fields such as social platform, e-commerce, and financial analysis and so on. Intelligent agriculture in the course of the operation will produce large amounts of data of complex structure, fully mining the value of these data for the development of agriculture will be very meaningful. This paper proposes an intelligent data processing platform based on Storm and Cassandra to realize the storage and management of big data of intelligent agriculture.

  17. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications.

  18. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications

  19. Soil salinization processes in rice irrigation schemes in the Senegal River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuppens, J.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Miezan, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Soil salinization constitutes a major threat to irrigated agriculture (mainly rice, Oryza sativa L.) in the Senegal River Delta. It is generally hypothesized that salinization is caused by (i) capillary rise from a saline water table and (ii) concentration of salts in the field due to lack of adequate drainage facilities. The impact of field water management and rice cropping intensity on salinization in the Delta was determined using an electromagnetic conductivity meter (Geonics EM38). More than 4000 measurements were made in 40 rice fields on a typical heavy clay soil (Vertic Xerofluvent). Thirty EM38 measurements per field (0.25 ha) estimated average field soil salinity with a relative error of 20%. A multiple linear regression model based on EM38 readings explained 60 to 75% of the variability in conductivity of 1:5 saturation extracts at 0- to 5-, 10- to 15-, and 30- to 35-cm depths. Higher cropping intensity limited upward salt transport from the water table. Average horizontal and vertical EM38 measurements increased in the following order two rice crops per year with drainage: 0.73 and 0.98 dS m -1 ; one rice crop per year with drainage: 1.26 and 1.76 dS m -1 ; one rice crop per year without drainage: 2.23 and 2.98 dS m -1 ; and abandoned fields: 4.77 and 4.29 dS m -1 . Results indicate a beneficial effect of flooded rice on salinity for this type of heavy clay soil. Irrigation development in the area needs to be accompanied by monitoring of water table depth. (author)

  20. Economic Assessment of Palm Oil Processing in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...

  1. Load-bearing processes in agricultural wheel-soil systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijink, F.G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In soil dynamics we distinguish between loosening and loadbearing processes. Load-bearing processes which can occur under agricultural rollers, wheels, and tyres are dealt with In this dissertation.

    We classify rollers, wheels, and tyres and treat some general aspects of these

  2. Final Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes comprehensive findings from a 4-year-long field investigation to document baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water-quality collections and fish community assessments were conducted on as many as 16 sampling dates at roughly quarterly intervals from July 2005 to April 2009. The water-quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. With one exception, fish were surveyed with baited minnow traps at quarterly intervals during the same time period. However, in July 2007, fish surveys were not conducted because we lacked permission from the California Department of Fish and Game for incidental take of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species. During April and October 2006-08, water samples also were collected from seven intensively monitored drains (which were selected from the 29 total drains) for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices [particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge (chironomid) larvae], and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice for selenium determinations. Water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity) values were typical of surface waters in a hot, arid climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near-anoxic conditions, especially during summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees Celsius. Total selenium concentrations in water were directly correlated with salinity and

  3. Detection of Class I and II integrons for the assessment of antibiotic and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraoan, Cielo Emar M; Rivera, Windell L; Vital, Pierangeli G

    2017-05-04

    Contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect not only the quality of produce but also the people exposed to it. In this study, agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines were assessed and found to be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranging from 0.58 to 4.51 log 10 CFU/mL. A total of 79 isolates of E. coli were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the uidA gene and were tested for phenotypic resistance using 10 antimicrobials through the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Forty-six isolates (58.22%) were noted to be multidrug resistant (MDR) with high resistance rate to cephalothin, tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, this study also examined the prevalence of Class I and II integrons accounting to 67.39% and 17.39%, respectively, of the MDR E. coli strains using multiplex PCR. The results imply that the agricultural water used in Bulacan is contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals present in the area, and the presence of MDR bacteria, which pose a potential threat to individuals in these areas, is alarming. In addition, detection of integrons could be a good marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Lastly, this study could develop strategies for the proper management of farming sites leading to the detection of food-borne pathogens and prevention of infectious diseases.

  4. Irrigation model of bleached Kraft mill wastewater through volcanic soil as a pollutants attenuation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, R; Inostroza, X; Diez, M C; Lorber, K E

    2006-05-01

    An irrigation process through volcanic soil columns was evaluated for bleached Kraft mill effluent pollutants retention. The system was designed to remove color and phenolic compounds and a simple kinetic model for determining the global mass transfer coefficient and the adsorption rate constant was used. The results clearly indicate that the global mass transfer coefficient values (K(c)a) and the adsorption rate constants are higher for the irrigation processes onto acidified soil. This means that the pretreatment of washing the volcanic soil with an acid solution has a positive effect on the adsorption rate for both pollutant groups. The enhanced adsorption capacity is partially explained by the activation of the metal oxides present in the soil matrix during the acid washing process. Increasing the flow rate from 1.5 to 2.5 ml/min yielded higher (K(c)a) values and adsorption rate constants for both pollutant groups. For instance, regarding color adsorption onto acidified soil, there is an increment of 43% in the (K(c)a) value for the experiment with a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min. Increasing the porosity of the column from 0.55 to 0.59, yielded a decrease in the (K(c)a) values for color and phenolic compounds adsorption processes. Onto natural soil for example, these decreases reached 21% and 24%, respectively. Therefore, the (K(c)a) value is dependent on both the liquid-phase velocity (external resistance) and the soil fraction in the column (internal resistance); making forced convection and diffusion to be the main transport mechanisms involved in the adsorption process. Analyzing the adsorption rate constants (K(c)a)/m, phenolic compounds and color adsorption rates onto acidified soil of 2.25 x 10(-6) and 2.62 x 10(-6) l/mg min were achieved for experiment 1. These adsorption rates are comparable with other adsorption systems and adsorbent materials.

  5. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  6. Evaluation of the dose to man in relation to the behavior of tritium from irrigation water in agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.; Bruwaene, R. van; Koch, G.; Grauby, A.; Delmas, J.; Athalye, V.

    1977-01-01

    A research program on the transfer of tritium from the irrigation water in the soil-plant environment provides valuable ecological information on the effects of tritium releases from nuclear installations under temperate humide and mediterranean climatic conditions. Field studies are carried out on experimental plots by spraying the crops with irrigation water contaminated with tritium on a single dose, the reference level chosen is 1 nCi/litre. The following crops are investigated: prairie, rye-grass, potato, pea, barley, carrot and sugarbeet as temperate region cultures, and vineyard, olive-tree and orange-tree as mediterranean cultures. Soil and plants samples are collected for radioassay to determine the tritium incorporation in tissue water and organic matter fractions. The tritium activity in these crops after harvest is correlated to the level of radiation dose received through human diet [fr

  7. Irrigation pricing policies and its impact on agricultural inputs demand in Tunisia: a DEA-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, Aymen; Wossink, Ada; Buysse, Jeroen; Speelman, Stijn; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-09-01

    This paper estimates farmers' individual irrigation water demand functions employing the information hidden in individual farmers' technical efficiency. This information is extracted through the development of a new deductive methodology based on inverse Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. The empirical results for Tunisia show that farmers who are more technically efficient have less elastic irrigation water demand functions; these farmers would adjust demand only to a limited extent and they can afford the water price. In contrast, water pricing significantly affects those that are less efficient. These farmers shift towards a different cropping pattern using significantly less water and more land when the price of water increases. Thus, higher water prices would threaten this category's livelihood if their efficiency is not improved. However, if the technical efficiency of these farmers were to improve, then it would be more difficult to reach water saving objectives since their demand will also become highly inelastic. The findings have important implications in view of the objectives of Tunisia water policy which include:full cost recovery, continuity of the irrigation activity, and water saving at the national level. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of intense agricultural practices on heterotrophic processes in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscart, Christophe [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux - UMR CNRS 5023 - Campus Doua, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1 - UMR CNRS ECOBIO 6553 - Campus Beaulieu, 263 Av. du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)], E-mail: christophe.piscart@univ-lyon1.fr; Genoel, Romuald [Universite de Rennes 1 - UMR CNRS ECOBIO 6553 - Campus Beaulieu, 263 Av. du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Doledec, Sylvain [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux - UMR CNRS 5023 - Campus Doua, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chauvet, Eric [Universite Paul Sabatier de Toulouse - Laboratoire EcoLab - UMR CNRS 5245, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Marmonier, Pierre [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux - UMR CNRS 5023 - Campus Doua, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1 - UMR CNRS ECOBIO 6553 - Campus Beaulieu, 263 Av. du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    In developed countries, changes in agriculture practices have greatly accelerated the degradation of the landscape and the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. Such alteration can in turn impair the services provided by aquatic ecosystems, namely the decomposition of organic matter, a key process in most small streams. To study this alteration, we recorded three measures of heterotrophic activity corresponding to microbial hydrolasic activity (FDA hydrolysis) and leaf litter breakdown rates with (k{sub c}) and without invertebrates (k{sub f}) along a gradient of contrasted agricultural pressures. Hydrolasic activity and k{sub f} reflect local/microhabitat conditions (i.e. nutrient concentrations and organic matter content of the sediment) but not land use while k{sub c} reflects land-use conditions. k{sub c}, which is positively correlated with the biomass of Gammaridae, significantly decreased with increasing agricultural pressure, contrary to the taxonomic richness and biomass of Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Gammaridae may thus be considered a key species for organic matter recycling in agriculture-impacted streams. - This study highlights the consequences of intensive agricultural practices on heterotrophic processes in streams along a strong gradient of perturbation.

  9. Price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the price generating process and volatility of Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive ...

  10. Solar energy applications in different agricultural and industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Florez, Sergio; Pineda Rios, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Solar thermal technology can offer so much more than just domestic hot water, in this paper it is shown some solar system that can provide process heat for many industrial and agricultural requirements, for example can dry crops, extract potable water from brackish or saline supplies, destroy hazardous contaminants and be used in the manufacture of advanced material

  11. [The results of self-irrigation in colostomy patients who have undergone a process of systematic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V L; Koizumi, M S

    1992-12-01

    The present study comprises the results of the use of self-irrigation by 40 colostomized patients, trained by us through a process of systematized training. The effectiveness of the training process can be checked out considering that the most part of the patients have adopted it in its basic features, pointing out a few number of technical difficulties. As to the results of self-irrigation, as a method for controlling the intestinal habit, we can say that 37.50% of the population showed an absence of fecal leakages and 42.50%, sporadic leakages between the irrigations; 27.50% and 35.00%, with absence of gases in the intervals of time and partial use of the collecting pouch, respectively.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN WHITE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L., SOIL, AND IRRIGATION WATER OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture comprises a variety of farming systems, ranging from subsistence to fully commercialized agriculture. Pollution from automobile exhaust, industrial and commercialactivities may affect humans, crops, soil, and water in and around urban agriculture areas. The research aimed to investigate the level and distribution of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in white cabbage (Brassica rapa L., soil, and irrigation water taken from urban sites. The research was conducted in Las Piñas and Parañaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The field area was divided into three sections based on its distance from the main road (0, 25, and 50 m. Irrigation water was taken from canal (Las Piñas and river (Parañaque. Pb and Cd contents of the extract were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Combined analysis over locations was used. The relationship between distance from the main road and metal contents was measured by Pearson’s correlation. Based on combined analyses, highly significant difference over locations was only showed on Cd content in white cabbage. Cd content in white cabbage grown in Parañaque was higher than that cultivated in Las Piñas, while Cd content in the soil between both sites was comparable.The average Pb content (1.09 µg g-1 dry weight was highest in the white cabbage grown right beside the main road. A similar trend was also observed in the soil, with the highest concentration being recorded at 26 µg g-1 dry weight. There was a negative relationship between distance from the main road and Pb and Cd contents in white cabbage and the soil. Level of Pb in water taken from the canal and river was similar (0.12 mg l-1, whereaslevels of Cd were 0.0084 and 0.0095 mg l-1, respectively. In general, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in white cabbage and soil as well as irrigation water were still in the acceptable limits. In terms of environmental hazards and polluted city environment, it seems that

  13. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  14. Modeling of hydrological processes in arid agricultural regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LI,Xiaomin MAO,Shaozhong KANG,David A. BARRY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of hydrological processes, including consideration of interactions between vegetation growth and water transfer in the root zone, underpins efficient use of water resources in arid-zone agriculture. Water transfers take place in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and include groundwater dynamics, unsaturated zone flow, evaporation/transpiration from vegetated/bare soil and surface water, agricultural canal/surface water flow and seepage, and well pumping. Models can be categorized into three classes: (1 regional distributed hydrological models with various land uses, (2 groundwater-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum models that neglect lateral water fluxes, and (3 coupled models with groundwater flow and unsaturated zone water dynamics. This review highlights, in addition, future research challenges in modeling arid-zone agricultural systems, e.g., to effectively assimilate data from remote sensing, and to fully reflect climate change effects at various model scales.

  15. Potential Dissemination of ARB and ARGs into Soil Through the Use of Treated Wastewater for Agricultural Irrigation: Is It a True Cause for Concern?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2017-11-06

    Resistance to antibiotics is increasingly being recognized as an emerging contaminant posing great risks to effective treatment of infections and to public health. Pristine soils or even soils that predate the antibiotic era naturally contain ARB and ARGs. This book chapter explores the native resistome of soils and collates information on whether soil perturbation through wastewater reuse can lead to accumulation of ARB and ARGs in agricultural soils. Special emphasis was given to ARGs, particularly the blaNDM gene that confers resistance against carbapenem. The fate and persistence of these emerging ARGs have not been studied in depth; however, this book chapter reviews available information on other ARGs to gain insight into the possibility of horizontal gene transfer events in wastewater-irrigated soils and plant surfaces and tissues. Lastly, this book chapter visits solar irradiation and bacteriophage treatment as intervention options to limit dissemination of emerging contaminant threats.

  16. Potential Dissemination of ARB and ARGs into Soil Through the Use of Treated Wastewater for Agricultural Irrigation: Is It a True Cause for Concern?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is increasingly being recognized as an emerging contaminant posing great risks to effective treatment of infections and to public health. Pristine soils or even soils that predate the antibiotic era naturally contain ARB and ARGs. This book chapter explores the native resistome of soils and collates information on whether soil perturbation through wastewater reuse can lead to accumulation of ARB and ARGs in agricultural soils. Special emphasis was given to ARGs, particularly the blaNDM gene that confers resistance against carbapenem. The fate and persistence of these emerging ARGs have not been studied in depth; however, this book chapter reviews available information on other ARGs to gain insight into the possibility of horizontal gene transfer events in wastewater-irrigated soils and plant surfaces and tissues. Lastly, this book chapter visits solar irradiation and bacteriophage treatment as intervention options to limit dissemination of emerging contaminant threats.

  17. A global approach to estimate irrigated areas - a comparison between different data and statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Jonas; Zabel, Florian; Mauser, Wolfram

    2018-02-01

    Agriculture is the largest global consumer of water. Irrigated areas constitute 40 % of the total area used for agricultural production (FAO, 2014a) Information on their spatial distribution is highly relevant for regional water management and food security. Spatial information on irrigation is highly important for policy and decision makers, who are facing the transition towards more efficient sustainable agriculture. However, the mapping of irrigated areas still represents a challenge for land use classifications, and existing global data sets differ strongly in their results. The following study tests an existing irrigation map based on statistics and extends the irrigated area using ancillary data. The approach processes and analyzes multi-temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) SPOT-VGT data and agricultural suitability data - both at a spatial resolution of 30 arcsec - incrementally in a multiple decision tree. It covers the period from 1999 to 2012. The results globally show a 18 % larger irrigated area than existing approaches based on statistical data. The largest differences compared to the official national statistics are found in Asia and particularly in China and India. The additional areas are mainly identified within already known irrigated regions where irrigation is more dense than previously estimated. The validation with global and regional products shows the large divergence of existing data sets with respect to size and distribution of irrigated areas caused by spatial resolution, the considered time period and the input data and assumption made.

  18. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with

  19. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  20. Manufacturing process design for multi commodities in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Santosa, Andrian Henry

    2017-06-01

    High-potential commodities within particular agricultural sectors should be accompanied by maximum benefit value that can be attained by both local farmers and business players. In several cases, the business players are small-medium enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources to perform added value process of the local commodities into the potential products. The weaknesses of SMEs such as the manual production process with low productivity, limited capacity to maintain prices, and unattractive packaging due to conventional production. Agricultural commodity is commonly created into several products such as flour, chips, crackers, oil, juice, and other products. This research was initiated by collecting data by interview method particularly to obtain the perspectives of SMEs as the business players. Subsequently, the information was processed based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to determine House of Quality from the first to fourth level. A proposed design as the result of QFD was produced and evaluated with Technology Assessment Model (TAM) and continued with a revised design. Finally, the revised design was analyzed with financial perspective to obtain the cost structure of investment, operational, maintenance, and workers. The machine that performs manufacturing process, as the result of revised design, was prototyped and tested to determined initial production process. The designed manufacturing process offers IDR 337,897, 651 of Net Present Value (NPV) in comparison with the existing process value of IDR 9,491,522 based on similar production input.

  1. Study on the quantitative relationship between Agricultural water and fertilization process and non-point source pollution based on field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, K.; Wu, Z.; Guan, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, with the prominent of water environment problem and the relative increase of point source pollution governance, especially the agricultural non-point source pollution problem caused by the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides has become increasingly aroused people's concern and attention. In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between agriculture water and fertilizer and non-point source pollution, on the basis of elm field experiment and combined with agricultural drainage irrigation model, the agricultural irrigation water and the relationship between fertilizer and fertilization scheme and non-point source pollution were analyzed and calculated by field emission intensity index. The results show that the variation of displacement varies greatly under different irrigation conditions. When the irrigation water increased from 22cm to 42cm, the irrigation water increased by 20 cm while the field displacement increased by 11.92 cm, about 66.22% of the added value of irrigation water. Then the irrigation water increased from 42 to 68, irrigation water increased 26 cm, and the field displacement increased by 22.48 cm, accounting for 86.46% of irrigation water. So there is an "inflection point" between the irrigation water amount and field displacement amount. The load intensity increases with the increase of irrigation water and shows a significant power correlation. Under the different irrigation condition, the increase amplitude of load intensity with the increase of irrigation water is different. When the irrigation water is smaller, the load intensity increase relatively less, and when the irrigation water increased to about 42 cm, the load intensity will increase considerably. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the fertilization and load intensity. The load intensity had obvious difference in different fertilization modes even with same fertilization level, in which the fertilizer field unit load intensity

  2. Modeling applications for precision agriculture in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, A. R.; Riley, W. J.; Grant, R. F.; Mezbahuddin, S.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Liu, Y.; Ying, S.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in California has increased the motivation to develop precision agriculture, which uses observations to make site-specific management decisions throughout the growing season. In agricultural systems that are prone to drought, these efforts often focus on irrigation efficiency. Recent improvements in soil sensor technology allow the monitoring of plant and soil status in real-time, which can then inform models aimed at improving irrigation management. But even on farms with resources to deploy soil sensors across the landscape, leveraging that sensor data to design an efficient irrigation scheme remains a challenge. We conduct a modeling experiment aimed at simulating precision agriculture to address several questions: (1) how, when, and where does irrigation lead to optimal yield? and (2) What are the impacts of different precision irrigation schemes on yields, soil organic carbon (SOC), and total water use? We use the ecosys model to simulate precision agriculture in a conventional tomato-corn rotation in the California Central Valley with varying soil water content thresholds for irrigation and soil water sensor depths. This model is ideal for our question because it includes explicit process-based functions for the plant growth, plant water use, soil hydrology, and SOC, and has been tested extensively in agricultural ecosystems. Low irrigation thresholds allows the soil to become drier before irrigating compared to high irrigation thresholds; as such, we found that the high irrigation thresholds use more irrigation over the course of the season, have higher yields, and have lower water use efficiency. The irrigation threshold did not affect SOC. Yields and water use are highest at sensor depths of 0.5 to 0.15 m, but water use efficiency was also lowest at these depths. We found SOC to be significantly affected by sensor depth, with the highest SOC at the shallowest sensor depths. These results will help regulate irrigation water while maintaining yield

  3. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  4. EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IRRIGATED BY THE WATERS OF THE HYDROLIC BASIN OF SEBOU RIVER AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON THE TRANSFER OF TRACE ELEMENTS INTO SUGAR CROPS (THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benlkhoubi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in Kenitra (northwestern Morocco to determine the physicochemical parameters and metallic concentrations at three levels: surface water of Sebou and Beht intended for irrigation, agricultural soils and sugarcane. The spectrometric analysis of source plasma emission (ICP has identified eight trace elements contained in the materials taken from zone 1 (As, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cr.The obtained results showed that the interaction between the different physicochemical parameters of agricultural soils decides the transfer of the metal elements to the plants. Indeed, for the soil which is used in this agriculture (for sugar cane, its irrigation water, and the contents of Cr, Cd and As exceeds the accepted standards.The principal component analysis of the levels of trace metal supports in area 1, allowed to distinguish between the items with a high tolerance for bagasse (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, compared to Cr, Co, and As.

  5. PRICE GENERATING PROCESS AND VOLATILITY IN NIGERIAN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaihiomwan Ojogho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on agricultural commodity price volatility in Nigeria has constantly reflected that an excessive price movement is harmful for both producers and consumers, particularly for those who are not able to cope with that new source of economic uncertainty. It has also raised an extensive debate on the main determinants behind the large agricultural commodity price swings observed in the last years without recourse for the price generating process. To narrow this gap, the study examined the price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and aggregate food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using the linear Gaussian State-Space (SS model. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that the coefficients of variation for cereals (39.88%, food (32.65% and dairy price (43.08% were respectively higher during the overall time period (January 1990 to February 2014 than during the first (January 1990 to January 2002 and second (February 2002 to February 2014 sub-time periods. The results of the inferential statistics showed that authoregressive moving average (ARMA model is the most selected Nigeria agricultural commodity price generating model for the time periods, that a unit increase in the past price state of cereals, dairy, sugar, meat and aggregate food would increase the future price of sugar, meat and aggregate food by N0.14, N0.28 and N0.15 respectively but decrease future price of cereals and dairy by about N1.00 and N0.21 respectively, and that the one-step ahead predicted value for the first out-ofsample period for cereals, meat, dairy and sugar price were 6317.86, 10.24 and 2.06 respectively. The Nigerian agricultural commodity prices have experienced high variability over the period, and such volatility, price-generating process and the determinants of the Nigerian food commodities

  6. From microbes to water districts: Linking observations across scales to uncover the implications of riparian and channel management on water quality in an irrigated agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among runoff, riparian and stream ecosystems, and water quality remain uncertain in many settings, particularly those heavily impacted by human activities. For example, waterways in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley are seasonally disconnected from groundwater tables and are extensively modified by infrastructure and management. These conditions make the impact of riparian and channel management difficult to predict across scales, which hinders efforts to promote best management practices to improve water quality. We seek to link observations across catchment, reach, and patch scales to understand patterns of nitrate and turbidity in waterways draining irrigated cropland. Data was collected on 80 reaches spanning two water management districts. At the catchment scale, water districts implemented waterway and riparian management differently: one water district had a decentralized approach, allowing individual land owners to manage their waterway channels and banks, while the other had a centralized approach, in which land owners defer management to a district-run program. At the reach scale, riparian and waterway vegetation, geomorphic complexity, and flow conditions were quantified. Reach-scale management such as riparian planting projects and channel dredging frequency were also considered. At the patch scale, denitrification potential and organic matter were measured in riparian toe-slope soils and channel sediments, along with associated vegetation and geomorphic features. All factors were tested for their ability to predict water quality using generalized linear mixed effects models and the consistency of predictors within and across scales was evaluated. A hierarchy of predictors emerges: catchment-scale management regimes predict reach-scale geomorphic and vegetation complexity, which in turn predicts sediment denitrification potential - the patch-scale factor most associated with low nitrate. Similarly

  7. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros Mercadal, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras Riba, Núria; Comas Angelet, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areaswherewater demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, itmust copewith the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging fromtrace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants ...

  8. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  9. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  10. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  11. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  12. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality. PMID:29051767

  13. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  14. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime Pay...

  16. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    , is converted to a basic, universal fermentation medium by lactic acid fermentation, is outlined. The resulting all-round fermentation medium can be used for the production of many useful fermentation products when added a carbohydrate source, which could possibly be another agricultural by-product. Two...... examples of such products-polylactic acid and L-lysine-are given. A cost calculation shows that this fermentation medium can be produced at a very low cost approximate to 1.7 Euro cent/kg, when taking into account that the green crop industry has expenses amounting to 270,000 Euro/year for disposal...... of the brown juice. A newly built lysine factory in Esbjerg, Denmark, can benefit from this process by buying a low price medium for the fermentation process instead of more expensive traditional fermentation liquids such as corn steep liquor....

  17. Object-Based Retro-Classification Of A Agricultural Land Use: A Case Study Of Irrigated Croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, Olena; Conrad, Christopher; Khamzina, Asia; Menz, Gunter

    2013-12-01

    Availability of the historical crop maps is necessary for the assessment of land management practices and their effectiveness, as well as monitoring of environmental impacts of land uses. Lack of accurate current and past land-use information forestalls assessment of the occurred changes and their consequences and, thus, complicates knowledge-driven agrarian policy development. At the same time, lack of the sampling dataset for the past years often restrict mapping of historical land use. We proposed a methodology for a retro-assessment of several crops, based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery and a limited sampling dataset. The overall accuracy of the retro-map was 81% while accuracies for specific crop classes varied from 60% to 93%. If further elaborated, the developed method could be a useful tool for the generation of historical data on agricultural land use.

  18. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  19. Assessing the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation function to simulate Irrigation, evapotranspiration and crop response to irrigation management strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is widely used for simulation of hydrologic processes at various temporal and spatial scales. Less common are long-term simulation analyses of water balance components including agricultural management practices such as irrigation management. In the se...

  20. Water movement and solute transport in deep vadose zone under four irrigated agricultural land-use types in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Leilei; Shen, Yanjun; Pei, Hongwei; Wang, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Groundwater-fed agriculture has caused water table declines and groundwater quality degradation in the North China Plain. Based on sediment sampling in deep vadose zone (with a maximum depth of 11.0 m), groundwater recharge, seepage velocity, solute inventory and transport under four typical irrigated agricultural land-use types (winter wheat and summer maize, WM; pear orchards, PO; outdoor vegetables, VE; and cotton, CO) were investigated in this study. The results reveal that there are many solutes stored in the vadose zone. Nitrate storage per unit depth in the vadose zone is highest under PO (1703 kg/ha), followed by VE (970 kg/ha), WM (736 kg/ha) and CO (727 kg/ha). However, the amount of annual leached nitrate under the four land-use types results in a different order (VE, 404 kg/ha; WM, 108 kg/ha; PO, 23 kg/ha; CO, 13 kg/ha). The estimated average recharge rates are 180 mm/yr for WM, 27 mm/yr for CO, 320 mm/yr for VE and 49 mm/yr for PO. The seepage velocity under VE (2.22 m/yr) exceeds the values under the other three land-use types (WM, 0.85 m/yr; PO, 0.49 m/yr; CO, 0.09 m/yr). The highest seepage velocity under VE caused significant nitrate contamination in groundwater, whereas the other two land-use types (WM and PO) had no direct influence on groundwater quality. The results of this work could be used for groundwater resources management.

  1. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  3. Mobilizing local innovation capacity through a simulation game in a participatory research project on agricultural innovation in El Brahmi irrigation scheme (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.

  4. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Cultivated Land Irrigation Guarantee Capability with Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Huang, J.; Li, L.; Wang, H.; Zhu, D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Cultivated Land Quality Grade monitoring and evaluation is an important way to improve the land production capability and ensure the country food safety. Irrigation guarantee capability is one of important aspects in the cultivated land quality monitoring and evaluation. In the current cultivated land quality monitoring processing based on field survey, the irrigation rate need much human resources investment in long investigation process. This study choses Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei as study region, taking the 1 km × 1 km grid size of cultivated land unit with a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system as study object. A new irrigation capacity evaluation index based on the ratio of the annual irrigation requirement retrieved from MODIS data and the actual quantity of irrigation was proposed. With the years of monitoring results the irrigation guarantee capability of study area was evaluated comprehensively. The change trend of the irrigation guarantee capability index (IGCI) with the agricultural drought disaster area in rural statistical yearbook of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area was generally consistent. The average of IGCI value, the probability of irrigation-guaranteed year and the weighted average which controlled by the irrigation demand index were used and compared in this paper. The experiment results indicate that the classification result from the present method was close to that from irrigation probability in the gradation on agriculture land quality in 2012, with overlap of 73% similar units. The method of monitoring and evaluation of cultivated land IGCI proposed in this paper has a potential in cultivated land quality level monitoring and evaluation in China. Key words: remote sensing, evapotranspiration, MODIS cultivated land quality, irrigation guarantee capability Authors: Chao Zhang, Jianxi Huang, Li Li, Hongshuo Wang, Dehai Zhu China Agricultural University zhangchaobj@gmail.com

  6. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants grown under three irrigation regimes at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihok, S.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A.; St-Amant, N.; Kwamena, N.-O.A.; Clark, I.D.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of tritium released from nuclear facilities as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into regulatory assessment models. These models typically estimate organically bound tritium (OBT) for calculating public dose as OBT itself is rarely measured. Higher than expected OBT/HTO ratios in plants and soils are an emerging issue that is not well understood. To support the improvement of models, an experimental garden was set up in 2012 at a tritium processing facility in Pembroke, Ontario to characterize the circumstances under which high OBT/HTO ratios may arise. Soils and plants were sampled weekly to coincide with detailed air and stack monitoring. The design included a plot of native grass/soil, contrasted with sod and vegetables grown in barrels with commercial topsoil under natural rain and either low or high tritium irrigation water. Air monitoring indicated that the plume was present infrequently at concentrations of up to about 100 Bq/m"3 (the garden was not in a major wind sector). Mean air concentrations during the day on workdays (HTO 10.3 Bq/m"3, HT 5.8 Bq/m"3) were higher than at other times (0.7–2.6 Bq/m"3). Mean Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) in plants and soils and OBT/HTO ratios were only very weakly or not at all correlated with releases on a weekly basis. TFWT was equal in soils and plants and in above and below ground parts of vegetables. OBT/HTO ratios in above ground parts of vegetables were above one when the main source of tritium was from high tritium irrigation water (1.5–1.8). Ratios were below one in below ground parts of vegetables when irrigated with high tritium water (0.4–0.6) and above one in vegetables rain-fed or irrigated with low tritium water (1.3–2.8). In contrast, OBT/HTO ratios were very high (9.0–13.5) when the source of tritium was mainly from the atmosphere. TFWT varied considerably through time as a result of SRBT's operations; OBT/HTO ratios showed no clear

  7. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchán, D., E-mail: d.merchan@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); Auqué, L.F.; Acero, P.; Gimeno, M.J. [University of Zaragoza — Department of Earth Sciences (Geochemical Modelling Group), C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Causapé, J. [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO{sub 3}, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO{sub 3}, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process

  8. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  9. Evaluation of land capability and suitability for irrigated agriculture in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, using an integrated AHP-GIS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldababseh, A.; Temimi, M.; Maghelal, P.; Branch, O.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid economic development and high population growth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have impacted utilization and management of agricultural land. The development of large-scale agriculture in unsuitable areas can severely impact groundwater resources in the UAE. More than 60% of UAE's water resources are being utilized by the agriculture, forestry, and urban greenery sectors. However, the contribution of the agricultural sector to the national GDP is negligible. Several programs have been introduced by the government aimed at achieving sustainable agriculture whilst preserving valuable water resources. Local subsistence farming has declined considerably during the past few years, due to low soil moisture content, sandy soil texture, lack of arable land, natural climatic disruptions, water shortages, and declined rainfall. The limited production of food and the continuing rise in the food prices on a global and local level are expected to increase low-income households' vulnerability to food insecurity. This research aims at developing a suitability index for the evaluation and prioritization of areas in the UAE for large-scale agriculture. The AHP-GIS integrated model developed in this study facilitates a step by step aggregation of a large number of datasets representing the most important criteria, and the generation of agricultural suitability and land capability maps. To provide the necessary criteria to run the model, a comprehensive geospatial database was built, including climate conditions, water potential, soil capabilities, topography, and land management. A hieratical structure is built as a decomposition structure that includes all criteria and sub-criteria used to define land suitability based on literature review and experts' opinions. Pairwise comparisons matrix are used to calculate criteria' weights. The GIS Model Builder function is used to integrate all spatial processes to model land suitability. In order to preserve some flexibility

  10. How much water do we need for irrigation under Climate Change in the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Alberte, Bondeau; Wolfgang, Cramer; Simon, Decock; Sinan, Shi

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will very likely alter the hydrological system of already water-limited agricultural landscapes around the Mediterranean. This includes the need for, as well as the availability of irrigation water. On top of that Mediterranean agroecosystems are very likely to be under strong pressure in the near future through changes in consumer demands and diets, increasing urbanization, demographic change, and new markets for agricultural exportation. As a first step to assess the water demand of the agricultural sector, we use an ecohydrological model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed land model, LPJmL) to estimate current and future irrigation water requirements of this region, considering various climate and socio-economic scenarios. LPJmL is a process-based, agricultural and water balance model, where plant growth is ecophysiologically coupled with hydrological variables. For these simulations, the model was adapted to the Mediterranean region in terms of agrosystems as well as crop parameters, and a sensitivity analysis for the irrigation system efficiency was performed. Patterns of current irrigation water requirements differ strongly spatially within the Mediterranean region depending mainly on potential evapotranspiration, the combination of crops cultivated and the extension of irrigated areas. The simulations for the future indicate that the Mediterranean may need considerable additional amounts of irrigation water. However, the regional patterns differ strongly depending on changes in length of growing periods, changes in transpirational rate (temperature and precipitation change, CO2-fertilization), and the consideration of potential improvements in irrigation system efficiency.

  11. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  12. Agricultural and food processing byproducts from the Balearic Islands: key and traditional production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-01-01

    The amounts of residues and byproducts, obtained from agricultural processes, in the Balearic Islands has undergone a marked increase during the last years. for economics as well as environmental reasons, there is a continuous pressure to exploit such residues and to identify products with attractive properties and with potential markets. (Author)

  13. Processing agricultural and industrial waste materials to fodder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, J; Baintner, F; Schmidt, J

    1977-11-28

    Unstable agricultural and industrial waste materials containing proteins and less than or equal to 80% H/sub 2/O, e.g. feathers, entrails, blood, malt, malt husks, whey, skim milk, cheese wastes, starch, malt residues, marc, broken and bloody eggs, lucerne liquor, etc. were homogenized with fodder containing carbohydrates or inert materials, as well as additives, e.g., AcOH, ascorbic acid, cysteine, NaNO/sub 2/, etc. to give a products containing less than or equal to 60% H/sub 2/O, pH 4.6 to 4.8, storable for shorter periods and useful for further processing. Thus, a homogenized mixture of 60 parts lard cake and 40 parts corn grits was homogenized with a 2:1 mixture of EtCO/sub 2/H and HCO/sub 2/H 1.5, NaNO/sub 2/ 0.05, and vitamin C 0.2% by weight to give a product with 32% protein content, useful for further processing.

  14. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  15. Estatísticas sobre irrigação no Brasil segundo o Censo Agropecuário 1995-1996 Statistics on irrigation in Brazil according to the 1995-1996 Agricultural Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardônio L. Loiol

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho utilizam-se dados do Censo Agropecuário 1995-1996, para se avaliar a irrigação no país, com relação à área irrigada, aos métodos utilizados e aos grupos de área, por região e por estado. A área irrigada no Brasil, de acordo com o Censo Agropecuário 1995-1996, é de 3,1 milhões de hectares, representando apenas 2,1% dos 146,8 milhões de hectares cultivados com lavouras permanentes, temporárias, pastagens e florestas. A região Sul apresenta a maior área irrigada, 1,1 milhão de ha, equivalente a 35% da área total irrigada. Em segundo lugar vem a região Sudeste com, aproximadamente, 30%; com 24% de toda a área irrigada no Brasil, o Nordeste ocupa a terceira posição seguido das regiões Centro-Oeste e Norte, que têm pouca expressão e, juntas, somam cerca de 11% do total. Nas regiões NE, SE e Sul, a irrigação predomina nos estabelecimentos cuja área é inferior a 1.000 ha. Diferentemente, nas regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste a irrigação é mais significativa nos estabelecimentos com área maior que 10.000 ha. O método de irrigação por superfície, continua a ser o mais utilizado no país (59%, nas regiões NE e Sul, com a aspersão prevalecendo nas demais regiões; a irrigação localizada representa a menor área.This paper uses the 1995-1996 of agricultural census data to evaluate irrigation in Brazil in relation to the irrigated areas and irrigation methods by groups, region and states. Based on this, Brazil has 3.1 million hectares under irrigation, corresponding to only 2.1% of the 146.8 million hectare of cultivated area with annual and permanent crops, pastures and forests. The southern region presents the largest irrigated area, 1.1 million ha, corresponding to 35% of the total irrigated area. The second largest irrigated area is in the southeastern region (30%, followed by the northeast (24%; the centre-western and north have, together by 11% of the total area. Irrigated farms smaller than 1

  16. Participatory innovation process for testing new practices for soil fertility management in Chókwè Irrigation Scheme (Mozambique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Reparaz, Maite; de Vente, Joris; Famba, Sebastiao; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Barberá, Gonzalo G.

    2015-04-01

    Integrated water and nutrient management are key factors to increase productivity and to reduce the yield gap in irrigated systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These two elements are affected by an ensemble of abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors that need to be taken into account to reduce the yield gap, as well as farmers' perceptions and knowledge. In the framework of the project European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we are carrying out a participatory innovation process in Chókwè irrigation scheme (Mozambique) based on stakeholders engagement, to test new practices for soil fertility management that can increase yields reducing costs. Through a method combining interviews with three farmers' associations and other relevant stakeholders and soil sampling from the interviewed farmers' plots with the organization of Communities of Practices, we tried to capture how soil fertility is managed by farmers, the constraints they find as well as their perceptions about soil resources. This information was the basis to design and conduct a participatory innovation process where compost made with rice straw and manure is being tested by a farmers' association. Most important limitations of the method are also evaluated. Our results show that socio-economic characteristics of farmers condition how they manage soil fertility and their perceptions. The difficulties they face to adopt new practices for soil fertility management, mainly related to economic resources limitations, labour availability, knowledge time or farm structure, require a systemic understanding that takes into account abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors and their implication as active stakeholders in all phases of the innovation process.

  17. A utilização de águas de qualidade inferior na agricultura irrigada | The use of lower quality water in irrigated agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquele Mendes Lira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A água é um recurso natural essencial a vida no planeta, e devido ao aumento populacional e uso desordenado este bem está cada vez mais escasso. O Brasil é um país privilegiado em termos de recursos hídricos, porém sua distribuição é bastante irregular. No Nordeste brasileiro as condições hídricas são desfavoráveis, apresentam altas taxas de evapotranspiração durante todo ano, baixa precipitação, um subsolo em muitos lugares com água salobra ou formação de cristalino e o baixo desenvolvimento econômico-social. Com o crescimento demográfico faz-se necessário intensificar a produção de alimentos e a agricultura é o setor que mais consome água superficial no mundo, logo, é necessário a adoção de práticas alternativas de cultivo. O reuso de águas residuárias para fins agrícolas pode favorecer o desenvolvimento dessa região, trazendo um aumento de área cultivada e produtividade. Portanto, deve-se atentar para a segurança alimentar tendo a consciência da forma de tratamento do esgoto e quais culturas podem ser irrigadas com estes tipos de água. ABSTRACT: Water is a natural resource essential to life on the planet, and due to population growth and uncontrolled use this well is increasingly scarce. Brazil is a privileged country in terms of water resources, but its distribution is very irregular. In Northeast Brazil the water conditions are unfavorable, have high rates of evapotranspiration throughout the year, low rainfall, a basement in many places with brackish water or formation of crystalline and low economic and social development. With the population growth it is necessary to intensify production of food and agriculture is the sector that most consumes surface water in the world, so the adoption of alternative farming practices is necessary. The reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes may favor the development of this region, bringing an increase in cultivated area and productivity

  18. Effect of irrigation pumpage during drought on karst aquifer systems in highly agricultural watersheds: example of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin, southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subhasis; Srivastava, Puneet; Singh, Sarmistha

    2016-09-01

    In the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (USA), population growth in the city of Atlanta and increased groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in southwest Georgia are greatly affecting the supply of freshwater to downstream regions. This study was conducted to understand and quantify the effect of irrigation pumpage on the karst Upper Floridan Aquifer and river-aquifer interactions in the lower ACF river basin in southwest Georgia. The groundwater MODular Finite-Element model (MODFE) was used for this study. The effect of two drought years, a moderate and a severe drought year, were simulated. Comparison of the results of the irrigated and non-irrigated scenarios showed that groundwater discharge to streams is a major outflow from the aquifer, and irrigation can cause as much as 10 % change in river-aquifer flux. The results also show that during months with high irrigation (e.g., June 2011), storage loss (34 %), the recharge and discharge from the upper semi-confining unit (30 %), and the river-aquifer flux (31 %) are the major water components contributing towards the impact of irrigation pumpage in the study area. A similar scenario plays out in many river basins throughout the world, especially in basins in which underlying karst aquifers are directly connected to a nearby stream. The study suggests that improved groundwater withdrawal strategies using climate forecasts needs to be developed in such a way that excessive withdrawals during droughts can be reduced to protect streams and river flows.

  19. Process-Specialized Technologies Using in Agricultural Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rubtsov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the analysis of the agriculture automation level in Russia and in the world. The results of the research of the foreign market, structures and compositions of foreign-made unmanned mobile energy vehicles are presented. The main direction of development of foreign companies is the creation of new models of navigation and orientation equipment for agricultural machinery aimed to the implementation of autonomous moving and mission equipment control. Technics automatization is possible due to refitting of already existing samples with specialized attachments. According to this analysis, foreign agricultural machinery is far ahead of domestic manufacturers for the production of crew-unmanned facilities of mechanization for the agricultural sector, and the material intensity of the existing agricultural production in Russia is 3-4 times higher than that of foreign countries. The need for this kind of analysis is explained by the result of a comparison labor productivity: this index in Russia's agriculture is by 2.4 times lower than European one and 3.5 times lower than that of the USA. The Russian agriculture development retard can be eliminate through the use of modern achievements in the field of robotic systems for special purposes. The authors proved the possibility of double use of technologies because of similarity of schemes and structure of robotic systems for the solution of specialized tasks of both directions. The unmanned mobile energy vehicles can be used at sequential and parallel autonomous driving.

  20. Radiation processing of natural polymers for industrial and agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Diaa, D.A.; El-Barbary, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great efforts should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na/PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  1. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  2. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    employees' turnover in Institute of Agricultural Research and Training Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Furthermore, work life imbalance ( = 3.32), cost of training and recruitment ( = 3.18) and ..... Factors affecting job satisfaction of front-line.

  3. Antimicrobial compounds as side products from the agricultural processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumthong, Pattarawadee

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial compounds have many applications, in medicines, food, agriculture, livestock, textiles, paints, and wood protectants. Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading. Consequently there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Most

  4. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    Human demand for food influences the water cycle through diversion and extraction of fresh water needed to support agriculture. Future population growth and economic development alone will substantially increase water demand and much of it for agricultural uses. For many semi-arid lands, socio-economic shifts are likely to exacerbate changes in climate as a driver of future water supply and demand. For these areas in particular, where the balance between water supply and demand is fragile, variations in regional climate can have potentially predictable effect on agricultural production. Satellite data and biophysically-based models provide a powerful method to quantify the interactions between local climate, plant growth and water resource requirements. In irrigated agricultural lands, satellite observations indicate high vegetation density while the precipitation amount indicates otherwise. This inconsistency between the observed precipitation and the observed canopy leaf density triggers the possibility that the observed high leaf density is due to an alternate source of water, irrigation. We explore an inverse process approach using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), climatological data, and the NASA's Simple Biosphere model, SiB2, to quantitatively assess water demand in a semi-arid agricultural land by constraining the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium (balance between vegetation and prevailing local climate) and nonequilibrium (water added through irrigation) conditions. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. We added water using two distribution methods: The first method adds water on top of the canopy and is a proxy for the traditional spray irrigation. The second method allows water to be applied directly into the soil layer and serves as proxy for drip irrigation. Our approach indicates that over

  5. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  6. Year 3 Summary Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the third year of a 4-year-long field investigation to document selected baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water quality and fish species were measured at roughly quarterly intervals from April 2007 to January 2008. The water quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. In addition, during April and October 2007, water samples were collected from seven intensively monitored drains for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [chironomid] larvae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species that we were not permitted to take for selenium determinations. Water quality values were typical of surface waters in a hot desert climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near anoxic conditions especially during the summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees C. In general, total selenium concentrations in water varied directly with conductivity and inversely with pH. Although desert pupfish were found in several drains, sometimes in relatively high numbers, the fish faunas of most drains and ponds were dominated by nonnative species, especially red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), mosquitofish, and mollies. Dissolved selenium in water samples from the seven intensively monitored drains ranged from 0.700 to 24.1 ug/L, with selenate as the major constituent in all samples. Selenium

  7. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  8. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  9. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamfl...

  10. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...

  11. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    OpenAIRE

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development...

  12. Development and experiences of photovoltaic water pumping for a drip irrigation in agriculture; Desarrollo y experiencias de sistemas de bombeo fotovoltaico para aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Sapiain, Raul; Torres, Ariel; Loose, Dirk [Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Hahn, Andreas [Eschborn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The following paper shows results and experiences from a pilot project of photovoltaic water pumping for drip irrigation in agriculture of rural areas. The project participants are local farmers in direct co-operation with the Renewable Energy Centre of the University of Tarapaca and the German Agency for Technical Co-operation, GTZ. Activities focus on the planification, design, implementation and evaluation of four different pilot installations for the small and medium scale agriculture in different locations of the desert area of northern Chile. In the first phase, photovoltaic pumping systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation system working only by gravity at very low operating pressures. In the second phase, a new system configuration was developed with a direct driven photovoltaic pumping system without water storage tank, the drip irrigation system here is directly connected to the pump with variable water flow and system pressure conditions. Part of the pilot project is a monitoring system, which allows a complete short term and long term evaluation under technical, agricultural and economical aspects. The measured data and obtained experiences shown so far interesting result as for example the high system's reliability, a good performance of the low pressure irrigation, an adequate matching between the solar pump and the drip irrigation in the direct driven system and a simple irrigation management and operation, compared with conventional pumping systems. The project's results could offer a new alternative for photovoltaic pumping systems in the productive agricultural sector of desert rural areas. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los resultados y experiencias obtenidas en un programa piloto de bombeo fotovoltaico para nuevas aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura de zonas rurales. En este programa el Centro de Energias Renovables

  13. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  14. Improvements in irrigation system modelling when using remotely sensed ET for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Opstal, J. D.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-10-01

    Irrigation system modelling is often used to aid decision-makers in the agricultural sector. It gives insight on the consequences of potential management and infrastructure changes. However, simulating an irrigation district requires a considerable amount of input data to properly represent the system, which is not easily acquired or available. During the simulation process, several assumptions have to be made and the calibration is usually performed only with flow measurements. The advancement of estimating evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing is a welcome asset for irrigation system modelling. Remotely-sensed ET can be used to improve the model accuracy in simulating the water balance and the crop production. This study makes use of the Ador-Simulation irrigation system model, which simulates water flows in irrigation districts in both the canal infrastructure and on-field. ET is estimated using an energy balance model, namely SEBAL, which has been proven to function well for agricultural areas. The seasonal ET by the Ador model and the ET from SEBAL are compared. These results determine sub-command areas, which perform well under current assumptions or, conversely, areas that need re-evaluation of assumptions and a re-run of the model. Using a combined approach of the Ador irrigation system model and remote sensing outputs from SEBAL, gives great insights during the modelling process and can accelerate the process. Additionally cost-savings and time-savings are apparent due to the decrease in input data required for simulating large-scale irrigation areas.

  15. Farmers, institutions and technology in agricultural change processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flor, Rica Joy; Singleton, Grant; Casimero, Madonna; Abidin, Zainal; Razak, Nasruddin; Maat, Harro; Leeuwis, Cees

    2016-01-01

    International agricultural research centres use approaches which aim to create effective linkages between the practices of farmers, introduced technologies and the wider environment that affects farming. This paper argues that such new approaches require a different type of monitoring as a

  16. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  17. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of pesticides in agricultural irrigation-return flow from four drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 2002-04, and comparison with historical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard J.; Frans, Lonna M.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from sites in four irrigation return-flow drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project from July 2002 through October 2004. Ten samples were collected throughout the irrigation season (generally April through October) and two samples were collected during the non-irrigation season. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and a suite of 107 pesticides and pesticide metabolites (pesticide transformation products) and to document the occurrence, distribution, and pesticides transport and pesticide metabolites. The four drainage basins vary in size from 19 to 710 square miles. Percentage of agricultural cropland ranges from about 35 percent in Crab Creek drainage basin to a maximum of 75 percent in Lind Coulee drainage basin. More than 95 percent of cropland in Red Rock Coulee, Crab Creek, and Sand Hollow drainage basins is irrigated, whereas only 30 percent of cropland in Lind Coulee is irrigated. Forty-two pesticides and five metabolites were detected in samples from the four irrigation return-flow drainage basins. The most compounds detected were in samples from Sand Hollow with 37, followed by Lind Coulee with 33, Red Rock Coulee with 30, and Crab Creek with 28. Herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides, followed by insecticides, metabolites, and fungicides. Atrazine, bentazon, diuron, and 2,4-D were the most frequently detected herbicides and chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were the most frequently detected insecticides. A statistical comparison of pesticide concentrations in surface-water samples collected in the mid-1990s at Crab Creek and Sand Hollow with those collected in this study showed a statistically significant increase in concentrations for diuron and a statistically significant decrease for ethoprophos and atrazine in Crab Creek. Statistically significant increases were in concentrations of bromacil, diuron, and

  18. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  19. Up and down the sanitation ladder: Harmonizing the treatment and multiple-barrier perspectives on risk reduction in wastewater irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses two prominent perspectives in the debate on risk reduction in wastewater irrigation; reliance on conventional wastewater treatment and the multiple-barrier approach. The treatment perspective is based on water-quality standards for wastewater irrigation with treatment...... considered the ultimate risk reductionmeasure. The somewhat broader multiple-barrier perspective supports the use of a combination of pre-farm, on-farm and postfarm barriers, including, where possible, wastewater treatment, to meet required health targets. The discussion in this paper shows that each...

  20. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  1. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  2. Application of solar energy to agricultural production processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The presentations in this report were a result of research and development projects funded and managed by Interagency Agreements between the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture. The performing institutions were selected on the basis of peer reviews of invited and/or unsolicited proposals. During the time period covered, approximately 9 years, hundreds of technical reports and presentations have been made. The audience for these reports has included other researchers, manufacturers, sales people, contractors and end users of the information. As a result, thousands of installations have been made. Some of these have been highly successful, while others have been less successful, and some have failed. Nevertheless, these projects have shown areas where solar energy can be profitably applied to replace non-renewable forms of energy for agricultural production; areas where the use of solar energy is marginal; and areas where the use of solar energy is not profitable with current costs of non-renewable energy.

  3. DNA damage and repair process in earthworm after in-vivo and in vitro exposure to soils irrigated by wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Min; Chen Ying; Wang Chunxia; Wang Zijian; Zhu Yongguan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, DNA damage to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after in vivo exposure to contaminated soils was measured by detecting DNA strand breakages (DSBs) and causality was analyzed through fractionation based bioassays. A non-linear dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil PAHs levels. DNA damage, measured with the comet assay, and its repair process, were observed. To identify the chemical causality, an in vitro comet assay using coelomocytes was subsequently performed on the fractionated organic extracts from soils. The results showed that the PAHs in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. When normalized to benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent (TEQ BaP ), the saturation dose in the dose-response curve was about 10 ng TEQ BaP g -1 soil (dw). - A non-linear dose-response relationship exists between earthworm DNA damage, measured with comet assay, and total PAHs levels in soils irrigated by wastewaters

  4. Data Entities and Information System Matrix for Integrated Agriculture Information System (IAIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Santoso, Halim; Delima, Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Integrated Agriculture Information System is a system that is developed to process data, information, and knowledge in Agriculture sector. Integrated Agriculture Information System brings valuable information for farmers: (1) Fertilizer price; (2) Agriculture technique and practise; (3) Pest management; (4) Cultivation; (5) Irrigation; (6) Post harvest processing; (7) Innovation in agriculture processing. Integrated Agriculture Information System contains 9 subsystems. To bring an integrated information to the user and stakeholder, it needs an integrated database approach. Thus, researchers describes data entity and its matrix relate to subsystem in Integrated Agriculture Information System (IAIS). As a result, there are 47 data entities as entities in single and integrated database.

  5. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  6. Computational modeling for irrigated agriculture planning. Part II: risk analysis Modelagem computacional para planejamento em agricultura irrigada: Parte II - Análise de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. F. Borges Júnior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Techniques of evaluation of risks coming from inherent uncertainties to the agricultural activity should accompany planning studies. The risk analysis should be carried out by risk simulation using techniques as the Monte Carlo method. This study was carried out to develop a computer program so-called P-RISCO for the application of risky simulations on linear programming models, to apply to a case study, as well to test the results comparatively to the @RISK program. In the risk analysis it was observed that the average of the output variable total net present value, U, was considerably lower than the maximum U value obtained from the linear programming model. It was also verified that the enterprise will be front to expressive risk of shortage of water in the month of April, what doesn't happen for the cropping pattern obtained by the minimization of the irrigation requirement in the months of April in the four years. The scenario analysis indicated that the sale price of the passion fruit crop exercises expressive influence on the financial performance of the enterprise. In the comparative analysis it was verified the equivalence of P-RISCO and @RISK programs in the execution of the risk simulation for the considered scenario.Técnicas de avaliação de riscos procedentes de incertezas inerentes à atividade agrícola devem acompanhar os estudos de planejamento. A análise de risco pode ser desempenhada por meio de simulação, utilizando técnicas como o método de Monte Carlo. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de desenvolver um programa computacional, denominado P-RISCO, para utilização de simulações de risco em modelos de programação linear, aplicar a um estudo de caso e testar os resultados comparativamente ao programa @RISK. Na análise de risco, observou-se que a média da variável de saída, valor presente líquido total (U, foi consideravelmente inferior ao valor máximo de U obtido no modelo de programação linear. Constatou

  7. Technological Innovation of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises from the Perspective of Modern Marketing——A Case of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Hubei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The science and technology development of agricultural products processing enterprises in Hubei Province is analyzed.From the perspective of modern marketing,problems in the research and development work of agricultural products processing enterprises are analyzed from the aspects of market,personal training and technology radiation,which are mainly the lack of close connection with market.Countermeasures for the technological innovation of agricultural products processing enterprises are put forward,such as establishing modern enterprise culture with innovative features,strengthening the market benefits of brand,constructing a comprehensive customer orientation information platform,scientifically predicting and developing the market,doing well in market positioning of enterprise,selecting corresponding technology innovation strategy,taking technological innovation strategy as the basis,realizing the transformation from "4P" marketing combination to "4C",cultivating technical personnel,and realizing the integration of professional skill and marketing ability.

  8. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants grown under three irrigation regimes at a tritium processing facility in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihok, S; Wilk, M; Lapp, A; St-Amant, N; Kwamena, N-O A; Clark, I D

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of tritium released from nuclear facilities as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into regulatory assessment models. These models typically estimate organically bound tritium (OBT) for calculating public dose as OBT itself is rarely measured. Higher than expected OBT/HTO ratios in plants and soils are an emerging issue that is not well understood. To support the improvement of models, an experimental garden was set up in 2012 at a tritium processing facility in Pembroke, Ontario to characterize the circumstances under which high OBT/HTO ratios may arise. Soils and plants were sampled weekly to coincide with detailed air and stack monitoring. The design included a plot of native grass/soil, contrasted with sod and vegetables grown in barrels with commercial topsoil under natural rain and either low or high tritium irrigation water. Air monitoring indicated that the plume was present infrequently at concentrations of up to about 100 Bq/m(3) (the garden was not in a major wind sector). Mean air concentrations during the day on workdays (HTO 10.3 Bq/m(3), HT 5.8 Bq/m(3)) were higher than at other times (0.7-2.6 Bq/m(3)). Mean Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) in plants and soils and OBT/HTO ratios were only very weakly or not at all correlated with releases on a weekly basis. TFWT was equal in soils and plants and in above and below ground parts of vegetables. OBT/HTO ratios in above ground parts of vegetables were above one when the main source of tritium was from high tritium irrigation water (1.5-1.8). Ratios were below one in below ground parts of vegetables when irrigated with high tritium water (0.4-0.6) and above one in vegetables rain-fed or irrigated with low tritium water (1.3-2.8). In contrast, OBT/HTO ratios were very high (9.0-13.5) when the source of tritium was mainly from the atmosphere. TFWT varied considerably through time as a result of SRBT's operations; OBT/HTO ratios showed no clear temporal

  9. Influence of Career Exploration Process Behaviors on Agriculture Students' Level of Career Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, Levon T.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which career exploration process behaviors influence the level of career certainty of agriculture students. Data were gathered from 181 freshmen and 131 senior students enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University. Career certainty was assessed using…

  10. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  11. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  12. Redefining the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, H.; Wessiani, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Government of Indonesia has been launched the bureaucratic reform program since 2010. One of the action is conducted restructuring organization in all city governments. Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City is the result of merger from two Department, namely Bureau of Food Security and Department of Agriculture. This merger makes Department of Food Security and Agriculture to redefine their business process. The new business process is needed to be defined in order to align the new structure with the long term strategic planning of Surabaya City Government. This research aims to redefine the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City. The CIMOSA model is adopted for identifying the activities in the business process. The new business process is important for the department to allocate their resource, mainly the human resource and as the main input for the department to build their standard operating procedure.

  13. Towards Quantifying The Economic Effects Of Poor And Fluctuating Water Quality On Irrigation Agriculture: A Case Study Of The Lower Vaal And Riet Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, R.J.; Viljoen, Machiel F.

    2000-01-01

    Irrigation farmers in the lower reaches of the Vaal and Riet Rivers are experiencing substantial yield reductions in certain crops and more profitable crops have been withdrawn from production, hypothesised, as a result of generally poor but especially fluctuating water quality. In this paper secondary data is used in a linear programming model to test this hypothesis by calculating the potential loss in farm level optimal returns. The model is static with a time frame of two production seaso...

  14. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development is still subject to the logistics, information flow of the dispersion, fracture and high cost. The integrated optimization of various regions and various enterprises and all sectors of the supply chain process is the key to optimize the process Internet plus era of agricultural products supply chain.

  15. Radiation processing of agricultural products: status and potential contribution to a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of radiation processing of agricultural products is briefly reviewed with special regard to those processes which may contribute to a cleaner environment. Radurization of poultry feed and poultry meat is shown to be a major contributor to the reduction of a significant public health problem-salmonellosis. Radiation sterilized animal feeds can be produced by processing garbage - a major environmental pollutant. Radicidation and radappertization are effective processes in the treatment of sludges and waste water, to prevent pollution of seas or ground. Radiation processes can effectively replace fungicides and insecticides in the treatment of agricultural crops and thus reduce environmental pollution. (author)

  16. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  17. Development and Application of an Integrated Model for Representing Hydrologic Processes and Irrigation at Residential Scale in Semiarid and Mediterranean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. B.; Gironas, J. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vera, S.; Reyes, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters physical and biological processes that take place in natural environments. New impervious areas change the hydrological processes, reducing infiltration and evapotranspiration and increasing direct runoff volumes and flow discharges. To reduce these effects at local scale, sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development and best management practices have been developed and implemented. These technologies, which typically consider some type of green infrastructure (GI), simulate natural processes of capture, retention and infiltration to control flow discharges from frequent events and preserve the hydrological cycle. Applying these techniques in semiarid regions requires accounting for aspects related to the maintenance of green areas, such as the irrigation needs and the selection of the vegetation. This study develops the Integrated Hydrological Model at Residential Scale, IHMORS, which is a continuous model that simulates the most relevant hydrological processes together with irrigation processes of green areas. In the model contributing areas and drainage control practices are modeled by combining and connecting differents subareas subjected to surface processes (i.e. interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff) and sub-surface processes (percolation, redistribution and subsurface runoff). The model simulates these processes and accounts for the dynamics of the water content in different soil layers. The different components of the model were first tested using laboratory and numerical experiments, and then an application to a case study was carried out. In this application we assess the long-term performance in terms of runoff control and irrigation needs of green gardens with different vegetation, under different climate and irrigation practices. The model identifies significant differences in the performance of the alternatives and provides a good insight for the maintenance needs of GI for runoff control.

  18. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  19. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  20. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  1. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  2. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  3. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  4. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  5. Runoff characteristics of water quality from small agricultural watershed having topographical chain and irrigation; Chikei rensa to suiden kangai wo yusuru nogyo shoshu suiiki kara ryushutsusuru suishitsu no tokucho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, H; Kuroda, H; Kubota, K [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). School of Agriculture

    1996-01-10

    An investigation was carried out on characteristics of concentration and load amount of water flowing out from a small watershed with an area of 205 ha which is utilized mostly for agriculture. The basin subjected to the investigation was a district with typical tableland topography in Dejima Village in Ibaraki Prefecture. The land on this tableland in the district is utilized mainly for a truck farm, raising mainly vegetables and fruit trees. However, dry rice fields, which were converted from the truck farms into irrigated rice fields, exist on the tableland in this district. It is known that the dry rice fields have as high water permeability as inconceivable in ordinary paddy rice fields. Paddy fields developing below the tableland are called valley paddy fields, which are ill-drained paddy fields having small downward water permeation. It is an interesting subject to know what effects are given on the quality of runoff water by the topography in this watershed that has such a specific topographical chain as described. Furthermore, the dry rice fields are irrigated from the Dejima water canal taking water from Kasumigaura Lake, whereas large effects are anticipated on the amounts of runoff water and load because of such a large water permeation amount. This paper discusses the characteristics in amounts of runoff water and load in such a watershed as described. 20 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. DNA damage and repair process in earthworm after in-vivo and in vitro exposure to soils irrigated by wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Min [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Chen Ying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Chunxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn; Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, DNA damage to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after in vivo exposure to contaminated soils was measured by detecting DNA strand breakages (DSBs) and causality was analyzed through fractionation based bioassays. A non-linear dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil PAHs levels. DNA damage, measured with the comet assay, and its repair process, were observed. To identify the chemical causality, an in vitro comet assay using coelomocytes was subsequently performed on the fractionated organic extracts from soils. The results showed that the PAHs in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. When normalized to benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent (TEQ{sub BaP}), the saturation dose in the dose-response curve was about 10 ng TEQ{sub BaP} g{sup -1} soil (dw). - A non-linear dose-response relationship exists between earthworm DNA damage, measured with comet assay, and total PAHs levels in soils irrigated by wastewaters.

  7. Simulation of hydrology and nitrate transport in the Hetao irrigation district, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive agricultural activities in the Hetao irrigation district have severely degraded local aquatic ecosystems and water quality, and Ulansuhai Lake is now the most rapidly degrading eutrophic lake in China. A better understanding of the hydro-agronomic and pollutant transport processes in the a...

  8. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vatin Nikolai; Lavrov Nikolai; Loginov Gennadi

    2016-01-01

    In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphome...

  9. Endocrine disruptors compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in urban wastewater: implications for agricultural reuse and their removal by adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mariangela; Rizzo, Luigi; Farina, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In the last years, a lot of emerging contaminants, such as, endocrine disruptors compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in wastewater. Because of their toxicity and possible adverse effects on the environment and humans, their release from urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTPs) effluents should be minimized, particularly when a wastewater reuse for crops irrigation is expected. Many processes have been investigated for advanced treatment of UWWTP effluents as well as for emerging contaminant degradation; among these, adsorption process was successfully used to remove EDCs and PPCPs from wastewater. This article shortly reviews EDCs and PPCPs removal from UWWTP effluents by adsorption process using conventional and non-conventional adsorbents. The fate of EDCs and PPCPs in UWWTPs and the implications for agricultural wastewater reuse has been addressed too. In spite of the adsorption process looking to be a valuable alternative to other advanced technologies for the removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater, some gaps still remain to evaluate the actual feasibility at full scale. However, according to a few studies available in scientific literature on the use of both powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon at full scale, adsorption process by activated carbon is a promising, potentially effective, and economically feasible solution for producing safe wastewater for agricultural reuse.

  10. Evaluating gridded crop model simulations of evapotranspiration and irrigation using survey and remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Bobeda, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing use of groundwater for irrigation of crops has exacerbated groundwater sustainability issues faced by water limited regions. Gridded, process-based crop models have the potential to help farmers and policymakers asses the effects water shortages on yield and devise new strategies for sustainable water use. Gridded crop models are typically calibrated and evaluated using county-level survey data of yield, planting dates, and maturity dates. However, little is known about the ability of these models to reproduce observed crop evapotranspiration and water use at regional scales. The aim of this work is to evaluate a gridded version of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model over the continental United States. We evaluated crop seasonal evapotranspiration over 5 arc-minute grids, and irrigation water use at the county level. Evapotranspiration was assessed only for rainfed agriculture to test the model evapotranspiration equations separate from the irrigation algorithm. Model evapotranspiration was evaluated against the Atmospheric Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) modeling product. Using a combination of the USDA crop land data layer (CDL) and the USGS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Irrigated Agriculture Dataset for the United States (MIrAD-US), we selected only grids with more than 60% of their area planted with the simulated crops (corn, cotton, and soybean), and less than 20% of their area irrigated. Irrigation water use was compared against the USGS county level irrigated agriculture water use survey data. Simulated gridded data were aggregated to county level using USDA CDL and USGS MIrAD-US. Only counties where 70% or more of the irrigated land was corn, cotton, or soybean were selected for the evaluation. Our results suggest that gridded crop models can reasonably reproduce crop evapotranspiration at the country scale (RRMSE = 10%).

  11. Evaluation of investment processes in agriculture in Poland in 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is evaluation of investment processes in agriculture in Poland in 2000-2011. Tendencies in range of investment activity after 2000 should by favourably estimate. Essential improvement in this area has happened especially after integration with the EU, in relationship to possibilities of funding investments by union funds. Also the enlargement of integration investment activity in agriculture has been noticed on background of tendency in total economy. In spite an increasing tendency in case of ability to invest in agriculture, its level was insufficient to set – back decapitalization of fixed assets in the whole agriculture. The situation would be positive if the tendency of growth degree of consumption of assets was stopped. On the other hand, awareness is necessary of the considerable differentiation in relation to investment activity with regard to the scale of production. It can be supposed, that started investment processes will bring to a part of agricultural farms multiplied effects which will actively use the investment support under the CAP instruments and preferential credits. It will intensify the processes of polarization in agriculture.

  12. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatin Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphometric characteristics of the mountain rivers is given. Complex hydraulic researches of kinematic characteristics and carrying ability of a two-phase stream on water intake structures are executed. Bases of a technique of engineering calculation of the offered designs of water intake structures and the recommendation of their designing and maintenance in various hydrological regimes are developed.

  13. Assessing Agricultural Drought in the Anthropocene: A Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current human-influenced era, drought is initiated by natural and human drivers, and human activities are as integral to drought as meteorological factors. In large irrigated agricultural regions with high levels of human intervention, where the natural farmland soil moisture has usually been changed significantly by high-frequency irrigation, the actual severity of agricultural drought is distorted in traditional drought indices. In this work, an agricultural drought index that considering irrigation processes based on the Palmer drought severity index (IrrPDSI was developed to interpret the real agricultural drought conditions in irrigated regions, with a case study in the Haihe River Basin in northeast China. The water balance model in the original PDSI was revised by an auto-irrigation threshold method combined with a local irrigation schedule. The auto-irrigation setting of the index was used by taking irrigation quotas during specific growth stages of specific crops (wheat–corn into consideration. A series of weekly comparative analyses are as follows: (1 The soil moisture analyses showed that soil moisture values calculated by the modified water balance model were close to the real values; (2 The statistical analyses indicated that most of the stations in the study area based on IrrPDSI had nearly normal distributed values; (3 The time series and spatial analyses showed that the results of the IrrPDSI-reported dry-wet evaluation were more consistent with documented real conditions. All the results revealed that IrrPDSI performed well when used to assess agricultural drought. This work has direct significance for agricultural drought management in large irrigated areas heavily disturbed by human activity.

  14. Ring Irrigation System (RIS) design through customer preference representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.; Rianmora Suchada; Werawatganon Siwat

    2018-01-01

    In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent ...

  15. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  16. Institutional Aspects of Sustainability for Irrigated Agriculture in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Aspectos Institucionales para la Sustentabilidad de la Agricultura de Riego en Regiones Áridas y Semi-Áridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván del Callejo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns, arguments, and approaches to sustainability are exposed in both scientific and technical irrigation literature which is based on the priority of food production and water preservation as a basic resource. Different approaches related to sustainable irrigated agriculture are identified beyond the technical considerations of irrigation as dealt with by very specialized scientific literature. These focus on socio-economic and institutional aspects of irrigation management. In this chapter, four main approaches are discussed: “New institutionalism” is an approach which emphasizes economic and financial issues such as cost recovery and the role of the market in water rights reallocation. A second approach, “Common pool resources management” highlights the role of local organizations and institutions with respect to collective water management, and the possibilities to design “robust institutions” considering the involvement of different stakeholders, not only (state authorities. A third is identified as the “Empowerment approach”. In this approach, topics such as power relations, autonomy, gender relations, as well as water rights and access are considered as key elements configuring water management practices in irrigation systems. Finally, there is the “Post-institutional approach”. It outlines concepts such as “institutional bricolage”, uncertainty, and legal pluralism used as analytical elements to understand the dynamics and complexities of irrigation development. In conclusion, different levels to analyze sustainability are discussed from an institutional perspective by identifying key knowledge gaps and the need to integrate some of the elements found in the different approaches.En la literatura científica y técnica sobre riego se han planteado diferentes preocupaciones, argumentos y enfoques que contribuyan a su sostenibilidad, basados en la prioridad dada a la producción de alimentos y a la preservaci

  17. Modeling the Technological Process for Harvesting of Agricultural Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, S. D.; Shepelev, V. D.; Almetova, Z. V.; Shepeleva, N. P.; Cheskidov, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency and the parameters of harvesting as a technological process being substantiated make it possible to reduce the cost of production and increase the profit of enterprises. To increase the efficiency of combine harvesters when the level of technical equipment declines is possible due to their efficient operating modes within daily and every season. Therefore, the correlation between the operational daily time and the seasonal load of combine harvesters is found, with the increase in the seasonal load causing the prolonged duration of operational daily time for harvesters being determined. To increase the efficient time of the seasonal load is possible due to a reasonable ratio of crop varieties according to their ripening periods, the necessary quantity of machines thereby to be reduced up to 40%. By timing and field testing the operational factor of the useful shift time of combine harvesters and the efficient modes of operating machines are defined, with the alternatives for improving the technical readiness of combine harvesters being identified.

  18. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel Subsistence Reimbursement, Including Lodging AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  19. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel Subsistence Reimbursement, Including Lodging AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  20. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel Subsistence Reimbursement, Including Lodging AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  1. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum Travel Subsistence Reimbursement AGENCY...

  2. Evaluation of Radiation Processed Polymers as Materials for Agricultural Purposes. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Rehim, H. Abd [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    had a high inhibitory activity against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). The highest inhibition degree was noticed when the Mw of irradiated alginate was around 5 × 10{sup 4}. The degree of inhibition increased with alginate concentration. On the other hand, it was noticed that degraded chitosan could control the growth of gray mold fungus that infected tomato fruits. High concentrations of degraded chitosan with an Mw range of 2–6 × 10{sup 4} controlled the increase of gray mold infections and enhanced fungal decay in tomato fruit. Cross-linked fast swelling super porous hydrogels were prepared by irradiating acrylamide-based copolymers in solid and solution states using electron beam irradiation. As the Polyacrylamide/potassium polyacrylate (PAAm/PAAcK) water swellability increased, the PAAm in the copolymer and/or irradiation dose required for the cross-linking process decreased. A field evaluation of PAAm/PAAcK as super water absorbent materials for Zea maze plants revealed that PAAm/PAAcK does not cause salt buildup in the soil, possesses a high ability to absorb water, improves germination of seeds planted in sandy soil, prevents plant losses due to drought and water stress in non-irrigated areas, and increases the Zea maze plant growth and performance. Thus, such a hydrogel could be used for soil amendment to improve the growth of plants and increase their production yield. Field evaluation using polyacrylamide/Na-alginate, copolymer was performed in a range of garden plants using Faba bean and Zea maize. The growth of bean plant cultivated in a polyacrylamide/Na-alginate treated soil was higher than that of polyacrylamide treated soil or in a gel-free soil (control). (author)

  3. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  4. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  5. Treated sewagewater use in irrigated agriculture : theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly

  6. Towards Global Simulation of Irrigation in a Land Surface Model: Multiple Cropping and Rice Paddy in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.

  7. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  8. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  9. 77 FR 28625 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...The Department of Labor (Department), as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, conducts a preclearance consultation program to provide the public and Federal agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 [44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)]. This program helps ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments are clearly understood, and the impact of collection requirements on respondents can be properly assessed. Currently, ETA is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the expiration date (November 30, 2012) for ETA Forms 790 and 795 to November 30, 2015, and revisions made to ETA Form 790, with respect to the collection of information on the recruitment of agricultural workers. In situations where an adequate supply of workers does not exist locally, agricultural employers must use the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Order, ETA Form 790, to list the job opening with the State Workforce Agency (SWA) for recruiting temporary agricultural workers. The Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Memorandum, ETA Form 795, is used by SWAs to extend job orders beyond their jurisdictions, give notice of action on a clearance order, request additional information, amend the order, report results, and accept or reject the extended job order. No changes were made to the ETA Form 795.

  10. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  11. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  12. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  13. Multi-Modal Detection and Mapping of Static and Dynamic Obstacles in Agriculture for Process Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Korthals

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, agricultural vehicles are available that can automatically perform tasks such as weed detection and spraying, mowing, and sowing while being steered automatically. However, for such systems to be fully autonomous and self-driven, not only their specific agricultural tasks must be automated. An accurate and robust perception system automatically detecting and avoiding all obstacles must also be realized to ensure safety of humans, animals, and other surroundings. In this paper, we present a multi-modal obstacle and environment detection and recognition approach for process evaluation in agricultural fields. The proposed pipeline detects and maps static and dynamic obstacles globally, while providing process-relevant information along the traversed trajectory. Detection algorithms are introduced for a variety of sensor technologies, including range sensors (lidar and radar and cameras (stereo and thermal. Detection information is mapped globally into semantical occupancy grid maps and fused across all sensors with late fusion, resulting in accurate traversability assessment and semantical mapping of process-relevant categories (e.g., crop, ground, and obstacles. Finally, a decoding step uses a Hidden Markov model to extract relevant process-specific parameters along the trajectory of the vehicle, thus informing a potential control system of unexpected structures in the planned path. The method is evaluated on a public dataset for multi-modal obstacle detection in agricultural fields. Results show that a combination of multiple sensor modalities increases detection performance and that different fusion strategies must be applied between algorithms detecting similar and dissimilar classes.

  14. Description of the production process - agricultural phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the state-of-art of the production process of sugar cane bio ethanol in Brazil also denominated of first generation, involving the improvements in the agricultural phase and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies. The different aspects related do the use of sugar cane bagasse and straw cape.

  15. Multi-Stakeholder Process Strengthens Agricultural Innovations and Sustainable Livelihoods of Farmers in Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseleua, D. H. B.; Idrissou, L.; Olurotimi, P.; Ogunniyi, A.; Mignouna, D.; Bamire, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we explore the strategic role of Multi-stakeholder processes (MSP) in agricultural innovations and how it has impacted livelihood assets' (LAs) capital dynamics of stakeholders in platforms in West Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: We demonstrate how LA capitals and socio-economic dynamics induced by MSP can enhance…

  16. Energy for agriculture: a computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B A; Myers, C A [comp.

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Some of the subjects covered include: accounting, agriculture, animal production, conservation, drying, fertilizer, food processing, greenhouses, home, international, irrigation, organic, solar, storage, tillage, and wind. Author and keyword indexes are included. (MHR)

  17. Cost account in agriculture with particular accordance to requirements of decision making process and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kondraszuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost account applicability in the agricultural companies regarding the general theory of economic and organisation of enterprises. The main focus was laid down to analyse the unit total cost account with variable costs and their applicability in three spheres: stock valuation and profit, requirements of planning and decision making processes and controlling. It was concluded that cost calculation at the level of agricultural enterprise should be an inherent element of integrated information system at the level of registry, planning, decision making and control.

  18. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  19. Information Technology for Agriculture: Using it tools to aid decision-making process in small properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Ferraz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the current scenario of agricultural competitiveness, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools has become increasingly common in the rural community, making life easier for farmers. The information obtained through Agroinformatics (Information Technology applied to agribusiness, serves as a basis for both decision-making, planning, and application of the best techniques and production processes. In Brazil, companies such as EMPRAPA (The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation work in the research and development of new technological tools, which seek to boost the agricultural production of small rural producers, reducing their costs and improving their results. But for this, it is necessary that the producers understand the concept of the importance in carrying out information collection in a correct way, because the information will be processed according to what is inserted in the systems. In this sense, this article aims to demonstrate through an explanatory research of qualitative nature and bibliographical character the importance of the use of ICT to support decision-making in the Brazilian rural sector. Also highlighting the benefits originated by the use of ICT in all stages of agricultural production and its accounting management, through examples of tools.

  20. Agronomic and physiological impacts of irrigation frequency on green basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Peng; Dodd, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a major factor restricting agricultural production and irrigation globally, with sustainable agricultural development calling for less irrigation water use and more production per unit of water applied. Improved understanding of plant physiological responses to water stress, and the effect of irrigation frequency on plant biomass production and quality, may help to optimize irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) received three different irrigatio...

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. Research and Development of Radiation Processing of Polysaccharide for Agricultural Sector in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar is an agricultural-based country in which rice is the main staple food and present agricultural systems still follow the traditional methods that utilise the available natural resources combined with improved cultural practices. To fulfil the major needs for improving safety agricultural productivity in the country, and to apply radiation technology for useful products in agriculture, current research is based on radiation processing of polysaccharide for production of super water absorbents and plant growth promoter (liquid fertilizer) using Gamma Radiation. Corn starch, Brown seaweed and Rice straw cellulose were used as polysaccharide in this research work. Morphological structures of products super water absorbents from corn starch and rice straw cellulose were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) was used to analyze the changes of chemical structure of the original polysaccharides and products (super water absorbents and plant growth promoter). The effect of radiation dose and monomer concentration on grafting efficiency, gel fraction, crosslink density, and swelling degree were studied for two types of super water absorbent. It was found that the grafting efficiency and gel fraction increased with increasing in radiation dose as well as the higher in crosslink density, which is directly proportional to increasing in radiation dose, led to decreasing in swelling degree. Decreasing molecular weights of the irradiated seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) were generally found with increasing radiation doses. To study the water retention properties of super water absorbents and growth promotion effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF), field tests were done. This research showed that radiation technology is very useful not only for agriculture sector but also for environmental monitoring since the agricultural waste such as rice straw was used as polysaccharide in this research work. (author)

  3. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  4. Influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet processes during an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    2003-01-01

    The influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to the wet processes as well as dry processes from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency is comprehensively analyzed. The previous dynamic food chain model DYNACON considering Korean agricultural and environmental conditions, in which the initial input parameter was radionuclide concentrations on the ground, is improved so as to evaluate radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radioactive air concentrations or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As for the results, wet deposition is a more dominant mechanism than dry deposition in contamination on the ground. While, the contamination levels of agricultural products are strongly dependent on radionuclide and precipitation when the deposition of radionuclides occurs. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is the more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception to agricultural plants

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES' IN FUNDING PROCESSING MILLS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adinya, I.B; Odey S.O.; Oniah M.O; Umeh G.N; Agiopu, B.F; Ogbonna ,K.I.

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the role of agricultural co-operative societies as institutional source of finance to processing mills in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 150 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of fifteen local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State. This was followed by random selection of one village in each of the fifteen l...

  6. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  7. The Politics, Development and Problems of Small Irrigation Dams in Malawi: Experiences from Mzuzu ADD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Gwiyani Nkhoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the progress made regarding the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi with the view of establishing their significance in improving rural livelihoods in the country. The paper adopts a political economy theory and a qualitative research approach. Evidence from Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division (ADD, where small reservoirs acquire specific relevance, shows that despite the efforts made, the development of small dams is making little progress. The paper highlights that problems of top-down planning, high investment costs, negligence of national and local interests, over-dependency on donors, and conflicts over the use of dams – which made large-scale dams unpopular in the 1990s – continue to affect the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi. The paper argues that small irrigation dams should not be simplistically seen as a panacea to the problems of large-scale irrigation dams. Like any other projects, small dams are historically and socially constructed through interests of different actors in the local settings, and can only succeed if actors, especially those from formal institutions, develop adaptive learning towards apparent conflicting relations that develop among them in the process of implementation. In the case of Mzuzu ADD, it was the failure of the government to develop this adaptive learning to the contestations and conflicts among these actors that undermined successful implementation of small irrigation dams. The paper recommends the need to consider local circumstances, politics, interests, rights and institutions when investing in small irrigation dams.

  8. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of domestic wastewater treated through pilot-scale constructed wetland of Adana-Karaisalı with dominant Mediterranean climate in irrigation of marigold (Tagetes erecta, commonly used over urban landscapes. Experiments were carried out between the dates May-November 2008 for 7 months with fresh water and treated wastewater. Plant growth parameters (plant height, plant diameter, number of branches and flowering parameters (number of flowers, flower diameter, flower pedicle thickness were monitored in monthly basis. Results revealed positive impacts of treated wastewater irrigations on plant growth during the initial 5 months between May-September but negative impacts in October and November. Similarly, treated wastewater irrigations had positive impacts on flowering parameters during the initial 3 months but had negative impacts during the subsequent 4 months. Such a case indicated shortened visual efficiencies of marigold. Therefore, treated wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource in irrigation of annual flowers, but better results can be attained by mixing treated wastewater with fresh water at certain ratios.

  9. Influence of geochemical processes on hydrochemistry and irrigation suitability of groundwater in part of semi-arid Deccan Plateau, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Duraisamy; Singh, Surendra Kumar; Tiwary, Pramod; Sahu, Nisha; Ray, Sanjay Kumar; Butte, Pravin; Duraisami, Veppangadu Perumal

    2017-11-01

    Major ion geochemistry was used to characterise the chemical composition of groundwater in part of semi-arid Deccan plateau region to understand the geochemical evolution and to evaluate the groundwater quality for irrigation. The study area comprises peninsular gneissic complex of Archean age, younger granites and basaltic alluvium. Forty-nine georeferenced groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major ions. The ionic sequence based on relative proportions was Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > Cl- > CO3 2- > BO3 3- > K+. High Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were generally associated with basaltic alluvial formation, whereas pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved salts (TDS) were found to be higher in granitic formations. High standard deviation for EC, TDS, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ indicated the dispersion of ionic concentration throughout the study area. Four major hydrochemical facies identified were Na-Mg-HCO3 type; Mg-Na-HCO3 type; Na-Mg-Ca-SO4 and Mg-Na-Ca-SO4 type. The graphical plots indicated that the groundwater chemistry was influenced by rock-water interaction, silicate weathering and reverse ion exchange. Sodium-dominated waters might have impeded the hydraulic properties of soils as a result of long-term irrigation.

  10. Appropriate technology for sustainable family agriculture in the semi-arid: solar water pumping for located irrigation; Tecnologia apropriada para a agricultura familiar sustentavel do semi-arido brasileiro: bombeamento solar de agua para irrigacao localizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (NAPER/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis], Email: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    Water and energy are the physic factor, which are most influential on the life conditions in the semi-arid rural environment as a whole and in the agriculture production systems in particular. Water is a resource, which - even though not rare - is found in limited quantities and not always is available on the ground surface, meaning that it should be retrieved through either proper wells or deep holes excavated into ground. Therefore, its use should be optimized. In the rural environment to turn water into an available resource in a sufficient amount in order to improve the population life conditions is still a challenge. In the rural semi-arid regions the electric energy distribution is small compared to the other regions of the country. Nevertheless the geographic position of the Brazilian Northeast - close to the equator - adds to this region high levels of insolation - something close to 3,000 hours of sunshine per year - turning this energy resource into a very abundant one. It is known that the use of solar energy, among the use of other resources, has increased the most worldwide in the last decade. The use of photovoltaic cells has increased around 17% per year in the 90's. In the last years several applications, which had the sun as their electric energy resource, were implemented in the rural areas of many countries. The Brazilian Northeast region was the preferred target of programs and projects aiming at the dissemination of the photovoltaic solar technology. Water pumping is one among the most noble applications of the photovoltaic solar technology. There are many pumping systems configurations for either deep or shallow wells, which use either superficial, immerse or floating motor-pumps, which in turn can be driven by either continuum or alternate current. In this work the usage of water pumped with solar energy from Amazon wells (also called 'cacimboes') for small family-based areas of localized irrigation (less than 1 ha), whose main

  11. HRM in foreign-owned agricultural and food processing companies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at analysing the degree to which foreign-owned agricultural and food processing companies in Serbia implement key human resource management (HRM processes, determining whether these processes are performed in-house or outsourced, and identifying the variables which influence the decision on performing these processes within the company or outsourcing. The analysis of data collected through a survey conducted in 42 companies has confirmed the expectations that the surveyed companies mainly perform most of HRM activities The conclusion drawn from the study is that all examined HRM activities are mainly performed in-house, rather than outsourced, while the mode of performing key HRM processes mainly depends on the size of the company and the number of employees in HR department, implying that foreign-owned companies operating in agricultural and food processing sector in this transition country need to take these variables into consideration when deciding whether to perform crucial HRM activities by themselves or outsource.

  12. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Shamba Maisha: Pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Craig R; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Weke, Elly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Hatcher, Abigail M; Shiboski, Stephen; Rheingans, Richard; Scow, Kate M; Butler, Lisa M; Otieno, Phelgona; Dworkin, Shari L; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment of people living with HIV, morbidity and mortality remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa, largely due to parallel epidemics of poverty and food insecurity. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a multisectoral agricultural and microfinance intervention (entitled Shamba Maisha) designed to improve food security, household wealth, HIV clinical outcomes and women's empowerment. The intervention was carried out at two HIV clinics in Kenya, one randomized to the intervention arm and one to the control arm. HIV-infected patients >18 years, on antiretroviral therapy, with moderate/severe food insecurity and/or body mass index (BMI) loan (~$150) to purchase the farming commodities, 2) a micro-irrigation pump, seeds, and fertilizer, and 3) trainings in sustainable agricultural practices and financial literacy. Enrollment of 140 participants took four months, and the screening-to-enrollment ratio was similar between arms. We followed participants for 12 months and conducted structured questionnaires. We also conducted a process evaluation with participants and stakeholders 3-5 months after study start and at study end. Baseline results revealed that participants at the two sites were similar in age, gender and marital status. A greater proportion of participants at the intervention site had a low BMI in comparison to participants at the control site (18% vs. 7%, p = 0.054). While median CD4 count was similar between arms, a greater proportion of participants enrolled at the intervention arm had a detectable HIV viral load compared with control participants (49% vs. 28%, respectively, p loans, agricultural challenges due to weather patterns, and a challenging partnership with the microfinance institution. We expect the results from this pilot study to provide useful data on the impacts of livelihood interventions and will help in the design of a definitive cluster RCT. This trial is registered at Clinical

  14. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  15. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  16. Changes in food processing and occlusal dental wear during the early agricultural period in northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James T

    2008-01-01

    Crown dimensions and occlusal surface wear rate and wear plane were evaluated using paired first and second mandibular molars from a sample of 84 Early Agricultural period (1600 B.C.-A.D. 200) skeletons from northwest Mexico. Although this period represents a major shift in subsistence strategies in the Sonoran Desert, from food-foraging to agriculture, archaeological and dental pathology studies have identified this period as one of relative dietary stability. It was therefore predicted that very little variation in occlusal wear would have occurred between the early phase (San Pedro: 1600-800 B.C.) and late phase (Cienega: 800 B.C.-A.D. 200). Comparison of crown diameters identified some phenotypic differences between sexes but not between archaeological phases. Molar occlusal surfaces were then divided into four quadrants, and wear scores recorded for each quadrant. Principle axis analysis was performed between total wear scores of paired, adjacent first and second mandibular molars to assess rate and occlusal wear plane over time. The analysis demonstrated that both wear rate and wear plane increased from the early to the late phase of the Early Agricultural period. These results indicate that although diet may have indeed remained stable during this period in the Sonoran Desert increases in the rate of wear and wear plane may reflect changes in food-processing techniques. It is suggested that more intensive processing of agricultural products during the Cienega phase simultaneously softened the diet to create more tooth-contact wear and introduced more grit to cause faster and more angled wear on the molar occlusal surfaces. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  18. An Empirical Study of Agricultural Product Logistics Cost Control Evaluation via Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Qianxia Lu; Yazhou Xiong; Ling Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the core agricultural logistics cost control to establish a reasonable and effective evaluation system of agricultural logistics cost control. In this study, based on the cost basis of the value chain, an agricultural logistics cost control evaluation system is established from three levels, including the logistics costs of agricultural pre-value chain, logistics costs of agricultural mid-value chain, logistics costs of agricultural late-value chain. AHP theory and expert investi...

  19. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  20. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  1. DAE-BRNS workshop on applications of image processing in plant sciences and agriculture: lecture notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Images form important data and information in biological sciences. Until recently photography was the only method to reproduce and report such data. It is difficult to quantify or treat the photographic data mathematically. Digital image processing and image analysis technology based on recent advances in microelectronics and computers circumvents these problems associated with traditional photography. WIPSA (Workshop on Applications of Image Processing in Plant Sciences and Agriculture) will feature topics on the basic aspects of computers, imaging hardware and software as well advanced aspects such as colour image processing, high performance computing, neural networks, 3-D imaging and virtual reality. Imaging done using ultrasound, thermal, x-rays and γ rays, neutron radiography and the film-less phosphor-imager technology will also be discussed. Additionally application of image processing/analysis in plant sciences, medicine and satellite imagery are discussed. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Processo da retrolavagem em filtros de areia usados na irrigação localizada Backwash process in sand filters used in localized irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salcedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo da retrolavagem consiste na passagem da água através do filtro em sentido contrário ao fluxo de filtragem com o objetivo de remover partículas orgânicas e inorgânicas retidas no meio filtrante. O projeto de filtros de areia com configurações ineficientes e a ocorrência de condições operacionais inadequadas contribuem para limitar o desempenho desse processo, causando deficiências na limpeza dos meios filtrantes e comprometendo o funcionamento dos sistemas de irrigação localizada. O objetivo do presente trabalho é proporcionar uma revisão sobre os conceitos associados ao processo da retrolavagem nos filtros de areia, relacionando informações existentes na literatura com experiências de laboratório. Foi gerado um texto básico com informações técnico-científicas sobre o tema, visando a criar um momento de reflexão sobre o processo de retrolavagem e a contribuir para a melhoria do desempenho desses equipamentos na irrigação localizada.The backwash process consists of water passing through the filter in the opposite direction of the filtering flow to remove organic and inorganic particles of media filter. Inefficient sand filters designs and the occurrence of inadequate operating conditions contribute to restrict the process performance, causing deficiencies in the filter cleaning and compromise the operation of localized irrigation systems. The objective of this study is to provide a review about concepts associated with the backwash process in sand filters, relating literature information with laboratory experiments. A basic documentation was produced with technical and scientific information on this subject to create a reflection about the backwash process and contribute to the improvement of the equipment performance in the localized irrigation.

  3. Atmospheric effects of irrigation in monsoon climate: the Indian subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the 20th century, an increasing population increased the demand for food. As a consequence, agricultural activity has expanded and become more intense. A part of this intensification is the use of irrigation systems to water crops. Due to this irrigation, dams and channeling systems,

  4. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  5. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  6. Remote sensing, GIS and hydrological modelling for irrigation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Urso, d' G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of literature and of work done by the authors between 1988 and 1993. It was presented at a NATO expert meeting on sustainability of irrigated agriculture in 1994. The paper deals with crop water requirements and crop waterstress, assessing irrigation performance with

  7. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  8. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the

  9. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  10. Irrigation Management in the Pamirs in Tajikistan: A Man's Domain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, L.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Families living in Gorno-Badakhshan—situated in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan—depend on irrigated agriculture to meet their subsistence needs. Because men predominate, and are most visible in, the operation and management of irrigation systems in this region, water-related activities are often

  11. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  13. INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT AND DURABILITY OF LANDSCAPE OF PUBLIC IRRIGATED AREAS IN TUNISIA: CASES OF PUBLIC IRRIGATED AREAS OF CHOTT-MARIEM AND MORNAG

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkarim Hamrita; Amira Boussetta; Rafael Mata Olmo; Mehdi Saqalli; Hichem Rejeb

    2017-01-01

    An important part of the landscape of irrigated areas in Tunisia is the result of morphology, organization and operation of agricultural policies implemented since independence, aimed at optimizing the exploitation of the best soils and natural resources, particularly water and productive crop intensification. The sustainability of the landscape of public irrigated areas has a strong bonding with the resources of irrigation water and their states of management. The scarcity of irrigation wate...

  14. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, Christos; van der Sluis, Lucas; Basrani, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery

  15. Decision-making in irrigation networks: Selecting appropriate canal structures using multi-attribute decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzade, Zeinab; Pagsuyoin, Sheree A; Ponnambalam, Kumaraswamy; Monem, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    The stiff competition for water between agriculture and non-agricultural production sectors makes it necessary to have effective management of irrigation networks in farms. However, the process of selecting flow control structures in irrigation networks is highly complex and involves different levels of decision makers. In this paper, we apply multi-attribute decision making (MADM) methodology to develop a decision analysis (DA) framework for evaluating, ranking and selecting check and intake structures for irrigation canals. The DA framework consists of identifying relevant attributes for canal structures, developing a robust scoring system for alternatives, identifying a procedure for data quality control, and identifying a MADM model for the decision analysis. An application is illustrated through an analysis for automation purposes of the Qazvin irrigation network, one of the oldest and most complex irrigation networks in Iran. A survey questionnaire designed based on the decision framework was distributed to experts, managers, and operators of the Qazvin network and to experts from the Ministry of Power in Iran. Five check structures and four intake structures were evaluated. A decision matrix was generated from the average scores collected from the survey, and was subsequently solved using TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method. To identify the most critical structure attributes for the selection process, optimal attribute weights were calculated using Entropy method. For check structures, results show that the duckbill weir is the preferred structure while the pivot weir is the least preferred. Use of the duckbill weir can potentially address the problem with existing Amil gates where manual intervention is required to regulate water levels during periods of flow extremes. For intake structures, the Neyrpic® gate and constant head orifice are the most and least preferred alternatives, respectively. Some advantages

  16. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  17. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  18. Trade liberalization, the Mercosur integration process and the agriculture-industry transfers: a general equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of trade liberalization and Mercosur integration process upon the Brazilian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and agroindustrial production sectors, under the hypothesis that those phenomena could be another step in the rural-urban transfer process in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through an applied general equilibrium model. Results suggest that trade liberalization would hardly generate a widespread process of rural-urban transfers, although Brazilian agriculture shows up as a loser in the process. Notwithstanding that fact, there are transfers inside the agricultural sectors, where, besides the losses in the value added of the grain production sectors, there would be gains for the livestock and for the ''other crops" sectors. The agroindustry, in contrast, seems to gain both in Brazil and Argentina. Model results suggest yet that the Brazilian society would be benefitted as a whole by the integration, despite the losses in the agricultural sector.Este artigo analisa os efeitos do processo de liberalização comercial e de constituição do Mercosul sobre a economia brasileira, com ênfase nos setores produtivos da agricultura e da agroindústria, sob a hipótese de que aqueles fenômenos seriam mais uma etapa no processo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil. Para tanto, a análise é conduzida através do uso de um modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado. Os resultados sugerem que a integração comercial não irá gerar um processo amplo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil, embora a agricultura brasileira apareça, no agregado, como o setor perdedor na integração, em benefício da agricultura argentina. Há, entretanto, transferências dentro dos setores da agropecuária brasileira, onde, ao lado das perdas no valor adicionado do setor produtor de grãos, haveria ganhos para a pecuária e para o setor ''outras culturas". A agroindústria, em contraste, parece ganhar tanto no Brasil

  19. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  20. Research process to design a virtual course on agricultural entrepreneurial creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Murcia Cabra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational activity requires the application of procedures and methodologies to help its projections to reach all kind of people. One of the aspects that may contribute to this purpose is to include virtual processes. In the second stage of the research project entitled «Application of a creativity model to update the administrative teaching in Colombian agricultural entrepreneurial systems» there was a specific objective aimed at the production of a virtual course as an appropriate complement to the results obtained in the first phase of the project. Thus, a work including the following points was developed: 1. Selection and preparation of contents (the book «Entrepreneurial creativity for agricultural education», produced in the first stage of the project was taken as a reference. 2. Organization of a method to study this book. 3. Definition of the characteristics and conditions of the students at the beginning of this teaching learning process (it wanted to reach all kind of people in two situations: creation of entrepreneurial projects or improvement of existing companies 4. Learning evaluation activities through virtual procedures were designed; additionally different internet links related with creativity were chosen. In all this process technicians associated to the teaching office of the La Salle University constantly participated incorporating New Technologies of Information and Communication (NTIC. The new course was creativity bases to concrete personal and entrepreneurial projects. Its contents have been applied in 2004 and 2005 with undergraduate and graduate students getting excellent results.

  1. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.

  2. The issues how to express the concentration processes in European agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zdráhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the current problems of the agrarian economics and policy, and this approaches to the definition, measurement and interpretation of farm size, as one of the key indicators of evaluation the processes shaping the entrepreneurial structure in the current agribusiness. The results of research into causation factors and processes shaping the business structure of modern agriculture are presented there. It evaluates approaches to express the magnitude of company and its explanatory power in the context of the selected evaluation criteria of the processes and phenomena. It deals with the potential risks of a narrow criterion-oriented agricultural policy in terms of strategy and fulfillment of role allocation and distribution in order to support of enterprises in today’s business environment. The basic trends in the farm size structure in the member countries of the European Union are evaluated including their impact of the significance of individual size segments and their share of the output sector. In this context it evaluates and compares the results of the analysis of developments in business structures in the old and new EU Member States.

  3. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irrigation service, in the mid-1990s. Despite a flurry of interventions and agrarian policies directed at the intensification of agricultural production and promotion of commercial agriculture in communa...

  4. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  5. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  6. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  7. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  8. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  9. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  10. Automatically Maintain Climatic Conditions inside Agricultural Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jasim Ramadhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel system is designed to remote monitor / automatic control of the temperature, humidity and soil moisture of the agricultural greenhouses. In the proposed system, the author used the mentioned sensors for monitoring the climatic conditions of the agricultural greenhouses; and the system makes a controlling process to fix the required parameters for plant growth by running / stopping the fan, air exchanger and irrigation devices when any changes happened in these parameters. The presented system is based on XBee protocol in the implemented wireless sensor star topology network (WSN to monitor the agricultural greenhouses in real time, and used the GSM and Internet technologies to monitor the agricultural greenhouses from anywhere.

  11. Optimal Allocation of the Irrigation Water Through a Non Linear Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rubino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the optimal allocation of the irrigation water among 9 crops (autumnal and spring sugar beet, spring and summer grain maize, dry and shell bean, eggplant, pepper and processing tomato has been carried out, utilizing experimental data of yield response to irrigation obtained in different years in Southern Italy (Policoro MT, 40° 12’ Northern Lat.; 16° 40’Western Long.. Fitting Mitscherlich’s equation modified by Giardini and Borin to the experimental data of each crop, the curve response parameters have been calculated: A = maximum achievable yield in the considered area (t ha-1; b = extra-irrigation water used by the crop (m3 ha-1; c = water action factor (ha m- 3; K, calculated only for tomato crop. ,decreasing factor due to the water exceeding the optimal seasonal irrigation volume (100% of the Crop Maximum Evapotranspiration less effective rainfall, ETMlr. The A values, using the prices of the agricultural produces and the irrigation water tariffs applied by the Consorzio Irriguo della Capitanata, have been converted in Value of Production (VP less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic. The equation parameters were used in a non linear mathematical model written in GAMS (General Algebraic Modelling System, in order to define the best irrigation water allocation amongst the 9 crops across the entire range of water availability and the volume of maximum economical advantage, hypothesising that each crop occupied the same surface (1 ha. This seasonal irrigation volume, that corresponded to the maximum total VPlic, was equal to 37000 m3. Moreover, the model allowed to define the best irrigation water distribution among the crops also for total available volumes lower than that of maximum economical advantage (37000 m3. Finally, it has been underlined that the vegetable crops should be irrigated with seasonal irrigation volumes equal to 100% of the ETM, whereas the summer and spring maize and the autumnal and spring

  12. Effects of shallow groundwater management on the spatial and temporal variability of boron and salinity in an irrigated field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shouse, P.J.; Goldberg, S.; Skaggs, T.H.; Soppe, R.W.O.; Ayars, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In some irrigated regions, the disposal of agricultural drainage waters poses significant environmental challenges. Efforts are underway to develop irrigation water management practices that reduce the volume of drainage generated. One such management strategy involves restricting flow in subsurface

  13. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.

    2015-12-01

    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  14. An outline of compilation and processing of metadata in agricultural database management system WebAgris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Bartol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles international information system for agriculture Agris and local processing of metadata with database management software WebAgris. Operations are coordinated by the central repository at the FAO in Rome. Based on international standards and unified methodology, national and regional centers collect and process local publications, and then send the records to the central unit, which enables global website accessibility of the data. Earlier DOS-run application was based on package Agrin CDS/ISIS. The Current package WebAgris runs on web servers. Database construction tools and instructions are accessible on FAO Web pages. Data are entered through unified input masks. International consistency is achieved through authority control of certain elements, such as author or corporate affiliation. Central authority control is made available for subject headings, such as descriptors and subject categories.Subject indexing is based on controlled multilingual thesaurus Agrovoc, also available freely on the Internet. This glossary has become an important tool in the area of the international agricultural ontology. The data are exported to the central unit in XML format. Global database is currently eccessible to everyone. This international cooperative information network combines elements of a document repository,electronic publishing, open archiving and full text open access. Links with Google Scholar provide a good possibility for international promotion of publishing.

  15. Agricultural and Food Processing Applications of Pulsed Power and Plasma Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Koichi

    Agricultural and food processing applications of pulsed power and plasma technologies are described in this paper. Repetitively operated compact pulsed power generators with a moderate peak power are developed for the agricultural and the food processing applications. These applications are mainly based on biological effects and can be categorized as germination control of plants such as Basidiomycota and arabidopsis inactivation of bacteria in soil and liquid medium of hydroponics; extraction of juice from fruits and vegetables; decontamination of air and liquid, etc. Types of pulsed power that have biological effects are caused with gas discharges, water discharges, and electromagnetic fields. The discharges yield free radicals, UV radiation, intense electric field, and shock waves. Biologically based applications of pulsed power and plasma are performed by selecting the type that gives the target objects the adequate result from among these agents or byproducts. For instance, intense electric fields form pores on the cell membrane, which is called electroporation, or influence the nuclei. This paper mainly describes the application of the pulsed power for the germination control of Basidiomycota i.e. mushroom, inactivation of fungi in the soil and the liquid medium in hydroponics, and extraction of polyphenol from skins of grape.

  16. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  17. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  18. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  19. Representing Water Scarcity in Future Agricultural Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Lopez, Jose R.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Young, Charles A.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is both essential for food production and the largest user of water. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural research communities is assessing the sustainability of irrigated croplands under climate variability and change. Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water supply, water distribution, and agricultural water demand. In this article, we explore the critical interface between water resources and agriculture by motivating, developing, and illustrating the application of an integrated modeling framework to advance simulations of irrigated croplands. We motivate the framework by examining historical dynamics of irrigation water withdrawals in the United States and quantitatively reviewing previous modeling studies of irrigated croplands with a focus on representations of water supply, agricultural water demand, and impacts on crop yields when water demand exceeds water supply. We then describe the integrated modeling framework for simulating irrigated croplands, which links trends and scenarios with water supply, water allocation, and agricultural water demand. Finally, we provide examples of efforts that leverage the framework to improve simulations of irrigated croplands as well as identify opportunities for interventions that increase agricultural productivity, resiliency, and sustainability.

  20. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  1. Irrigation for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BiL

    With the wind of change in the country farmers are drawn into to the market economy given the attractive .... In the absence of conservation- based sound management .... being accelerated for the restoration of soil fertility. Since organic matter.

  2. Understanding Soil Erosion in Irrigated Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    O' Schwankl, Lawrence J

    2006-01-01

    A soil's physical and chemical properties determine whether it is vulnerable to erosion, which can reduce soil quality and cause other problems besides. Learn the basics of identifying what type of erosion is affecting your land and what's causing it.

  3. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    dominating contribution to resulting concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation due to irrigation. Finally a proposal is given how to model irrigation in future assessments by using an expression taking into account the leaf area index (LAI) and a specific storage capacity. In addition differentiation of retention on vegetation surfaces for various elements is proposed due to information in the literature. It has been stated that cations are retained more effectively than anions. Most radioecological models describe migration of radionuclides in soils by an expression including advection and bioturbation as main processes. A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was performed for the expression used in SR 97 and SAFE to describe this. The results show, as expected, that for immobile radionuclides bioturbation causes a higher transport than advection, while for mobile radionuclides bioturbation is negligible. Irrigation is important from an exposure point of view. The importance varies due to element and consumption rates. Interception on vegetation surfaces and subsequent retention give the highest contamination for elements with low bioavailability.

  4. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    dominating contribution to resulting concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation due to irrigation. Finally a proposal is given how to model irrigation in future assessments by using an expression taking into account the leaf area index (LAI) and a specific storage capacity. In addition differentiation of retention on vegetation surfaces for various elements is proposed due to information in the literature. It has been stated that cations are retained more effectively than anions. Most radioecological models describe migration of radionuclides in soils by an expression including advection and bioturbation as main processes. A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was performed for the expression used in SR 97 and SAFE to describe this. The results show, as expected, that for immobile radionuclides bioturbation causes a higher transport than advection, while for mobile radionuclides bioturbation is negligible. Irrigation is important from an exposure point of view. The importance varies due to element and consumption rates. Interception on vegetation surfaces and subsequent retention give the highest contamination for elements with low bioavailability

  5. A Model of An Integration System for Operations and Cost Data Designed to Control Logistics Processes in Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of an integration system for operations and cost data designed for the needs of process controlling in agricultural enterprises, with special emphasis on logistics processes. The proposed model constituted the basis for the development of an IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process based approach. As a result of research and programming efforts a model was developed, which made it possible in agricultural enterprises to determine the type-based relationship of cost dynamics and structure with realized actions, operating processes (including logistics processes and products, as well as the relationship of these costs with used resources, maintained stocks, applied materials and work methods. Moreover, this model facilitates cost allocation to products and processes as well as cost centers and points, and makes it possible to determine multidimensional dependencies of the result (divided into individual products on incurred costs.

  6. Instruments for water quantity and quality management in the agriculture of Aragon

    OpenAIRE

    Albiac Murillo, José; Playán Jubillar, Enrique; Martínez, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    The traditional policy of developing new irrigated areas in Aragon has been changed to irrigation modernization through investments in distribution networks and on-farm irrigation equipment. This new policy creates opportunities to introduce more profitable crops, conserve irrigation water and abate agricultural nonpoint pollution. Several alternatives open to irrigated agriculture are bioethanol and biodiesel technologies (which could provide a support price for grains), the expansion of pro...

  7. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  8. Modelling carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Wang, Junye

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural soils are a leading source of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are major contributors to global climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) makes up 20% of the total GHG emitted from agricultural soil. Therefore, an evaluation of CO 2 emissions from agricultural soil is necessary in order to make mitigation strategies for environmental efficiency and economic planning possible. However, quantification of CO 2 emissions through experimental methods is constrained due to the large time and labour requirements for analysis. Therefore, a modelling approach is needed to achieve this objective. In this paper, the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), a process-based model, was modified to predict CO 2 emissions for Canada from regional conditions. The modified DNDC model was applied at three experimental sites in the province of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the simulations of the modified DNDC model are in good agreement with observations. The agricultural management of fertilization and irrigation were evaluated using scenario analysis. The simulated total annual CO 2 flux changed on average by ±13% and ±1% following a ±50% variance of the total amount of N applied by fertilising and the total amount of water through irrigation applications, respectively. Therefore, careful management of irrigation and applications of fertiliser can help to reduce CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSES OF REPRODUCTION OF FIXED CAPITAL OF THE AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Shamin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described that questions of economic growth, the advancing investments, preservations of food security of the country demand from economy of the Russian Federation of an exit to the new level of functioning that is impossible without effective management of process of reproduction of fixed capital in the agricultural organizations. Materials and methods. In work the analysis of the treatments of the concepts "reproduction type", "type of reproduction", "reproduction method", "reproduction form" existing in the Russian scientific community was carried out, the conclusion is drawn on considerable confusion in terminology, need of identification of these concepts is noted. Authors analyzed essence of these concepts, author's treatments of the studied definitions are given. It is separately emphasized that from the point of view of authors ascertaining of existence of certain types, forms and types of reproduction can be made only after carrying out the corresponding analysis of real processes. Results. In the article the problem of a typologization of processes of reproduction of fixed capital on the basis of change of indicators of the general and average power of elements of fixed capital on the basis of these forms 17-APK annual accounting reports of the agrarian and industrial complexes organizations of the Nizhny Novgorod Region for 2010-2013 were solved. On the basis of the cluster analysis of their values the main 9 types of the organizations for these indicators were allocated. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of change of types of the organizations 8 types of reproduction of fixed capital on change of indicators of power were allocated, their prevalence is analyzed. It is noted that the agricultural organizations of the Nizhny Novgorod Region generally increase as average, and the specific power of the fixed capital. Conclusion. In the conclusion authors noted the further perspective areas of work on this subject.

  10. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Processes of a Small Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Mehan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weather extremes and climate variability directly impact the hydrological cycle influencing agricultural productivity. The issues related to climate change are of prime concern for every nation as its implications are posing negative impacts on society. In this study, we used three climate change scenarios to simulate the impact on local hydrology of a small agricultural watershed. The three emission scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios, of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007 analyzed in this study were A2 (high emission, A1B (medium emission, and B1 (low emission. A process based hydrologic model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool was calibrated and validated for the Skunk Creek Watershed located in eastern South Dakota. The model performance coefficients revealed a strong correlation between simulated and observed stream flow at both monthly and daily time step. The Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency for monthly model performace was 0.87 for the calibration period and 0.76 for validation period. The future climate scenarios were built for the mid-21st century time period ranging from 2046 to 2065. The future climate data analysis showed an increase in temperatures between 2.2 °C to 3.3 °C and a decrease in precipitation from 1.8% to 4.5% expected under three different climate change scenarios. A sharp decline in stream flow (95.92%–96.32%, run-off (83.46%–87.00%, total water yield (90.67%–91.60%, soil water storage (89.99%–92.47%, and seasonal snow melt (37.64%–43.06% are predicted to occur by the mid-21st century. In addition, an increase in evapotranspirative losses (2%–3% is expected to occur within the watershed when compared with the baseline period. Overall, these results indicate that the watershed is highly susceptible to hydrological and agricultural drought due to limited water availability. These results are limited to the available climate projections, and future refinement in

  11. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamflow, total suspended sediment (TSS) losses and phosphorus load calibration and validation were performed using field survey information and water quantity and quality data recorded during 2008 and 2009 years in Del Reguero irrigated watershed in Spain. The goodness of the calibration and validation results was assessed using five statistical measures, including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). Results indicated that the average annual crop yield and actual evapotranspiration estimations were quite satisfactory. On a monthly basis, the values of NSE were 0.90 (calibration) and 0.80 (validation) indicating that the modified model could reproduce accurately the observed streamflow. The TSS losses were also satisfactorily estimated (NSE = 0.72 and 0.52 for the calibration and validation steps). The monthly temporal patterns and all the statistical parameters indicated that the modified SWAT-IRRIG model adequately predicted the total phosphorus (TP) loading. Therefore, the model could be used to assess the impacts of different best management practices on nonpoint phosphorus losses in irrigated systems.

  12. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  13. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-06-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  14. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  15. Location of irrigated land classified from satellite imagery - High Plains Area, nominal date 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  16. Development of Portable Venturi Kiln for Agricultural Waste Utilization by Carbonization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, S. E.; Chasanah, N.; Eris, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many types of kiln or carbonization equipment have been developed, but most of them were designed for big capacity and some also having low performance. This research aims to develop kiln, especially portable metal kiln, which has higher performance, more environmental- friendly, and can be used for several kinds of biomass or agricultural waste (not exclusive for one kind of biomass) as feeding material. To improve the kiln performance, a venturi drum type of portable kiln has been designed with an optimum capacity of 12.45 kg coconut shells. Basic idea of those design is heat flow improvement causing by venturi effect. The performance test for coconut shell carbonization shows that the carbonization process takes about 60-90 minutes to produce average yields of 23.8%., and the highest temperature of the process was 441 °C. The optimum performance has been achieved in the 4th test, which was producing 24% yield of highest charcoal quality (represented by LHV) in 65 minutes process at average temperature level 485 °C. For pecan shell and palm shell, design modification has been done by adding 6 air inlet holes and 3 ignition column to get better performance. While operation procedure should be modified on loading and air supply, depending on each biomass characteristic. The result of performance test showed that carbonization process of pecan shell produce 17 % yield, and palm shell produce 15% yield. Based on Indonesian Standard (SNI), all charcoal produced in those carbonization has good quality level.

  17. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  18. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  19. A Series of Radiation Processed Nanostructural Chitosan Derivatives for Biomedicine, Agriculture, and Bioplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanphan, W.; Rattanawongwiboon, T.; Huajaikaew, E.; Kongkaoroptham, P.; Guven, O.; Suwanmala, P.; Hemvichian, K.

    2014-01-01

    The work includes a series of biopolymeric chitosan (CS) nanostructures prepared by irradiation techniques. The radiation processed nanostructural CS were designed, synthesized, and characterized to address a progress in radiation technology for developing value-added natural products for advanced biomedical, agricultural and bioplastic applications. The idea to create CS nanoparticles (CSNPs) using radiation was initiated from simple radiation- induced non-chemical modification to advance radiation-induced functionalization of CSNPs. The already-existing CS nanostructures are water-soluble CSNPs as a green antioxidant and reducing agent, amphiphilic core-shell CS nanocarrier as anticancer delivery system, CS nanogel for fungicide and fertilizer controlled-release, and CS nanofiller for biodegradable PLA blends. Irradiation techniques, chemical structures, nanostructural morphologies including performance of nanostructural CS derivatives in appropriate utilizations were demonstrated. The developing idea would be an alternative approach for nanoscaled-controlled synthesis of the natural polymers.

  20. The life history of Pseudomonas syringae: linking agriculture to earth system processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cindy E; Monteil, Caroline L; Berge, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The description of the ecology of Pseudomonas syringae is moving away from that of a ubiquitous epiphytic plant pathogen to one of a multifaceted bacterium sans frontières in fresh water and other ecosystems linked to the water cycle. Discovery of the aquatic facet of its ecology has led to a vision of its life history that integrates spatial and temporal scales spanning billions of years and traversing catchment basins, continents, and the planet and that confronts the implication of roles that are potentially conflicting for agriculture (as a plant pathogen and as an actor in processes leading to rain and snowfall). This new ecological perspective has also yielded insight into epidemiological phenomena linked to disease emergence. Overall, it sets the stage for the integration of more comprehensive contexts of ecology and evolutionary history into comparative genomic analyses to elucidate how P. syringae subverts the attack and defense responses of the cohabitants of the diverse environments it occupies.

  1. Classification of irrigated land using satellite imagery, the High Plains aquifer, nominal date 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land across the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a waterquality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres). This information was also compared to a similar data set based on 1980 imagery. The 1980 data classified 13.7 million acres as irrigated. Although the change in the amount of irrigated land between the two times was not substantial, the location of the irrigated land did shift from areas where there were large ground-water-level declines to other areas where ground-water levels were static or rising.

  2. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  3. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  4. Agricultural watershed modeling: a review for hydrology and soil erosion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Models have been used by man for thousands of years to control his environment in a favorable way to better human living conditions. The use of hydrologic models has been a widely effective tool in order to support decision makers dealing with watersheds related to several economic and social activities, like public water supply, energy generation, and water availability for agriculture, among others. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss some models on soil and water movement on landscapes (RUSLE, WEPP, GeoWEPP, LASH, DHSVM and AnnAGNPS to provide information about them to help and serve in a proper manner in order to discuss particular problems related to hydrology and soil erosion processes. Models have been changed and evaluated significantly in recent years, highlighting the use of remote sense, GIS and automatic calibration process, allowing them capable of simulating watersheds under a given land-use and climate change effects. However, hydrology models have almost the same physical structure, which is not enough for simulating problems related to the long-term effects of different land-uses. That has been our challenge for next future: to understand entirely the hydrology cycle, having as reference the critical zone, in which the hydrological processes act together from canopy to the bottom of aquifers.

  5. 7. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.

    1992-01-01

    Global food production has increased substantially over the past two decades, but factors such as population pressures and environmental degradation are undermining agriculture's current condition and future prospects. This chapter discusses the following: global trends; production trends (livestock and fisheries); per capita production trends (population density and agriculture); environmental trends (soil degradation, inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and freshwater); economic trends (agricultural commodity prices, declining investment in irrigation, World Bank lending); trade liberalization and the Gatt negotiations; conventional agriculture and alternative agriculture; problems with the conventional model (on-farm impacts, off-farm impacts); agricultural policies - creating a new environment; policy impacts - distorted price structures; new policy options (reducing input subsidies, land conservation programs, management agreements, taxes, fees, and tax incentives, strengthening regulations, subsidizing conversion); the economics of alternative agriculture

  6. Willingness to Pay Additional Water Rate and Irrigation Knowledge of Farmers in Dinar Karakuyu Irrigation Areas in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gül

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water which has become commodity product which is an important product today. Turkey is not a water rich country. In this study, agricultural enterprises in the field of Irrigation Project in Dinar Karakuyu which was implemented in 1992 by DSI. The study analysed which factors affect the willingness to pay additional irrigation water rate with the help of logit model and the irrigation knowledge of farmers was determined by Likert scale. Dinar Karakuyu irrigation network has begun to lose the function in the region. It was supposed 100% irrigation rate but decreased by approximately 9% today. In this context, DSI (General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works plans to rehabilitation work in the same area. The main material of this study was data obtained from 67 agricultural enterprises through a survey covered by the Irrigation Rehabilitation Project in the province of Afyonkarahisar Karakuyu Dinar. The data was gathered with the help of questionnaires which were answered by farmers in Karakuyu Dinar region. The results indicated that 74.6% of farmers were willingness to pay additional water charge. The data were statistically analysed with the use of the logit model. The model results show that agricultural income, farmers’ educational level, computer ownership, attendance of agricultural training activities, family size and agricultural experience were positive factors affect farmers’ willingness to pay additional water fee.

  7. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  8. The use of surrogates for an optimal management of coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Brettschneider, M.; Schmitz, G. H.; Lennartz, F.

    2012-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system regarding water quality and water quantity we develop appropriate surrogate models by combining physically based process modelling with methods of artificial intelligence. Thereby we use an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface, which was trained on a scenario database generated by a numerical density depended groundwater flow model. For simulating the behaviour of high productive agricultural farms crop water production functions are generated by means of soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transport (SVAT)-models, adapted to the regional climate conditions, and a novel evolutionary optimisation algorithm for optimal irrigation scheduling and control. We apply both surrogates exemplarily within a simulation based optimisation environment using the characteristics of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of different irrigation practices, cropping pattern and resulting abstraction scenarios. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability a multi-criterial optimisation is performed.

  9. 78 FR 19019 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A Special Procedures; Correction and Rescission AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  10. 78 FR 1260 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A Special Procedures AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor...

  11. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  12. Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglie, Keith O.; Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Schimmelpfennig, David E.; Wang, Sun Ling

    2011-01-01

    Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these industries. In 2007 (the latest year for which comprehensive estimates are available), the private sector spent $19.7 billion on food and agricultural ...

  13. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  14. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  15. Applying a transdisciplinary process to define a research agenda in a smallholder irrigated farming system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Defining an agenda is critical to a research process, and a transdisciplinary approach is expected to improve relevance of an agenda and resultant research outputs. Given the complexity of farming systems, farmer differences and the involvement...

  16. Detection and assessment of flood susceptible irrigation networks in Licab, Nueva Ecija, Philippines using LiDAR DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R. T.; Hernando, P. J. C.; Tagaca, R. C.; Celestino, A. B.; Palado, G. C.; Camaso, E. E.; Damian, G. B.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has wide-ranging effects on the environment and socio-economic and related sectors which includes water resources, agriculture and food security, human health, terrestrial ecosystems, coastal zones and biodiversity. Farmers are under pressure to the changing weather and increasing unpredictable water supply. Because of rainfall deficiencies, artificial application of water has been made through irrigation. Irrigation is a basic determinant of agriculture because its inadequacies are the most powerful constraints on the increase of agricultural production. Irrigation networks are permanent and temporary conduits that supply water to agricultural areas from an irrigation source. Detection of irrigation networks using LiDAR DTM, and flood susceptible assessment of irrigation networks could give baseline information on the development and management of sustainable agriculture. Map Gully Depth (MGD) in Whitebox GAT was used to generate the potential irrigation networks. The extracted MGD was overlaid in ArcGIS as guide in the digitization of potential irrigation networks. A flood hazard map was also used to identify the flood susceptible irrigation networks in the study area. The study was assessed through field validation of points which were generated using random sampling method. Results of the study showed that most of the detected irrigation networks have low to moderate susceptibility to flooding while the rest have high susceptibility to flooding which is due to shifting weather. These irrigation networks may cause flood when it overflows that could also bring huge damage to rice and other agricultural areas.

  17. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are