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Sample records for irreversible michaelis-menten rate

  1. Exact and approximate solutions for the decades-old Michaelis-Menten equation: Progress-curve analysis through integrated rate equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goličnik, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten rate equation can be found in most general biochemistry textbooks, where the time derivative of the substrate is a hyperbolic function of two kinetic parameters (the limiting rate V, and the Michaelis constant K(M) ) and the amount of substrate. However, fundamental concepts of enzyme kinetics can be difficult to understand fully, or can even be misunderstood, by students when based only on the differential form of the Michaelis-Menten equation, and the variety of methods available to calculate the kinetic constants from rate versus substrate concentration "textbook data." Consequently, enzyme kinetics can be confusing if an analytical solution of the Michaelis-Menten equation is not available. Therefore, the still rarely known exact solution to the Michaelis-Menten equation is presented here through the explicit closed-form equation in terms of the Lambert W(x) function. Unfortunately, as the W(x) is not available in standard curve-fitting computer programs, the practical use of this direct solution is limited for most life-science students. Thus, the purpose of this article is to provide analytical approximations to the equation for modeling Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The elementary and explicit nature of these approximations can provide students with direct and simple estimations of kinetic parameters from raw experimental time-course data. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics studied in the latter context can provide an ideal alternative to the 100-year-old problems of data transformation, graphical visualization, and data analysis of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Hence, the content of the course presented here could gradually become an important component of the modern biochemistry curriculum in the 21st century. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Michaelis-Menten-Stueckelberg Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Gorban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We study chemical reactions with complex mechanisms under two assumptions: (i intermediates are present in small amounts (this is the quasi-steady-state hypothesis or QSS and (ii they are in equilibrium relations with substrates (this is the quasiequilibrium hypothesis or QE. Under these assumptions, we prove the generalized mass action law together with the basic relations between kinetic factors, which are sufficient for the positivity of the entropy production but hold even without microreversibility, when the detailed balance is not applicable. Even though QE and QSS produce useful approximations by themselves, only the combination of these assumptions can render the possibility beyond the “rarefied gas” limit or the “molecular chaos” hypotheses. We do not use any a priori form of the kinetic law for the chemical reactions and describe their equilibria by thermodynamic relations. The transformations of the intermediate compounds can be described by the Markov kinetics because of their low density (low density of elementary events. This combination of assumptions was introduced by Michaelis and Menten in 1913. In 1952, Stueckelberg used the same assumptions for the gas kinetics and produced the remarkable semi-detailed balance relations between collision rates in the Boltzmann equation that are weaker than the detailed balance conditions but are still sufficient for the Boltzmann H-theorem to be valid. Our results are obtained within the Michaelis-Menten-Stueckelbeg conceptual framework.

  3. Reexamining Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics for Xanthine Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Chinn, Tamara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abbreviated expressions for enzyme kinetic expressions, such as the Michaelis-Menten (M-M) equations, are based on the premise that enzyme concentrations are low compared with those of the substrate and product. When one does progress experiments, where the solute is consumed during conversion to form a series of products, the idealized conditions…

  4. Diffusion influence on Michaelis Menten kinetics: II. The low substrate concentration limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojoon; Shin, Kook Joe

    2007-02-01

    The diffusion-influenced Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the low substrate concentration limit is studied in one and three dimensions. For the initial pair distribution of enzyme and substrate, we obtain the exact analytical results. We find that at short times the diffusion effect can make the reaction rate faster. The concentration deviations of the substrate and enzyme show t-1/2 and t-3/2 power-law behaviours in one and three dimensions, respectively, at long times. On the other hand, the average lifetime of the intermediate is independent of the initial state in one dimension, while it depends on the initial state in three dimensions. The ultimate production yield approaches unity in one dimension but it reaches a different value depending on other parameters in three dimensions. We also obtain the analytical results for the initial random distribution.

  5. Diffusion influence on Michaelis-Menten kinetics: II. The low substrate concentration limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyojoon; Shin, Kook Joe

    2007-01-01

    The diffusion-influenced Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the low substrate concentration limit is studied in one and three dimensions. For the initial pair distribution of enzyme and substrate, we obtain the exact analytical results. We find that at short times the diffusion effect can make the reaction rate faster. The concentration deviations of the substrate and enzyme show t -1/2 and t -3/2 power-law behaviours in one and three dimensions, respectively, at long times. On the other hand, the average lifetime of the intermediate is independent of the initial state in one dimension, while it depends on the initial state in three dimensions. The ultimate production yield approaches unity in one dimension but it reaches a different value depending on other parameters in three dimensions. We also obtain the analytical results for the initial random distribution

  6. Stability estimation of autoregulated genes under Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Babak M. S.; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Lahti, Leo; González, Javier; Wit, Ernst C.

    2018-06-01

    Feedback loops are typical motifs appearing in gene regulatory networks. In some well-studied model organisms, including Escherichia coli, autoregulated genes, i.e., genes that activate or repress themselves through their protein products, are the only feedback interactions. For these types of interactions, the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formulation is a suitable and widely used approach, which always leads to stable steady-state solutions representative of homeostatic regulation. However, in many other biological phenomena, such as cell differentiation, cancer progression, and catastrophes in ecosystems, one might expect to observe bistable switchlike dynamics in the case of strong positive autoregulation. To capture this complex behavior we use the generalized family of MM kinetic models. We give a full analysis regarding the stability of autoregulated genes. We show that the autoregulation mechanism has the capability to exhibit diverse cellular dynamics including hysteresis, a typical characteristic of bistable systems, as well as irreversible transitions between bistable states. We also introduce a statistical framework to estimate the kinetics parameters and probability of different stability regimes given observational data. Empirical data for the autoregulated gene SCO3217 in the SOS system in Streptomyces coelicolor are analyzed. The coupling of a statistical framework and the mathematical model can give further insight into understanding the evolutionary mechanisms toward different cell fates in various systems.

  7. Michaelis - Menten equation for degradation of insoluble substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    substrate it is difficult to assess whether the requirement of the MM equation is met. In this paper we study a simple kinetic model, where removal of attack sites expose new ones which preserve the total accessible substrate, and denote this approach the substrate conserving model. The kinetic equations...... are solved in closed form, both steady states and progress curves, for any admissible values of initial conditions and rate constants. The model is shown to merge with the MM equation and the reverse MM equation when these are valid. The relation between available molar concentration of attack sites and mass...

  8. Stability in a Simple Food Chain System with Michaelis-Menten Functional Response and Nonlocal Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Gan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the asymptotical behavior of solutions to the reaction-diffusion system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. By taking food ingestion and species' moving into account, the model is further coupled with Michaelis-Menten type functional response and nonlocal delay. Sufficient conditions are derived for the global stability of the positive steady state and the semitrivial steady state of the proposed problem by using the Lyapunov functional. Our results show that intraspecific competition benefits the coexistence of prey and predator. Furthermore, the introduction of Michaelis-Menten type functional response positively affects the coexistence of prey and predator, and the nonlocal delay is harmless for stabilities of all nonnegative steady states of the system. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results.

  9. Patterns induced by super cross-diffusion in a predator-prey system with Michaelis-Menten type harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Wu, Ranchao; Chen, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Turing instability and pattern formation in a super cross-diffusion predator-prey system with Michaelis-Menten type predator harvesting are investigated. Stability of equilibrium points is first explored with or without super cross-diffusion. It is found that cross-diffusion could induce instability of equilibria. To further derive the conditions of Turing instability, the linear stability analysis is carried out. From theoretical analysis, note that cross-diffusion is the key mechanism for the formation of spatial patterns. By taking cross-diffusion rate as bifurcation parameter, we derive amplitude equations near the Turing bifurcation point for the excited modes by means of weakly nonlinear theory. Dynamical analysis of the amplitude equations interprets the structural transitions and stability of various forms of Turing patterns. Furthermore, the theoretical results are illustrated via numerical simulations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Biphasic character of ribosomal translocation and non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the kinetics of mRNA translocation in the wild-type (WT) Escherichia coli ribosome, which is composed of a small 30 S and large 50 S subunit, and the ribosomes with mutations to some intersubunit bridges such as B1a, B4, B7a, and B8. The theoretical results reproduce well the available in vitro experimental data on the biphasic kinetics of the forward mRNA translocation catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G) hydrolyzing GTP, which can be best fit by the sum of two exponentials, and the monophasic kinetics of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation in the absence of the elongation factor, which can be best fit by a single-exponential function, in both the WT and mutant ribosomes. We show that both the mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the slow phase for the forward mRNA translocation and that in the rate of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation result from a reduction in the intrinsic energy barrier to resist the rotational movements between the two subunits, giving the same degree of increase in the two rates. The mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the fast phase for the forward mRNA translocation results mainly from the increase in the rate of the ribosomal unlocking, a conformational change in the ribosome that widens the mRNA channel for the mRNA translocation to take place, which could be partly due to the effect of the mutation on the intrasubunit 30S head rotation. Moreover, we study the translation rate of the WT and mutant ribosomes. It is shown that the translation rate versus the concentration of EF-G-GTP does not follow the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics, which is in sharp contrast to the general property of other enzymes that the rate of the enzymatic reaction versus the concentration of a substrate follows the MM kinetics. The physical origin of this non-MM kinetics for the ribosome is revealed.

  11. Classical Michaelis-Menten and system theory approach to modeling metabolite formation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Jovan

    2004-01-01

    When single doses of drug are administered and kinetics are linear, techniques, which are based on the compartment approach and the linear system theory approach, in modeling the formation of the metabolite from the parent drug are proposed. Unlike the purpose-specific compartment approach, the methodical, conceptual and computational uniformity in modeling various linear biomedical systems is the dominant characteristic of the linear system approach technology. Saturation of the metabolic reaction results in nonlinear kinetics according to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The two compartment open model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics is theorethicaly basic when single doses of drug are administered. To simulate data or to fit real data using this model, one must resort to numerical integration. A biomathematical model for multiple dosage regimen calculations of nonlinear metabolic systems in steady-state and a working example with phenytoin are presented. High correlation between phenytoin steady-state serum levels calculated from individual Km and Vmax values in the 15 adult epileptic outpatients and the observed levels at the third adjustment of phenytoin daily dose (r=0.961, p<0.01) were found.

  12. Why plankton modellers should reconsider using rectangular hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten, Monod descriptions of predator-prey interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin John Flynn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular hyperbolic type 2 (RHt2; Michaelis-Menten or Monod -like functions are commonly used to describe predation kinetics in plankton models, either alone or together with a prey selectivity algorithm deploying the same half-saturation constant for all prey types referenced to external prey biomass abundance. We present an analysis that indicates that such descriptions are liable to give outputs that are not plausible according to encounter theory. This is especially so for multi-prey type applications or where changes are made to the maximum feeding rate during a simulation. The RHt2 approach also gives no or limited potential for descriptions of events such as true de-selection of prey, effects of turbulence on encounters, or changes in grazer motility with satiation. We present an alternative, which carries minimal parameterisation effort and computational cost, linking allometric algorithms relating prey abundance and encounter rates to a prey-selection function controlled by satiation. The resultant Satiation-Controlled-Encounter-Based (SCEB function provides a flexible construct describing numeric predator-prey interactions with biomass-feedback control of grazing. The SCEB function includes an attack component similar to that in the Holling disk equation but SCEB differs in having only a single (satiation-based handling constant and an explicit maximum grazing rate. We argue that there is no justification for continuing to deploy RHt2 functions to describe plankton predator-prey interactions.

  13. Utilization of integrated Michaelis-Menten equations for enzyme inhibition diagnosis and determination of kinetic constants using Solver supplement of Microsoft Office Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rui M F; Fraga, Irene; Dias, Albino A

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme kinetic parameters are usually determined from initial rates nevertheless, laboratory instruments only measure substrate or product concentration versus reaction time (progress curves). To overcome this problem we present a methodology which uses integrated models based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The most severe practical limitation of progress curve analysis occurs when the enzyme shows a loss of activity under the chosen assay conditions. To avoid this problem it is possible to work with the same experimental points utilized for initial rates determination. This methodology is illustrated by the use of integrated kinetic equations with the well-known reaction catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase enzyme. In this work nonlinear regression was performed with the Solver supplement (Microsoft Office Excel). It is easy to work with and track graphically the convergence of SSE (sum of square errors). The diagnosis of enzyme inhibition was performed according to Akaike information criterion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability in a diffusive food chain model with Michaelis-Menten functional response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of positive solutions to a reaction-diffusion system with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions describing a three species food chain. A sufficient condition for the local asymptotical stability is given by linearization and also a sufficient condition...... for the global asymptotical stability is given by a Lyapunov function. Our result shows that the equilibrium solution is globally asymptotically stable if the net birth rate of the first species is big enough and the net death rate of the third species is neither too big nor too small. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  15. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the genes expression involved in phyto-degradation of cyanide and ferri-cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with different species of plants (rice, maize, soybean and willow) exposed to ferri-cyanide to investigate the half-saturation constant (K M ) and the maximal metabolic capacity (v max ) involved in phyto-assimilation. Three varieties for each testing species were collected from different origins. Measured concentrations show that the uptake rates responded biphasically to ferri-cyanide treatments by showing increases linearly at low and almost constant at high concentrations from all treatments, indicating that phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using non-linear regression, the highest v max was by rice, followed by willows. The lowest v max was found for soybean. All plants, except maize (DY26) and rice (XJ12), had a similar K M value, suggesting the same enzyme was active in phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of enzymes involved in degradation of cyanides showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different cyanides exposure. The expression of CAS and ST genes responded positively to KCN exposure, suggesting that β-CAS and ST pathways were two possible pathways for cyanide detoxification in rice. The transcript level of NIT and ASPNASE genes also showed a remarkable up-regulation to KCN, implying the contribution to the pool of amino acid aspartate, which is an end product of CN metabolism. Up-regulation of GS genes suggests that acquisition of ammonium released from cyanide degradation may be an additional nitrogen source for plant nutrition. Results also revealed that the expressions of these genes, except for GS, were relatively constant during iron cyanide exposure, suggesting that they are likely metabolized by plants through a non-defined pathway rather than the β-CAS pathway.

  16. Dynamic disorder in single-molecule Michaelis-Menten kinetics: The reaction-diffusion formalism in the Wilemski-Fixman approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Srabanti; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2007-09-01

    Single-molecule equations for the Michaelis-Menten [Biochem. Z. 49, 333 (1913)] mechanism of enzyme action are analyzed within the Wilemski-Fixman [J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4009 (1973); 60, 866 (1974)] approximation after the effects of dynamic disorder—modeled by the anomalous diffusion of a particle in a harmonic well—are incorporated into the catalytic step of the reaction. The solution of the Michaelis-Menten equations is used to calculate the distribution of waiting times between successive catalytic turnovers in the enzyme β-galactosidase. The calculated distribution is found to agree qualitatively with experimental results on this enzyme obtained at four different substrate concentrations. The calculations are also consistent with measurements of correlations in the fluctuations of the fluorescent light emitted during the course of catalysis, and with measurements of the concentration dependence of the randomness parameter.

  17. Occurrence of dead core in catalytic particles containing immobilized enzymes: analysis for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and assessment of numerical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Félix Monteiro; Oliveira, Samuel Conceição

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the occurrence of dead core in catalytic particles containing immobilized enzymes is analyzed for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An assessment of numerical methods is performed to solve the boundary value problem generated by the mathematical modeling of diffusion and reaction processes under steady state and isothermal conditions. Two classes of numerical methods were employed: shooting and collocation. The shooting method used the ode function from Scilab software. The collocation methods included: that implemented by the bvode function of Scilab, the orthogonal collocation, and the orthogonal collocation on finite elements. The methods were validated for simplified forms of the Michaelis-Menten equation (zero-order and first-order kinetics), for which analytical solutions are available. Among the methods covered in this article, the orthogonal collocation on finite elements proved to be the most robust and efficient method to solve the boundary value problem concerning Michaelis-Menten kinetics. For this enzyme kinetics, it was found that the dead core can occur when verified certain conditions of diffusion-reaction within the catalytic particle. The application of the concepts and methods presented in this study will allow for a more generalized analysis and more accurate designs of heterogeneous enzymatic reactors.

  18. Complex dynamics of a stochastic discrete modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with Michaelis-Menten type prey harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhassanein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced a stochastic discretized version of the modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with Michaelis-Menten type prey harvesting. The dynamical behavior of the proposed model was investigated. The existence and stability of the equilibria of the skeleton were studied. Numerical simulations were employed to show the model's complex dynamics by means of the largest Lyapunov exponents, bifurcations, time series diagrams and phase portraits. The effects of noise intensity on its dynamics and the intermittency phenomenon were also discussed via simulation.

  19. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with both pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies of GLP-1 reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. GLP-1 mimetics are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 interacts with peripheral functions in which the autonomic nervous system plays an important role, and emerging pre-clinical findings indicate a potential neuroprotective role of the peptide, for example in models of stroke and in neurodegenerative disorders. A century ago, Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten described the steady-state enzyme kinetics that still apply to the multiple receptors, transporters and enzymes that define the biochemical reactions of the brain, including the glucose-dependent impact of GLP-1 on blood-brain glucose transfer and metabolism. This MiniReview examines the potential of GLP-1 as a molecule of interest for the understanding of brain energy metabolism and with reference to the impact on brain metabolism related to appetite and satiety regulation, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. These effects can be understood only by reference to the original formulation of the Michaelis-Menten equation as applied to a chain of kinetically controlled steps. Indeed, the effects of GLP-1 receptor activation on blood-brain glucose transfer and brain metabolism of glucose depend on the glucose concentration and relative affinities of the steps both in vitro and in vivo, as in the pancreas. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Microscale Measurements of Michaelis-Menten Constants of Neuraminidase with Nanogel Capillary Electrophoresis for the Determination of the Sialic Acid Linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Srikanth; Crihfield, Cassandra L; Holland, Lisa A

    2017-01-03

    Phospholipid nanogels enhance the stability and performance of the exoglycosidase enzyme neuraminidase and are used to create a fixed zone of enzyme within a capillary. With nanogels, there is no need to covalently immobilize the enzyme, as it is physically constrained. This enables rapid quantification of Michaelis-Menten constants (K M ) for different substrates and ultimately provides a means to quantify the linkage (i.e., 2-3 versus 2-6) of sialic acids. The fixed zone of enzyme is inexpensive and easily positioned in the capillary to support electrophoresis mediated microanalysis using neuraminidase to analyze sialic acid linkages. To circumvent the limitations of diffusion during static incubation, the incubation period is reproducibly achieved by varying the number of forward and reverse passes the substrate makes through the stationary fixed zone using in-capillary electrophoretic mixing. A K M value of 3.3 ± 0.8 mM (V max , 2100 ± 200 μM/min) was obtained for 3'-sialyllactose labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid using neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens that cleaves sialic acid monomers with an α2-3,6,8,9 linkage, which is similar to values reported in the literature that required benchtop analyses. The enzyme cleaves the 2-3 linkage faster than the 2-6, and a K M of 2 ± 1 mM (V max , 400 ± 100 μM/min) was obtained for the 6'-sialyllactose substrate. An alternative neuraminidase selective for 2-3 sialic acid linkages generated a K M value of 3 ± 2 mM (V max , 900 ± 300 μM/min) for 3'-sialyllactose. With a knowledge of V max , the method was applied to a mixture of 2-3 and 2-6 sialyllactose as well as 2-3 and 2-6 sialylated triantennary glycan. Nanogel electrophoresis is an inexpensive, rapid, and simple alternative to current technologies used to distinguish the composition of 3' and 6' sialic acid linkages.

  1. In vivo measurements of brain glucose transport using the reversible michaelis-menten model and simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow changes during hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, I.-Y.; Lee, S.-P.; Kim, S.-G.; Gruetter, R.

    2001-01-01

    Glucose is the major substrate that sustains normal brain function. When the brain glucose concentration approaches zero, glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier becomes rate limiting for metabolism during, for example, increased metabolic activity and hypoglycemia. Steady-state brain glucose concentrations in α-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured noninvasively as a function of plasma glucose. The relation between brain and plasma glucose was linear at 4.5 to 30 mmol/L plasma ...

  2. Evaluation of rate law approximations in bottom-up kinetic models of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bin; Zielinski, Daniel C.; Kavvas, Erol S.

    2016-01-01

    mass action rate law that removes the role of the enzyme from the reaction kinetics. We utilized in vivo data for the human red blood cell to compare the effect of rate law choices against the backdrop of physiological flux and concentration differences. We found that the Michaelis-Menten rate law......Background: The mechanistic description of enzyme kinetics in a dynamic model of metabolism requires specifying the numerical values of a large number of kinetic parameters. The parameterization challenge is often addressed through the use of simplifying approximations to form reaction rate laws....... These approximate rate laws were: 1) a Michaelis-Menten rate law with measured enzyme parameters, 2) a Michaelis-Menten rate law with approximated parameters, using the convenience kinetics convention, 3) a thermodynamic rate law resulting from a metabolite saturation assumption, and 4) a pure chemical reaction...

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage generation is one of the dense problems Nigerians encounter on daily bases, mostly at the urbanized area where factories and industries are located. This paper is aimed at determining the specific growth rate “K” of biological activities on cassava wastewater during degradation using Michaelis-Menten Equation.

  4. Cyclodextrin-based artificial oxidases with high rate accelerations and selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, You; Lindbäck, Emil Anders; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Three cyclodextrin derivatives with one to four 2-O-formylmethyl groups attached to the secondary rim were prepared and investigated as catalysts for the oxidation of aminophenols in buffered dilute hydrogen peroxide. The derivatives were found to be Michaelis-Menten catalysts and to give rate ac...

  5. Species Differences in the Oxidative Desulfurization of a Thiouracil-Based Irreversible Myeloperoxidase Inactivator by Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Heather; Sharma, Raman; Wolford, Angela; Di, Li; Ruggeri, Roger B; Buckbinder, Leonard; Conn, Edward L; Dalvie, Deepak K; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2016-08-01

    N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils, represented by compound 1 [6-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4(1H)-one], are a novel class of selective irreversible inhibitors of human myeloperoxidase. The present account is a summary of our in vitro studies on the facile oxidative desulfurization in compound 1 to a cyclic ether metabolite M1 [5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-7H-oxazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-7-one] in NADPH-supplemented rats (t1/2 [half-life = mean ± S.D.] = 8.6 ± 0.4 minutes) and dog liver microsomes (t1/2 = 11.2 ± 0.4 minutes), but not in human liver microsomes (t1/2 > 120 minutes). The in vitro metabolic instability also manifested in moderate-to-high plasma clearances of the parent compound in rats and dogs with significant concentrations of M1 detected in circulation. Mild heat deactivation of liver microsomes or coincubation with the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) inhibitor imipramine significantly diminished M1 formation. In contrast, oxidative metabolism of compound 1 to M1 was not inhibited by the pan cytochrome P450 inactivator 1-aminobenzotriazole. Incubations with recombinant FMO isoforms (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO5) revealed that FMO1 principally catalyzed the conversion of compound 1 to M1. FMO1 is not expressed in adult human liver, which rationalizes the species difference in oxidative desulfurization. Oxidation by FMO1 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Michaelis-Menten constant, maximum rate of oxidative desulfurization, and intrinsic clearance values of 209 μM, 20.4 nmol/min/mg protein, and 82.7 μl/min/mg protein, respectively. Addition of excess glutathione essentially eliminated the conversion of compound 1 to M1 in NADPH-supplemented rat and dog liver microsomes, which suggests that the initial FMO1-mediated S-oxygenation of compound 1 yields a sulfenic acid intermediate capable of redox cycling to the parent compound in a glutathione-dependent fashion or undergoing further oxidation to a more

  6. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fer law system generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle model with finite-rate heat ...... Chen L, Sun F, Wu C 2004b Optimum allocation of heat exchanger area for refrigeration and air conditioning plants. Appl. Energy 77(3): 339– ...

  8. Multiscale time irreversibility of heart rate and blood pressure variability during orthostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chladekova, L; Czippelova, B; Turianikova, Z; Tonhajzerova, I; Calkovska, A; Javorka, M; Baumert, M

    2012-01-01

    Time irreversibility is a characteristic feature of non-equilibrium, complex systems such as the cardiovascular control mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Time irreversibility analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) represents a new approach to assess cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the changes in HRV and BPV irreversibility during the active orthostatic test (a balance of ANS shifted towards sympathetic predominance) in 28 healthy young subjects. We used three different time irreversibility indices—Porta’s, Guzik's and Ehler's indices (P%, G% and E, respectively) derived from data segments containing 1000 beat-to-beat intervals on four timescales. We observed an increase in the HRV and a decrease in the BPV irreversibility during standing compared to the supine position. The postural change in irreversibility was confirmed by surrogate data analysis. The differences were more evident in G% and E than P% and for higher scale factors. Statistical analysis showed a close relationship between G% and E. Contrary to this, the association between P% and G% and P% and E was not proven. We conclude that time irreversibility of beat-to-beat HRV and BPV is significantly altered during orthostasis, implicating involvement of the autonomous nervous system in its generation. (paper)

  9. Use of Mushroom Tyrosinase to Introduce Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics to Biochemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    An inexpensive enzyme kinetics laboratory exercise for undergraduate biochemistry students is described utilizing tyrosinase from white button mushrooms. The exercise can be completed in one or two three-hour lab sessions. The optimal amounts of enzyme, substrate (catechol), and inhibitor (kojic acid) are first determined, and then kinetic data is…

  10. Modelling plastic deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates using irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingxin; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E J; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that there is a transitional strain rate (∼ 10 4 s -1 ) over which the phonon drag effects appear, resulting in a significant increase in the flow stress and the average dislocation density. The model is applied to pure Cu deformed at room temperature and at strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 6 s -1 showing good agreement with experimental results.

  11. A Biochemist's View of Ecosystem Rates and their Response to Changing Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcus, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    Enzyme kinetics lie at the heart of biochemistry and the Michaelis-Menten equation that defines the relationship between substrate and rate is over 100 years old. About 80 years ago Eyring and Polyani formulated Transistion State Theory (TST) which describes the temperature-dependence of chemical reaction rates and the precise relationship between activation energy and the rate. TST provided a robust theoretical foundation for the Arrhenius equation and together, these equations are the foundation equations for the biochemist. Can these equations provide any insights into rates at larger scales, such as organism growth rates and those rates that interest ecosystem scientists (e.g. heterotrophic respiration, gross primary production)? Let us begin by considering a microbial cell. Microbial growth (i.e. cell division) requires the coordinated kinetics of thousands of enzymes including DNA/RNA polymerases, ribosomes, biosynthetic enzymes - all under a regime of highly complex regulatory effects. There is no a priori reason to expect that Michaelis-Menten kinetics and TST will adequately describe this vastly complex process. Indeed, Lloyd and Taylor showed 23 years ago that soil respiration is not well described by the Arrhenius function. More recently, Heskel and colleagues showed that leaf respiration is also not well described by the Arrhenius function. It is the same case for rates of photosynthesis. Despite this failure of the basic equations of biochemistry to map to biological rates at greater scales, what insights can biochemistry provide to ecosystem science? As nearly all of biological metabolism is mediated through enzyme kinetics, I will begin with the Michaelis-Menten equation under regimes of low and high substrate concentrations. This simplified view can provide surprising insights into processes at larger scales. I will also consider the relationship between the activation energy and the reaction rate. Many, many ecosystem-rate papers focus on the

  12. Efficacy of preoperative ibuprofen and meloxicam on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantiaee, Yazdan; Javaheri, Sahar; Movahhedian, Amir; Eslami, Sarah; Dianat, Omid

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether premedication with ibuprofen or meloxicam increases the success rate of anaesthesia in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. In this parallel, double-blind clinical trial, 92 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis were randomly divided into four groups of 23 patients. The first group (the no-premedication group) received no premedication, the second group (the meloxicam group) received 7.5 mg of meloxicam, the third group (the ibuprofen group) received 600 mg of ibuprofen, and the fourth group (the placebo group) received placebo 1 hour before intervention. Before taking the medication, electrical pulp testing (EPT) and the Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate sensitivity and pain at baseline. Then, local anaesthesia was injected, and after 15 minutes, EPT was used again to evaluate tooth sensitivity. The pain during access preparation was also recorded using the Heft-Parker VAS. Ninety-two patients were analysed. The success rates of local anaesthesia were 21.7%, 34.8%, 78.3% and 73.9% in the no-premedication, placebo, ibuprofen and meloxicam groups, respectively, according to the EPT values. Considering the Heft-Parker VAS values, no premedication gave a 21.7% success rate, placebo gave a 34.8% success rate, ibuprofen gave an 82.6% success rate and meloxicam gave a 65.2% success rate. The ibuprofen and meloxicam groups showed significantly better results than the placebo and no-premedication groups (P inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis; however, neither drug provided profound anaesthesia. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Multiscale analysis of heart rate dynamics: entropy and time irreversibility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Madalena D; Peng, Chung-Kang; Goldberger, Ary L

    2008-06-01

    Cardiovascular signals are largely analyzed using traditional time and frequency domain measures. However, such measures fail to account for important properties related to multiscale organization and non-equilibrium dynamics. The complementary role of conventional signal analysis methods and emerging multiscale techniques, is, therefore, an important frontier area of investigation. The key finding of this presentation is that two recently developed multiscale computational tools--multiscale entropy and multiscale time irreversibility--are able to extract information from cardiac interbeat interval time series not contained in traditional methods based on mean, variance or Fourier spectrum (two-point correlation) techniques. These new methods, with careful attention to their limitations, may be useful in diagnostics, risk stratification and detection of toxicity of cardiac drugs.

  14. Reversible conformational transition gives rise to 'zig-zag' temperature dependence of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky VYu; Melik-Nubarov, N S; Siksnis, V A; Grinberg VYa; Burova, T V; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    We have obtained unusual 'zig-zag' temperature dependencies of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation (k(in)) of enzymes (alpha-chymotrypsin, covalently modified alpha-chymotrypsin, and ribonuclease) in a plot of log k(in) versus reciprocal temperature (Arrhenius plot). These dependencies are characterized by the presence of both ascending and descending linear portions which have positive and negative values of the effective activation energy (Ea), respectively. A kinetic scheme has been suggested that fits best for a description of these zig-zag dependencies. A key element of this scheme is the temperature-dependent reversible conformational transition of enzyme from the 'low-temperature' native state to a 'high-temperature' denatured form; the latter form is significantly more stable against irreversible thermoinactivation than the native enzyme. A possible explanation for a difference in thermal stabilities is that low-temperature and high-temperature forms are inactivated according to different mechanisms. Existence of the suggested conformational transition was proved by the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of delta H and delta S for this transition, determined from calorimetric experiments, are highly positive; this fact underlies a conclusion that this heat-induced transition is caused by an unfolding of the protein molecule. Surprisingly, in the unfolded high-temperature conformation, alpha-chymotrypsin has a pronounced proteolytic activity, although this activity is much smaller than that of the native enzyme.

  15. Bringing metabolic networks to life: convenience rate law and thermodynamic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipp Edda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating a known metabolic network into a dynamic model requires rate laws for all chemical reactions. The mathematical expressions depend on the underlying enzymatic mechanism; they can become quite involved and may contain a large number of parameters. Rate laws and enzyme parameters are still unknown for most enzymes. Results We introduce a simple and general rate law called "convenience kinetics". It can be derived from a simple random-order enzyme mechanism. Thermodynamic laws can impose dependencies on the kinetic parameters. Hence, to facilitate model fitting and parameter optimisation for large networks, we introduce thermodynamically independent system parameters: their values can be varied independently, without violating thermodynamical constraints. We achieve this by expressing the equilibrium constants either by Gibbs free energies of formation or by a set of independent equilibrium constants. The remaining system parameters are mean turnover rates, generalised Michaelis-Menten constants, and constants for inhibition and activation. All parameters correspond to molecular energies, for instance, binding energies between reactants and enzyme. Conclusion Convenience kinetics can be used to translate a biochemical network – manually or automatically - into a dynamical model with plausible biological properties. It implements enzyme saturation and regulation by activators and inhibitors, covers all possible reaction stoichiometries, and can be specified by a small number of parameters. Its mathematical form makes it especially suitable for parameter estimation and optimisation. Parameter estimates can be easily computed from a least-squares fit to Michaelis-Menten values, turnover rates, equilibrium constants, and other quantities that are routinely measured in enzyme assays and stored in kinetic databases.

  16. Ecological optimization for generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Zhu Xiaoqin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    The optimal ecological performance of a Newton's law generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerator with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the exergy output rate and exergy loss rate (entropy production rate) of the refrigerator. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the optimal performance of generalized irreversible refrigerators

  17. Buffered Lidocaine With Sodium Bicarbonate did not Increase Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Success Rate in Patients Having Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Effect of buffered 4% lidocaine on the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Schellenberg J, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Fowler S, Beck M. J Endod 2015;41(6):791-6. The study was supported by Meyers/Reader Graduate Endodontic Support Fund Double blinded randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency of nanomachine-based targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingying; Li, Min; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-04

    In nanomachine applications towards targeted drug delivery, drug molecules released by nanomachines propagate and chemically react with tumor cells in aqueous environment. If the nanomachines release drug molecules faster than the tumor cells react, it will result in loss and waste of drug molecules. It is a potential issue associated with the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency. This paper aims to investigate the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency based on two drug reception models. We expect to pave a way for designing a control method of drug release. We adopted two analytical methods that one is drug reception process based on collision with tumors and another is based on Michaelis Menten enzymatic kinetics. To evaluate the analytical formulations, we used the well-known simulation framework N3Sim to establish simulations. The analytical results of the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency is obtained, which match well with the numerical simulation results in a 3-D environment. Based upon two drug reception models, the results of this paper would be beneficial for designing a control method of nanomahine-based drug release.

  19. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Parirokh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  20. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment. PMID:25984478

  1. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Abbott, Paul V; Manochehrifar, Hamed

    2015-05-01

    Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  2. Modular rate laws for enzymatic reactions: thermodynamics, elasticities and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermeister, Wolfram; Uhlendorf, Jannis; Klipp, Edda

    2010-06-15

    Standard rate laws are a key requisite for systematically turning metabolic networks into kinetic models. They should provide simple, general and biochemically plausible formulae for reaction velocities and reaction elasticities. At the same time, they need to respect thermodynamic relations between the kinetic constants and the metabolic fluxes and concentrations. We present a family of reversible rate laws for reactions with arbitrary stoichiometries and various types of regulation, including mass-action, Michaelis-Menten and uni-uni reversible Hill kinetics as special cases. With a thermodynamically safe parameterization of these rate laws, parameter sets obtained by model fitting, sampling or optimization are guaranteed to lead to consistent chemical equilibrium states. A reformulation using saturation values yields simple formulae for rates and elasticities, which can be easily adjusted to the given stationary flux distributions. Furthermore, this formulation highlights the role of chemical potential differences as thermodynamic driving forces. We compare the modular rate laws to the thermodynamic-kinetic modelling formalism and discuss a simplified rate law in which the reaction rate directly depends on the reaction affinity. For automatic handling of modular rate laws, we propose a standard syntax and semantic annotations for the Systems Biology Markup Language. An online tool for inserting the rate laws into SBML models is freely available at www.semanticsbml.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Gejl; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. The effects cause that mimetics of GLP-1 serves as treatment of type 2 diabete...

  4. Real-Time Enzyme Kinetics by Quantitative NMR Spectroscopy and Determination of the Michaelis-Menten Constant Using the Lambert-W Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Cheenou; Alonzo, Aaron P.; Vang, Justin Y.; Torres, Ernesto; Krishnan, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is an essential part of a chemistry curriculum, especially for students interested in biomedical research or in health care fields. Though the concept is routinely performed in undergraduate chemistry/biochemistry classrooms using other spectroscopic methods, we provide an optimized approach that uses a real-time monitoring of the…

  5. Effect of premedication with ibuprofen and dexamethasone on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shahriar; Mokhtari, Hadi; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Narimani, Shima; Abdolrahimi, Majid; Nezafati, Saeed

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 kinds of anti-inflammatory medicines (ie, dexamethasone and ibuprofen) with a placebo according to their effects on the success rates of an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for the endodontic treatment of mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis. A total of 165 patients were divided into 3 groups of 55 patients each and were given a capsule of the same color and size (ie, a placebo of lactose powder, 400 mg ibuprofen, or 0.5 mg dexamethasone). One hour after the oral administration of the capsules, all the patients received a standard IANB. In patients with a successful IANB, the teeth were examined with a cold pulp test. Patients were asked to assess their pain using the visual analog scale. Then, endodontic access cavity preparation was initiated. In case of pain during the treatment, the patients were asked to rate the pain on the visual analog scale. Success was defined as no or mild pain during treatment. The chi-square test and analysis of variance were used to compare qualitative and quantitative data among the groups. No significant differences were found regarding the sex of the patients in the 3 groups (P > .05). The dexamethasone group showed significantly higher success rates compared with the placebo group (P = .001). There were no significant differences between the ibuprofen and placebo groups (P = .055) or the dexamethasone and ibuprofen groups (P = .34). Premedication with dexamethasone increased the success rate of an IANB in mandibular molars with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Irreversible social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, A.J.K.; Romijn, H.A.; Collste, G.; Reuter, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate how irreversible social change should be evaluated from an ethical perspective. First; we analyse the notion of irreversibility in general terms. We define a general notion of what makes a change irreversible; drawing on discussions in ecology and economics. This notion is

  7. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-04-01

    Investigations on Palaeonummulites venosus using the natural laboratory approach for determining chamber building rate, test diameter increase rate, reproduction time and longevity is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions based on chamber number and test diameter into normal-distributed components. The shift of the component parameters 'mean' and 'standard deviation' during the investigation period of 15 months was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged chamber building rate and diameter increase rate under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged chamber building rate and the inverse diameter increase rate fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e. frequency divided by sediment weight) based on chamber building rate and diameter increase rate resulted both in a continuous reproduction through the year with two peaks, the stronger in May /June determined as the beginning of the summer generation (generation1) and the weaker in November determined as the beginning of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the existence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date seems to be round about one year, obtained by both estimations based on the chamber building rate and the diameter increase rate.

  8. Modeling metabolic networks in C. glutamicum: a comparison of rate laws in combination with various parameter optimization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldiges Marco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the dynamic behavior of cellular systems, mathematical modeling is often necessary and comprises three steps: (1 experimental measurement of participating molecules, (2 assignment of rate laws to each reaction, and (3 parameter calibration with respect to the measurements. In each of these steps the modeler is confronted with a plethora of alternative approaches, e. g., the selection of approximative rate laws in step two as specific equations are often unknown, or the choice of an estimation procedure with its specific settings in step three. This overall process with its numerous choices and the mutual influence between them makes it hard to single out the best modeling approach for a given problem. Results We investigate the modeling process using multiple kinetic equations together with various parameter optimization methods for a well-characterized example network, the biosynthesis of valine and leucine in C. glutamicum. For this purpose, we derive seven dynamic models based on generalized mass action, Michaelis-Menten and convenience kinetics as well as the stochastic Langevin equation. In addition, we introduce two modeling approaches for feedback inhibition to the mass action kinetics. The parameters of each model are estimated using eight optimization strategies. To determine the most promising modeling approaches together with the best optimization algorithms, we carry out a two-step benchmark: (1 coarse-grained comparison of the algorithms on all models and (2 fine-grained tuning of the best optimization algorithms and models. To analyze the space of the best parameters found for each model, we apply clustering, variance, and correlation analysis. Conclusion A mixed model based on the convenience rate law and the Michaelis-Menten equation, in which all reactions are assumed to be reversible, is the most suitable deterministic modeling approach followed by a reversible generalized mass action kinetics

  9. Measurement and Modeling of Respiration Rate of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate.

  10. A stochastic model of enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Marianne; Newman, Timothy; McKane, Alan

    2003-10-01

    Enzyme kinetics is generally modeled by deterministic rate equations, and in the simplest case leads to the well-known Michaelis-Menten equation. It is plausible that stochastic effects will play an important role at low enzyme concentrations. We have addressed this by constructing a simple stochastic model which can be exactly solved in the steady-state. Throughout a wide range of parameter values Michaelis-Menten dynamics is replaced by a new and simple theoretical result.

  11. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.

  12. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  13. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  14. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus (Foraminifera) under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifer Palaeonummulites venosus to determine the chamber building rate (CBR), test diameter increase rate (DIR), reproduction time and longevity using the `natural laboratory' approach. This is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions of chamber number and test diameter into normally distributed components. Test measurements were taken using MicroCT. The shift of the mean and standard deviation of component parameters during the 15-month investigation period was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged CBR and DIR under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged CBR and the inverse DIR fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e., frequency divided by sediment weight) based on both CBR and DIR revealed continuous reproduction throughout the year with two peaks, a stronger one in June determined as the onset of the summer generation (generation 1) and a weaker one in November determined as the onset of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the presence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date, is approximately 1.5 yr, an estimation obtained by using both CBR and DIR.

  15. Estimating Reaction Rate Coefficients Within a Travel-Time Modeling Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, R [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lu, C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Cheng, H. [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.

  16. Effect of the Degree of Polymerization of Inulin on the Rate of Hydrolysis Using Immobilized Inulinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ricca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two crucial features in the industrial development of fructose production by enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin: the use of immobilized biocatalyst in the hydrolysis of crude extracts of chicory roots and the evaluation of the effect of degree of polymerization of inulin on the overall reaction rate. The immobilized biocatalyst consisted of inulinase covalently bound to Sepabeads® supports. It was demonstrated that its catalytic activity towards crude inulin extract (real substrate was much higher than that exhibited towards pure inulin (synthetic solution. Experiments revealed that, in applications of practical interest with real substrate, the activity of immobilized enzyme was as high as 63 % of that of free enzyme in homogeneous solution. This certainly was a driving force to potential industrial application of this immobilized enzyme preparation. Therefore, the effect of pure and crude substrates on the kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the immobilized enzyme was investigated. The kinetic analysis revealed a Michaelis-Menten dependence of the reaction rate on substrate concentration for both pure (high molecular mass and crude (low molecular mass inulin. Interesting results were derived from the comparison of Km and vmax values in the two cases. In particular, it was found that increasing degree of polymerization of the substrate caused vmax decrease and Km increase. After evaluation of mass transport effects, this was mainly associated with a different substrate/ enzyme affinity when exploiting inulin characterized by different (low or high degree of polymerization.

  17. Effect of dose rate on irreversible changes of electric parameters of power cables for nuclear power plants; Vliyanie moshchnosti dozy na neobratimye izmeneniya ehlektricheskikh paramet rov silovykh kabelej dlya yadernykh ehnergetricheskikh ustanovok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filatov, N I

    1994-12-31

    Results of an experimental investigation into an irreversible change of insulation resistance, capacitance and tangent of force cable dielectric loss angle under effect of continuous gamma radiation within the certain dose range are presented. In cables with polyethylene insulation dependence of the critical dose on the dose rate in the range investigated is in the for of the function degrees with a degree index of approximately 0.7.

  18. Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Tomé, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...

  19. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  20. Mechanistic kinetic modeling generates system-independent P-glycoprotein mediated transport elementary rate constants for inhibition and, in combination with 3D SIM microscopy, elucidates the importance of microvilli morphology on P-glycoprotein mediated efflux activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellens, Harma; Meng, Zhou; Le Marchand, Sylvain J; Bentz, Joe

    2018-06-01

    In vitro transporter kinetics are typically analyzed by steady-state Michaelis-Menten approximations. However, no clear evidence exists that these approximations, applied to multiple transporters in biological membranes, yield system-independent mechanistic parameters needed for reliable in vivo hypothesis generation and testing. Areas covered: The classical mass action model has been developed for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated transport across confluent polarized cell monolayers. Numerical integration of the mass action equations for transport using a stable global optimization program yields fitted elementary rate constants that are system-independent. The efflux active P-gp was defined by the rate at which P-gp delivers drugs to the apical chamber, since as much as 90% of drugs effluxed by P-gp partition back into nearby microvilli prior to reaching the apical chamber. The efflux active P-gp concentration was 10-fold smaller than the total expressed P-gp for Caco-2 cells, due to their microvilli membrane morphology. The mechanistic insights from this analysis are readily extrapolated to P-gp mediated transport in vivo. Expert opinion: In vitro system-independent elementary rate constants for transporters are essential for the generation and validation of robust mechanistic PBPK models. Our modeling approach and programs have broad application potential. They can be used for any drug transporter with minor adaptations.

  1. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; van Zuuren, Esther J; Farman, Allan G; Al-Langawi, Jassim Hasan

    2016-02-17

    Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2013. To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 27 January 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 27 January 2016); EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 27 January 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (to 27 January 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to 27 January 2016). There were no language restrictions in the searches of the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials which compared pain relief with systemic antibiotics and analgesics, against placebo and analgesics in the acute preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. Two review authors screened studies and extracted data independently. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADEpro software. Pooling of data was not possible and a descriptive summary is presented. One trial assessed at low risk of bias, involving 40 participants was included in this update of the review. The quality of the body of evidence was rated low for the different outcomes. There was a close parallel distribution of the pain ratings in both the intervention and placebo groups over the seven-day study period. There was insufficient evidence to claim or refute a benefit for penicillin for pain intensity. There was no significant difference in the mean total number of ibuprofen tablets over the

  2. Irreversibility and conditional probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mathematical entropy - unlike physical entropy - is simply a measure of uniformity for probability distributions in general. So understood, conditional entropies have the same logical structure as conditional probabilities. If, as is sometimes supposed, conditional probabilities are time-reversible, then so are conditional entropies and, paradoxically, both then share this symmetry with physical equations of motion. The paradox is, of course that probabilities yield a direction to time both in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, while the equations of motion do not. The supposed time-reversibility of both conditionals seems also to involve a form of retrocausality that is related to, but possibly not the same as, that described by Costa de Beaurgard. The retrocausality is paradoxically at odds with the generally presumed irreversibility of the quantum mechanical measurement process. Further paradox emerges if the supposed time-reversibility of the conditionals is linked with the idea that the thermodynamic entropy is the same thing as 'missing information' since this confounds the thermodynamic and mathematical entropies. However, it is shown that irreversibility is a formal consequence of conditional entropies and, hence, of conditional probabilities also. 8 refs. (Author)

  3. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    side ... For irreversible cycle, the internal irreversibility, i.e., non-isentropic losses in the ... constant thermal capacitance rate (the product of mass flow rate and specific heat), .... reversed Brayton cycle is dependent on the external heat transfer ...

  4. Nonequilibrium and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book concentrates on the properties of the stationary states in chaotic systems of particles or fluids, leaving aside the theory of the way they can be reached. The stationary states of particles or of fluids (understood as probability distributions on microscopic configurations or on the fields describing continua) have received important new ideas and data from numerical simulations and reviews are needed. The starting point is to find out which time invariant distributions come into play in physics. A special feature of this book is the historical approach. To identify the problems the author analyzes the papers of the founding fathers Boltzmann, Clausius and Maxwell including translations of the relevant (parts of ) historical documents. He also establishes a close link between treatment of irreversible phenomena in statistical mechanics and the theory of chaotic systems at and beyond the onset of turbulence as developed by Sinai, Ruelle, Bowen (SRB) and others: the author gives arguments intending t...

  5. Effects of growth rate, cell size, motion, and elemental stoichiometry on nutrient transport kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Skibinski, David O F; Lindemann, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Nutrient acquisition is a critical determinant for the competitive advantage for auto- and osmohetero- trophs alike. Nutrient limited growth is commonly described on a whole cell basis through reference to a maximum growth rate (Gmax) and a half-saturation constant (KG). This empirical application of a Michaelis-Menten like description ignores the multiple underlying feedbacks between physiology contributing to growth, cell size, elemental stoichiometry and cell motion. Here we explore these relationships with reference to the kinetics of the nutrient transporter protein, the transporter rate density at the cell surface (TRD; potential transport rate per unit plasma-membrane area), and diffusion gradients. While the half saturation value for the limiting nutrient increases rapidly with cell size, significant mitigation is afforded by cell motion (swimming or sedimentation), and by decreasing the cellular carbon density. There is thus potential for high vacuolation and high sedimentation rates in diatoms to significantly decrease KG and increase species competitive advantage. Our results also suggest that Gmax for larger non-diatom protists may be constrained by rates of nutrient transport. For a given carbon density, cell size and TRD, the value of Gmax/KG remains constant. This implies that species or strains with a lower Gmax might coincidentally have a competitive advantage under nutrient limited conditions as they also express lower values of KG. The ability of cells to modulate the TRD according to their nutritional status, and hence change the instantaneous maximum transport rate, has a very marked effect upon transport and growth kinetics. Analyses and dynamic models that do not consider such modulation will inevitably fail to properly reflect competitive advantage in nutrient acquisition. This has important implications for the accurate representation and predictive capabilities of model applications, in particular in a changing environment.

  6. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  7. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...

  8. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...... literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature....

  9. Effect of membranes on oxygen transfer rate and consumption within a newly developed three-compartment bioartificial liver device: Advanced experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I; Yousef, Basem F

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict oxygen transfer in the fiber-in-fiber (FIF) bioartificial liver device. The model parameters are taken from the constructed and tested FIF modules. We extended the Krogh cylinder model by including one more zone for oxygen transfer. Cellular oxygen uptake was based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The effect of varying a number of important model parameters is investigated, including (1) oxygen partial pressure at the inlet, (2) the hydraulic permeability of compartment B (cell region), (3) the hydraulic permeability of the inner membrane, and (4) the oxygen diffusivity of the outer membrane. The mathematical model is validated by comparing its output against the experimentally acquired values of an oxygen transfer rate and the hydrostatic pressure drop. Three governing simultaneous linear differential equations are derived to predict and validate the experimental measurements, e.g., the flow rate and the hydrostatic pressure drop. The model output simulated the experimental measurements to a high degree of accuracy. The model predictions show that the cells in the annulus can be oxygenated well even at high cell density or at a low level of gas phase PG if the value of the oxygen diffusion coefficient Dm is 16 × 10(-5) . The mathematical model also shows that the performance of the FIF improves by increasing the permeability of polypropylene membrane (inner fiber). Moreover, the model predicted that 60% of plasma has access to the cells in the annulus within the first 10% of the FIF bioreactor axial length for a specific polypropylene membrane permeability and can reach 95% within the first 30% of its axial length. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Irreversible Maisotsenko Reciprocating Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible Maisotsenko reciprocating Brayton cycle (MRBC model is established using the finite time thermodynamic (FTT theory and taking the heat transfer loss (HTL, piston friction loss (PFL, and internal irreversible losses (IILs into consideration in this paper. A calculation flowchart of the power output (P and efficiency (η of the cycle is provided, and the effects of the mass flow rate (MFR of the injection of water to the cycle and some other design parameters on the performance of cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. Furthermore, the superiority of irreversible MRBC is verified as the cycle and is compared with the traditional irreversible reciprocating Brayton cycle (RBC. The results can provide certain theoretical guiding significance for the optimal design of practical Maisotsenko reciprocating gas turbine plants.

  11. Performance Optimization of Irreversible Air Heat Pumps Considering Size Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuehong; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the size of an irreversible air heat pump (AHP), heating load density (HLD) is taken as thermodynamic optimization objective by using finite-time thermodynamics. Based on an irreversible AHP with infinite reservoir thermal-capacitance rate model, the expression of HLD of AHP is put forward. The HLD optimization processes are studied analytically and numerically, which consist of two aspects: (1) to choose pressure ratio; (2) to distribute heat-exchanger inventory. Heat reservoir temperatures, heat transfer performance of heat exchangers as well as irreversibility during compression and expansion processes are important factors influencing on the performance of an irreversible AHP, which are characterized with temperature ratio, heat exchanger inventory as well as isentropic efficiencies, respectively. Those impacts of parameters on the maximum HLD are thoroughly studied. The research results show that HLD optimization can make the size of the AHP system smaller and improve the compactness of system.

  12. Intrinsic irreversibility in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.; Petrosky, T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum theory has a dual structure: while solutions of the Schroedinger equation evolve in a deterministic and time reversible way, measurement introduces irreversibility and stochasticity. This presents a contrast to Bohr-Sommerfeld-Einstein theory, in which transitions between quantum states are associated with spontaneous and induced transitions, defined in terms of stochastic processes. A new form of quantum theory is presented here, which contains an intrinsic form of irreversibility, independent of observation. This new form applies to situations corresponding to a continuous spectrum and to quantum states with finite life time. The usual non-commutative algebra associated to quantum theory is replaced by more general algebra, in which operators are also non-distributive. Our approach leads to a number of predictions, which hopefully may be verified or refuted in the next years. (orig.)

  13. Irreversible stochastic processes on lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Models for irreversible random or cooperative filling of lattices are required to describe many processes in chemistry and physics. Since the filling is assumed to be irreversible, even the stationary, saturation state is not in equilibrium. The kinetics and statistics of these processes are described by recasting the master equations in infinite hierarchical form. Solutions can be obtained by implementing various techniques: refinements in these solution techniques are presented. Programs considered include random dimer, trimer, and tetramer filling of 2D lattices, random dimer filling of a cubic lattice, competitive filling of two or more species, and the effect of a random distribution of inactive sites on the filling. Also considered is monomer filling of a linear lattice with nearest neighbor cooperative effects and solve for the exact cluster-size distribution for cluster sizes up to the asymptotic regime. Additionally, a technique is developed to directly determine the asymptotic properties of the cluster size distribution. Finally cluster growth is considered via irreversible aggregation involving random walkers. In particular, explicit results are provided for the large-lattice-size asymptotic behavior of trapping probabilities and average walk lengths for a single walker on a lattice with multiple traps. Procedures for exact calculation of these quantities on finite lattices are also developed

  14. The effect of preoperative submucosal administration of tramadol on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block on mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro-Muñoz, A; Mena-Álvarez, J

    2017-12-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was designed to improve the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) by means of preoperative submucosal administration of 50 mg tramadol. Forty-two patients with a mandibular molar diagnosed with SIP took part in the trial. Patients were assigned randomly to one of two groups: tramadol group (n = 21), who received 50 mg tramadol in 1 mL by mandibular infiltration, and a placebo group (n = 21), who received 1 mL of normal saline administered to the affected tooth by the same means. Ten minutes later, all patients received an IANB with 4% articaine with epinephrine 1 : 100 000. A 10-min waiting time was established after local anaesthetic (LA) administration before carrying out three consecutive tests to assess anaesthesia of the pulp, that is two consecutive negative responses to an electric pulp test, positive or negative response to a cold test and no pain during access cavity preparation. IANB was considered successful only if the patient did not experience pain arising from these tests. Data were analysed by the Chi-squared frequency test and the Fisher's exact test, for qualitative variables, Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples and two-way anova for more than two independent samples. In the tramadol group IANB was achieved successfully in 57% of the sample, whilst the placebo group obtained 29%. The difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.06). When performing endodontic access, the anaesthetic success rate was significantly in favour of tramadol (P = 0.03). Preoperative submucosal administration of 50 mg tramadol in mandibular molars with SIP significantly improved the success of IANB using 4% articaine with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine during access cavity preparation in comparison with a placebo. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... behaves as an effective catalyst towards oxidation of 3,5-ditertiarybutyl catechol (3,5-DTBC) in acetonitrile to its corresponding quinone derivative in air. The reaction follows first-order reaction kinetics with rate constant 4.28 × 10−5 min-1. The reaction follows Michaelis-Menten enzymatic kinetics with a turnover number of ...

  16. Nitrate transport processes in Fagus-Laccaria-mycorrhizae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuzwieser, J; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, P; Vaalburg, W; Rennenberg, H

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of influx and efflux of NO3- on NO3- net uptake has been studied in excised mycorrhizae of 18-20 week old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Net uptake rates of NO3- followed uniphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the concentration range between 10 mu M and 1.0 mM external NO3-, with

  17. Immobilization of urease on copper chelated EC-Tri beads and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum reaction rate (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (km) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized urease such as the temperature activity curve, thermal stability, operational stability and storage stability were evaluated. The results demonstrated that triazole ...

  18. Elimination of intermediate species in multiscale stochastic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele; Wiuf, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    such as the substrate-enzyme complex in the Michaelis-Menten mechanism. Such species are virtually in all real-world networks, they are typically short-lived, degraded at a fast rate and hard to observe experimentally. We provide conditions under which the Markov process of a multiscale reaction network...

  19. Quantum mechanical irreversibility and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Grigolini, P

    1993-01-01

    This book is intended as a tutorial approach to some of the techniques used to deal with quantum dissipation and irreversibility, with special focus on their applications to the theory of measurements. The main purpose is to provide readers without a deep expertise in quantum statistical mechanics with the basic tools to develop a critical judgement on whether the major achievements in this field have to be considered a satisfactory solution of quantum paradox, or rather this ambitious achievement has to be postponed to when a new physics, more general than quantum and classical physics, will

  20. Competing irreversible cooperative reactions on polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.; Hoffman, D.K.; Burgess, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    We analyze model processes involving competition between several irreversible reactions at the sites of a 1D, infinite, uniform polymer chain. These reactions can be cooperative, i.e., the corresponding rates depend on the state of the surrounding sites. An infinite hierarchy of rate equations is readily derived for the probabilities of various subconfigurations. By exploiting a shielding property of suitable blocks of unreacted sites, we show how exact hierarchy truncation and solution is sometimes possible. The behavior of solutions is illustrated in several cases by plotting families of ''reaction trajectories'' for varying ratios of reactant concentrations. As a specific application, we consider competition between coordination of ZnCl 2 to pairs of oxygen atoms and to single oxygen atoms in poly(propylene oxide). The observed glass transition temperature behavior is eludicated

  1. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures Estimativa da taxa de respiração e das mudanças físico-químicas de maçãs minimamente processadas e estocadas sob diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.Neste estudo, a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e da embalagem com atmosfera modificada passiva (AMP na taxa respiratória e nas propriedades físico-químicas de maçãs da variedade Gala (Malus domestica, B. minimamente processadas foi investigada. As amostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens flexíveis e armazenados a 2 °C, 5 °C e 7 °C, durante 11 dias. A taxa de respiração foi gerada para diferentes concentrações de O2 e CO2, obtidas por cromatografia gasosa. Os parâmetros de inibição foram estimados por um modelo matemático baseado na equação de Michaelis-Menten. Foram avaliadas as seguintes propriedades físico-químicas: sólidos solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável e açúcares redutores. A 2 °C, a taxa de respiração máxima foi

  2. Ecological optimization for an irreversible magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Wu Guo-Xing

    2013-01-01

    An irreversible Ericsson refrigeration cycle model is established, in which multi-irreversibilities such as finite-rate heat transfer, regenerative loss, heat leakage, and the efficiency of the regenerator are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the cooling rate, coefficient of performance (COP), power input, exergy output rate, entropy generation rate, and ecological function are derived. The influences of the heat leakage and the time of the regenerative processes on the ecological performance of the refrigerator are analyzed. The optimal regions of the ecological function, cooling rate, and COP are determined and evaluated. Furthermore, some important parameter relations of the refrigerator are revealed and discussed in detail. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful in gaining a deep understanding of the magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Anomalies, Unitarity and Quantum Irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and Box R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a and a', the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total RG flows of a and a' are equal and therefore the a'-ambiguity can be consistently removed through the identification a'=a. The picture that emerges clarifies several long-standing issues. The interplay between unitarity and renormalization implies that the flux of the renormalization group is irreversible. A monotonically decreasing a-function interpolating between the appropriate values is naturally provided by a'. The total a-flow is expressed non-perturbatively as the invariant (i.e. scheme-independent) area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. We test this prediction to the fourth loop order in perturbation theory, in QCD with Nf ~< ...

  4. Examination of various postulates of irreversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1977-01-01

    Firstly, it is shown that it is necessary to break the reversible character of the B.B.G.K.Y. system of equations by means of a postulate of irreversibility to obtain a kinetic equation compatible with the second principle of thermodynamics. Next, three postulates of irreversibility are examined: that of molecular chaos, that of linear relaxation and, finally, that of superposition. Then the corresponding kinetic equations and the expressions for the viscosity coefficient to which they lead are determined. Comparison with experiment is made each time. Lastly, an attempt to obtain an irreversible kinetic equation without introducing a postulate of irreversibility in the B.B.G.K.Y. system is realized. This consists in adding a complementary irreversible term to the fundamental equation of the dynamics of a particle. The suggested term is of quantum origin and leads to a kinetic equation of the Fokker-Planck type.

  5. Irreversibility and Action of the Heat Conduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irreversibility (that is, the “one-sidedness” of time of a physical process can be characterized by using Lyapunov functions in the modern theory of stability. In this theoretical framework, entropy and its production rate have been generally regarded as Lyapunov functions in order to measure the irreversibility of various physical processes. In fact, the Lyapunov function is not always unique. In the represent work, a rigorous proof is given that the entransy and its dissipation rate can also serve as Lyapunov functions associated with the irreversibility of the heat conduction process without the conversion between heat and work. In addition, the variation of the entransy dissipation rate can lead to Fourier’s heat conduction law, while the entropy production rate cannot. This shows that the entransy dissipation rate, rather than the entropy production rate, is the unique action for the heat conduction process, and can be used to establish the finite element method for the approximate solution of heat conduction problems and the optimization of heat transfer processes.

  6. Optimization of an irreversible Stirling regenerative cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-González, G; Cano-Bianco, M; León-Galicia, A; Rivera-Camacho, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Stirling regenerative cycle with some irreversibilities is analyzed. The analyzed irreversibilities are located at the heat exchangers. They receive a finite amount of heat and heat leakage occurs between both reservoirs. Using this model, power and the efficiency at maximum power are obtained. Some optimal design parameters for the exchanger heat areas and thermal conductances are presented. The relation between the power, efficiency and the results obtained are shown graphically

  7. Irreversible thermodynamics of Poisson processes with reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, V; Fort, J

    1999-11-01

    A kinetic model is derived to study the successive movements of particles, described by a Poisson process, as well as their generation. The irreversible thermodynamics of this system is also studied from the kinetic model. This makes it possible to evaluate the differences between thermodynamical quantities computed exactly and up to second-order. Such differences determine the range of validity of the second-order approximation to extended irreversible thermodynamics.

  8. Anesthetic Efficacy in Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Carlos E; Sampaio, Roberta M; Horliana, Anna C R T; Armonia, Paschoal L; Rocha, Rodney G; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2016-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block has a high failure rate in the treatment of mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine, 2% lidocaine and 2% mepivacaine, all in combination with 1:100,000 epinephrine, in patients with irreversible pulpitis of permanent mandibular molars during a pulpectomy procedure. Sixty-six volunteers from the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, randomly received 3.6 mL of local anesthetic as a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The subjective signal of lip numbness, pulpal anesthesia and absence of pain during the pulpectomy procedure were evaluated respectively, by questioning the patient, stimulation using an electric pulp tester and a verbal analogue scale. All patients reported the subjective signal of lip numbness. Regarding pulpal anesthesia success as measured with the pulp tester, the success rate was respectively 68.2% for mepivacaine, 63.6% for articaine and 63.6% for lidocaine. Regarding patients who reported no pain or mild pain during the pulpectomy, the success rate was, respectively 72.7% for mepivacaine, 63.6% for articaine and 54.5% for lidocaine. These differences were not statistically significant. Neither of the solutions resulted in 100% anesthetic success in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars.

  9. Ecological optimization of an irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine with spin-1/2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaowei; Chen Lingen; Wu Feng; Sun Fengrui

    2010-01-01

    A model of a quantum heat engine with heat resistance, internal irreversibility and heat leakage and many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems is established in this paper. The quantum heat engine cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes and is referred to as a spin quantum Carnot heat engine. Based on the quantum master equation and the semi-group approach, equations of some important performance parameters, such as power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological function (a criterion representing the optimal compromise between exergy output rate and exergy loss rate), for the irreversible spin quantum Carnot heat engine are derived. The optimal ecological performance of the heat engine in the classical limit is analyzed with numerical examples. The effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on ecological performance are discussed in detail.

  10. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  11. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Articaine for supplemental intraosseous anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Jason; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effect of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for supplemental intraosseous injection in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-seven emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain upon endodontic access. The Stabident system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Success of the intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain upon endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results demonstrated that anesthetic success was obtained in 86% (32 of 37) of the patients. Maximum mean heart rate was increased 32 beats/minute during the intraosseous injection. We can conclude that when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the intraosseous injection of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine would be successful 86% of the time in achieving pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis.

  13. Irreversibility and self-organization in spin glasses. 1. Origin of irreversibility in spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrov, V.P.; Kurbatov, A.M.

    1989-05-01

    The origin of irreversibility in spin glasses is found out on the basis of the analytical study of the well-known TAP equations. Connection between irreversible jumpwise transitions and a positive feedback in spin glasses is discussed. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  14. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2008-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of magnetic Brayton refrigerators is established, in which the thermal resistance and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. Moreover, the optimal performance parameters are obtained at the maximum coefficient of performance. The optimization region (or criteria) for an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigerator is obtained. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of a magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

  15. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a

  16. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hamiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the

  17. Onsager's reciprocity theorem in extended irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Colin, L.S.; Velasco, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we shall discuss the Onsager relations for the transport coefficients in a dilute monatomic gas described by the extended irreversible thermodynamics. Our discussion is based on a 26 variables description of the system and its corresponding comparison with the kinetic reciprocity between coefficients is shown (Author)

  18. A kinetic equation for irreversible aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, D.H.

    1990-09-01

    We introduce a kinetic equation for describing irreversible aggregation in the ballistic regime, including velocity distributions. The associated evolution for the macroscopic quantities is studied, and the general solution for Maxwell interaction models is obtained in the Fourier representation. (author). 23 refs

  19. Irreversibility and self-organization in spin glasses. 2. Irreversibility and the problem of configuration averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrov, V.P.; Kurbatov, A.M.

    1989-05-01

    The generalization of a configuration averaging to a system displaying irreversible effects is suggested. The properties of the ''pathological'' equilibrium state at low temperatures are determined and discussed. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs

  20. Optima and bounds for irreversible thermodynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper bounds and optima for irreversible thermodynamic processes and their application in different fields are discussed. The tools of finite time thermodynamics are presented and especially optimal control theory is introduced. These methods are applied to heat engines, including models of the Diesel engine and a light-driven engine. Further bounds for irreversible processes are introduced, discussing work deficiency and its relation to thermodynamic length. Moreover the problem of dissipation in systems composed of several subsystems is studied. Finally, the methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to thermodynamic processes described on a more microscopic level. The process used as an example is simulated annealing. It is shown how optimal control theory is applied to find the optimal cooling schedule for this important stochastic optimization method

  1. Time in Science: Reversibility vs. Irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeau, Yves

    To discuss properly the question of irreversibility one needs to make a careful distinction between reversibility of the equations of motion and the choice of the initial conditions. This is also relevant for the rather confuse philosophy of the wave packet reduction in quantum mechanics. The explanation of this reduction requires also to make precise assumptions on what initial data are accessible in our world. Finally I discuss how a given (and long) time record can be shown in an objective way to record an irreversible or reversible process. Or: can a direction of time be derived from its analysis? This leads quite naturally to examine if there is a possible spontaneous breaking of the time reversal symmetry in many body systems, a symmetry breaking that would be put in evidence objectively by looking at certain specific time correlations.

  2. The single-process biochemical reaction of Rubisco: a unified theory and model with the effects of irradiance, CO₂ and rate-limiting step on the kinetics of C₃ and C₄ photosynthesis from gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazdaghi, Hadi

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis is the origin of oxygenic life on the planet, and its models are the core of all models of plant biology, agriculture, environmental quality and global climate change. A theory is presented here, based on single process biochemical reactions of Rubisco, recognizing that: In the light, Rubisco activase helps separate Rubisco from the stored ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), activates Rubisco with carbamylation and addition of Mg²(+), and then produces two products, in two steps: (Step 1) Reaction of Rubisco with RuBP produces a Rubisco-enediol complex, which is the carboxylase-oxygenase enzyme (Enco) and (Step 2) Enco captures CO₂ and/or O₂ and produces intermediate products leading to production and release of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) and Rubisco. PGA interactively controls (1) the carboxylation-oxygenation, (2) electron transport, and (3) triosephosphate pathway of the Calvin-Benson cycle that leads to the release of glucose and regeneration of RuBP. Initially, the total enzyme participates in the two steps of the reaction transitionally and its rate follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. But, for a continuous steady state, Rubisco must be divided into two concurrently active segments for the two steps. This causes a deviation of the steady state from the transitional rate. Kinetic models are developed that integrate the transitional and the steady state reactions. They are tested and successfully validated with verifiable experimental data. The single-process theory is compared to the widely used two-process theory of Farquhar et al. (1980. Planta 149, 78-90), which assumes that the carboxylation rate is either Rubisco-limited at low CO₂ levels such as CO₂ compensation point, or RuBP regeneration-limited at high CO₂. Since the photosynthesis rate cannot increase beyond the two-process theory's Rubisco limit at the CO₂ compensation point, net photosynthesis cannot increase above zero in daylight, and since there is always respiration at

  3. Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  4. Irreversible denaturation of maltodextrin glucosidase studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and turbidity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Megha; Chaudhuri, Tapan K; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of Escherichia coli maltodextrin glucosidase was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism (230 nm), and UV-absorption measurements (340 nm), which were respectively used to monitor heat absorption, conformational unfolding, and the production of solution turbidity. The denaturation was irreversible, and the thermal transition recorded at scan rates of 0.5-1.5 K/min was significantly scan-rate dependent, indicating that the thermal denaturation was kinetically controlled. The absence of a protein-concentration effect on the thermal transition indicated that the denaturation was rate-limited by a mono-molecular process. From the analysis of the calorimetric thermograms, a one-step irreversible model well represented the thermal denaturation of the protein. The calorimetrically observed thermal transitions showed excellent coincidence with the turbidity transitions monitored by UV-absorption as well as with the unfolding transitions monitored by circular dichroism. The thermal denaturation of the protein was thus rate-limited by conformational unfolding, which was followed by a rapid irreversible formation of aggregates that produced the solution turbidity. It is thus important to note that the absence of the protein-concentration effect on the irreversible thermal denaturation does not necessarily means the absence of protein aggregation itself. The turbidity measurements together with differential scanning calorimetry in the irreversible thermal denaturation of the protein provided a very effective approach for understanding the mechanisms of the irreversible denaturation. The Arrhenius-equation parameters obtained from analysis of the thermal denaturation were compared with those of other proteins that have been reported to show the one-step irreversible thermal denaturation. Maltodextrin glucosidase had sufficiently high kinetic stability with a half-life of 68 days at a physiological temperature (37°C).

  5. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past few years substantial efforts were made to optimize the fabrication techniques of various high temperature superconductors for commercial applications. In addition to Bi-2223 tapes, Y-123 coated conductors have the potential for large-scale production and are considered as the second generation of superconducting 'wires' for high current applications. This work reports on magnetic and transport current investigations of Y-123 thick films deposited on either single crystalline substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or on metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). At the beginning, a short introduction of the general idea of a coated conductor and of the different production techniques is presented, followed by a description of the different experimental set-ups and the evaluation methods. The main part starts with the results obtained from SQUID magnetometry and ac-susceptibility measurements including the transition temperatures T c , the field dependence of the magnetic critical current densities and the irreversibility lines. In addition, some issues concerning the granular structure and the inter- and intragranular current distribution of the superconducting films are discussed. The investigations by transport currents are focused on the behavior of the application relevant irreversible parameters. These are the angular and the field dependence of the critical transport current densities at 77 and 60 K, as well as the temperature dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J c

  6. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadras, Angel, E-mail: angel.cuadras@upc.edu; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos [Instrumentation, Sensor and Interfaces Group, Electronic Engineering Department, Escola d' Enginyeria de Telecomunicació i Aeronàutica de Castelldefels EETAC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Tech (UPC), Castelldefels-Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4–8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance.

  7. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadras, Angel; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4–8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance

  8. Statistical mechanics out of equilibrium the irreversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Estrada, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    A Round Table about the issue of Irreversibility and related matters has taken place during the last (20th) Statistical Mechanics Conference, held in Paris (July 1998). This article tries to provide a view (necessarily limited, and hence, uncompleted) of some approaches to the subject: the one based upon deterministic chaos (which is currently giving rise to a very active research) and the classical interpretation due to Boltzmann. An attempt has been made to write this article in a self-contained way, and to avoid a technical presentation wherever possible. (Author) 29 refs

  9. Irreversible JPEG 2000 compression of abdominal CT for primary interpretation: assessment of visually lossless threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Bo Hyoung; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Tae Jung; Kim, Hyuk Jung; Hahn, Seokyung

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the visually lossless threshold for Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compression of contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) images, 100 images were compressed to four different levels: a reversible (as negative control) and irreversible 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. By alternately displaying the original and the compressed image on the same monitor, six radiologists independently determined if the compressed image was distinguishable from the original image. For each reader, we compared the proportion of the compressed images being rated distinguishable from the original images between the reversible compression and each of the three irreversible compressions using the exact test for paired proportions. For each reader, the proportion was not significantly different between the reversible (0-1%, 0/100 to 1/100) and irreversible 5:1 compression (0-3%). However, the proportion significantly increased with the irreversible 10:1 (95-99%) and 15:1 compressions (100%) versus reversible compression in all readers (P < 0.001); 100 and 95% of the 5:1 compressed images were rated indistinguishable from the original images by at least five of the six readers and all readers, respectively. Irreversibly 5:1 compressed abdominal CT images are visually lossless and, therefore, potentially acceptable for primary interpretation. (orig.)

  10. Irreversible electroporation: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagstaff PGK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter GK Wagstaff,1 Mara Buijs,1 Willemien van den Bos,1 Daniel M de Bruin,2 Patricia J Zondervan,1 Jean JMCH de la Rosette,1 M Pilar Laguna Pes1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: The field of focal ablative therapy for the treatment of cancer is characterized by abundance of thermal ablative techniques that provide a minimally invasive treatment option in selected tumors. However, the unselective destruction inflicted by thermal ablation modalities can result in damage to vital structures in the vicinity of the tumor. Furthermore, the efficacy of thermal ablation intensity can be impaired due to thermal sink caused by large blood vessels in the proximity of the tumor. Irreversible electroporation (IRE is a novel ablation modality based on the principle of electroporation or electropermeabilization, in which electric pulses are used to create nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. In theory, IRE has the potential of overcoming the aforementioned limitations of thermal ablation techniques. This review provides a description of the principle of IRE, combined with an overview of in vivo research performed to date in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. Keywords: irreversible electroporation, IRE, tumor, ablation, focal therapy, cancer

  11. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  12. New types of experimental data shape the use of enzyme kinetics for dynamic network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummler, Katja; Lubitz, Timo; Schelker, Max; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of Leonor Michaelis and Maude Menten's paper on the reaction kinetics of the enzyme invertase in 1913, molecular biology has evolved tremendously. New measurement techniques allow in vivo characterization of the whole genome, proteome or transcriptome of cells, whereas the classical enzyme essay only allows determination of the two Michaelis-Menten parameters V and K(m). Nevertheless, Michaelis-Menten kinetics are still commonly used, not only in the in vitro context of enzyme characterization but also as a rate law for enzymatic reactions in larger biochemical reaction networks. In this review, we give an overview of the historical development of kinetic rate laws originating from Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the past 100 years. Furthermore, we briefly summarize the experimental techniques used for the characterization of enzymes, and discuss web resources that systematically store kinetic parameters and related information. Finally, describe the novel opportunities that arise from using these data in dynamic mathematical modeling. In this framework, traditional in vitro approaches may be combined with modern genome-scale measurements to foster thorough understanding of the underlying complex mechanisms. © 2013 FEBS.

  13. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  14. A fundamental trade-off in covalent switching and its circumvention by enzyme bifunctionality in glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tathagata; Croll, David H; Owen, Jeremy A; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Locasale, Jason W; Alon, Uri; Cantley, Lewis C; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2014-05-09

    Covalent modification provides a mechanism for modulating molecular state and regulating physiology. A cycle of competing enzymes that add and remove a single modification can act as a molecular switch between "on" and "off" and has been widely studied as a core motif in systems biology. Here, we exploit the recently developed "linear framework" for time scale separation to determine the general principles of such switches. These methods are not limited to Michaelis-Menten assumptions, and our conclusions hold for enzymes whose mechanisms may be arbitrarily complicated. We show that switching efficiency improves with increasing irreversibility of the enzymes and that the on/off transition occurs when the ratio of enzyme levels reaches a value that depends only on the rate constants. Fluctuations in enzyme levels, which habitually occur due to cellular heterogeneity, can cause flipping back and forth between on and off, leading to incoherent mosaic behavior in tissues, that worsens as switching becomes sharper. This trade-off can be circumvented if enzyme levels are correlated. In particular, if the competing catalytic domains are on the same protein but do not influence each other, the resulting bifunctional enzyme can switch sharply while remaining coherent. In the mammalian liver, the switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is regulated by the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2). We suggest that bifunctionality of PFK-2/FBPase-2 complements the metabolic zonation of the liver by ensuring coherent switching in response to insulin and glucagon.

  15. Basic quantum irreversibility in neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H

    2009-01-01

    The transition between the quantum and classical world is a topical problem in quantum physics, which can be investigated by neutron interferometric methods. Here we discuss unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments and we show how entanglement effects in a single-particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, i.e. an entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom in single-particle systems. This contextuality phenomenon also shows that a quantum system carries much more information than usually extracted. In all cases of an interaction, parasitic beams are produced which cannot be recombined completely with the original beam. This means that a complete reconstruction of the original state is, in principle, impossible which causes a kind of intrinsic irreversibility. Even small interaction potentials can have huge effects when they are applied in quantum Zeno-like experiments. The path towards advanced neutron quantum optics will be discussed.

  16. Synergetcs - a field beyond irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haken, H.

    1978-01-01

    This lecture introduces the reader to synergetics, a very young field of interdisciplinary research, which is devoted to the question of self-organization and, quite generally, to the birth of new qualities. After comparing the role of thermodynamics, irreversible thermodynamics and synergetics in the description of phenomena we give a few examples for self-oragnizing systems. Next we outline the mathematical approach and consider the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equations for non equilibrium phase transitions. We continue by applying these equations to the problem of morphogenesis in biology. We close our lecture by extending the formalism to spatially inhomogeneous or oscillating systems and arrive at order-parameter equations which are capable of describing new large classes of higher bifurcation schemes. (HJ)

  17. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  18. Entropy, Extropy and the Physical Driver of Irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We point out that the fundamental irreversibility of Nature requires the introduction of a suitable measure for the distance from equilibrium. We show that entropy, which is widely held to be such a measure, suffers from the problem that it does not have a physical meaning, since it is introduced on the basis of mathematical arguments. As a consequence, the basic physics beyond irreversibility has remained obscure. We present here a simple but transparent physical approach for solving the problem of irreversibility. This approach shows that extropy, the fundamental thermodynamic variable introduced by Katalin Martinás, is the suitable measure for the distance from equilibrium, since it corresponds to the actual driver of irreversible processes. Since extropy explicitly contains in its definition all the general thermodynamic forces that drive irreversible processes, extropy is the suitable physical measure of irreversibility.

  19. Performance analysis of irreversible molten carbonate fuel cell – Braysson heat engine with ecological objective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Açıkkalp, Emin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An irreversible MCFC - Braysson heat engine is considered. • Its performance is investigated with ecological approach. • A new ecological criteria are presented called as modified ecological function. • Result are obtained numerically and discussed. - Abstract: An irreversible hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell-Braysson heat engine is taken into account. Basic thermodynamics parameters including power output, efficiency and exergy destruction rate are considered. In addition ecological function and new criteria, which is based on ecological function, for heat engines called as modified ecological function is suggested. Optimum conditions for mentioned parameters above are determined. Numerical results are obtained and plotted. Finally, results are discussed.

  20. Effects of irreversibility and economics on the performance of a heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, optimization of the power output of an internally irreversible heat engine is considered for finite capacitance rates of the external fluid streams. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to solve for working fluid temperatures which yield maximum power. Analytical expressions for the maximum power and the cycle efficiency at miximum power are obtained. The effects of irreversibility and economics on the performance of a heat engine are investigated. A relationship between the maximum power point and economically optimum design is identified. It is demonstrated that, with certain reasonable economic assumptions, the maximum power point of a heat engine corresponds to a point of minimum life-cycle costs

  1. Wall heat flux influence on the thermodynamic optimisation of irreversibilities of a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available . The irreversibilities generated were arrived at by computing the entropy generation rates due to the combustion and frictional pressure drop processes. For the combustor where the wall condition was changed from adiabatic to negative heat flux (that is heat leaving...

  2. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performance characteristics of the ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle are investigated and the effects of some key irreversibilities on the performance of the cycle are revealed. By using the optimal-control theory, the optimal relation between the coefficient of performance and the cooling rate is derived and some important performance bounds, e.g., the maximum cooling rate, the maximum coefficient of performance, are determined. Moreover, the optimal operating regions for cooling rate, coefficient of performance and the optimal operating temperatures of a cyclic working substance in the two heat-transfer processes are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of magnetization and magnetic field on the performance characteristics of the cycle are discussed. The results obtained here have general significance and can be deduced to the related ones of the Stirling refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic salt as a cyclic working substance

  3. Formation of Irreversible H-bonds in Cellulose Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Rick S. Reiner; Nicole M. Stark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of formation of irreversible Hbonds in cellulose is important in a number of fields. For example, fields as diverse as pulp and paper and enzymatic saccharification of cellulose are affected. In the present investigation, the phenomenon of formation of irreversible H-bonds is studied in a variety of celluloses and under two different drying conditions....

  4. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  5. Transition to Clean Capital, Irreversible Investment and Stranded Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a Ramsey model with two types of capital to analyze the optimal transition to clean capital when polluting investment is irreversible. The cost of climate mitigation decomposes as a technical cost of using clean instead of polluting capital and a transition cost from the irreversibility of pre-existing polluting capital. With a carbon price, the transition cost can be limit...

  6. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  7. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.; Parker, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  8. Irreversible work in a thermal medium with colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Takahiro

    2009-10-01

    Irreversible work and its fluctuations in a classical system governed by non-Markovian stochastic dynamics are investigated. The production of irreversible work depends not only on the protocol of an operation but also on the details of the non-Markovian memory. We consider a generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and derive an expression for the irreversible work in the case of slow operations by carrying out an expansion of this memory kernel in the parameter representing the length of the memory. We apply our formulation to a harmonically trapped system and demonstrate the efficiency of a cycle by evaluating the irreversible work. It is found that a decrease in the irreversible work due to the memory effect can occur for an operation through which the trap is squeezed. The results for this harmonic system are verified exactly in the case that the memory kernel has exponential decay.

  9. Irreversible work in a thermal medium with colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    Irreversible work and its fluctuations in a classical system governed by non-Markovian stochastic dynamics are investigated. The production of irreversible work depends not only on the protocol of an operation but also on the details of the non-Markovian memory. We consider a generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and derive an expression for the irreversible work in the case of slow operations by carrying out an expansion of this memory kernel in the parameter representing the length of the memory. We apply our formulation to a harmonically trapped system and demonstrate the efficiency of a cycle by evaluating the irreversible work. It is found that a decrease in the irreversible work due to the memory effect can occur for an operation through which the trap is squeezed. The results for this harmonic system are verified exactly in the case that the memory kernel has exponential decay

  10. Irreversible thermodynamic analysis and application for molecular heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Açıkkalp, Emin

    2017-09-01

    Is there a link between the macroscopic approach to irreversibility and microscopic behaviour of the systems? Consumption of free energy keeps the system away from a stable equilibrium. Entropy generation results from the redistribution of energy, momentum, mass and charge. This concept represents the essence of the thermodynamic approach to irreversibility. Irreversibility is the result of the interaction between systems and their environment. The aim of this paper is to determine lost works in a molecular engine and compare results with macro (classical) heat engines. Firstly, irreversible thermodynamics are reviewed for macro and molecular cycles. Secondly, irreversible thermodynamics approaches are applied for a quantum heat engine with -1/2 spin system. Finally, lost works are determined for considered system and results show that macro and molecular heat engines obey same limitations. Moreover, a quantum thermodynamic approach is suggested in order to explain the results previously obtained from an atomic viewpoint.

  11. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  12. Irreversible Sorption of Contaminants During Ferrihydrite Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.L.; Arthur, S.E.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Westrich, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    A better understanding of the fraction of contaminants irreversibly sorbed by minerals is necessary to effectively quantify bioavailability. Ferrihydrite, a poorly crystalline iron oxide, is a natural sink for sorbed contaminants. Contaminants may be sorbed/occluded as ferrihydrite precipitates in natural waters or as it ages and transforms to more crystalline iron oxides such as goethite or hematite. Laboratory studies indicate that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Np, Pb, Sr, U, and Zn are irreversibly sorbed to some extent during the aging and transformation of synthetic ferrihydrite. Barium, Ra and Sr are known to sorb on ferrihydrite in the pH range of 6 to 10 and sorb more strongly at pH values above its zero point of charge (pH> 8). We will review recent literature on metal retardation, including our laboratory and modeling investigation of Ba (as an analogue for Ra) and Sr adsorption/resorption, during ferrihydrite transformation to more crystalline iron oxides. Four ferrihydrite suspensions were aged at pH 12 and 50 C with or without Ba in 0.01 M KN03 for 68 h or in 0.17 M KN03 for 3424 h. Two ferrihydrite suspensions were aged with and without Sr at pH 8 in 0.1 M KN03 at 70C. Barium or Sr sorption, or resorption, was measured by periodically centrifuging suspension subsamples, filtering, and analyzing the filtrate for Ba or Sr. Solid subsamples were extracted with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate (pH 3 in the dark) and with 6 M HCl to determine the Fe and Ba or Sr attributed to ferrihydrite (or adsorbed on the goethite/hematite stiace) and the total Fe and Ba or Sr content, respectively. Barium or Sr occluded in goethite/hematite was determined by the difference between the total Ba or Sr and the oxalate extractable Ba or Sr. The percent transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite/hematite was estimated from the ratio of oxalate and HC1 extractable Fe. All Ba was retained in the precipitates for at least 20 h. Resorption of Ba reached a maximum of 7 to 8% of the Ba2+ added for

  13. Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, S K; Kaushik, S C; Salhotra, R

    2002-01-01

    The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

  14. Performance characteristics and parametric optimization of an irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fang; Lin Guoxing; Chen Jincan; Brueck, Ekkes

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the finite-rate heat transfer in the heat-transfer processes, heat leak between the two external heat reservoirs, regenerative loss, regeneration time, and internal irreversibility due to dissipation of the cycle working substance, an irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump cycle is presented. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of magnetic materials, the performance characteristics of the irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump are investigated and the relationship between the optimal heating load and the coefficient of performance (COP) is derived. Moreover, the maximum heating load and the corresponding COP as well as the maximum COP and the corresponding heating load are obtained. Furthermore, the other optimal performance characteristics are discussed in detail. The results obtained here may provide some new information for the optimal parameter design and the development of real magnetic Ericsson heat-pumps. -- Research Highlights: →The effects of multi-irreversibilities on the performance of a magnetic heat-pump are revealed. →Mathematical expressions of the heating load and the COP are derived and the optimal performance and operating parameters are analyzed and discussed. →Several important performance bounds are determined.

  15. Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S. K.; Kaushik, S. C.; Salhotra, R.

    2002-10-01

    The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency.

  16. Irreversible adsorption of particles on heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Jaszczółt, Katarzyna; Michna, Aneta; Siwek, Barbara; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Zembala, Maria

    2005-12-30

    Methods of theoretical and experimental evaluation of irreversible adsorption of particles, e.g., colloids and globular proteins at heterogeneous surfaces were reviewed. The theoretical models were based on the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach. Within the scope of these models, localized adsorption of particles occurring as a result of short-ranged attractive interactions with discrete adsorption sites was analyzed. Monte-Carlo type simulations performed according to this model enabled one to determine the initial flux, adsorption kinetics, jamming coverage and the structure of the particle monolayer as a function of the site coverage and the particle/site size ratio, denoted by lambda. It was revealed that the initial flux increased significantly with the site coverage theta(s) and the lambda parameter. This behavior was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the scaled particle theory. It also was demonstrated that particle adsorption kinetics and the jamming coverage increased significantly, at fixed site coverage, when the lambda parameter increased. Practically, for alpha = lambda2theta(s) > 1 the jamming coverage at the heterogeneous surfaces attained the value pertinent to continuous surfaces. The results obtained prove unequivocally that spherically shaped sites were more efficient in binding particles in comparison with disk-shaped sites. It also was predicted that for particle size ratio lambda charge. Particle deposition occurred under diffusion-controlled transport conditions and their coverage was evaluated by direct particle counting using the optical and electron microscopy. Adsorption kinetics was quantitatively interpreted in terms of numerical solutions of the governing diffusion equation with the non-linear boundary condition derived from Monte-Carlo simulations. It was proven that for site coverage as low as a few percent the initial flux at heterogeneous surfaces attained the maximum value pertinent to homogeneous

  17. General thermodynamic performance of irreversible absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiling; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang

    2011-01-01

    The absorption heat pump (AHP) was studied with thermodynamics. A four reservoirs model of absorption heat pump was established considering the heat resistance, heat leak and the internal irreversibility. The reasonable working regions, the performance effects of irreversibility, heat leak and the correlation of four components were studied. When studying the effects of internal irreversibility, two internal irreversibility parameters (I he for generator-absorber assembly and I re for evaporator-condenser assembly) were introduced to distinguish the different effects. When studying the heat transfer relations of four components, a universal relationship between the main parameters were deduced. The results which have more realized meaning show that, the reduction of the friction, heat loss, and internal dissipations of the evaporator-condenser assembly are more important than its reduction of generator-absorber assembly, and lessening the heat leak of generator are more important than its reduction of other components to improve the AHP performance.

  18. Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G.

    2013-01-01

    Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.

  19. Kinetic theory of nonequilibrium ensembles, irreversible thermodynamics, and generalized hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...

  20. Buccal infiltration versus inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular 2nd premolars with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, K; Tunga, U; Ozyurek, T

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Forty patients, who had irreversible pulpitis in the mandibular 2 nd premolar teeth, were included in the study. Patients were randomly distributed in two groups. In one group IANB, in the other group buccal infiltration anesthesia were performed. The efficacy of these two different anesthesia techniques on the related teeth was investigated with the Heft-Parker visual analog scale. In addition, with a pulse oximetry device, the changes in the patients' heart rates were compared between the groups. The obtained data were evaluated statistically. Both anesthesia techniques reduced the pain significantly in patients before the administration (P 0.05). Both of the anesthesia techniques increased the heart rate (P < 0.05). The increase in the heart rate of the patients was significantly higher in the buccal infiltration anesthesia group than the other anesthesia group (P < 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vivo study, there was no difference between the efficacies of the buccal infiltration anesthesia and IANB anesthesia in the mandibular 2 nd premolar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Buccal infiltration anesthesia caused more discomfort in the patients compared with the IANB during the administration.

  1. Anisotropic shift of the irreversibility line by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzopf, F.M.; Wiesinger, H.P.; Weber, H.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Frischherz, M.C.; Kirk, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    The irreversibility line of high-T c superconductors is shifted considerably by irradiating the material with fast neutrons. The anisotropic and non-monotonous shift is qualitatively explained by a simple model based on an interaction between three pinning mechanisms, the intrinsic pinning by the ab-planes, the weak pinning by the pre-irradiation defect structure, and strong pinning by neutron induced defect cascades. A correlation between the cascade density and the position of the irreversibility line is observed

  2. OPTIMAL PROCESSES IN IRREVERSIBLE THERMODYNAMICS AND MICROECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Kazakov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes general methodology that allows one to extend Carnot efficiency of classical thermodynamic for zero rate processes onto thermodynamic systems with finite rate. We define the class of minimal dissipation processes and show that it represents generalization of reversible processes and determines the limiting possibilities of finite rate systems. The described methodology is then applied to microeconomic exchange systems yielding novel estimates of limiting efficiencies for such systems.

  3. Attribution of irreversible loss to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Bresch, David; Hansen, Gerrit; James, Rachel; Mechler, Reinhard; Stone, Dáithí; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    The Paris Agreement (2015) under the UNFCCC has anchored loss and damage in a separate article which specifies that understanding and support should be enhanced in areas addressing loss and damage such as early warning, preparedness, insurance and resilience. Irreversible loss is a special category under loss and damage but there is still missing clarity over what irreversible loss actually includes. Many negative impacts of climate change may be handled or mitigated by existing risk management, reduction and absorption approaches. Irreversible loss, however, is thought to be insufficiently addressed by risk management. Therefore, countries potentially or actually affected by irreversible loss are calling for other measures such as compensation, which however is highly contested in international climate policy. In Paris (2015) a decision was adopted that loss and damage as defined in the respective article of the agreement does not involve compensation and liability. Nevertheless, it is likely that some sort of mechanism will eventually need to come into play for irreversible loss due to anthropogenic climate change, which might involve compensation, other forms of non-monetary reparation, or transformation. Furthermore, climate litigation has increasingly been attempted to address negative effects of climate change. In this context, attribution is important to understand the drivers of change, what counts as irreversible loss due to climate change, and, possibly, who or what is responsible. Here we approach this issue by applying a detection and attribution perspective on irreversible loss. We first analyze detected climate change impacts as assessed in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. We distinguish between irreversible loss in physical, biological and human systems, and accordingly identify the following candidates of irreversible loss in these systems: loss of glaciers and ice sheets, loss of subsurface ice (permafrost) and related loss of lake systems; loss

  4. Anesthetic efficacy of articaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic versus asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta-Figueroa, Liliana; Arzate-Sosa, Gabriel; Mendieta-Zeron, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth and if individual patient factors, pulpal disease characteristics, and previous medication are correlated to local anesthetic success. A second objective was to determine the specificity and sensibility of a cold test for prediction of anesthetic success prior to endodontic treatment. Seventy patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth received 1.6 mL of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) using a metal guide. The anesthetic solution was injected with a computer-preprogrammed delivery system for local anesthesia. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after solution deposition; later, patients rated their discomfort using the visual analog scale (VAS). The success rate for the IA NB using articaine was 64.2% in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and 86.9% in patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Cold test prior to root canal treatment had a specificity and sensibility of 12.5% and 87.1%, respectively. The anesthetic efficacy of articaine in irreversible pulpitis is moderately acceptable, and anesthetic success increases when the patient has been premedicated with NSAIDs. The cold test appears to be a favorable indicator for predicting anesthetic success.

  5. Performance analysis of air-standard Diesel cycle using an alternative irreversible heat transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Akash, B.; Abu-Nada, E.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the investigation of air-standard Diesel cycle under irreversible heat transfer conditions. The effects of various engine parameters are presented. An alternative approach is used to evaluate net power output and cycle thermal efficiency from more realistic parameters such as air-fuel ratio, fuel mass flow rate, intake temperature, engine design parameters, etc. It is shown that for a given fuel flow rate, thermal efficiency and maximum power output increase with decreasing air-fuel ratio. Also, for a given air-fuel ratio, the maximum power output increases with increasing fuel rate. However, the effect of the thermal efficiency is limited

  6. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the “dust bowl” era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ≈1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

  7. Reversible and Irreversible Binding of Nanoparticles to Polymeric Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H. Binder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.

  8. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  9. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran

    2015-05-06

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  10. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran; Vuong, Francois; Hu, Jingyi; Li, Sheng; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Cornelissen, Emile R.; Heijman, Sebastiaan G.J.; Rietveld, Luuk C.

    2015-01-01

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  11. Unitarity and irreversibility in chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.H.; Saphir, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the spectral properties of the Perron-Frobenius operator U, associated with some simple highly chaotic maps. We obtain a spectral decomposition of U in terms of generalized eigenfunctions of U and its adjoint. The corresponding eigenvalues are related to the decay rates of correlation functions and have magnitude less than one, so that physically measurable quantities manifestly approach equilibrium. To obtain decaying eigenstates of unitary and isometric operators it is necessary to extend the Hilbert-space formulation of dynamical systems. We describe and illustrate a method to obtain the decomposition explicitly

  12. [Mineral trioxide aggragate pulpotomy for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis: a preliminary clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chufang; Zhao, Yuming; Yang, Yuan; Qin, Man

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the preliminary clinical effect of mineral trioxide aggragate (MTA) pulpotomy on immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Twenty-six immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis were recuited from Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. These teeth were treated with partial or full pulpotomy according to the condition of pulp bleeding. MTA was used as pulp capping material. Patients were recalled periodically after the treatment. Clinical and radiographic effects were evaluated. At one year follow-up, 20 teeth were evaluated as healed or healing, 2 teeth were evaluated as failure and 4 teeth were dropped out. The success rate was considered 91% (20/22). A dentinal bridge was radiographcally observed underneath the pulpotomy site in 13 teeth(65%, 13/20). MTA pulpotomy is an effective method for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. But further research with longer follow up period is required.

  13. A new approach to irreversibility in deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    We use concepts of statistical mechanics to discuss the irreversible character of the experimental data in deep inelastic collisions. A definition of irreversibility proposed by Ruch permits a unified overview on current theories which describe these reactions. An information theoretical analysis of the data leads to a Fokker-Planck equation for the collective variables (excitation energy, charge and mass). The concept of mixing distance can serve as a quantitative measure to characterize the 'approach to equilibrium'. We apply it to the brownian motion as an illustration and also to the phenomenological analysis of deep inelastic scattering data with interesting results. (orig.)

  14. The thermomechanics of nonlinear irreversible behaviors an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    1999-01-01

    In this invaluable book, macroscopic irreversible thermodynamics is presented in its realm and its splendor by appealing to the notion of internal variables of state. This applies to both fluids and solids with or without microstructures of mechanical or electromagnetic origin. This unmatched richness of essentially nonlinear behaviors is the result of the use of modern mathematical techniques such as convex analysis in a clear-cut framework which allows one to put under the umbrella of "irreversible thermodynamics" behaviors which until now have been commonly considered either not easily cove

  15. Logic reversibility and thermodynamic irreversibility demonstrated by DNAzyme-based Toffoli and Fredkin logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar

    2012-12-26

    The Toffoli and Fredkin gates were suggested as a means to exhibit logic reversibility and thereby reduce energy dissipation associated with logic operations in dense computing circuits. We present a construction of the logically reversible Toffoli and Fredkin gates by implementing a library of predesigned Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzymes and their respective substrates. Although the logical reversibility, for which each set of inputs uniquely correlates to a set of outputs, is demonstrated, the systems manifest thermodynamic irreversibility originating from two quite distinct and nonrelated phenomena. (i) The physical readout of the gates is by fluorescence that depletes the population of the final state of the machine. This irreversible, heat-releasing process is needed for the generation of the output. (ii) The DNAzyme-powered logic gates are made to operate at a finite rate by invoking downhill energy-releasing processes. Even though the three bits of Toffoli's and Fredkin's logically reversible gates manifest thermodynamic irreversibility, we suggest that these gates could have important practical implication in future nanomedicine.

  16. Anaesthetic efficacy of lidocaine/clonidine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmehr, E; Aminozarbian, M G; Akhavan, A; Mahdavian, P; Davoudi, A

    2017-06-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind study aimed to compare the efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine versus lidocaine with clonidine for inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and hemodynamic stability (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure) in patients with irreversible pulpitis. One hundred patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molar teeth randomly received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with clonidine (15 μg mL -1 ) or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (12.5 μg mL -1 ), using a conventional IANB technique. Endodontic access cavities were prepared 15 min after solution deposition, and all patients were required to have profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recording) upon endodontic access cavity preparation or initial canal instrumentation. The hemodynamic parameters were measured before, during and 5, 10 and 30 min after administration. Finally, the collected data were subjected to independent t-test, chi-square and Fisher's exact test using spss software ver.20 at a significant level of 0.05. The success rates for IANB using lidocaine with epinephrine and lidocaine with clonidine solutions were 29% and 59%, respectively. The clonidine group exhibited a significantly higher success rate (P < 0.05). Five minutes after drug administration, systolic blood pressure and heart rate significantly increased in the lidocaine with epinephrine group and insignificantly decreased in lidocaine with clonidine group. For mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis, addition of clonidine to lidocaine improved the success rate of IANB compared to a standard lidocaine/epinephrine solution. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Reversible myocardial ischaemia or irreversible myocardial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, D.; Hanrath, P.; Kupper, W.; Bleifeld, W.; Montz, R.; Knop, J.; Stritzke, P.; Kroeger, E.; Bleese, N.

    1978-01-01

    The results of biphasis 201 thallium ( 201 Tl) scanning were compared with those of coronary arteriography, left ventricular angiography and stress ECG in 56 patients with coronary artery disease and six with no evidence of heart disease. There were 104 201 Tl defects, 50 of them reversible. The defects were always located in the area supplied by a critically stenotic coronary artery. Correlation of regional wall motion with 201 Tl activity demonstrated that in all forms of abnormal wall motion there was either ischaemia or fibrosis. The resting LV angiogram thus does not make it possible to distinguish between myocardial ischaemia and fibrosis. Taking the LV angiogram as a standard, the rate of false-positive 201 Tl scintigrams was 5%, that of false-negative ones 23%. The biphasic 201 Tl scintigram was more sensitive than the stress ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia. It furthermore made it possible to localize the ischaemic (or fibrotic) region within the LV and to estimate its size. (orig.) [de

  18. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and the Jeffreys type constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyukov, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    A postulate of extended irreversible thermodynamics is considered, according to which the entropy density is a function of the internal energy, the specific volume, and their material time derivatives. On the basis of this postulate, entropy balance equations and phenomenological equations are obtained, which directly lead to the Jeffreys type constitutive equations

  19. Investment Irreversibility and Precautionary Savings in General Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, João

    than irreversibility effects. If shocks are idiosyncratic and affect a cross section of agents over capital, an increase in their variance may induce an increase in aggregate investment even if all agents have an incentive to invest less, because zero investment is now an active lower bound for part...

  20. The degree of irreversibility in deterministic finite automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Holzer, Markus; Kutrib, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the language, and show that the degree induces a strict infinite hierarchy of languages. We examine how the degree of irreversibility behaves under the usual language operations union, intersection, complement, concatenation, and Kleene star, showing tight bounds (some asymptotically) on the degree....

  1. Optimization at different loads by minimization of irreversibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.F.V.; Niu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the irreversibility of the power cycle was chosen as the objective function as this function can successfully measure both the quality and quantity of energy flow in the cycle. Minimization of the irreversibility ensures that the power cycle will operate more efficiently. One feature of the present work is that the boiler, turbine, condenser and heaters are treated as one system for the purpose of optimization. In the optimization model, nine regression formulae are used, which are obtained from the measured test data. From the results of the present work, it can be seen that the optimization model developed can represent the effect of operational parameters on the power plant first and second law efficiency. Some of the results can be used to provide guidance for the optimal operation of the power plant. When the power cycle works at full load, the main steam temperature and pressure should be at the upper limit for minimal irreversibility of the system. If the load is less than 65% of its design capacity, the steam temperature and pressure should be decreased for a lower irreversibility of the system

  2. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for irreversible heat pumps working on reversed Brayton cycle with constant-temperature heat reservoirs by taking exergetic efficiency as the optimization objective combining exergy concept with finite-time thermodynamics (FTT). Exergetic efficiency is ...

  3. Reversible and irreversible heat engine and refrigerator cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2018-05-01

    Although no reversible thermodynamic cycles exist in nature, nearly all cycles covered in textbooks are reversible. This is a review, clarification, and extension of results and concepts for quasistatic, reversible and irreversible processes and cycles, intended primarily for teachers and students. Distinctions between the latter process types are explained, with emphasis on clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) cycles. Specific examples of each are examined, including Carnot, Kelvin and Stirling cycles. For the Stirling cycle, potentially useful task-specific efficiency measures are proposed and illustrated. Whether a cycle behaves as a traditional refrigerator or heat engine can depend on whether it is reversible or irreversible. Reversible and irreversible-quasistatic CW cycles both satisfy Carnot's inequality for thermal efficiency, η ≤ η C a r n o t . Irreversible CCW cycles with two reservoirs satisfy the coefficient of performance inequality K ≤ K C a r n o t . However, an arbitrary reversible cycle satisfies K ≥ K C a r n o t when compared with a reversible Carnot cycle operating between its maximum and minimum temperatures, a potentially counterintuitive result.

  4. Measures of thermodynamic irreversibility in deterministic and stochastic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    It is generally observed that if a dynamical system is sufficiently complex, then as time progresses it will share out energy and other properties amongst its component parts to eliminate any initial imbalances, retaining only fluctuations. This is known as energy dissipation and it is closely associated with the concept of thermodynamic irreversibility, measured by the increase in entropy according to the second law. It is of interest to quantify such behaviour from a dynamical rather than a thermodynamic perspective and to this end stochastic entropy production and the time-integrated dissipation function have been introduced as analogous measures of irreversibility, principally for stochastic and deterministic dynamics, respectively. We seek to compare these measures. First we modify the dissipation function to allow it to measure irreversibility in situations where the initial probability density function (pdf) of the system is asymmetric as well as symmetric in velocity. We propose that it tests for failure of what we call the obversibility of the system, to be contrasted with reversibility, the failure of which is assessed by stochastic entropy production. We note that the essential difference between stochastic entropy production and the time-integrated modified dissipation function lies in the sequence of procedures undertaken in the associated tests of irreversibility. We argue that an assumed symmetry of the initial pdf with respect to velocity inversion (within a framework of deterministic dynamics) can be incompatible with the Past Hypothesis, according to which there should be a statistical distinction between the behaviour of certain properties of an isolated system as it evolves into the far future and the remote past. Imposing symmetry on a velocity distribution is acceptable for many applications of statistical physics, but can introduce difficulties when discussing irreversible behaviour. (paper)

  5. Unexpected results from direct measurement, with a torsion microbalance in a closed system, of calcification rates of the coral Agaricia agaricites (Scleractinia:Agariicidae and concomitant changes in seawater pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Sandeman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is impacting the calcification of corals, but the mechanisms of calcification are still unclear. To explore the relationship between calcification and pH, small pieces of coral were suspended from a torsion microbalance in gently stirred, temperature controlled, seawater in a closed chamber. Net calcification rate and pH were continuously monitored while light, temperature or pH could be manipulated. The coral pieces were from the edges of thin plates of Agaricia agaricites and were studied alive and freshly collected. Unexpectedly, when calcification was taking place (n=9, 0.082 mg.hr-1.cm-2, as determined by weight increase, the pH of the surrounding seawater medium changed little (n=10, -0.0047 pH units.hr-1.cm-2. When calcification was not taking place the decrease of seawater pH was an order of magnitude higher, -0.013 pH units.hr-1.cm-2. This is the opposite of what is expected when calcium carbonate (CaCO3 forms. Similarly, fresh skeleton initially showed no change of pH in the seawater medium although the rates of weight gain were high (upto 1.0 mg hr-1.cm-2. After 10 hours, as the rate of deposition decreased following a generalized Michaelis-Menten growth curve, the pH began to decrease dramatically indicating an increase of CO2 in the seawater. These unexpected results can be explained if unstable calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO³2 is formed in the organic matrix/carbonic anhydrase surface and slowly transforms later to CaCO3. Pieces of living coral monitored in the chamber for 30 hours gained weight during the day and loss it at night. The loss would be consistent with the transformation of Ca(HCO³2 to CaCO3 with the release of CO2. The mean calcification rate of live coral was greater (n=8, p=0.0027 in high light (120 μmol.s-1.m-2 at 0.098 mg.hr-1.cm-2, compared to 0.063 mg.hr-1.cm-2 in low light (12 μmol.s-1.m-2. However, at the same time the mean rate of pH change was -0.0076 under low light compared to -0

  6. Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation during the culturing of bakers' yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, B

    1961-01-01

    A synthesis was made of the effects of various factors on the rate of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The rate obeyed the Michaelis-Menten equation, was independent of the concentration of yeast, was maximal at 20/sup 0/ (0.61 ml ethanol/g dry yeast/h), was not significantly affected between pH 6.5 and 3.0 but declined at 3.0, was inhibited by ethanol at a rate proportional to the concentration squared (at ethanol = 12 volume %, the fermentation rate was practically zero), and was enhanced by the addition of phosphorus when a P-poor yeast was employed.

  7. Effect of preoperative alprazolam on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbas Ali; Saatchi, Masoud; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Rostamizadeh, Nasim; Sharafi, Fatemeh

    2012-10-01

    Success of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block decreases in patients with irreversible pulpitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative administration of alprazolam on the success of the IAN block for teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty patients with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular molar were selected for this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The patients received identical capsules of either 0.5 mg of alprazolam or placebo 45 minutes before the administration of a conventional IAN block. Access cavity preparation was initiated 15 minutes after the IAN block injection. Lip numbness was recorded for all the patients. Success was defined as no or mild pain on the basis of visual analogue scale recordings during access cavity preparation and initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by t test, Mann-Whitney, and χ(2) tests. The success rate was 53% for alprazolam group and 40% for placebo group, with no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .301). Within the scope of the current study, preoperative oral administration of 0.5 mg of alprazolam did not improve the success of the IAN block in mandibular molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis, and the success rate was not adequate to ensure profound pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparison of Different Volumes of Articaine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block for Molar Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazarpoor, Ramin; Parirokh, Masoud; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Abbott, Paul V

    2015-09-01

    Achieving anesthesia in mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis is very difficult. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 1.8 mL and 3.6 mL articaine for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) when treating molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 82 first mandibular molar teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis randomly received conventional IANB injection either with 1 (1.8 mL) or 2 cartridges (3.6 mL) of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The patients recorded their pain before and during access cavity preparation as well as during root canal instrumentation using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. No or mild pain was considered as successful anesthesia. Data were analyzed by t and chi-square tests. Eighty patients were eligible to participate in this study, which showed that 3.6 mL articaine provided a significantly higher success rate (77.5%) of IANBs compared with 1.8 mL of the same anesthetic solution (27.5%) although neither group had 100% successful anesthesia (P < .001). Increasing the volume of articaine provided a significantly higher success rate of IANBs in mandibular first molar teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, but it did not result in 100% anesthetic success. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. BNNT-mediated irreversible electroporatio: its potential on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Raffa, Cristina Riggio, Michael W. Smith, Kevin C. Jordan, Wei Cao, Alfred Cuschieri

    2012-10-01

    Tissue ablation, i.e., the destruction of undesirable tissues, has become an important minimally invasive technique alternative to resection surgery for the treatment of tumours. Several methods for tissue ablation are based on thermal techniques using cold, e.g. cryosurgery [1] or heat, e.g. radiofrequency [2] or high-intensity focused ultrasound [3] or nanoparticle-mediated irradiation [4]. Alternatively, irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been proposed as non thermal technique for minimally invasive tissue ablation based on the use of electrical pulses. When the electric field is applied to a cell, a change in transmembrane potential is induced, which can cause biochemical and physiological changes of the cell. When the threshold value of the transmembrane potential is exceeded, the cell membrane becomes permeable, thus allowing entrance of molecules that otherwise cannot cross the membrane [5]. A further increase in the electric field intensity may cause irreversible membrane permeabilization and cell death. These pulses create irreversible defects (pores) in the cell membrane lipid bilayer, causing cell death through loss of cell homeostasis [6]. This is desirable in tumour ablation in order to produce large cell death, without the use of cytostatic drugs. A study of Davalos, Mir and Rubinsky showed that IRE can ablate substantial volumes of tissue without inducing a thermal effect and therefore serve as an independent and new tissue ablation modality; this opened the way to the use of IRE in surgery [7]. Their finding was subsequently confirmed in studies on cells [8], small animal models [9] and in large animal models in the liver [10] and the heart [11]. The most important finding in these papers is that irreversible electroporation produces precisely delineated ablation zones with cell scale resolution between ablated and non-ablated areas, without zones in which the extent of damage changes gradually as during thermal ablation. Furthermore, it is

  10. Prostaglandin E2 to diagnose between reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, M; Ferrante, M; Ciavarelli, L; Brunetti, L; Vacca, M; Spoto, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify a correlation between the grade of inflammation and the concentration of PGE2 in human dental pulp. A total of 25 human dental pulps were examined by histological analysis and radioimmunologic dosage of PGE2. The pulps used in this experiment were from healthy and symptomatic teeth; the first ones were collected from teeth destined to be extracted for orthodontic reasons. An increase was observed of PGE2 in reversible pulpitis compared with healthy pulps and with the irreversible pulpitis and the clear decrease of these when NSAIDs are taken. This study demonstrates that PGE2 level is correlated to histological analysis thus allowing to distinguish symptomatic teeth in reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

  11. Reversing the irreversible: From limit cycles to emergent time symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2018-01-01

    In 1979 Penrose hypothesized that the arrows of time are explained by the hypothesis that the fundamental laws are time irreversible [R. Penrose, in General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey (1979)]. That is, our reversible laws, such as the standard model and general relativity are effective, and emerge from an underlying fundamental theory which is time irreversible. In [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.084007; 90, 044035 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.044035; 93, 084039 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.084039] we put forward a research program aiming at realizing just this. The aim is to find a fundamental description of physics above the Planck scale, based on irreversible laws, from which will emerge the apparently reversible dynamics we observe on intermediate scales. Here we continue that program and note that a class of discrete dynamical systems are known to exhibit this very property: they have an underlying discrete irreversible evolution, but in the long term exhibit the properties of a time reversible system, in the form of limit cycles. We connect this to our original model proposal in [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.084007], and show that the behaviors obtained there can be explained in terms of the same phenomenon: the attraction of the system to a basin of limit cycles, where the dynamics appears to be time reversible. Further than that, we show that our original models exhibit the very same feature: the emergence of quasiparticle excitations obtained in the earlier work in the space-time description is an expression of the system's convergence to limit cycles when seen in the causal set description.

  12. Irreversible pulpitis and achieving profound anesthesia: Complexities and managements

    OpenAIRE

    Modaresi, Jalil; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid; Sabzian, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Dental pain management is one of the most critical aspects of modern dentistry. Irreversible pulpitis and further root canal therapy might cause an untolerated pain to the patients. The improvements in anesthetic agents and techniques were one of the advantages of studying nerve biology and stimulation. This article tried to overview of the nerve activities in inflammatory environments or induced pain. Furthermore, the proper advises, and supplementary techniques were reviewed for better pain...

  13. β-characterization by irreversibility analysis: A thermoeconomic diagnosis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleta-Aguilar, Alejandro; Olivares-Arriaga, Abraham; Cano-Andrade, Sergio; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reconciliation methodology for the diagnosis of energy systems. The methodology is based on the characterization of irreversibilities in the components of an energy system. These irreversibilities can be attributed to malfunctions or dysfunctions. The characterization of irreversibilities as presented here makes possible to reconcile the Actual Operating Condition (AOC) versus the Reference Operating Condition (ROC) of the energy system in a real-time manner. The diagnosis methodology introduces a parameter β, which represents the total exergy or useful work of a component in terms of its inlet and output streams at either design (full-load) or off-design (partial-load) conditions. The methodology is applied to the diagnosis of an actual Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant. Data for the model is obtained directly from the plant by monitoring its performance at every time; thus, a real-time thermodynamic diagnosis for the system is obtained. Results show that the methodology presented here is able to detect and quantify the deviations on the performance of the NGCC power plant during its real-time operation. Based on the detection and quantification of these deviations, the user is able to make recommendations to schedule maintenance on the components where the irreversibilities are present. - Highlights: • A new methodology for thermoeconomic diagnosis of energy systems is presented. • A parameter β is defined for characterization of the components of an energy system. • The β characterization methodology is tested in a real 420 MW NGCC power plant. • Results show that the complexity of a diagnosis analysis is reduced substantially.

  14. Variability of Irreversible Poleward Transport in the Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Mark; Douglass, Anne; Newman, Paul; Nash, Eric; Witte, Jacquelyn; Ziemke, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The ascent and descent of the Brewer-Dobson circulation plays a large role in determining the distributions of many constituents in the extratropical lower stratosphere. However, relatively fast, quasi-horizontal transport out of the tropics and polar regions also significantly contribute to determining these distributions. The tropical tape recorder signal assures that there must be outflow from the tropics into the extratropical lower stratosphere. The phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and state of the polar vortex are known to modulate the transport from the tropical and polar regions, respectively. In this study we examine multiple years of ozone distributions in the extratropical lower stratosphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Aura High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). The distributions are compared with analyses of irreversible, meridional isentropic transport. We show that there is considerable year-to-year seasonal variability in the amount of irreversible transport from the tropics, which is related to both the phase of the QBO and the state of the polar vortex. The reversibility of the transport is consistent with the number of observed breaking waves. The variability of the atmospheric index of refraction in the lower stratosphere is shown to be significantly correlated with the wave breaking and amount of irreversible transport. Finally, we will show that the seasonal extratropical stratosphere to troposphere transport of ozone can be substantially modulated by the amount of irreversible meridional transport in the lower stratosphere and we investigate how observable these differences are in data of tropospheric ozone.

  15. Magnetic irreversibility in granular superconductors: ac susceptibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.; Obradors, X.; Fontcuberta, J.; Vallet, M.; Gonzalez-Calbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements of a ceramic weak-coupled superconductor in very low ac fields (2mG, 111Hz) are reported. We present evidence for the observation of the magnetic irreversibility following a ZFC-FC thermal cycling by means of ac susceptibilty measurements. It is shown that this technique also reflect local magnetic field effects in granular superconductors, as previously suggested in microwave surface resistance and I-V characteristics. (orig.)

  16. Optimal thermoeconomic performance of an irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhichao; Guo, Juncheng; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the Langevin theory of classical statistical mechanics, the magnetization, entropy, and iso-field heat capacity of ferromagnetic materials are analyzed and their mathematical expressions are derived. An irreversible regenerative Ericsson refrigeration cycle by using a ferromagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which finite heat capacity rates of low and high temperature reservoirs, non-perfect regenerative heat of the refrigeration cycle, additional regenerative heat loss, etc. are taken into account. Based on the regenerative refrigeration cycle model, a thermoeconomic function is introduced as one objective function and optimized with respect to the temperatures of the working substance in the two iso-thermal processes. By means of numerical calculation, the effects of the effective factor of the heat exchangers in high/low temperature reservoir sides, efficiency of the regenerator, heat capacity rate of the low temperature reservoir, and applied magnetic field on the optimal thermoeconomic function as well as the corresponding cooling rate and coefficient of performance are revealed. The results obtained in this paper can provide some theoretical guidance for the optimal design of actual regenerative magnetic refrigerator cycle. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic performance of ferromagnetic material is analyzed. • An irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle is set up. • The thermoeconomic objective function is introduced and optimized. • Impacts of the thermoeconomic and other parameters are discussed.

  17. Kinetics of irreversible thermal decomposition of dissociating nitrogen dioxide with nitrogen oxide or oxygen additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of NO or O 2 admixtures on kinetics of the irreversible thermal decomposition of nitrogen dioxide at temperatures 460-520 deg C and pressures 4-7 MPa has been studied. It follows from experimental data that the rate of N 2 O 4 formation reduces with the increase of partial pressure of oxygen or decrease of partial pressure of nitrogen oxide. The same regularity is seen for the rate of nitrogen formation. The rate constants of N 2 O formation in dissociating nitrogen tetroxide with oxygen or nitrogen oxide additions agree satisfactorily with previously published results, obtained in stoichiometric mixtures. The appreciable discrepancy at 520 deg C is bind with considerable degree of nitrogen oxide transformation which constitutes approximately 14%. It is determined that the kinetics of formation of the products of irreversible N 2 O and N 2 decomposition in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 mixtures is described by identical 3NO → N 2 O+NO 2 and N 2 O+NO → N 2 +NO 2 reactions

  18. Irreversibility analysis in the process of solar distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez, S; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; López, R; Lara, A

    2017-01-01

    In this work an irreversibility analysis for the thermal process of solar distillation of three different substances is presented, for which it employs a solar still of a slope where three experimental tests with 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl 2 were performed. Temperature data principally in the glass cover, absorber plate, fluid, environment and the incident solar radiation on the device were obtained. With measurements of temperature, solar radiation and exergetic balance, irreversibilities are found on the device. The results show that the highest values of irreversibilities are concentrated in the absorber plate with an average of 321 W, 342 W and 276 W, followed by the cover glass with an average of 75.8 W, 80.4 W and 86.7 W and finally the fluid with 15.3 W, 15.9 W and 16 W, for 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl 2 . (paper)

  19. Irreversible performance of a quantum harmonic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezek, Yair; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-05-01

    The unavoidable irreversible loss of power in a heat engine is found to be of quantum origin. Following thermodynamic tradition, a model quantum heat engine operating in an Otto cycle is analysed, where the working medium is composed of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators and changes in volume correspond to changes in the curvature of the potential well. Equations of motion for quantum observables are derived for the complete cycle of operation. These observables are sufficient to determine the state of the system and with it all thermodynamical variables. Once the external controls are set, the engine settles to a limit cycle. Conditions for optimal work, power and entropy production are derived. At high temperatures and quasistatic operating conditions, the efficiency at maximum power coincides with the endoreversible result \\eta_q=1-\\sqrt{{T_c}/{T_h}} . The optimal compression ratio varies from {\\cal C} =\\sqrt{T_h/T_c} in the quasistatic limit where the irreversibility is dominated by heat conductance to {\\cal C} =(T_h/T_c)^{1/4} in the sudden limit when the irreversibility is dominated by friction. When the engine deviates from adiabatic conditions, the performance is subject to friction. The origin of this friction can be traced to the noncommutability of the kinetic and potential energy of the working medium.

  20. Irreversible Local Markov Chains with Rapid Convergence towards Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C.; Krauth, Werner

    2017-12-01

    We study the continuous one-dimensional hard-sphere model and present irreversible local Markov chains that mix on faster time scales than the reversible heat bath or Metropolis algorithms. The mixing time scales appear to fall into two distinct universality classes, both faster than for reversible local Markov chains. The event-chain algorithm, the infinitesimal limit of one of these Markov chains, belongs to the class presenting the fastest decay. For the lattice-gas limit of the hard-sphere model, reversible local Markov chains correspond to the symmetric simple exclusion process (SEP) with periodic boundary conditions. The two universality classes for irreversible Markov chains are realized by the totally asymmetric SEP (TASEP), and by a faster variant (lifted TASEP) that we propose here. We discuss how our irreversible hard-sphere Markov chains generalize to arbitrary repulsive pair interactions and carry over to higher dimensions through the concept of lifted Markov chains and the recently introduced factorized Metropolis acceptance rule.

  1. Study on kinetics of glucose uptake by some species of plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenquan; Wang, Xian; Zhang, Yaohua

    1993-03-01

    The rates of glucose uptake by some species of plankton were determined by3H-glucose tracer method. Experimental results indicated that the observed glucose uptake at natural seawater concentrations by Platymonas subcordiformis and Brachionus plicatilis was principally a metabolic process fitted with the Michaelis-Menten equation in the range of adaptive temperatures. Heterotrophic uptake by Platymonas subcordiformis was mainly dependent on diffusion at high glucose levels. The uptake by Brachionus plicatilis showed active transport even at high glucose levels, indicating its high heterotrophic activity. The uptake rate by Artemia salina was lower, and its V m/K ratio was lower than those of the other two species of plankton.

  2. Irreversible dynamics, Onsager-Casimir symmetry, and an application to turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2014-10-01

    Irreversible contributions to the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems can be formulated in terms of dissipative, or irreversible, brackets. We discuss the structure of such irreversible brackets in view of a degeneracy implied by energy conservation, where we consider different types of symmetries of the bracket corresponding to the Onsager and Casimir symmetries of linear irreversible thermodynamics. Slip and turbulence provide important examples of antisymmetric irreversible brackets and offer guidance for the more general modeling of irreversible dynamics without entropy production. Conversely, turbulence modeling could benefit from elucidating thermodynamic structure. The examples suggest constructing antisymmetric irreversible brackets in terms of completely antisymmetric functions of three indices. Irreversible brackets without well-defined symmetry properties can arise for rare events, causing big configurational changes.

  3. Entransy analysis of irreversible heat pump using Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws and relations with its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Açıkkalp, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Entransy analysis was made for irreversible heat pump. • Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws were used. • Entransy dissipations were defined and determined. • Relations between entransy and other thermodynamic parameters were determined. - Abstract: An irreversible heat pump was investigated via entransy analysis and performance criteria. In the analyses, two different convective heat transfer laws were applied to the considered system: the Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws. The irreversibilities in the system are the result of a finite heat transfer rate, a heat leak and internal irreversibilities, including friction, turbulence etc. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis was performed in detail, and the numerical solutions were used for the conducted analysis. The maximum entransy dissipation (critical points) ranges from 18436.7 kW K to 18855.3 kW K according to y for Newton’s law; however, there is no maximum point for the Dulon–Petit law. It can be concluded from this study that entransy should be used among the basic thermodynamic criteria

  4. Catalytic versatility of Bacillus pumilus β-xylosidase: glycosyl transfer and hydrolysis promoted with α- and β-D-xylosyl fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasumi, T.; Tsumuraya, Y.; Brewer, C.F.; Kersters-Hilderson, H.; Claeyssens, M.; Hehre, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus β-xylosidase, an enzyme considered restricted to hydrolyzing a narrow range of β-D-xylosidic substrates with inversion of configuration, was found to catalyze different stereochemical, essentially irreversible, glycosylation reactions with α- and β-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride. The enzyme promoted the hydrolysis of β-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride at a high rate, V = 6.25 μmol min -1 mg -1 at 0 0 C, in a reaction that obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In contrast, its action upon α-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride was slow and characterized by an unusual relation between the rate of fluoride release and the substrate concentration, suggesting the possible need for two substrate molecules to be bound at the active center in order for reaction to occur. Moreover, 1 H NMR spectra of a digest of α-D-xylosyl fluoride showed the substrate to be specifically converted to α-D-xylose by the enzyme. The observed retention of configuration is not consistent with direct hydrolysis by this inverting enzyme but is strongly indicative of the occurrence of two successive inverting reactions: xylosyl transfer from α-D-xylosyl fluoride to form a β-D-xylosidic product, followed by hydrolysis of the latter to produce α-D-xylose. The transient intermediate product formed enzymically from α-D-xylosyl fluoride in the presence of [ 14 C]xylose was isolated and shown by its specific radioactivity and 1 H NMR spectrum as well as by methylatino and enzymic analyses to be 4-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-D-xylopyranose containing one [ 14 C]xylose residue

  5. Thermal mechanisms responsible for the irreversible degradation of superconductivity in commercial superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2017-08-01

    Conditions for the irreversible propagation of thermal instabilities in commercial superconductors subjected to intense and soft cooling have been formulated. An analysis has been conducted using two types of the superconductor's I-V characteristics, i.e., an ideal I-V characteristic, which assumes a step superconducting-to-normal transition, and a continuous I-V characteristic, which is described by a power law. The propagation rate of thermal instabilities along the superconducting composite has been determined. Calculations have been made for both subcritical and supercritical values of the current. It has been shown that they propagate along a commercial superconductor in the form of a switching wave. In rapidly cooled commercial superconductors, the steady-state rate of thermal instability propagation in the longitudinal direction can only be positive because there is no region of steady stabilization. It has been proved that, in the case of thermal instability irreversible propagation, the rise in the commercial superconductor temperature is similar to diffusion processes that occur in explosive chain reactions.

  6. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Donald L; Patterson, Bruce W; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single 'turnover' parameter, a single 'exchange' parameter and a single 'delay' parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An assessment of apple orchard investments in South Africa under uncertainty and irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAG Darroch

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of the South African fresh apple export value chain can be improved if local farmers grow and market more new apple cultivars. An ex ante version of the Dixit-Pindyck investment model is used to assess how uncertainty and irreversibility associated with adopting the new Pink Lady cultivar rather than a traditional Golden Delicious cultivar will raise the hurdle rate required to trigger investment. Modified real hurdle rates reflecting the value of the option to delay investment estimated for both cultivars, are about double the real rate of five per cent that is often used in orthodox investment analyses. The Pink Lady investment seems to be relatively more profitable under the assumed conditions, but it also has a relatively greater variance in expected real annual net returns.

  8. Solvent 1H/2H isotopic effects in the reaction of the L-Tyrosine oxidation catalyzed by Tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, M.; Kanska, M.

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosinase is well known catalyst in the oxidation of L-Tyrosine to L-DOPA and following oxidation of L-DOPA to dopachinone. The aim of communication is to present the results of studies on the solvent isotopic effects (SIE) in the above reactions for the 1 H/ 2 H in the 3',5' and 2',6' substituted tyrosine. Obtained dependence of the reaction rate on the substrate concentration were applied for optimization of the kinetic parameters, k cat and k cat /K m , in the Michaelis-Menten equation. As a result - better understanding of the L-DOPA creation can be achieved

  9. A kinetic model for the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    A kinetic model for the first two steps in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway, i.e. the ACV synthetase (ACVS) and the isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) is proposed. The model is based on Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with non-competitive inhibition of the ACVS by ACV, and competitive inhibition...... of the IPNS by glutathione. The model predicted flux through the pathway corresponds well with the measured rate of penicillin biosynthesis. From the kinetic model the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients are calculated throughout a fed-batch cultivation, and it is found...

  10. Monitoring the enzymatic conversion of urea to ammonium by conventional or microchip capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchert-Shi, Aiping; Hauser, Peter C

    2008-05-15

    Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection was used to directly quantify the ammonium produced in the enzymatic conversion of urea with urease. This allowed the characterization of the reaction without having to use more elaborate indirect optical methods for quantification. The maximum rate of reaction, V(max), was determined as 5.1 mmol x mL(-1) x min(-1), and the Michaelis-Menten constant, K(m), was determined as 16 mM. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the determination of urea in clinical samples of human blood by using a conventional capillary and a microchip device.

  11. Covalent immobilization of invertase on PAMAM-dendrimer modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, K.; Cevik, E.; Senel, M.; Soezeri, H.; Baykal, A.; Abasiyanik, M. F.; Toprak, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was synthesized on the surface of superparamagnetite nanoparticles to enhance invertase immobilization. The amount of immobilized enzyme on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times (i.e., 250%) as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane. Maximum reaction rate (V max ) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized invertase such as; the temperature activity, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability were evaluated and results revealed that stability of the enzyme is improved upon immobilization.

  12. Kinetics of glucose transport in rat muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Vinten, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    The effects of insulin and prior muscle contractions, respectively, on 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) transport in skeletal muscle were studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Initial rates of entry of 3-O-MG in red gastrocnemius, soleus, and white gastrocnemius muscles as a function of perfusate 3-O-MG...... concentration exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Uptake by simple diffusion could not be detected. The maximum 3-O-MG transport velocity (Vmax) was increased more by maximum isometric contractions (10- to 40-fold, depending on fiber type) than by insulin (20,000 microU/ml; 3- to 20-fold) in both red and white...

  13. Mathematical description of drug-target interactions: application to biologics that bind to targets with two binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Gibiansky, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The emerging discipline of mathematical pharmacology occupies the space between advanced pharmacometrics and systems biology. A characteristic feature of the approach is application of advance mathematical methods to study the behavior of biological systems as described by mathematical (most often differential) equations. One of the early application of mathematical pharmacology (that was not called this name at the time) was formulation and investigation of the target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model and its approximations. The model was shown to be remarkably successful, not only in describing the observed data for drug-target interactions, but also in advancing the qualitative and quantitative understanding of those interactions and their role in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of biologics. The TMDD model in its original formulation describes the interaction of the drug that has one binding site with the target that also has only one binding site. Following the framework developed earlier for drugs with one-to-one binding, this work aims to describe a rigorous approach for working with similar systems and to apply it to drugs that bind to targets with two binding sites. The quasi-steady-state, quasi-equilibrium, irreversible binding, and Michaelis-Menten approximations of the model are also derived. These equations can be used, in particular, to predict concentrations of the partially bound target (RC). This could be clinically important if RC remains active and has slow internalization rate. In this case, introduction of the drug aimed to suppress target activity may lead to the opposite effect due to RC accumulation.

  14. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with [ 3 H]yohimbine, whereas [ 3 H]clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, [ 3 H] clonidine and [ 3 H]yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of [ 3 H]clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations

  15. Determining the complex modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Shalinie; See, Howard; Thomas, Graham; Swain, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the visco-elastic response of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material during setting. A novel squeeze film Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR, GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia) was used to determine the complex modulus of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material (Algident, ISO 1563 Class A Type 1, Dentalfarm Australia Pty. Ltd.) during setting after mixing. Data was collected every 30s for 10 min in one study and every 10 min for a total of 60 min in another study. A high level of repeatability was observed. The results indicate that the MFR is capable of recording the complex shear modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid for 60 min from the start of mixing and to simultaneously report the changing visco-elastic parameters at all frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 Hz. The storage modulus shows a dramatic increase to 370% of its starting value after 6 min and then reduces to 55% after 60 min. The loss modulus increases to a maximum of 175% of its starting value after 10 min and then reduces to 94% after 60 min. The MFR enables the changes in the complex modulus through the complete setting process to be followed. It is anticipated this approach may provide a better method to compare the visco-elastic properties of impression materials and assist with identification of optimum types for different clinical requirements. The high stiffness of the instrument and the use of band-limited pseudo-random noise as the input signal are the main advantages of this technique over conventional rheometers for determining the changes in alginate visco-elasticity.

  16. Dimensional Stability of Color-Changing Irreversible Hydrocolloids after Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi AAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Disinfection of dental impressions is a weak point in the dental hygiene chain. In addition, dental office personnel and dental technicians are endangered by cross-contamination. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dimensional stability of two color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid materials (IH after disinfection with glutaraldehyde. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, impressions were made of a master maxillary arch containing three reference inserts on the occlucal surface of the left and right maxillary second molars and in the incisal surface of the maxillary central incisors. Two types of color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid (tetrachrom, cavex were used. Glutaraldehyde 2% was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the impressions. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type IV gypsum. The linear dimensional change of the stone casts was measured with a profile projector. For statistical analysis, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests were used (α=0.05. Results: By immersion method, the casts fabricated from tetrachrom were 0.36% larger in the anteroposterior (AP and 0.05% smaller in cross arch (CA dimensions; however, the casts prepared after spraying of tetrachrom were 0.44% larger in the AP and 0.10% smaller in CA dimensions. The casts made from Cavex were 0.05% smaller in the AP and 0.02% smaller in CA dimensions after spraying and 0.01% smaller in the AP and 0.003% smaller in CA dimensions after immersion. Generally there were not significant differences in AP and CA dimensions of the experimental groups compared to the control (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Disinfection of the tested color-changing irreversible hydrocolloids by glutaraldahyde 2% did not compromise the accuracy of the obtained casts.

  17. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Vazquez, Jose'

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the concept of non-equilibrium temperature from the perspectives of extended irreversible thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, and statistical mechanics. The relations between different proposals are explicitly examined in two especially simple systems: an ideal gas in steady shear flow and a forced harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath. We examine with special detail temperatures related to the average molecular kinetic energy along different spatial directions, to the average configurational energy, to the derivative of the entropy with respect to internal energy, to fluctuation-dissipation relation and discuss their measurement.

  18. Exactly solvable irreversible processes on one-dimensional lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, N.O.; Evans, J.W.; Hoffman, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the kinetics of a process where the sites of an infinite 1-D lattice are filled irreversibly and, in general, cooperatively by N-mers (taking N consecutive sites at a time). We extend the previously available exact solution for nearest neighbor cooperative effects to range N cooperative effects. Connection with the continuous ''cooperative car parking problem'' is indicated. Both uniform and periodic lattices, and empty and certain partially filled lattice initial conditions are considered. We also treat monomer ''filling in stages'' for certain highly autoinhibitory cooperative effects of arbitrary range

  19. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  20. Putative Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control group) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased group). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased group demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain putative cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426

  1. Canonical Structure and Orthogonality of Forces and Currents in Irreversible Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marcus; Jack, Robert L.; Zimmer, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    We discuss a canonical structure that provides a unifying description of dynamical large deviations for irreversible finite state Markov chains (continuous time), Onsager theory, and Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory (MFT). For Markov chains, this theory involves a non-linear relation between probability currents and their conjugate forces. Within this framework, we show how the forces can be split into two components, which are orthogonal to each other, in a generalised sense. This splitting allows a decomposition of the pathwise rate function into three terms, which have physical interpretations in terms of dissipation and convergence to equilibrium. Similar decompositions hold for rate functions at level 2 and level 2.5. These results clarify how bounds on entropy production and fluctuation theorems emerge from the underlying dynamical rules. We discuss how these results for Markov chains are related to similar structures within MFT, which describes hydrodynamic limits of such microscopic models.

  2. Linear Dimensional Stability of Irreversible Hydrocolloid Materials Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different irreversible hydrocolloid materials over time. A metal mold was designed with custom trays made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex, sheets 0.125 mm thick). Perforations were made in order to improve retention of the material. Five impressions were taken with each of the following: Kromopan 100 (LASCOD) [AlKr], which has dimensional stability of 100 hours, and Phase Plus (ZHERMACK) [AlPh], which has dimensional stability of 48 hours. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 minutes; 12, 24 and 96 hours), using an "ad-hoc" device. The images were analyzed with software (UTHSCSA Image Tool) by measuring the distance between intersection of the lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. Initial and final values were (mean and standard deviation): AlKr: 16.44 (0.22) and 16.34 (0.11), AlPh: 16.40 (0.06) and 16.18 (0.06). Statistical evaluation showed significant effect of material and time factors. Under the conditions in this study, time significantly affects the linear dimensional stability of irreversible hydrocolloid materials. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  3. Influence of delayed pouring on irreversible hydrocolloid properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Becker Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of irreversible hydrocolloid materials poured immediately and after different storage periods. Four alginates were tested: Color Change (Cavex; Hydrogum (Zhermack; Hydrogum 5 (Zhermack; and Hydro Print Premium (Coltene. Their physical properties, including the recovery from deformation (n = 3, compressive strength (n = 3, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility (n = 3, were analyzed according to ANSI/ADA specification no. 18. Specimens were stored at 23ºC and humidity and were then poured with gypsum immediately and after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test at p < 0.05. All of the alginate impression materials tested exhibited detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility at all times. Hydro Print Premium and Hydrogum 5 showed recovery from deformation, as established by ANSI/ADA specification no. 18, after 5 days of storage. As the storage time increased, the compressive strength values also increased. Considering the properties of compounds' recovery from deformation, compressive strength, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility, irreversible hydrocolloids should be poured immediately.

  4. Voter model with arbitrary degree dependence: clout, confidence and irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2014-03-01

    The voter model is widely used to model opinion dynamics in society. In this paper, we propose three modifications to incorporate heterogeneity into the model. We address the corresponding oversimplifications of the conventional voter model which are unrealistic. We first consider the voter model with popularity bias. The influence of each node on its neighbors depends on its degree. We find the consensus probabilities and expected consensus times for each of the states. We also find the fixation probability, which is the probability that a single node whose state differs from every other node imposes its state on the entire system. In addition, we find the expected fixation time. Then two other extensions to the model are proposed and the motivations behind them are discussed. The first one is confidence, where in addition to the states of neighbors, nodes take their own state into account at each update. We repeat the calculations for the augmented model and investigate the effects of adding confidence to the model. The second proposed extension is irreversibility, where one of the states is given the property that once nodes adopt it, they cannot switch back. This is motivated by applications where, agents take an irreversible action such as seeing a movie, purchasing a music album online, or buying a new product. The dynamics of densities, fixation times and consensus times are obtained.

  5. Irreversibility in physics stemming from unpredictable symbol-handling agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2016-05-01

    The basic equations of physics involve a time variable t and are invariant under the transformation t --> -t. This invariance at first sight appears to impose time reversibility as a principle of physics, in conflict with thermodynamics. But equations written on the blackboard are not the whole story in physics. In prior work we sharpened a distinction obscured in today's theoretical physics, the distinction between obtaining evidence from experiments on the laboratory bench and explaining that evidence in mathematical symbols on the blackboard. The sharp distinction rests on a proof within the mathematics of quantum theory that no amount of evidence, represented in quantum theory in terms of probabilities, can uniquely determine its explanation in terms of wave functions and linear operators. Building on the proof we show here a role in physics for unpredictable symbol-handling agents acting both at the blackboard and at the workbench, communicating back and forth by means of transmitted symbols. Because of their unpredictability, symbol-handling agents introduce a heretofore overlooked source of irreversibility into physics, even when the equations they write on the blackboard are invariant under t --> -t. Widening the scope of descriptions admissible to physics to include the agents and the symbols that link theory to experiments opens up a new source of time-irreversibility in physics.

  6. Advanced Caries Microbiota in Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Lima, Kenio C; Assunção, Isauremi V; Gomes, Patrícia N; Bracks, Igor V; Siqueira, José F

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial taxa in the forefront of caries biofilms are candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and are possibly the first ones to invade the pulp and initiate endodontic infection. This study examined the microbiota of the most advanced layers of dentinal caries in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. DNA extracted from samples taken from deep dentinal caries associated with pulp exposures was analyzed for the presence and relative levels of 33 oral bacterial taxa by using reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay. Quantification of total bacteria, streptococci, and lactobacilli was also performed by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations between the target bacterial taxa and clinical signs/symptoms were also evaluated. The most frequently detected taxa in the checkerboard assay were Atopobium genomospecies C1 (53%), Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus (37%), Streptococcus species (33%), Streptococcus mutans (33%), Parvimonas micra (13%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (13%), and Veillonella species (13%). Streptococcus species, Dialister invisus, and P. micra were significantly associated with throbbing pain, S. mutans with pain to percussion, and Lactobacillus with continuous pain (P pulpitis is suspected. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Irreversible absorption heat-pump and its optimal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Qin Xiaoyong; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of an endoreversible absorption heat-pump cycle, a generalized irreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption heat-pump cycle model is established by taking account of the heat resistances, heat leak and irreversibilities due to the internal dissipation of the working substance. The heat transfer between the heat reservoir and the working substance is assumed to obey the linear (Newtonian) heat-transfer law, and the overall heat-transfer surface area of the four heat-exchangers is assumed to be constant. The fundamental optimal relations between the coefficient of performance (COP) and the heating-load, the maximum COP and the corresponding heating-load, the maximum heating load and the corresponding COP, as well as the optimal temperatures of the working substance and the optimal heat-transfer surface areas of the four heat-exchangers are derived by using finite-time thermodynamics. Moreover, the effects of the cycle parameters on the characteristics of the cycle are studied by numerical examples

  8. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  9. Preliminary study of steep pulse irreversible electroporation technology in human large cell lung cancer cell lines L9981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zuoqing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to validate the effectiveness of steep pulse irreversible electroporation technology in human large cell lung cancer cells and to screen the optimal treatment of parameters for human large cell lung cancer cells. Three different sets of steep pulse therapy parameters were applied on the lung cancer cell line L9981. The cell line L9981 inhibition rate and proliferation capacity were detected by Vi-Cell vitality analysis and MTT. Steep pulsed irreversible electroporation technology for large cell lung cancer L9981 presents killing effects with various therapy parameters. The optimal treatment parameters are at a voltage amplitude of 2000V/cm, pulse width of 100μs, pulse frequency of 1 Hz, pulse number 10. With this group of parameters, steep pulse could have the best tumor cell-killing effects.

  10. Measurement of local blood flow and oxygen consumption in evolving irreversible cerebral infarction: an in vivo study in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.; Rougemont, D.; Lebrun-Grandie, P.; Bousser, M.G.; Cabanis, E.; Bories, J.; Comar, D.; Castaigne, P.

    1982-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo measurement of local cerebral blood flow (1CBF), oxygen consumption rate (1CMRO 2 ) and glucose utilisation (1CMRG1c) in man. Although 1CMRG1c is accessible in animals, this is not the case for 1CMRO 2 , an excellent index of local functional state. PET imaging of the local interrelationship of CBF and metabolism in completed ischemic stroke has attracted considerable interest because of its potential to differentiate irreversibly damaged from viable tissue on the basis of the CBF- metabolism patterns. Several qualitative or semi-quantitative pioneering studies provided a limited insight into this question, while the single truly quantitative study was only briefly reported. We report here a detailed study of the local CBF-CMRO 2 quantitative patterns in irreversibly infarcted brain regions

  11. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy between bupivacaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Roberta Moura; Carnaval, Talita Girio; Lanfredi, Camila Bernardeli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Seventy volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analog scale. All patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. By measuring pulpal anesthesia success with the pulp tester, lidocaine had a higher success rate (42.9%) than bupivacaine (20%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of bupivacaine was 80% and lidocaine was 62.9%. There were only statistically significant differences to the success of pulpal anesthesia. Neither of the solutions resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments of mandibular molars. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of nitrous oxide on the efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William; Drum, Melissa; Nusstein, John; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2012-05-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block does not always result in successful pulpal anesthesia. Anesthetic success rates might be affected by increased anxiety. Nitrous oxide has been shown to have both anxiolytic and analgesic properties. Therefore, the purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of nitrous oxide on the anesthetic success of the IAN block in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were enrolled in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive an inhalation regimen of nitrous oxide/oxygen mix or room air/oxygen mix (placebo) 5 minutes before the administration of the IAN block. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after completion of the IAN block, and all patients had profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recordings) on access or instrumentation. The success rate for the IAN block was 50% for the nitrous oxide group and 28% for the placebo group. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .024). For mandibular teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, administration of 30%-50% nitrous oxide resulted in a statistically significant increase in the success of the IAN block compared with room air/oxygen. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Efficient Operation of Distillation Columns and a Reactor Applying Irreversible Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeijer, Gelein M. de

    2002-05-01

    In this thesis the entropy production rates of diabatic distillation columns and a SO{sub 2} converter were minimised. This is the same as maximising the second law energy efficiency of the systems. The development of chemical industry can be made more sustainable by knowing this minimum. We found that the entropy production rate of distillation could be reduced up to 50 %. In order to achieve this reduction, heat exchangers were added on each tray. The characteristics of an optimum distillation column were presented. Furthermore, the entropy production rate of a SO{sub 2} converter was reduced with 16.7 % by altering the heights of catalytic beds, transfer areas of heat exchangers, and temperature differences over heat exchangers. These reductions show that there is still a large improvement potential in chemical industry. By applying the improved operations the world oil production can be reduced in the order of magnitude of 1 %. A similar reduction in the emission of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} can be expected. For deriving the entropy production rate in a systematic manner the theory of irreversible thermodynamics was useful. A simpler and a more complicated equation for the entropy production rate of distillation were derived. The simpler equation used only one force-flux product. It was suitable for minimisation of the entropy production rate of columns with the assumption of equilibrium between the outlets on each tray. The more complicated equation was able to describe satisfactorily the entropy production rate of an experimental column that separated the non-ideal mixture water-ethanol. It was next used to derive an extended set of transport equations for distillation, that includes the interface and the Soret effect (or thermal diffusion). Finally, irreversible thermodynamics was used to describe the contribution to the entropy production rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers. This contribution had a significant impact on the results of the

  14. Irreversible Thermodynamics of the Universe: Constraints from Planck Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy; Biswas, Atreyee

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with irreversible universal thermodynamics. The homogenous and isotropic flat model of the universe is chosen as open thermodynamical system and nonequilibrium thermodynamics comes into picture. For simplicity, entropy flow is considered only due to heat conduction. Further, due to Maxwell-Cattaneo modified Fourier law for nonequilibrium phenomenon, the temperature satisfies damped wave equation instead of heat conduction equation. Validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) has been investigated for universe bounded by apparent or event horizon with cosmic substratum as perfect fluid with constant or variable equation of state or interacting dark species. Finally, we have used three Planck data sets to constrain the thermal conductivity λ and the coupling parameter b 2 . These constraints must be satisfied in order for GSLT to hold for universe bounded by apparent or event horizons

  15. Advertising and Irreversible Opinion Spreading in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián

    Irreversible opinion spreading phenomena are studied on small-world and scale-free networks by means of the magnetic Eden model, a nonequilibrium kinetic model for the growth of binary mixtures in contact with a thermal bath. In this model, the opinion of an individual is affected by those of their acquaintances, but opinion changes (analogous to spin flips in an Ising-like model) are not allowed. We focus on the influence of advertising, which is represented by external magnetic fields. The interplay and competition between temperature and fields lead to order-disorder transitions, which are found to also depend on the link density and the topology of the complex network substrate. The effects of advertising campaigns with variable duration, as well as the best cost-effective strategies to achieve consensus within different scenarios, are also discussed.

  16. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Beille, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Berling, D.; Loegel, B. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R. [EPM-MATFORMAG, Laboratoire dElaboration par Procede Magnetique, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  17. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe ac <100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL close-quote s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  18. Thermodynamic Optimality criteria for biological systems in linear irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimal, J C; Sánchez, N; Ramírez, PR

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the methodology of the so-called Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT) is applied; although traditionally used locally to study general systems in non-equilibrium states in which it is consider both internal and external contributions to the entropy increments in order to analyze the efficiency of two coupled processes with generalized fluxes J 1 , J 2 and their corresponding forces X 1 , X 2 . We extend the former analysis to takes into account two different operating regimes namely: Omega Function and Efficient Power criterion, respectively. Results show analogies in the optimal performance between and we can say that there exist a criteria of optimization which can be used specially for biological systems where a good design of the biological parameters made by nature at maximum efficient power conditions lead to more efficient engines than those at the maximum power conditions or ecological conditions. (paper)

  19. A quantum analogy for the linear thermodynamics of irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Mengual, J.A.; Tejerina-Garcia, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, a model for the transport through a liquid junction of two solutions of the same components, based on quantum-mechanical considerations, is established. A small energy difference, compared with the molecules' energy, among the molecules placed at both sides of the junction is assumed to exist. The liquid junction is assimilated to a potential barrier, getting the material flow from the transmission coefficient of the barrier, when the energy difference is caused by a temperature gradient, a concentration gradient, or both gradients acting together. In all cases, equations formally identical to those of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are obtained. In the last case, the heat flow is also determined. (author)

  20. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  1. Irreversibility of world-sheet renormalization group flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliynyk, T.; Suneeta, V.; Woolgar, E.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the irreversibility of a wide class of world-sheet renormalization group (RG) flows to first order in α ' in string theory. Our techniques draw on the mathematics of Ricci flows, adapted to asymptotically flat target manifolds. In the case of somewhere-negative scalar curvature (of the target space), we give a proof by constructing an entropy that increases monotonically along the flow, based on Perelman's Ricci flow entropy. One consequence is the absence of periodic solutions, and we are able to give a second, direct proof of this. If the scalar curvature is everywhere positive, we instead construct a regularized volume to provide an entropy for the flow. Our results are, in a sense, the analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem for world-sheet RG flows on noncompact spacetimes (though our entropy is not the Zamolodchikov C-function)

  2. Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations

  3. Structural transition models for a class or irreversible aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1995-02-01

    A progress report on two recent theoretical approaches proposed to understand the physics of irreversible fractal aggregates showing up a structural transition from a rather dense to a more multibranched growth is presented. In the first approach the transition is understood by solving the Poisson equation on a squared lattice. The second approach is based on the discretization of the Biharmonic equation. Within these models the transition appears when the growth velocity at the fractal surface presents a minimum. The effects of the surrounding medium and geometrical constraints for the seed particles are considered. By using the optical diffraction method, the structural transition is further characterized by a decrease in the fractal dimension for this peculiar class of aggregates. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  4. The Social Cost of Stochastic and Irreversible Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Judd, K. L.; Lontzek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Many scientists are worried about climate change triggering abrupt and irreversible events leading to significant and long-lasting damages. For example, a rapid release of methane from permafrost may lead to amplified global warming, and global warming may increase the frequency and severity of heavy rainfall or typhoon, destroying large cities and killing numerous people. Some elements of the climate system which might exhibit such a triggering effect are called tipping elements. There is great uncertainty about the impact of anthropogenic carbon and tipping elements on future economic wellbeing. Any rational policy choice must consider the great uncertainty about the magnitude and timing of global warming's impact on economic productivity. While the likelihood of tipping points may be a function of contemporaneous temperature, their effects are long lasting and might be independent of future temperatures. It is assumed that some of these tipping points might occur even in this century, but also that their duration and post-tipping impact are uncertain. A faithful representation of the possibility of tipping points for the calculation of social cost of carbon would require a fully stochastic formulation of irreversibility, and accounting for the deep layer of uncertainties regarding the duration of the tipping process and also its economic impact. We use DSICE, a DSGE extension of the DICE2007 model of William Nordhaus, which incorporates beliefs about the uncertain economic impact of possible climate tipping events and uses empirically plausible parameterizations of Epstein-Zin preferences to represent attitudes towards risk. We find that the uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change imply carbon taxes much higher than implied by deterministic models. This analysis indicates that the absence of uncertainty in DICE2007 and similar IAM models may result in substantial understatement of the potential benefits of policies to reduce GHG emissions.

  5. Constructal theory through thermodynamics of irreversible processes framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Point to area flow problem is solved through Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. → A new optimisation criterion is defined: the exergy or entropy impedance. → Optimisation is performed following two different routes, constructal or global. → Global optimisation is more efficient than constructal optimisation. → Global optimisation enhances the domain of construct benefits. - Abstract: Point to volume flow problem is revisited on a thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP) basis. The first step consists in evaluating the local entropy production of the system, and deducing from this expression the phenomenological laws. Then, the total entropy production can be simply evaluated. It is demonstrated that total entropy production can be written in a remarkable form: the product of the so-called entropy impedance with the square of the heat flux. As the heat flux is given, optimisation consists in minimising the entropy impedance. It is also shown that minimising entropy impedance minimises the maximum temperature difference. Applied to the elemental volume, this optimisation process leads to a shape factor close to the one already published. For the first construction, the equivalent system is defined as stated by Prigogine: when subjected to the same constraints, two systems are thermodynamically equivalent if their entropy production is equal. Two optimisation routes are then investigated: a global optimisation where all scales are taken into account and the constructal optimisation where the system is optimised scale by scale. In this second case, results are close to Ghodossi's work. When global optimisation is performed, it is demonstrated that conductive paths have to be spread uniformly in the active material (i.e. the number of elemental volumes must go to infinite). Comparing the two routes, global optimisation leads to better performance than constructal optimisation. Moreover, global optimisation enlarges the domain of

  6. The detection of local irreversibility in time series based on segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy for the detection of local irreversibility in stationary time series based on multiple scale. The detection is beneficial to evaluate the displacement of irreversibility toward local skewness. By means of this method, we can availably discuss the local irreversible fluctuations of time series as the scale changes. The method was applied to simulated nonlinear signals generated by the ARFIMA process and logistic map to show how the irreversibility functions react to the increasing of the multiple scale. The method was applied also to series of financial markets i.e., American, Chinese and European markets. The local irreversibility for different markets demonstrate distinct characteristics. Simulations and real data support the need of exploring local irreversibility.

  7. Irreversible altering of crystalline phase of phase-change Ge-Sb thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shakhvorostov, D.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Raoux, S.; Jordan-Sweet, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of the crystalline phase of binary phase-change Ge x Sb 1-x films is investigated over a wide range of Ge content. From Raman spectroscopy we find the Ge-Sb crystalline structure irreversibly altered after exposure to a laser beam. We show that with increasing beam intensity/temperature Ge agglomerates and precipitates out in the amount growing with x. A simple empirical relation links Ge precipitation temperature T Ge p to the rate of change dT cryst /dx of crystallization, with the precipitation easiest on the mid-range x plateau, where T cryst is nearly constant. Our findings point to a preferable 15% < or approx. x < 50% window, that may achieve the desired cycling/archival properties of a phase-change cell.

  8. Anesthetic success of supplemental infiltration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review the anesthetic success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection technique alone with that of combination of IANB and supplemental infiltration (SI) technique when used for pulpal anesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment. Settings and Design: The study follows a longitudinal study design involving original research. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled clinical studies. Studies were selected by predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used and Result: The statistical analysis used was based on the results of the original research. All the included studies showed that there is the difference in the values comparing the two techniques, but the data are not statistically significantly different. Conclusion: Based on this review, the better anesthetic efficacy of the SI was observed. PMID:26069400

  9. Nanometer-scale mapping of irreversible electrochemical nucleation processes on solid Li-ion electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Arruda, Thomas M.; Tselev, Alexander; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Lawton, Jamie S.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Butyaev, Oleg; Zayats, Sergey; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical processes associated with changes in structure, connectivity or composition typically proceed via new phase nucleation with subsequent growth of nuclei. Understanding and controlling reactions requires the elucidation and control of nucleation mechanisms. However, factors controlling nucleation kinetics, including the interplay between local mechanical conditions, microstructure and local ionic profile remain inaccessible. Furthermore, the tendency of current probing techniques to interfere with the original microstructure prevents a systematic evaluation of the correlation between the microstructure and local electrochemical reactivity. In this work, the spatial variability of irreversible nucleation processes of Li on a Li-ion conductive glass-ceramics surface is studied with ~30 nm resolution. An increased nucleation rate at the boundaries between the crystalline AlPO4 phase and amorphous matrix is observed and attributed to Li segregation. This study opens a pathway for probing mechanisms at the level of single structural defects and elucidation of electrochemical activities in nanoscale volumes. PMID:23563856

  10. Differential potassium influx influences growth of two cotton varieties in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Maqsood, M.A.; Kanwal, S.; Aziz, T.

    2010-01-01

    Potassium uptake rate of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties viz., NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 was investigated in nutrient solution culture having deficient K at the rate 0.3 mM and deficient K+ Na at the rate 0.3 +2.7 mM. Depletion of K from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time intervals after 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h to estimate K uptake kinetics of the roots i.e. maximum influx, I/sub max/ and the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km. NIBGE-2 had about 2-fold higher (2.0 mg g rdw-1 hr-1) I/sub max/ value for K uptake rate at deficient K+Na than that (1.207 mg g rdw-1 hr-1) for MNH-786. Higher, Michaelis-Menten constant, Km (12.82 ppm) for K uptake rate was observed in both cultivars NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 at deficient K+Na than that at deficient K. Main effects of treatments and varieties had significant (p< 0.05) effect on shoot dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter and leaf area per plant. Maximum K influx in NIBGE-2 at deficient K and deficient K +Na was attributed to enhanced growth response as compared to that in MNH-786. (author)

  11. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy for permanent molars with clinical signs indicative of irreversible pulpitis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudeimat, M A; Alyahya, A; Hasan, A A

    2017-02-01

    To prospectively investigate the clinical and radiographic success rates of pulpotomy in permanent molars with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of irreversible pulpitis using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a pulp dressing agent. Sixteen patients with 23 restorable permanent molars exhibiting signs and symptoms indicative of irreversible pulpitis were enrolled. A standardized operative procedure was followed for all participants. All teeth were isolated with a dental dam and caries was removed, and then, pulpotomy performed with a sterile round and/or flame shape diamond burs. Haemostasis was achieved with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). A mixture of MTA was placed against the wound, and a moistened cotton pellet was placed over the MTA. Teeth were temporized with a glass-ionomer restoration. Three to ten days later, the interim restoration was removed and setting of MTA was evaluated. Teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Follow-up evaluations were scheduled at 3, 6, 12 months and annually thereafter. Descriptive statistics were used to assess outcomes. The age of patients at time of pulpotomy ranged between 7.6 and 13.6 years (mean = 10.7± 1.7 yrs). The majority of teeth (91%) had clinical signs and symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and symptomatic apical periodontitis (78%). The follow-up examination period ranged from 18.9 to 73.6 months. Clinically and radiographically, all pulpotomies were considered successful at the end of the follow-up period. Radiographically, a hard tissue barrier was noticed in 13 (57%) teeth. In children, MTA was associated with high clinical and radiographic success as a pulpotomy agent in permanent teeth with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of irreversible pulpitis. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Use of an uncertainty analysis for genome-scale models as a prediction tool for microbial growth processes in subsurface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Christine

    2012-03-06

    The integration of genome-scale, constraint-based models of microbial cell function into simulations of contaminant transport and fate in complex groundwater systems is a promising approach to help characterize the metabolic activities of microorganisms in natural environments. In constraint-based modeling, the specific uptake flux rates of external metabolites are usually determined by Michaelis-Menten kinetic theory. However, extensive data sets based on experimentally measured values are not always available. In this study, a genome-scale model of Pseudomonas putida was used to study the key issue of uncertainty arising from the parametrization of the influx of two growth-limiting substrates: oxygen and toluene. The results showed that simulated growth rates are highly sensitive to substrate affinity constants and that uncertainties in specific substrate uptake rates have a significant influence on the variability of simulated microbial growth. Michaelis-Menten kinetic theory does not, therefore, seem to be appropriate for descriptions of substrate uptake processes in the genome-scale model of P. putida. Microbial growth rates of P. putida in subsurface environments can only be accurately predicted if the processes of complex substrate transport and microbial uptake regulation are sufficiently understood in natural environments and if data-driven uptake flux constraints can be applied.

  13. The SAT Protein of Porcine Parvovirus Accelerates Viral Spreading through Induction of Irreversible Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, István; Tóth, Renáta; Olasz, Ferenc; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán

    2017-08-15

    accelerated cell death during infection, as shown by the higher rate of expression of CHOP and alteration of the localization of CHOP. The beneficial effect of irreversible ER stress on PPV spread was confirmed by treatment of infected cells with ER stress-inducing chemicals. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Efficacy of supplementary buccal infiltrations and intraligamentary injections to inferior alveolar nerve blocks in mandibular first molars with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, M; Sadr, S; Nakhaee, N; Abbott, P V; Askarifard, S

    2014-10-01

    This randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis with or without supplementary buccal infiltration and intraligamentary injection. Eighty-two patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received either a combination of intraligamentary injection + buccal infiltration+ IANB or with traditional IANB injection in mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Each patient recorded their pain score on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale before commencing treatment, in response to a cold test 15 min after the designated anaesthetic injection, during access cavity preparation and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analysed by chi-square test. At the final stage of treatment, 69 of the 82 patients were eligible to be included in the study. No significant difference was found between age (P = 0.569) and gender (P = 0.570) amongst the patients in the two groups. The success rate of anaesthesia in the IANB and the combination groups were 22% and 58%, respectively. The success rate of anaesthesia in the combination group was significantly higher than the traditional IANB injection (P = 0.003). A combination of anaesthetic techniques can improve the success rate of anaesthesia for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ESTIMATION OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGEABILITY AT FATIGUE OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Damageability estimation of carbon steel in the conditions of cyclic loading. Methodology. The steel fragments of railway wheel rim and rail head served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65 % С, 0.67 % Mn, 0.3 % Si, 0.027 % P, 0.028 % S и 0.7 % C, 0.82 % Mn, 0.56 % Si, 0.025 % P, 0.029 % S accordingly. The microstructure of tested steels corresponded to the state of metal after a hot plastic deformation. The fatigue research was conducted in the conditions of symmetric bend using the proof-of-concept machine of type «Saturn-10». Full Wohler diagrams and the lines corresponding to forming of sub-and micro cracks were constructed. The distribution analysis of internal stresses in the metal under cyclic loading was carried out using the microhardness tester of PMT-3 type.Findings. On the basis of fatigue curves for high-carbon steels analysis the positions of borders dividing the areas of convertible and irreversible damages were determined. The article shows that with the growth of carbon concentration in the steel at invariability of the structural state an increase of fatigue limit is observed. At the same time the acceleration of processes, which determine transition terms from the stage of forming of submicrocracks to the microcracks occurs. The research of microhardness distribution in the metal after destruction confirmed the nature of carbon amount influence on the carbon steel characteristics. Originality. Regardless on the stages of breakdown site forming the carbon steels behavior at a fatigue is determined by the ration between the processes of strengthening and softening. At a cyclic loading the heterogeneity of internal stresses distribution decreases with the increase of distance from the destruction surface. Analysis of metal internal restructuring processes at fatigue loading made it possible to determine that at the stages prior to incubation period in the metal microvolumes the cells are already

  16. Rethinking fundamentals of enzyme action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, D B

    1999-01-01

    Despite certain limitations, investigators continue to gainfully employ concepts rooted in steady-state kinetics in efforts to draw mechanistically relevant inferences about enzyme catalysis. By reconsidering steady-state enzyme kinetic behavior, this review develops ideas that allow one to arrive at the following new definitions: (a) V/K, the ratio of the maximal initial velocity divided by the Michaelis-Menten constant, is the apparent rate constant for the capture of substrate into enzyme complexes that are destined to yield product(s) at some later point in time; (b) the maximal velocity V is the apparent rate constant for the release of substrate from captured complexes in the form of free product(s); and (c) the Michaelis-Menten constant K is the ratio of the apparent rate constants for release and capture. The physiologic significance of V/K is also explored to illuminate aspects of antibiotic resistance, the concept of "perfection" in enzyme catalysis, and catalytic proficiency. The conceptual basis of congruent thermodynamic cycles is also considered in an attempt to achieve an unambiguous way for comparing an enzyme-catalyzed reaction with its uncatalyzed reference reaction. Such efforts promise a deeper understanding of the origins of catalytic power, as it relates to stabilization of the reactant ground state, stabilization of the transition state, and reciprocal stabilizations of ground and transition states.

  17. Modeling networks of coupled enzymatic reactions using the total quasi-steady state approximation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ciliberto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In metabolic networks, metabolites are usually present in great excess over the enzymes that catalyze their interconversion, and describing the rates of these reactions by using the Michaelis-Menten rate law is perfectly valid. This rate law assumes that the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex (C is much less than the free substrate concentration (S0. However, in protein interaction networks, the enzymes and substrates are all proteins in comparable concentrations, and neglecting C with respect to S0 is not valid. Borghans, DeBoer, and Segel developed an alternative description of enzyme kinetics that is valid when C is comparable to S0. We extend this description, which Borghans et al. call the total quasi-steady state approximation, to networks of coupled enzymatic reactions. First, we analyze an isolated Goldbeter-Koshland switch when enzymes and substrates are present in comparable concentrations. Then, on the basis of a real example of the molecular network governing cell cycle progression, we couple two and three Goldbeter-Koshland switches together to study the effects of feedback in networks of protein kinases and phosphatases. Our analysis shows that the total quasi-steady state approximation provides an excellent kinetic formalism for protein interaction networks, because (1 it unveils the modular structure of the enzymatic reactions, (2 it suggests a simple algorithm to formulate correct kinetic equations, and (3 contrary to classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it succeeds in faithfully reproducing the dynamics of the network both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  18. A Finite-Difference Solution of Solute Transport through a Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Godongwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a theoretical analysis of the transport of solutes through a fixed-film membrane bioreactor (MBR, immobilised with an active biocatalyst. The dimensionless convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients was solved analytically and numerically for concentration profiles of the solutes through the MBR. The analytical solution makes use of regular perturbation and accounts for radial convective flow as well as axial diffusion of the substrate species. The Michaelis-Menten (or Monod rate equation was assumed for the sink term, and the perturbation was extended up to second-order. In the analytical solution only the first-order limit of the Michaelis-Menten equation was considered; hence the linearized equation was solved. In the numerical solution, however, this restriction was lifted. The solution of the nonlinear, elliptic, partial differential equation was based on an implicit finite-difference method (FDM. An upwind scheme was employed for numerical stability. The resulting algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using the multivariate Newton-Raphson iteration method. The solution allows for the evaluation of the effect on the concentration profiles of (i the radial and axial convective velocity, (ii the convective mass transfer rates, (iii the reaction rates, (iv the fraction retentate, and (v the aspect ratio.

  19. Performance analysis of irreversible quantum Stirling cryogenic refrigeration cycles and their parametric optimum criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bihong; Chen Jincan

    2006-01-01

    The influence of both the quantum degeneracy and the finite-rate heat transfer between the working substance and the heat reservoirs on the optimal performance of an irreversible Stirling cryogenic refrigeration cycle using an ideal Fermi or Bose gas as the working substance is investigated, based on the theory of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic properties of ideal quantum gases. The inherent regeneration losses of the cycle are analysed. Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the cycle is optimized for a given power input. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal regions of the coefficient of performance and power input are determined. In particular, the optimal performance of the cycle in the strong and weak gas degeneracy cases and the high temperature limit are discussed in detail. The analytic expressions of some optimized parameters are derived. Some optimum criteria are given. The distinctions and connections between the Stirling refrigeration cycles working with the ideal quantum and classical gases are revealed

  20. [Identification of early irreversible damage area in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Guo, Y

    2000-02-01

    To observe the early neuron ischemic damage in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion with histostaining methods of argyrophil III (AG III), Toludine blue(TB), and H&E, and to make out the 'separating line' between the areas of reversible and irreversible early ischemic damage. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: pseudo-surgical, blank-control, O2R0(occluded for 2 hours and reperfused for 0 hour), O2R0.5, O2R2, O2R4, O2R24. There were 6 rats in each group. Rats in experimental groups were suffered focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through a nylon suture method. After a special processor for tissue manage, the brain were coronal sectioned and stained with H&E, TB, and AG III. The area where dark neurons dwell in (ischemic core) were calculated with image analysis system. The success rate of ischemic model for this experiment is 90%. After being stained with argyrophil III method, normal neurons appear yellow or pale brown, which is hardly distinguished from the pale brown background. The ischemic neuron stained black, and has collapsed body and "corkscrew-like" axon or dentries, which were broken to some extent. The neuropil in the dark neurons dwelt area appears gray or pale black, which is apparently different from the pale brown neighborhood area. The distribution of dark neurons in cortex varies according to different layers, and has a character of columnar form. The dark neurons present as early as 2 hours ischemia without reperfusion with AG III method. AG III stain could selectively display early ischemic neurons, the area dwelt by dark neurons represent early ischemic core. Dark neuron is possibly the irreversibly damaged neuron. Identification of dark neurons could be helpful in the discrimination between early ischemic center and penumbra.

  1. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  2. A minimal dissipation type-based classification in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kazakov, V.; Kolinko, N. A.

    2003-10-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  3. Multiscale Analysis of Time Irreversibility Based on Phase-Space Reconstruction and Horizontal Visibility Graph Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui; Xia, Jianan

    Time irreversibility is an important property of nonequilibrium dynamic systems. A visibility graph approach was recently proposed, and this approach is generally effective to measure time irreversibility of time series. However, its result may be unreliable when dealing with high-dimensional systems. In this work, we consider the joint concept of time irreversibility and adopt the phase-space reconstruction technique to improve this visibility graph approach. Compared with the previous approach, the improved approach gives a more accurate estimate for the irreversibility of time series, and is more effective to distinguish irreversible and reversible stochastic processes. We also use this approach to extract the multiscale irreversibility to account for the multiple inherent dynamics of time series. Finally, we apply the approach to detect the multiscale irreversibility of financial time series, and succeed to distinguish the time of financial crisis and the plateau. In addition, Asian stock indexes away from other indexes are clearly visible in higher time scales. Simulations and real data support the effectiveness of the improved approach when detecting time irreversibility.

  4. Spectral deformation techniques applied to the study of quantum statistical irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbage, M.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure of analytic continuation of the resolvent of Liouville operators for quantum statistical systems is discussed. When applied to the theory of irreversible processes of the Brussels School, this method supports the idea that the restriction to a class of initial conditions is necessary to obtain an irreversible behaviour. The general results are tested on the Friedrichs model. (Auth.)

  5. Phase control of light amplification with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer in a Λ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Shi; Wu Jinhui; Gao Jinyue; Pan Chunliu

    2002-01-01

    We use the relative phase of two coherent fields for the control of light amplification with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer in a Λ system. The population inversion and gain with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer are shown as the relative phase is varied. We support our results by numerical calculation and analytical explanation

  6. Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2000-01-01

    I discuss the idea that quantum irreversibility is a general principle of nature and a related "conformal hypothesis", stating that all fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points. In particular, the Newton constant should be viewed as a low-energy effect of the RG scale. This approach leads naturally to consider higher-spin conformal field theories, which are here classified, as candidate high-energy theories. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. The central charges c and a are well defined and positive. I calculate their values and study the operator-product structure. Fermionic theories have no gauge invariance and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a...

  7. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, Nancy E.; Gibbs, James P.

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations. - Road deicing salts irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

  8. Scaling Law for Irreversible Entropy Production in Critical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Prasanna Venkatesh, B; Han, Seungju; Jo, Junghyo; Watanabe, Gentaro; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2016-06-09

    We examine the Jarzynski equality for a quenching process across the critical point of second-order phase transitions, where absolute irreversibility and the effect of finite-sampling of the initial equilibrium distribution arise in a single setup with equal significance. We consider the Ising model as a prototypical example for spontaneous symmetry breaking and take into account the finite sampling issue by introducing a tolerance parameter. The initially ordered spins become disordered by quenching the ferromagnetic coupling constant. For a sudden quench, the deviation from the Jarzynski equality evaluated from the ideal ensemble average could, in principle, depend on the reduced coupling constant ε0 of the initial state and the system size L. We find that, instead of depending on ε0 and L separately, this deviation exhibits a scaling behavior through a universal combination of ε0 and L for a given tolerance parameter, inherited from the critical scaling laws of second-order phase transitions. A similar scaling law can be obtained for the finite-speed quench as well within the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  9. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  10. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, Nancy E., E-mail: karraker@hku.hk [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Gibbs, James P [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations. - Road deicing salts irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

  11. Irreversible Markov chains in spin models: Topological excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ze; Krauth, Werner

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the convergence of the irreversible event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm for continuous spin models in the presence of topological excitations. In the two-dimensional XY model, we show that the local nature of the Markov-chain dynamics leads to slow decay of vortex-antivortex correlations while spin waves decorrelate very quickly. Using a Fréchet description of the maximum vortex-antivortex distance, we quantify the contributions of topological excitations to the equilibrium correlations, and show that they vary from a dynamical critical exponent z∼ 2 at the critical temperature to z∼ 0 in the limit of zero temperature. We confirm the event-chain algorithm's fast relaxation (corresponding to z = 0) of spin waves in the harmonic approximation to the XY model. Mixing times (describing the approach towards equilibrium from the least favorable initial state) however remain much larger than equilibrium correlation times at low temperatures. We also describe the respective influence of topological monopole-antimonopole excitations and of spin waves on the event-chain dynamics in the three-dimensional Heisenberg model.

  12. Reversibility and irreversibility from an initial value formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel, A.

    2013-01-01

    From a time evolution equation for the single particle distribution function derived from the N-particle distribution function (A. Muriel, M. Dresden, Physica D 101 (1997) 297), an exact solution for the 3D Navier–Stokes equation – an old problem – has been found (A. Muriel, Results Phys. 1 (2011) 2). In this Letter, a second exact conclusion from the above-mentioned work is presented. We analyze the time symmetry properties of a formal, exact solution for the single-particle distribution function contracted from the many-body Liouville equation. This analysis must be done because group theoretic results on time reversal symmetry of the full Liouville equation (E.C.G. Sudarshan, N. Mukunda, Classical Mechanics: A Modern Perspective, Wiley, 1974). no longer applies automatically to the single particle distribution function contracted from the formal solution of the N-body Liouville equation. We find the following result: if the initial momentum distribution is even in the momentum, the single particle distribution is reversible. If there is any asymmetry in the initial momentum distribution, no matter how small, the system is irreversible.

  13. The effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE on nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: If a critical nerve is circumferentially involved with tumor, radical surgery intended to cure the cancer must sacrifice the nerve. Loss of critical nerves may lead to serious consequences. In spite of the impressive technical advancements in nerve reconstruction, complete recovery and normalization of nerve function is difficult to achieve. Though irreversible electroporation (IRE might be a promising choice to treat tumors near or involved critical nerve, the pathophysiology of the nerve after IRE treatment has not be clearly defined. METHODS: We applied IRE directly to a rat sciatic nerve to study the long term effects of IRE on the nerve. A sequence of 10 square pulses of 3800 V/cm, each 100 µs long was applied directly to rat sciatic nerves. In each animal of group I (IRE the procedure was applied to produce a treated length of about 10 mm. In each animal of group II (Control the electrodes were only applied directly on the sciatic nerve for the same time. Electrophysiological, histological, and functional studies were performed on immediately after and 3 days, 1 week, 3, 5, 7 and 10 weeks following surgery. FINDINGS: Electrophysiological, histological, and functional results show the nerve treated with IRE can attain full recovery after 7 weeks. CONCLUSION: This finding is indicative of the preservation of nerve involving malignant tumors with respect to the application of IRE pulses to ablate tumors completely. In summary, IRE may be a promising treatment tool for any tumor involving nerves.

  14. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Li Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwon, Soon-Ik [Agricultural Environmental and Ecology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Bottoms, Rick [Desert Research and Extension Center, 1004 East Holton Road, El Centro, CA 92243 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C{sub Plant} = C{sub Solution} . PUF{sub max} . exp[-b . t], where C{sub Plant} and C{sub Solution} refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF{sub max} and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions.

  15. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiping; Li Lianqing; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng; Kwon, Soon-Ik; Bottoms, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C Plant = C Solution . PUF max . exp[-b . t], where C Plant and C Solution refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF max and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions

  16. Comparison of biological H2S removal characteristics between a composite packing material with and without functional microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rencheng; Li, Shunyi; Bao, Xiaofeng; Dumont, Éric

    2017-02-01

    The performances of two identical biofilters, filled with a new composite packing material (named CM-5) embedded with functional microorganisms or sterilized CM-5 without microorganisms, were investigated for H2S treatment. Running parameters in terms of microbial counts, pressure drops, and inlet and outlet H2S concentrations were measured. The results show that the microbial count of the CM-5 was approximately ×105 CFU/g before being filled into the biofilter, while that of the sterilized CM-5 was negligible. The functional microorganisms embedded in CM-5 adapted to the environment containing H2S quickly. In most cases, pressure drops of the CM-5 biofilter were slightly higher than those of the sterilized CM-5 biofilter when the gas flow rate was 0.6-2.5 m3/h. The maximum elimination capacity (EC) of the CM-5 biofilter in treating H2S could reach up to 65 g/(m3·h) when the loading rate (LR) was approximately 80 g/(m3·h). If the LR was much higher, the measured EC showed a slight downward trend. The experimental ECs of biofilters were fitted by two typical dynamic models: the Michaelis-Menten model and the Haldane model. Compared with the Michaelis-Menten model, the Haldane model fit the experimental ECs better for the two biofilters because of the presence of the substrate inhibition behaviour.

  17. Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, S.K.; Kaushik, S.C.; Salohtra, R.

    2002-01-01

    This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

  18. Generalized irreversible heat-engine experiencing a complex heat-transfer law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Li Jun; Sun Fengrui

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental optimal relation between optimal power-output and efficiency of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat-engine is derived based on a generalized heat-transfer law, including a generalized convective heat-transfer law and a generalized radiative heat-transfer law, q ∝ (ΔT n ) m . The generalized irreversible Carnot-engine model incorporates several internal and external irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, bypass heat-leak, friction, turbulence and other undesirable irreversibility factors. The added irreversibilities, besides heat resistance, are characterized by a constant parameter and a constant coefficient. The effects of heat-transfer laws and various loss terms are analyzed. The results obtained corroborate those in the literature

  19. Inhibition of serotonin transport by (+)McN5652 is noncompetitive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, Rene [Biochemical Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim (Germany); Schulze, Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Raedler, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Mikecz, Pal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Reimold, Matthias [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brenner, Winfried [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Clausen, Malte [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schloss, Patrick [Biochemical Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim (Germany); Buchert, Ralph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: buchert@uke.uni-hamburg.de

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: Imaging of the serotonergic innervation of the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand [{sup 11C}] (+)McN5652 might be affected by serotonin in the synaptic cleft if there is relevant interaction between [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. The aim of the present study therefore was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction of [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. Methods: In vitro saturation analyses of [{sup 3}H]serotonin uptake into HEK293 cells stably expressing the human SERT were performed in the absence and presence of unlabelled (+)McN5652. Data were evaluated assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results: Unlabelled (+)McN5652 significantly reduced the maximal rate of serotonin transport V {sub max} of SERT without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant K {sub M}. Conclusions: This finding indicates that (+)McN5652 inhibits serotonin transport through the SERT in a noncompetitive manner. This might suggest that [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 PET is not significantly affected by endogenous serotonin.

  20. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  1. Quantifying stream nutrient uptake from ambient to saturation with instantaneous tracer additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T. P.; McGlynn, B. L.; McNamara, R.

    2009-12-01

    Stream nutrient tracer additions and spiraling metrics are frequently used to quantify stream ecosystem behavior. However, standard approaches limit our understanding of aquatic biogeochemistry. Specifically, the relationship between in-stream nutrient concentration and stream nutrient spiraling has not been characterized. The standard constant rate (steady-state) approach to stream spiraling parameter estimation, either through elevating nutrient concentration or adding isotopically labeled tracers (e.g. 15N), provides little information regarding the stream kinetic curve that represents the uptake-concentration relationship analogous to the Michaelis-Menten curve. These standard approaches provide single or a few data points and often focus on estimating ambient uptake under the conditions at the time of the experiment. Here we outline and demonstrate a new method using instantaneous nutrient additions and dynamic analyses of breakthrough curve (BTC) data to characterize the full relationship between spiraling metrics and nutrient concentration. We compare the results from these dynamic analyses to BTC-integrated, and standard steady-state approaches. Our results indicate good agreement between these three approaches but we highlight the advantages of our dynamic method. Specifically, our new dynamic method provides a cost-effective and efficient approach to: 1) characterize full concentration-spiraling metric curves; 2) estimate ambient spiraling metrics; 3) estimate Michaelis-Menten parameters maximum uptake (Umax) and the half-saturation constant (Km) from developed uptake-concentration kinetic curves, and; 4) measure dynamic nutrient spiraling in larger rivers where steady-state approaches are impractical.

  2. Inhibition of serotonin transport by (+)McN5652 is noncompetitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummerich, Rene; Schulze, Oliver; Raedler, Thomas; Mikecz, Pal; Reimold, Matthias; Brenner, Winfried; Clausen, Malte; Schloss, Patrick; Buchert, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Imaging of the serotonergic innervation of the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand [ 11C ] (+)McN5652 might be affected by serotonin in the synaptic cleft if there is relevant interaction between [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. The aim of the present study therefore was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction of [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. Methods: In vitro saturation analyses of [ 3 H]serotonin uptake into HEK293 cells stably expressing the human SERT were performed in the absence and presence of unlabelled (+)McN5652. Data were evaluated assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results: Unlabelled (+)McN5652 significantly reduced the maximal rate of serotonin transport V max of SERT without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant K M . Conclusions: This finding indicates that (+)McN5652 inhibits serotonin transport through the SERT in a noncompetitive manner. This might suggest that [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 PET is not significantly affected by endogenous serotonin

  3. Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2000-08-01

    I discuss the properties of the central charges c and a for higher-derivative and higher-spin theories (spin 2 included). Ordinary gravity does not admit a straightforward identification of c and a in the trace anomaly, because it is not conformal. On the other hand, higher-derivative theories can be conformal, but have negative c and a. A third possibility is to consider higher-spin conformal field theories. They are not unitary, but have a variety of interesting properties. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. There exists a conserved spin-2 current (not the canonical stress tensor) defining positive central charges c and a. I calculate the values of c and a and study the operator-product structure. Higher-spin conformal spinors have no gauge invariance, admit a standard definition of c and a and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a conformal window and non-trivial interacting fixed points. There are composite operators of high spin and low dimension, which violate the Ferrara-Gatto-Grillo theorem. Finally, other theories, such as conformal antisymmetric tensors, exhibit more severe internal problems. This research is motivated by the idea that fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points, and quantum irreversibility should be a general principle of nature.

  4. A model of irreversible jam formation in dense traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, J. G.; Bunzarova, N. Zh.; Pesheva, N. C.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2018-03-01

    We study an one-dimensional stochastic model of vehicular traffic on open segments of a single-lane road of finite size L. The vehicles obey a stochastic discrete-time dynamics which is a limiting case of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. This dynamics has been previously used by Bunzarova and Pesheva (2017) for an one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation. The model was shown to have three stationary phases: a many-particle one, MP, a phase with completely filled configuration, CF, and a boundary perturbed MP+CF phase, depending on the values of the particle injection (α), ejection (β) and hopping (p) probabilities. Here we extend the results for the stationary properties of the MP+CF phase, by deriving exact expressions for the local density at the first site of the chain and the probability P(1) of a completely jammed configuration. The unusual phase transition, characterized by jumps in both the bulk density and the current (in the thermodynamic limit), as α crosses the boundary α = p from the MP to the CF phase, is explained by the finite-size behavior of P(1). By using a random walk theory, we find that, when α approaches from below the boundary α = p, three different regimes appear, as the size L → ∞: (i) the lifetime of the gap between the rightmost clusters is of the order O(L) in the MP phase; (ii) small jams, separated by gaps with lifetime O(1) , exist in the MP+CF phase close to the left chain boundary; and (iii) when β = p, the jams are divided by gaps with lifetime of the order O(L 1 / 2) . These results are supported by extensive Monte Carlo calculations.

  5. Ictal time-irreversible intracranial EEG signals as markers of the epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kaspar; Rummel, Christian; Andrzejak, Ralph G; Goodfellow, Marc; Zubler, Frédéric; Abela, Eugenio; Wiest, Roland; Pollo, Claudio; Steimer, Andreas; Gast, Heidemarie

    2016-09-01

    To show that time-irreversible EEG signals recorded with intracranial electrodes during seizures can serve as markers of the epileptogenic zone. We use the recently developed method of mapping time series into directed horizontal graphs (dHVG). Each node of the dHVG represents a time point in the original intracranial EEG (iEEG) signal. Statistically significant differences between the distributions of the nodes' number of input and output connections are used to detect time-irreversible iEEG signals. In 31 of 32 seizure recordings we found time-irreversible iEEG signals. The maximally time-irreversible signals always occurred during seizures, with highest probability in the middle of the first seizure half. These signals spanned a large range of frequencies and amplitudes but were all characterized by saw-tooth like shaped components. Brain regions removed from patients who became post-surgically seizure-free generated significantly larger time-irreversibilities than regions removed from patients who still had seizures after surgery. Our results corroborate that ictal time-irreversible iEEG signals can indeed serve as markers of the epileptogenic zone and can be efficiently detected and quantified in a time-resolved manner by dHVG based methods. Ictal time-irreversible EEG signals can help to improve pre-surgical evaluation in patients suffering from pharmaco-resistant epilepsies. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: an ongoing multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2014-01-01

    Oral healthcare expenses are increasing rapidly as a result of the growth of high-cost health technologies worldwide. In many developing/developed countries, low-cost tooth extraction is the alternative treatment option for a high-cost root canal therapy (RCT) for management of human molars with irreversible pulpitis. Vital pulp therapy with calcium-enriched mixture cement (VPT/CEM) as a new alternative treatment option has demonstrated excellent treatment outcomes up to 1 year; if 2-year radiographic/clinical effectiveness as well as cost-effectiveness of the VPT/CEM is also non-inferior compared with RCT, it can serve as a viable treatment for mature molars with irreversible pulpitis. In this prospective, multicenter (n = 23), non-inferiority clinical trial, 407 patients were randomized to either one-visit RCT (n = 202) or VPT/CEM (n = 205) for 27 months. In this part of study, the primary outcome measure was the 2-year clinical and radiographic treatment outcomes. Cost-effectiveness was also analyzed. Mean follow-up times were 24.62 ± 0.72 and 24.61 ± 0.69 months in RCT (n = 166) and VPT/CEM (n = 166) arms, respectively. Clinical success rates in the two study arms were equal (98.19%); however, radiographic success rates were 79.5 and 86.7% in RCT and VPT/CEM arms, respectively, with no statistical difference (P = 0.053). The treatment time span mean was approximately three times greater in the RCT than in the VPT/CEM arm (94.07 vs. 31.09 min; P pulpitis. Vital pulp therapy with CEM is a cost-effective and reliable biological technique for endodontic treatment of permanent molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis and can be recommended for general clinical practice.

  7. Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2015-08-01

    For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.

  8. Irreversibility of a bad start: early exposure to osmotic stress limits growth and adaptive developmental plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2012-05-01

    Harsh environments experienced early in development have immediate effects and potentially long-lasting consequences throughout ontogeny. We examined how salinity fluctuations affected survival, growth and development of Fejervarya limnocharis tadpoles. Specifically, we tested whether initial salinity effects on growth and rates of development were reversible and whether they affected the tadpoles' ability to adaptively accelerate development in response to deteriorating conditions later in development. Tadpoles were initially assigned to either low or high salinity, and then some were switched between salinity levels upon reaching either Gosner stage 30 (early switch) or 38 (late switch). All tadpoles initially experiencing low salinity survived whereas those initially experiencing high salinity had poor survival, even if switched to low salinity. Growth and developmental rates of tadpoles initially assigned to high salinity did not increase after osmotic stress release. Initial low salinity conditions allowed tadpoles to attain a fast pace of development even if exposed to high salinity afterwards. Tadpoles experiencing high salinity only late in development metamorphosed faster and at a smaller size, indicating an adaptive acceleration of development to avoid osmotic stress. Nonetheless, early exposure to high salinity precluded adaptive acceleration of development, always causing delayed metamorphosis relative to those in initially low salinity. Our results thus show that stressful environments experienced early in development can critically impact life history traits, having long-lasting or irreversible effects, and restricting their ability to produce adaptive plastic responses.

  9. Performance analysis for an irreversible variable temperature heat reservoir closed intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenhua; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of finite time thermodynamics is used in the performance analysis of an irreversible closed intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The analytical formulae for dimensionless power and efficiency, as functions of the total pressure ratio, the intercooling pressure ratio, the component (regenerator, intercooler, hot and cold side heat exchangers) effectivenesses, the compressor and turbine efficiencies and the thermal capacity rates of the working fluid and the heat reservoirs, the pressure recovery coefficients, the heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio, and the cooling fluid in the intercooler and the cold side heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio, are derived. The intercooling pressure ratio is optimized for optimal power and optimal efficiency, respectively. The effects of component (regenerator, intercooler and hot and cold side heat exchangers) effectivenesses, the compressor and turbine efficiencies, the pressure recovery coefficients, the heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio and the cooling fluid in the intercooler and the cold side heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio on optimal power and its corresponding intercooling pressure ratio, as well as optimal efficiency and its corresponding intercooling pressure ratio are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. When the heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs are executed ideally, the pressure drop losses are small enough to be neglected and the thermal capacity rates of the heat reservoirs are infinite, the results of this paper replicate those obtained in recent literature

  10. A Fingerprint Encryption Scheme Based on Irreversible Function and Secure Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fingerprint encryption scheme based on irreversible function has been designed in this paper. Since the fingerprint template includes almost the entire information of users’ fingerprints, the personal authentication can be determined only by the fingerprint features. This paper proposes an irreversible transforming function (using the improved SHA1 algorithm to transform the original minutiae which are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image. Then, Chinese remainder theorem is used to obtain the biokey from the integration of the transformed minutiae and the private key. The result shows that the scheme has better performance on security and efficiency comparing with other irreversible function schemes.

  11. Classical many-body theory with retarded interactions: Dynamical irreversibility and determinism without probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, A.Yu., E-mail: Anatoly.Zakharov@novsu.ru; Zakharov, M.A., E-mail: ma_zakharov@list.ru

    2016-01-28

    The exact equations of motion for microscopic density of classical many-body system with account of inter-particle retarded interactions is derived. It is shown that interactions retardation leads to irreversible behavior of many-body systems. - Highlights: • A new form of equation of motion of classical many-body system is proposed. • Interactions retardation as one of the mechanisms of many-body system irreversibility. • Irreversibility and determinism without probabilities. • The possible way to microscopic foundation of thermodynamics.

  12. Performance of an irreversible quantum Ericsson cooler at low temperature limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Feng; Chen Lingen; Wu Shuang; Sun Fengrui

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum properties of the working medium on the performance of an irreversible quantum Ericsson cooler with spin-1/2. The cooler is studied with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility. The optimal relationship between the dimensionless cooling load R * versus the coefficient of performance ε for the irreversible quantum Ericsson cooler is derived. In particular, the performance characteristics of the cooler at the low temperature limit are discussed

  13. Insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy

    2014-03-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared pain relief with systemic antibiotics and analgesics, against placebo and analgesics in the acute preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. Study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers. Pooling of data was not possible and a descriptive summary is presented. One trial assessed at low risk of bias, involving 40 participants, was included in this update of the review. The quality of the body of evidence was rated low for the different outcomes. There was a close parallel distribution of the pain ratings in both the intervention and placebo groups over the seven-day study period.There was insufficient evidence to claim or refute a benefit for penicillin for pain intensity. There was no significant difference in the mean total number of ibuprofen tablets taken over the study period: 9.2 (standard deviation (SD) 6.02) in the penicillin group versus 9.6 (SD 6.34) in the placebo group; mean difference -0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI) -4.23 to 3.43; P value = 0.84). This applied equally for the mean total number of Tylenol tablets: 6.9 (SD 6.87) used in the penicillin group versus 4.45 (SD 4.82) in the placebo group; mean difference 2.45 (95% CI -1.23 to 6.13; P value = 0.19). Our secondary outcome on reporting of adverse events was not addressed in this study. This systematic, review which was based on one low-powered small sample trial assessed as a low risk of bias, illustrates that there is insufficient evidence to determine whether antibiotics reduce pain or not compared to not having antibiotics. The results of this review confirm the necessity for further larger sample and methodologically sound trials that can provide additional evidence as to whether antibiotics

  14. Sample size effect on the determination of the irreversibility line of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.; Suenaga, M.; Li, Q.; Freltoft, T.

    1994-01-01

    The irreversibility lines of a high-J c superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x /Ag tape were systematically measured upon a sequence of subdivisions of the sample. The irreversibility field H r (T) (parallel to the c axis) was found to change approximately as L 0.13 , where L is the effective dimension of the superconducting tape. Furthermore, it was found that the irreversibility line for a grain-aligned Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x specimen can be approximately reproduced by the extrapolation of this relation down to a grain size of a few tens of micrometers. The observed size effect could significantly obscure the real physical meaning of the irreversibility lines. In addition, this finding surprisingly indicated that the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 2 O x /Ag tape and grain-aligned specimen may have similar flux line pinning strength

  15. Treatise on irreversible and statistical thermodynamics an introduction to nonclassical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yourgrau, Wolfgang; Raw, Gough

    2002-01-01

    Extensively revised edition of a much-respected work examines thermodynamics of irreversible processes, general principles of statistical thermodynamics, assemblies of noninteracting structureless particles, and statistical theory. 1966 edition.

  16. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma; Dua, Rubal; Kurniasari, Novita; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Wang, Peng; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes

  17. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Amalan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions.

  18. Effect of intraosseous injection versus inferior alveolar nerve block as primary pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Alireza; Razavian, Hamid; Shafiee, Maryam

    2018-01-27

    This study sought to assess the success rate, effect on blood pressure, and pain of intraosseous injection (IO) and inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis as the primary anaesthetic technique. This randomized clinical trial (IRCT2013022712634N1) was conducted on 60 patients between 18 and 65 years suffering from symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group one received IO while group two received IANB with 3% mepivacaine. After anaesthetic injection, success rate of pulpal anaesthesia was assessed by pulp testing in the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures of patients were compared before and after the anaesthetic injections. Level of pain during injection was scored using a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, t-test and chi square test at p = .05 level of significance. Success rate of IO (56.7%) was significantly higher than that of IANB (23.3%) (p = .008). There was no significant difference in pain during anaesthetic injection (p = .304) or change in systolic (p = .80) and diastolic (p = .28) blood pressures following injection between the two techniques. IO had a higher success rate than IANB for pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Neither technique provided profound pulpal anaesthesia.

  19. Irreversibility analysis for gravity driven non-Newtonian liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinde, O.D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)

  20. Preoperative oral use of Ibuprofen or dexamethasone may improve the anesthetic efficacy of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John M

    2013-09-01

    Effect of premedication with ibuprofen and dexamethasone on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial. Shahi S, Moktari H, Rahimi S, Yavari HR, Narimani S, Abdolrahmi M, Nezafati S. J Endod 2013;39(2):160-2. John M. Nusstein, DDS, MS PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine whether preoperative oral administration of ibuprofen (400 mg), dexamethasone (0.5 mg), or placebo (lactose) would improve the anesthetic success rate of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis University: Dental and Periodontal Research Center of Tabriz, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Randomized controlled trial Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  2. Irreversible thermodynamics models and constitutive equations of the irradiation induced deformation and damage accumulating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassilew, C.

    1989-11-01

    This report gives an overall evaluation of several in-reactor deformation and creep-rupture experiments performed in BR-2, FFTF, and Rapsodie on pressurised tubes of the stabilized austenitic stainless steels 1.4970, 1.4981, 1.4988, and the nickel base alloy Hastelloy-X. The irradiation induced deformation processes observed in the components operating in a neutron environment can be divided into two main groups: 1. volume conserving creep and 2. volumetric swelling. Since the observed deformation as well as damage accumulating phenomena are caused by the same constrained generated and free disposable point defects and helium atoms, it is obvious and advisable to analyze, and to model simultaneously the ensemble of the elementary mechanisms and processes effective at the same time. Phenomenological models based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been developed, with the aim of: 1. grasping the partial relationships between the external variables and the response functions (creep, swelling, creep driven swelling, and time to rupture), 2. fathoming the rate-controlling mechanisms, 3. providing insight into the structural details and changes occurring during the deformation and the damage accumulating processes, 4. integrating the damage accumulating processes comprehensively, and 5. formulating the constitutive equations required to describe the elementary processes that generate plastic deformations as well as damage accumulation. (orig./MM)

  3. Local Control of Perivascular Malignant Liver Lesions Using Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation: Initial Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Achim, E-mail: Achim.Eller@uk-erlangen.de; Schmid, Axel, E-mail: axel.schmid@uk-erlangen.de [University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Schmidt, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.schmidt@kfa.imed.uni-erlangen.de [University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Anesthesiology (Germany); May, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.may@uk-erlangen.de; Brand, Michael, E-mail: michael.brand@uk-erlangen.de; Saake, Marc, E-mail: marc.saake@uk-erlangen.de; Uder, Michael, E-mail: michael.uder@uk-erlangen.de; Lell, Michael, E-mail: michael.lell@uk-erlangen.de [University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess efficacy and safety in the treatment of perivascular malignant liver lesions using percutaneous, computed tomography (CT)-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE).MethodsFourteen patients (mean age 58 ± 11 years) with 18 malignant liver lesions were consecutively enrolled in this study. IRE was performed in patients not eligible for surgery and lesions abutting large vessels or bile ducts. Follow-up exams were performed using multislice-CT (MS-CT) or MRI.ResultsMedium lesion diameter was 20 ± 5 mm. Ten of 14 (71 %) were successfully treated with no local recurrence to date (mean follow-up 388 ± 160 days). One case left initial tumor control unclear and additional RFA was performed 4 weeks after IRE. Complications occurred in 4 of 14 (29 %) cases. In one case, intervention was terminated and abdominal bleeding required laparotomy. In two cases, a postinterventional hematothorax required intervention. In another case, abdominal bleeding could be managed conservatively. No complications related to the bile ducts occurred.ConclusionsPercutaneous IRE seems to be effective in perivascular lesions but is associated with a higher complication rate compared with thermoablative techniques.

  4. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks “in a box”, whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s Y between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s Y . We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction

  5. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-07-14

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks "in a box", whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s(Y) between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s(Y). We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.

  6. Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin, mineral trioxide aggregate, and calcium hydroxide as pulpotomy agents in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Juneja, Ruchi; Duhan, Jigyasa; Sangwan, Pankaj; Tewari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulpotomy has been proposed as an alternative for the management of irreversible pulpitis in permanent molars with closed apices. Aim: To compare the performances of calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as pulpotomy agents in mature permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four permanent mandibular molars with carious exposure and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis were randomly allocated to three groups, and full pulpotomy was performed using CH, MTA, or PRF as pulpotomy agents. Pain intensity was recorded using numeric rating scale score at baseline, 24 h, 7 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Clinical and radiographic assessments were done at 6 months and 1 year. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal–Wallis test and Friedman test were used for intergroup and intragroup comparison of pain scores, respectively. The radiographic outcomes between the three study arms were compared using Chi-square test. Results: Clinical success rate was 94.4% at 7 days, which dropped to 85.4% at 12 months. All three agents were equally effective in providing pain relief at all the intervals tested, with no significant difference between them (P > 0.05 at all intervals). However, at 6 months and 12 months, 26.2% and 52.4% teeth depicted slight widening of periodontal ligament space. No significant difference was observed between the radiographic success rates observed with the three groups (P = 0.135 at 6 months, 0.717 at 12 months). Conclusion: Pulpotomy exhibited a high clinical success rate in mature molars with irreversible pulpitis and selection of biomaterial did not affect its outcome. PMID:27994420

  7. Gradualism in Tax Treaties with Irreversible Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chisik; Ronald B. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral international tax treaties govern the host country taxation for the vast majority of the world’s foreign direct investment (FDI). Of particular interest is the fact that the tax rates used under these treaties are gradually falling although the treaties themselves do not specify any such reductions. Since there is no outside governing agency to redress treaty violations, such reductions must be both mutually beneficial and self-enforcing. Furthermore, the optimal tax rates must be l...

  8. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:26775677

  9. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  10. Pacific Ciguatoxin Induces Excitotoxicity and Neurodegeneration in the Motor Cortex Via Caspase 3 Activation: Implication for Irreversible Motor Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Pallavi; Zhang, Ni; Kumar, Gajendra; Chine, Virendra Bhagawan; Singh, Kunal Kumar; Mak, Yim Ling; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2018-01-18

    Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1. We detected irreversible motor strength deficits accompanied by reduced EMG activity, demyelination, and slowing of motor nerve conduction, whereas control unexposed mice fully recovered in 1 month after peripheral nerve injury. Finally, to uncover the mechanism underlying CFP, we detected reduction of spontaneous firing rate of motor cortical neurons even 6 months after exposure and increased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes. Increased numbers of motor cortical neuron apoptosis were detected by dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay along with activation of caspase 3. Taken together, our study demonstrates that persistence of P-CTX-1 in the nervous system induces irreversible motor deficit that correlates well with excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration detected in the motor cortical neurons.

  11. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-06

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution.

  12. Fluctuation theorems in feedback-controlled open quantum systems: Quantum coherence and absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Yûto; Gong, Zongping; Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-10-01

    The thermodynamics of quantum coherence has attracted growing attention recently, where the thermodynamic advantage of quantum superposition is characterized in terms of quantum thermodynamics. We investigate the thermodynamic effects of quantum coherent driving in the context of the fluctuation theorem. We adopt a quantum-trajectory approach to investigate open quantum systems under feedback control. In these systems, the measurement backaction in the forward process plays a key role, and therefore the corresponding time-reversed quantum measurement and postselection must be considered in the backward process, in sharp contrast to the classical case. The state reduction associated with quantum measurement, in general, creates a zero-probability region in the space of quantum trajectories of the forward process, which causes singularly strong irreversibility with divergent entropy production (i.e., absolute irreversibility) and hence makes the ordinary fluctuation theorem break down. In the classical case, the error-free measurement ordinarily leads to absolute irreversibility, because the measurement restricts classical paths to the region compatible with the measurement outcome. In contrast, in open quantum systems, absolute irreversibility is suppressed even in the presence of the projective measurement due to those quantum rare events that go through the classically forbidden region with the aid of quantum coherent driving. This suppression of absolute irreversibility exemplifies the thermodynamic advantage of quantum coherent driving. Absolute irreversibility is shown to emerge in the absence of coherent driving after the measurement, especially in systems under time-delayed feedback control. We show that absolute irreversibility is mitigated by increasing the duration of quantum coherent driving or decreasing the delay time of feedback control.

  13. The use of TiO2 nanoparticles to reduce refrigerator ir-reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Venkataramana Murthy V.; Palanisamy, Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► COP of hydrocarbons mixture VCRSs increases less when compared to R134a. ► Compressor ir-reversibility of VCRSs decreases by 33% (R134a), 14% (R436A and R436B). ► Total ir-reversibility of selected VCRSs decreases. ► Exergy efficiency of R134a is exceptionally low at lower reference temperature. ► Exergy efficiency of selected VCRSs increases. - Abstract: The ir-reversibility at the process of a vapour-compression refrigeration system (VCRS) with nanoparticles in the working fluid was investigated experimentally. Mineral oil (MO) with 0.1 g L −1 TiO 2 nanoparticles mixture were used as the lubricant instead of Polyol-ester (POE) oil in the R134a, R436A (R290/R600a-56/44-wt.%) and R436B (R290/R600a-52/48-wt.%)VCRSs. The VCRS ir-reversibility at the process with the nanoparticles was investigated using second law of thermodynamics. The results indicate that R134a, R436A and R436B and MO with TiO 2 nanoparticles work normally and safely in the VCRS. The VCRSs total ir-reversibility (529, 588 and 570 W) at different process was better than the R134a, R436A and R436B and POE oil system (777, 697 and 683 W). The same tests with Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles showed that the different nanoparticles properties have little effect on the VCRS ir-reversibility. Thus, TiO 2 nanoparticles can be used in VCRS with reciprocating compressor to considerably reduce ir-reversibility at the process.

  14. Anesthetic Efficacy of Articaine and Ketamine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaeimanesh, Vahid; Khazaei, Saber; Kaviani, Naser; Saatchi, Masoud; Shafiei, Maryam; Khademi, Abbasali

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to investigate the effect of articaine combined with ketamine on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in posterior mandible teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: Forty two adult patients with diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were selected. The patients received two cartridges of either containing 3.2 mL 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 0.4 mL 50 mg/mL ketamine hydrochloride (A-ketamine group) or 3.2 mL 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 0.4 mL normal saline (A-saline group) using conventional IANB injections. Access cavity preparation started 15 min after injection. Lip numbness was required for all the patients. Success was considered as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings upon access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by independent student t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. Results: The success rates were 55% and 42.9% for A-ketamine and A-saline group, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups (P=0.437). Conclusion: Adding 0.4 mL 50 mg/mL ketamine hydrochloride to the articaine local anesthetic did not increase the efficacy of IANB for posterior mandibular teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:29225640

  15. X-tip intraosseous injection system as a primary anesthesia for irreversible pulpitis of posterior mandibular teeth: A randomized clinical trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Hamid; Kazemi, Shantia; Khazaei, Saber; Jahromi, Maryam Zare

    2013-03-01

    Successful anesthesia during root canal therapy may be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous injection significantly improves anesthesia's success as a supplemental pulpal anesthesia, particularly in cases of irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in primary anesthesia for mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Forty emergency patients with an irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the X-tip intraosseous injection system or IAN block as the primary injection method for pulpal anesthesia. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated using an electric pulp tester and endo ice at 5-min intervals for 15 min. Anesthesia's success or failure rates were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 12 statistical software. Success or failure rates were compared using a Fisher's exact test, and the time duration for the onset of anesthesia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. P Intraosseous injection system resulted in successful anesthesia in 17 out of 20 patients (85%). Successful anesthesia was achieved with the IAN block in 14 out of 20 patients (70%). However, the difference (15%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.2). Considering the relatively expensive armamentarium, probability of penetrator separation, temporary tachycardia, and possibility of damage to root during drilling, the authors do not suggest intraosseous injection as a suitable primary technique.

  16. X-tip intraosseous injection system as a primary anesthesia for irreversible pulpitis of posterior mandibular teeth: A randomized clinical trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful anesthesia during root canal therapy may be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous injection significantly improves anesthesia′s success as a supplemental pulpal anesthesia, particularly in cases of irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN block in primary anesthesia for mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: Forty emergency patients with an irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the X-tip intraosseous injection system or IAN block as the primary injection method for pulpal anesthesia. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated using an electric pulp tester and endo ice at 5-min intervals for 15 min. Anesthesia′s success or failure rates were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 12 statistical software. Success or failure rates were compared using a Fisher′s exact test, and the time duration for the onset of anesthesia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Intraosseous injection system resulted in successful anesthesia in 17 out of 20 patients (85%. Successful anesthesia was achieved with the IAN block in 14 out of 20 patients (70%. However, the difference (15% was not statistically significant ( P = 0.2. Conclusion: Considering the relatively expensive armamentarium, probability of penetrator separation, temporary tachycardia, and possibility of damage to root during drilling, the authors do not suggest intraosseous injection as a suitable primary technique.

  17. Anesthetic Efficacy of Articaine and Ketamine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaeimanesh, Vahid; Khazaei, Saber; Kaviani, Naser; Saatchi, Masoud; Shafiei, Maryam; Khademi, Abbasali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to investigate the effect of articaine combined with ketamine on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in posterior mandible teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Forty two adult patients with diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were selected. The patients received two cartridges of either containing 3.2 mL 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 0.4 mL 50 mg/mL ketamine hydrochloride (A-ketamine group) or 3.2 mL 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 0.4 mL normal saline (A-saline group) using conventional IANB injections. Access cavity preparation started 15 min after injection. Lip numbness was required for all the patients. Success was considered as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings upon access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by independent student t , Mann-Whitney and Chi -square tests. The success rates were 55% and 42.9% for A-ketamine and A-saline group, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups ( P =0.437) . Adding 0.4 mL 50 mg/mL ketamine hydrochloride to the articaine local anesthetic did not increase the efficacy of IANB for posterior mandibular teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

  18. Health Technology Assessment of CEM Pulpotomy in Permanent Molars with Irreversible Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Jadidfard, Mohammad-Pooyan; Tahani, Bahareh; Kazemian, Ali; Dianat, Omid; Alim Marvasti, Laleh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Teeth with irreversible pulpitis usually undergo root canal therapy (RCT). This treatment modality is often considered disadvantageous as it removes vital pulp tissue and weakens the tooth structure. A relatively new concept has risen which suggests vital pulp therapy (VPT) for irreversible pulpitis. VPT with calcium enriched mixture (VPT/CEM) has demonstrated favorable treatment outcomes when treating permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis. This study aims to compare patient related factors, safety and organizational consideration as parts of health technology assessment (HTA) of the new VPT/CEM biotechnology when compared with RCT. Materials and Methods: Patient related factors were assessed by looking at short- and long-term clinical success; safety related factors were evaluated by a specialist committee and discussion board involved in formulating healthcare policies. Organizational evaluation was performed and the social implications were assessed by estimating the costs, availability, accessibility and acceptability. The impact of VPT/CEM biotechnology was assessed by investigating the incidence of irreversible pulpitis and the effect of this treatment on reducing the burden of disease. Results: VPT/CEM biotechnology was deemed feasible and acceptable like RCT; however, it was more successful, accessible, affordable, available and also safer than RCT. Conclusion: When considering socioeconomic implications on oral health status and oral health-related quality of life of VPT/CEM, the novel biotechnology can be more effective and more efficient than RCT in mature permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:24396372

  19. Substance P and CGRP expression in dental pulps with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Mandana; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Matloob, Arash; Mozayeni, Maryam; Javaheri, Homan H

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in pulp tissue with clinically diagnosed symptomatic and asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Healthy pulps acted as controls. Five normal pulps and 40 with irreversible pulpitis (20 symptomatic and 20 asymptomatic) were obtained from 45 different patients. SP and CGRP expression was determined by competition binding assays using enzyme immunoassay. anova and Mann-Whitney tests were used to ascertain if there were statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that neuropeptides were found in all pulp samples. The highest and the lowest expressions for SP and CGRP were found in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and healthy pulps groups, respectively. The differences between healthy pulps and the groups of pulps having irreversible pulpitis were significant (P pulpitis groups (P pulpitis groups were not significant. This study demonstrated that the expression of CGRP and SP is significantly higher in pulps with irreversible pulpitis compared with healthy pulps.

  20. The Effect of Acupuncture on the Success of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block for Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Triple-blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Shahrzad; Moradi Majd, Nima; Torabi, Samane; Habibi, Mohammad; Homayouni, Hamed; Mohammadi, Navid

    2015-09-01

    An inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) does not always provide satisfactory anesthesia for patients with irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative acupuncture on the success rate of IANBs for teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. In a randomized triple-blinded clinical trial, 40 patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were divided into 2 groups: the acupuncture and control groups. In the acupuncture group, a disposable needle was inserted at LI4 (Hegu) acupoint, and after 15 minutes, for patients who had reported the De qi sensation, an IANB was administered. In the control group, 15 minutes before the administration of an IANB, the practitioner simply imitated the acupuncture procedure but did not actually insert the needle. Endodontic treatments were conducted for the patients who reported lip numbness 15 minutes after the injection of the IANB. If the patients felt intolerable pain (>20 mm on a visual analog scale of 100 mm) during the procedure, a supplementary injection was administered. In those situations, the IANB was considered an unsuccessful injection. Data were evaluated by the chi-square, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and t tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The overall success rates of IANB for the acupuncture and control groups were 60% and 20%, respectively (P < .05). The application of acupuncture before the endodontic treatment increased the effectiveness of IANBs for mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptide Drug Release Behavior from Biodegradable Temperature-Responsive Injectable Hydrogels Exhibiting Irreversible Gelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Takata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the release behavior of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 from a biodegradable injectable polymer (IP hydrogel. This hydrogel shows temperature-responsive irreversible gelation due to the covalent bond formation through a thiol-ene reaction. In vitro sustained release of GLP-1 from an irreversible IP formulation (F(P1/D+PA40 was observed compared with a reversible (physical gelation IP formulation (F(P1. Moreover, pharmaceutically active levels of GLP-1 were maintained in blood after subcutaneous injection of the irreversible IP formulation into rats. This system should be useful for the minimally invasive sustained drug release of peptide drugs and other water-soluble bioactive reagents.

  2. FINITE TIME THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AN IRREVERSIBLE ATKINSON CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Ge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of an air-standard Atkinson cycle is analyzed by using finite-time thermodynamics. The irreversible cycle model which is more close to practice is founded. In this model, the non-linear relation between the specific heats of working fluid and its temperature, the friction loss computed according to the mean velocity of the piston, the internal irreversibility described by using the compression and expansion efficiencies, and heat transfer loss are considered. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycle are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects of internal irreversibility, heat transfer loss and friction loss on the cycle performance are analyzed. The results obtained in this paper may provide guidelines for the design of practical internal combustion engines.

  3. Detailed Modeling and Irreversible Transfer Process Analysis of a Multi-Element Thermoelectric Generator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Heng; Gou, Xiaolong; Yang, Suwen

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power generation technology, due to its several advantages, is becoming a noteworthy research direction. Many researchers conduct their performance analysis and optimization of TE devices and related applications based on the generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations. These generalized TE equations involve the internal irreversibility of Joule heating inside the thermoelectric device and heat leakage through the thermoelectric couple leg. However, it is assumed that the thermoelectric generator (TEG) is thermally isolated from the surroundings except for the heat flows at the cold and hot junctions. Since the thermoelectric generator is a multi-element device in practice, being composed of many fundamental TE couple legs, the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment is not negligible. In this paper, based on basic theories of thermoelectric power generation and thermal science, detailed modeling of a thermoelectric generator taking account of the phenomenon of energy loss from the TE couple leg is reported. The revised generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations considering the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment have been derived. Furthermore, characteristics of a multi-element thermoelectric generator with irreversibility have been investigated on the basis of the new derived TE equations. In the present investigation, second-law-based thermodynamic analysis (exergy analysis) has been applied to the irreversible heat transfer process in particular. It is found that the existence of the irreversible heat convection process causes a large loss of heat exergy in the TEG system, and using thermoelectric generators for low-grade waste heat recovery has promising potential. The results of irreversibility analysis, especially irreversible effects on generator system performance, based on the system model established in detail have guiding significance for

  4. Inequalities for trace anomalies, length of the RG flow, distance between the fixed points and irreversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2004-01-01

    I discuss several issues about the irreversibility of the RG flow and the trace anomalies c, a and a'. First I argue that in quantum field theory: (i) the scheme-invariant area Δ a' of the graph of the effective beta function between the fixed points defines the length of the RG flow; (ii) the minimum of Δ a' in the space of flows connecting the same UV and IR fixed points defines the (oriented) distance between the fixed points and (iii) in even dimensions, the distance between the fixed points is equal to Δ a = a UV - a IR . In even dimensions, these statements imply the inequalities 0 ≤ Δ a ≤ Δ a' and therefore the irreversibility of the RG flow. Another consequence is the inequality a ≤ c for free scalars and fermions (but not vectors), which can be checked explicitly. Secondly, I elaborate a more general axiomatic set-up where irreversibility is defined as the statement that there exist no pairs of non-trivial flows connecting interchanged UV and IR fixed points. The axioms, based on the notions of length of the flow, oriented distance between the fixed points and certain 'oriented-triangle inequalities', imply the irreversibility of the RG flow without a global a function. I conjecture that the RG flow is also irreversible in odd dimensions (without a global a function). In support of this, I check the axioms of irreversibility in a class of d = 3 theories where the RG flow is integrable at each order of the large N expansion

  5. Effect of disinfection on irreversible hydrocolloid and alternative impression materials and the resultant gypsum casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprono, Montry S; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Goodacre, Charles J; Winer, Myron S

    2012-10-01

    Many new products have been introduced and marketed as alternatives to traditional irreversible hydrocolloid materials. These alternative materials have the same structural formula as addition reaction silicone, also known as vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), impression materials. Currently, there is limited in vitro and in vivo research on these products, including on the effects of chemical disinfectants on the materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a spray disinfecting technique on a traditional irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 new alternative impression materials in vitro. The tests were performed in accordance with the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification Nos. 18 and 19. Under standardized conditions, 100 impressions were made of a ruled test block with an irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 alternative impression materials. Nondisinfected irreversible hydrocolloid was used as the control. The impressions were examined for surface detail reproduction before and after disinfection with a chloramine-T product. Type III and Type V dental stone casts were evaluated for linear dimensional change and gypsum compatibility. Comparisons of linear dimensional change were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA of mean ranks with the Scheffé post hoc comparisons (α=.05). Data for surface detail reproduction were analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank procedure and gypsum compatibility with the Kruskal-Wallis Rank procedure (α=.05). The alternative impression materials demonstrated significantly better outcomes with all 3 parameters tested. Disinfection with chloroamine-T did not have any effect on the 3 alternative impression materials. The irreversible hydrocolloid groups produced the most variability in the measurements of linear dimensional change. All of the tested materials were within the ADA's acceptable limit of 1.0% for linear dimensional change, except for the disinfected irreversible hydrocolloid

  6. Canonical formalism, fundamental equation, and generalized thermomechanics for irreversible fluids with heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, S.; Berry, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    A Lagrangian with dissipative (e.g., Onsager's) potentials is constructed for the field description of irreversible heat-conducting fluids, off local equilibrium. Extremum conditions of action yield Clebsch representations of temperature, chemical potential, velocities, and generalized momenta, including a thermal momentum introduced recently [R. L. Selinger and F. R. S. Whitham, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 302, 1 (1968); S. Sieniutycz and R. S. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 40, 348 (1989)]. The basic question asked is ''To what extent may irreversibility, represented by a given form of the entropy source, influence the analytical form of the conservation laws for the energy and momentum?'' Noether's energy for a fluid with heat flow is obtained, which leads to a fundamental equation and extended Hamiltonian dynamics obeying the second law of thermodynamics. While in the case of the Onsager potentials this energy coincides numerically with the classical energy E, it contains an extra term (vanishing along the path) still contributing to an irreversible evolution. Components of the energy-momentum tensor preserve all terms regarded standardly as ''irreversible'' (heat, tangential stresses, etc.) generalized to the case when thermodynamics includes the state gradients and the so-called thermal phase, which we introduce here. This variable, the Lagrange multiplier of the entropy generation balance, is crucial for consistent treatment of irreversible processes via an action formalism. We conclude with the hypothesis that embedding the first and second laws in the context of the extremal behavior of action under irreversible conditions may imply accretion of an additional term to the classical energy

  7. Pain Analysis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Irreversible Electroporation versus Radiofrequency Ablation-Initial Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Govindarajan, E-mail: gnarayanan@med.miami.edu; Froud, Tatiana, E-mail: tfroud@med.miami.edu [Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Lo, Kaming, E-mail: KLo@biostat.med.miami.edu [Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (United States); Barbery, Katuska J., E-mail: kbarbery@med.miami.edu; Perez-Rojas, Evelyn, E-mail: eprojas@med.miami.edu; Yrizarry, Jose, E-mail: jyrizarr@med.miami.edu [Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To retrospectively compare the postprocedure pain of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE) with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved study compared postprocedure pain in 21 patients (15 men, six women; mean age 61.5 years) who underwent IRE of 29 intrahepatic lesions (mean size 2.20 cm) in 28 IRE sessions with 22 patients (16 men, six women; mean age 60.2 years) who underwent RFA of 27 lesions (mean size 3.38 cm) in 25 RFA sessions. Pain was determined by patient-disclosed scores with an 11-point numerical rating scale and 24 h cumulative hydromorphone use from patient-controlled analgesia pump. Complications were noted. Statistical significance was evaluated by Fisher's exact test, the Chi-square test, and Student's t test. There was no significant difference in the cumulative hydromorphone dose (1.54 mg (IRE) vs. 1.24 mg (RFA); P = 0.52) and in the mean pain score (1.96 (IRE) vs. 2.25 (RFA); P = 0.70). In nine (32.14 %) of 28 IRE sessions and 11 (44.0 %) of 25 RFA sessions, patients reported no pain. Complications occurred in three (10.7 %) of 28 IRE treatments and included pneumothorax (n = 1), pleural effusion (n = 1), and bleeding in the form of hemothorax (n = 1); one (4 %) of 25 RFA treatments included burn. IRE is comparable to RFA in the amount of pain that patients experience and the amount of pain medication self-administered. Both modalities were well tolerated by patients. Prospective, randomized trials are necessary to further evaluate these findings.

  8. Hydrogen gas inhalation inhibits progression to the "irreversible" stage of shock after severe hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sano, Motoaki; Hayashida, Kei; Tamura, Tomoyoshi; Homma, Koichiro; Fukuda, Keiichi; Sasaki, Junichi

    2017-09-01

    Mortality of hemorrhagic shock primarily depends on whether or not the patients can endure the loss of circulating volume until radical treatment is applied. We investigated whether hydrogen (H2) gas inhalation would influence the tolerance to hemorrhagic shock and improve survival. Hemorrhagic shock was achieved by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial blood pressure reached 30-35 mm Hg. After 60 minutes of shock, the rats were resuscitated with a volume of normal saline equal to four times the volume of shed blood. The rats were assigned to either the H2 gas (1.3% H2, 26% O2, 72.7% N2)-treated group or the control gas (26% O2, 74% N2)-treated group. Inhalation of the specified gas mixture began at the initiation of blood withdrawal and continued for 2 hours after fluid resuscitation. The survival rate at 6 hours after fluid resuscitation was 80% in H2 gas-treated rats and 30% in control gas-treated rats (p gas-treated rats than in the control rats. Despite losing more blood, the increase in serum potassium levels was suppressed in the H2 gas-treated rats after 60 minutes of shock. Fluid resuscitation completely restored blood pressure in the H2 gas-treated rats, whereas it failed to fully restore the blood pressure in the control gas-treated rats. At 2 hours after fluid resuscitation, blood pressure remained in the normal range and metabolic acidosis was well compensated in the H2 gas-treated rats, whereas we observed decreased blood pressure and uncompensated metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia in the surviving control gas-treated rats. H2 gas inhalation delays the progression to irreversible shock. Clinically, H2 gas inhalation is expected to stabilize the subject until curative treatment can be performed, thereby increasing the probability of survival after hemorrhagic shock.

  9. Pain Analysis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Irreversible Electroporation versus Radiofrequency Ablation—Initial Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Froud, Tatiana; Lo, Kaming; Barbery, Katuska J.; Perez-Rojas, Evelyn; Yrizarry, Jose

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively compare the postprocedure pain of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE) with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant, institutional review board–approved study compared postprocedure pain in 21 patients (15 men, six women; mean age 61.5 years) who underwent IRE of 29 intrahepatic lesions (mean size 2.20 cm) in 28 IRE sessions with 22 patients (16 men, six women; mean age 60.2 years) who underwent RFA of 27 lesions (mean size 3.38 cm) in 25 RFA sessions. Pain was determined by patient-disclosed scores with an 11-point numerical rating scale and 24 h cumulative hydromorphone use from patient-controlled analgesia pump. Complications were noted. Statistical significance was evaluated by Fisher’s exact test, the Chi-square test, and Student’s t test. There was no significant difference in the cumulative hydromorphone dose (1.54 mg (IRE) vs. 1.24 mg (RFA); P = 0.52) and in the mean pain score (1.96 (IRE) vs. 2.25 (RFA); P = 0.70). In nine (32.14 %) of 28 IRE sessions and 11 (44.0 %) of 25 RFA sessions, patients reported no pain. Complications occurred in three (10.7 %) of 28 IRE treatments and included pneumothorax (n = 1), pleural effusion (n = 1), and bleeding in the form of hemothorax (n = 1); one (4 %) of 25 RFA treatments included burn. IRE is comparable to RFA in the amount of pain that patients experience and the amount of pain medication self-administered. Both modalities were well tolerated by patients. Prospective, randomized trials are necessary to further evaluate these findings.

  10. Quantum degeneracy effect on performance of irreversible Otto cycle with ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Feng; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih; Guo Fangzhong; Li Qing

    2006-01-01

    An Otto cycle working with an ideal Bose gas is called a Bose Otto cycle. The internal irreversibility of the cycle is included in the factors of internal irreversibility degree. The quantum degeneracy effect on the performance of the cycle is investigated based on quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Variations of the maximum work output ratio R W and the efficiency ratio y with temperature ratio τ are examined, which reveal the influence of the quantum degeneracy of the working substance on the performance of a Bose Otto cycle. It is shown that the results obtained herein are valid under both classical and quantum ideal gas conditions

  11. The universal power and efficiency characteristics for irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Qin Xiao Yong; Sun Feng Rui; Wu Chih

    2003-01-01

    The performance of irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles with heat transfer loss and friction-like term loss is analysed using finite-time thermodynamics. The universal relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, and the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycles are derived. Moreover, analysis and optimization of the model were carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle processes on the performance of the cycle using numerical examples. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of irreversible reciprocating Diesel, Otto, Atkinson and Brayton cycles.

  12. A general nonlinear evolution equation for irreversible conservative approach to stable equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses a mathematical problem relevant to the question of nonequilibrium and irreversibility, namely, that of ''designing'' a general evolution equation capable of describing irreversible but conservative relaxtion towards equilibrium. The objective is to present an interesting mathematical solution to this design problem, namely, a new nonlinear evolution equation that satisfies a set of very stringent relevant requirements. Three different frameworks are defined from which the new equation could be adopted, with entirely different interpretations. Some useful well-known mathematics involving Gram determinants are presented and a nonlinear evolution equation is given which meets the stringent design specifications

  13. Irreversible binding of 14C-labelled trichloroethylene to mice liver constituents in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehleke, H.; Poplawski-Tabarelli, S.

    1977-01-01

    1) 14 C-labelled trichloroethylene was injected i.p. into male mice (10 μmole/g of b.w.). The radioactivity irreversibly bound to hepatic protein reached highest levels after 6 h : 2 nmole/mg in cytosol protein, 4.4 nmole/mg in mitochondrial protein, and 7.6 nmole/mg in microsomal protein. 2) The commercial trichloroethylene contained radioactive impurities binding to proteins without metabolic activation. Purification by various extraction removed 60-70% of those materials. In aerobic incubates of mice hepatic microsomes and NADPH the covalent binding rate of the purified trichloroethylene was 1.4 nmole/mg protein in 60 min. The activity of rat liver microsomes was approximately 40% less. Covalent binding increased 2-fold with microsomes of mice pretreated with phenobarbital. (orig.) [de

  14. Irreversibility analysis of hydromagnetic flow of couple stress fluid with radiative heat in a channel filled with a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Eegunjobi

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the intrinsic irreversibility of a mixed convection hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting couple stress fluid through upright channel filled with a saturated porous medium and radiative heat transfer was carried out. The thermodynamics first and second laws were employed to examine the problem. We obtained the dimensionless nonlinear differential equations and solves numerically with shooting procedure joined with a fourth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme. The temperature and velocity obtained, used to analyse the entropy generation rate together with some various physical parameters of the flow. Our results are presented graphically and talk over. Keywords: MHD channel flow, Couple stress fluid, Porous medium, Thermal radiation, Entropy generation, Injection/suction

  15. Antibacterial efficacy and effect of chlorhexidine mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid for dental impressions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Glória; Valentini, Fernanda; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Leite, Fábio; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether chlorhexidine mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid powder decreases microbial contamination during impression taking without affecting the resulting casts. Twenty volunteers were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10) according to the liquid used for impression taking in conjunction with irreversible hydrocolloid: 0.12% chlorhexidine or water. Surface roughness and dimensional stability of the casts were evaluated. Chlorhexidine mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid decreased the percentage of microorganisms when compared with water (P impression quality.

  16. Antibacterial efficacy and effect of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid for dental impressions: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A Shafath; Charles, P David; Cholan, R; Russia, M; Surya, R; Jailance, L

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the extract of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid powder decreases microbial contamination during impression making without affecting the resulting casts. Twenty volunteers were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). Group A 30 ml extract of M. citrifolia L diluted in 30 ml of water was mixed to make the impression with irreversible hydrocolloid material. Group B 30 ml deionized water was mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid material to make the impressions following which the surface roughness and dimensional stability of casts were evaluated. Extract of M. citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid decreased the percentage of microorganisms when compared with water (P impression quality.

  17. Comparative evaluation of effect of preoperative alprazolam and diclofenac potassium on the success of inferior alveolar, Vazirani-Akinosi, and Gow-Gates techniques for teeth with irreversible pulpitis: Randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetkar, Pratibha; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Surapaneni, Saikalyan; Kalra, Dheeraj; Sakri, Mohan; Basavaprabhu, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In teeth with irreversible pulpitis, successful local anesthesia is hard to achieve irrespective of the amount of local anesthesia and technique used. Such cases can be managed by concoction of pre-medications like anxiolytics, analgesics and effective local anesthesia. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was planned to evaluate the effect of oral administration of alprazolam and diclofenac potassium on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB), Gow-Gates (GG) and Vazirani-Akinosi (VA) techniques for the root canal treatment of mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis. Method: 198 emergency patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were randomly divided into three groups as – A, B and C receiving IANB, GG or V-A respectively using 2% lidocaine with 1: 100,000 epinephrine. These groups were sub-divided into sub-groups I and II as control and pre-medication groups. Patients who did not react to the stimulus made by an explorer between the canine and first premolar and showing subjective lip and tongue numbness were included in the study. Result: All sub-groups showed statistically significant reduction in VAS score. However sub-groups V and VI (that is GG with and without pre-medication respectively) showed best improvement in initial severe pain in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis. Moreover, all pre-medication sub-groups showed better pain control compared to respective control groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that use of pre-medications in the form of combination of anxiolytics and analgesics improves the success rate of local anesthesia in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Use of anxiolytics eases the patient in endodontic emergencies. Also use of GG along with pre-medication is the best method for effective pain management of acute pain in irreversible pulpitis. PMID:27656053

  18. Effect of sodium bicarbonate-buffered lidocaine on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Khademi, Abbasali; Baghaei, Badri; Noormohammadi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of buffered with nonbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine solution for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in patients with mandibular posterior teeth experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Eighty adult patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were selected. The patients received 2 cartridges of either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine buffered with 0.18 mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine with 0.18 mL sterile distilled water using conventional IAN block injections. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injection. Lip numbness was required for all the patients. Success was determined as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings upon access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by the t, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square tests. The success rates were 62.5% and 47.5% for buffered and nonbuffered groups, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups (P = .381). Buffering the 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate did not improve the success of the IAN block in mandibular molars in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of anesthetic efficacy between lidocaine with and without magnesium sulfate USP 50% for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Krishna Prasad; Satish, Sarvepalli Venkata; Kilaru, Krishna Rao; Sardar, Poonam; Luke, Alexander M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy between lidocaine with and without magnesium sulfate USP 50% for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth were selected for the study. The patients received 1 mL magnesium sulfate USP 50% or distilled water (placebo) 1 hour before administration of conventional IAN block. Endodontic access cavity preparation was initiated 15 minutes after the IAN block injection. Lip numbness was recorded for all the patients. Success of IAN block was defined as no or mild pain on the visual analogue scale during access cavity preparation and initial instrumentation. The success rate for the IAN block was 58% for magnesium sulfate group and 32% for the placebo group, with statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .016). In mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, preoperative administration of 1 mL magnesium sulfate USP 50% resulted in statistically significant increase in success of IAN block compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Irreversible ocean thermal expansion under carbon dioxide removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Dana; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    In the Paris Agreement in 2015 countries agreed on holding global mean surface air warming to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, but the emission reduction pledges under that agreement are not ambitious enough to meet this target. Therefore, the question arises of whether restoring global warming to this target after exceeding it by artificially removing CO2 from the atmosphere is possible. One important aspect is the reversibility of ocean heat uptake and associated sea level rise, which have very long (centennial to millennial) response timescales. In this study the response of sea level rise due to thermal expansion to a 1 % yearly increase of atmospheric CO2 up to a quadrupling of the pre-industrial concentration followed by a 1 % yearly decline back to the pre-industrial CO2 concentration is examined using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We find that global mean thermosteric sea level (GMTSL) continues to rise for several decades after atmospheric CO2 starts to decline and does not return to pre-industrial levels for over 1000 years after atmospheric CO2 is restored to the pre-industrial concentration. This finding is independent of the strength of vertical sub-grid-scale ocean mixing implemented in the model. Furthermore, GMTSL rises faster than it declines in response to a symmetric rise and decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration partly because the deep ocean continues to warm for centuries after atmospheric CO2 returns to the pre-industrial concentration. Both GMTSL rise and decline rates increase with increasing vertical ocean mixing. Exceptions from this behaviour arise if the overturning circulations in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean intensify beyond pre-industrial levels in model versions with lower vertical mixing, which leads to rapid cooling of the deep ocean.

  1. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  2. Irreversible thermodynamics of dark energy on the entropy-corrected apparent horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K; Sahraei, N [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, M, E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.i, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.p [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics (CAMP), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    We study the irreversible (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe containing only dark energy. Using the modified entropy-area relation that is motivated by loop quantum gravity, we calculate the entropy-corrected form of the apparent horizon of the FRW universe.

  3. Revisiting the Glansdorff–Prigogine criterion for stability within irreversible thermodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 6 (2015), s. 1286-1299 ISSN 0022-4715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : irreversible processes * thermodynamic stability * excess entropy production * nonequilibrium free energy * Clausius heat theorem Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.537, year: 2015

  4. Irreversibility and multiplicity: two criteria for the disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochlin, G.

    1976-01-01

    Two criteria are suggested for comparing waste management methods: technical irreversibility and site multiplicity. These criteria can be used to reduce future risk in the face of inherent uncertainty and to provide for safe disposal without requiring guaranteed future ability to recognize, detect or repair areas of failure

  5. Pulpitis irreversible como forma de presentación de un odontoma

    OpenAIRE

    Berástegui, Esther; Buenechea Imaz, Ramón

    1997-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de odontoma compuesto que provocó pulpitis irreversible en el incisivo central superior derecho (1,1) en una joven de 20 años. El tratamiento fue la biopulpectomía total y extirpación quirúrgica del tumor.

  6. How to account for irreversibility in integrated assessment of climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Duong, M.

    1998-04-01

    How to account for irreversibility in integrated assessment of climate change? This Ph. D. thesis in Economics balances discounting, technical progress and the inertia of existing capital stock against uncertainty and the inertia of socio-economic systems to examine the issue of near term limitations of greenhouse gases emissions. After a general overview in chapter 2, and a more historical presentation of the debates in chapter 3, chapter 4 proceeds to review a large number of integrated assessment models. Chapter 5 introduces a Model on the Dynamics of Inertia and Adaptability of energy systems: DIAM, used to discuss how much previous studies might have overestimated the long term costs of CO 2 limitations and underestimated adjustment costs. It shows that, given a target date for atmospheric CO 2 concentration stabilisation, a higher inertia implies a lower optimal concentration trajectory. In a sequential decision framework, chapter 6 shows that current uncertainties about which CO 2 concentration ceiling would not present dangerous interference with the climate system justifies precautionary action. Finally, chapter 7 uses the irreversibility effect theory to define formally situations of decision under controversy and compare the irreversibility of CO 2 accumulation with the irreversibility of investments needed to moderate it. An option value for greenhouse gases emissions limitations is computed. (author)

  7. Irreversible colloidal agglomeration in presence of associative inhibitors: Computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcenas, Mariana; Duda, Yurko

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is employed to study the irreversible particle-cluster agglomeration of valence-limited colloids affected by associative inhibitors. The cluster size distribution and number of connections between colloids are analyzed as a function of density and inhibitor concentration. The influence of colloid functionality on its aggregation is discussed

  8. Which elements are involved in reversible and irreversible cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Hoegh-Madsen, Suzi; Dam, Erik

    2010-01-01

    -physiology of the joint and whether the joint damage is reversible or irreversible. In this review, we compile emerging data on cellular and pathological aspects of OA, and ask whether these data could give clue to when cartilage degradation is reversible and whether a point-of-no-return exists. We highlight different...

  9. Unifying principles of irreversibility minimization for efficiency maximization in steady-flow chemically-reactive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sankaran; Edwards, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Systems research has led to the conception and development of various steady-flow, chemically-reactive, engine cycles for stationary power generation and propulsion. However, the question that remains unanswered is: What is the maximum-efficiency steady-flow chemically-reactive engine architecture permitted by physics? On the one hand the search for higher-efficiency cycles continues, often involving newer processes and devices (fuel cells, carbon separation, etc.); on the other hand the design parameters for existing cycles are continually optimized in response to improvements in device engineering. In this paper we establish that any variation in engine architecture—parametric change or process-sequence change—contributes to an efficiency increase via one of only two possible ways to minimize total irreversibility. These two principles help us unify our understanding from a large number of parametric analyses and cycle-optimization studies for any steady-flow chemically-reactive engine, and set a framework to systematically identify maximum-efficiency engine architectures. - Highlights: • A unified thermodynamic model to study chemically-reactive engine architectures is developed. • All parametric analyses of efficiency are unified by two irreversibility-minimization principles. • Variations in internal energy transfers yield a net work increase that is greater than engine irreversibility reduced. • Variations in external energy transfers yield a net work increase that is lesser than engine irreversibility reduced

  10. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystn. pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been obsd. in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The

  11. Monopolistic pricing power for transgenic crops when technology adopters face irreversible benefits and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, R.D.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Pricing of biotechnology innovation under a patent grant is reconsidered in a model with uncertain returns and irreversible costs and benefits. Past results oil restricted monopoly pricing in the presence of competing technologies showed that pricing power is reduced. The timing of adoption of an

  12. Relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes I. Heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow and chemical reactions; formal part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, G.A.; Groot, S.R. de; Mazur, P.

    1953-01-01

    The relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes is developed for an isotropic mixture in which heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow, chemical reactions and their cross-phenomena may occur. The four-vectors, representing the relative flows of matter, are defined in such a way that, in

  13. Quantum thermodynamics: Microscopic foundations of entropy and of entropy generation by irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the physical significance of entropy? What is the physical origin of irreversibility? Do entropy and irreversibility exist only for complex and macroscopic systems? Most physicists still accept and teach that the rationalization of these fundamental questions is given by Statistical Mechanics. Indeed, for everyday laboratory physics, the mathematical formalism of Statistical Mechanics (canonical and grand-canonical, Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions allows a successful description of the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of matter, including entropy values. However, as already recognized by Schrodinger in 1936, Statistical Mechanics is impaired by conceptual ambiguities and logical inconsistencies, both in its explanation of the meaning of entropy and in its implications on the concept of state of a system. An alternative theory has been developed by Gyftopoulos, Hatsopoulos and the present author to eliminate these stumbling conceptual blocks while maintaining the mathematical formalism so successful in applications. To resolve both the problem of the meaning of entropy and that of the origin of irreversibility we have built entropy and irreversibility into the laws of microscopic physics. The result is a theory, that we call Quantum Thermodynamics, that has all the necessary features to combine Mechanics and Thermodynamics uniting all the successful results of both theories, eliminating the logical inconsistencies of Statistical Mechanics and the paradoxes on irreversibility, and providing an entirely new perspective on the microscopic origin of irreversibility, nonlinearity (therefore including chaotic behavior and maximal-entropy-generation nonequilibrium dynamics. In this paper we discuss the background and formalism of Quantum Thermodynamics including its nonlinear equation of motion and the main general results. Our objective is to show in a not-too-technical manner that this theory provides indeed a

  14. Positive Feedback of NDT80 Expression Ensures Irreversible Meiotic Commitment in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Dai; Yang, Yang; Lacefield, Soni

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, meiotic commitment is the irreversible continuation of the developmental path of meiosis. After reaching meiotic commitment, cells finish meiosis and gametogenesis, even in the absence of the meiosis-inducing signal. In contrast, if the meiosis-inducing signal is removed and the mitosis-inducing signal is provided prior to reaching meiotic commitment, cells exit meiosis and return to mitosis. Previous work has shown that cells commit to meiosis after prophase I but before entering the meiotic divisions. Since the Ndt80 transcription factor induces expression of middle meiosis genes necessary for the meiotic divisions, we examined the role of the NDT80 transcriptional network in meiotic commitment. Using a microfluidic approach to analyze single cells, we found that cells commit to meiosis in prometaphase I, after the induction of the Ndt80-dependent genes. Our results showed that high-level expression of NDT80 is important for the timing and irreversibility of meiotic commitment. A modest reduction in NDT80 levels delayed meiotic commitment based on meiotic stages, although the timing of each meiotic stage was similar to that of wildtype cells. A further reduction of NDT80 resulted in the surprising finding of inappropriately uncommitted cells: withdrawal of the meiosis-inducing signal and addition of the mitosis-inducing signal to cells at stages beyond metaphase I caused return to mitosis, leading to multi-nucleate cells. Since Ndt80 enhances its own transcription through positive feedback, we tested whether positive feedback ensured the irreversibility of meiotic commitment. Ablating positive feedback in NDT80 expression resulted in a complete loss of meiotic commitment. These findings suggest that irreversibility of meiotic commitment is a consequence of the NDT80 transcriptional positive feedback loop, which provides the high-level of Ndt80 required for the developmental switch of meiotic commitment. These results also illustrate the

  15. Antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Kishore; Alla, Rama Krishna; Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Gupta, Lokendra; Upadhya Perampalli, Nagaraja

    2016-06-01

    Conventional spray and the immersion disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials may lead to dimensional changes. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity and properties of 2 commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials were evaluated after incorporating varying concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the disk diffusion method. The gel strength, permanent deformation, flow, and gelation time were measured according to American Dental Association specification #18. Analysis of variance was used to identify the significant differences within and across the groups (α=.05). Adding silver nanoparticles to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials resulted in superior antimicrobial activity without adversely affecting their properties. Adding silver nanoparticles to Zelgan significantly increased the gel strength compared with the control group, except at 5 wt%. However, the gel strength of Tropicalgin was unaffected except at 5 wt%. An increase in the permanent deformation was found with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in both Zelgan and Tropicalgin. The flow of Zelgan increased with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles, whereas a decrease in the flow of Tropicalgin was observed at 1 wt% and 2 wt%. An increase in the gelation time of both Zelgan and Tropicalgin was observed with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. Based on this in vitro study, silver nanoparticles can be incorporated into irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials as antimicrobial agents without adversely affecting their properties. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pinning and irreversibility in superconducting bulk MgB{sub 2} with added nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Anurag [Superconductivity and Cryogenics Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Narlikar, A V, E-mail: anurag@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017, MP (India)

    2009-12-15

    Resistance, R(T), and magnetization, M(B), studies on superconducting bulk MgB{sub 2} samples containing nanodiamonds (ND) as additives (wt% of ND: x = 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10%) were recently published in two articles (Vajpayee et al 2007 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 20 S155, Vajpayee et al 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 07C708). The main observations reported were significant improvements in the critical current density J{sub c}(B), irreversibility line B{sub irr}(T) and upper critical field B{sub c2}(T) with ND addition. However, a closer look shows that as regards the potential of this technologically important material at higher magnetic fields and temperatures, there is still a lot of room for improvement. With that in mind we revisit the R(T) and M(B) data and analyze them, in the present work. We show that, despite ND addition, J{sub c} depends strongly on B in the high field region and tends to vanish at irreversibility lines that lie deep, i.e. at around 0.3 B{sub c2}(T), in the B-T phase diagram. The irreversibility lines, determined by R(T){yields}0 in the presence of B, are found to lie at around 0.5 B{sub c2}(T) in the phase diagram. These results for pinning and irreversibility lines are discussed in the light of various models such as those of surface sheath superconductivity, magnetically introduced percolation in polycrystalline MgB{sub 2}, thermally assisted flux motion (TAFM) and a modified flux line shear mechanism. Our analysis hints at TAFM and weak pinning channels with distributed superconducting properties percolating in our samples determining the irreversibility and pinning properties.

  17. Does Articaine Provide an Advantage over Lidocaine in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Jason; McDonagh, Marian; Sedgley, Christine M

    2015-11-01

    Achieving profound pulpal anesthesia can be difficult in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. This study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) question: in adults with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis who are undergoing endodontic treatment, what is the comparative efficacy of articaine compared with lidocaine in reducing pain and incidence of adverse events? A protocol was prepared and registered on PROSPERO. Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov by using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility for inclusion and quality. Weighted anesthesia success rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and compared by using a random-effects model. Two hundred seventy-five studies were initially identified from the search; 10 double-blind, randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. For combined studies, articaine was more likely than lidocaine to achieve successful anesthesia (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% CI, 1.41-3.47; P = .0006; I(2) = 40%). Maxillary infiltration subgroup analysis showed no significant difference between articaine and lidocaine (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 0.50-31.62; P = .19; I(2) = 59%). For combined mandibular anesthesia studies articaine was superior to lidocaine (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.40-3.44; P = .0006; I(2) = 30%), with further subgroup analysis showing no difference for mandibular block anesthesia (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.87-2.38; P = .16; I(2) = 0%). When used for supplemental infiltration after successful mandibular block anesthesia, articaine was significantly more effective than lidocaine (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.97-6.39; P pulpitis. There is a significant advantage to using articaine over lidocaine for supplementary infiltration after mandibular block anesthesia but no advantage when used for mandibular block anesthesia alone or for maxillary

  18. Partial Pulpotomy in Mature Permanent Teeth with Clinical Signs Indicative of Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nessrin A; Khazali, Mohammad A

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the outcome of partial pulpotomy using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) compared with calcium hydroxide (CH) in mature cariously exposed permanent molars. Fifty permanent molar teeth with carious exposures in 50 patients >20 years old were included. Preoperative pulpal and periapical diagnosis was established based on a history of presenting pain, results of cold testing, and radiographic findings. After informed consent, the tooth was anesthetized, isolated via a dental dam, and disinfected with 5% sodium hypochlorite before caries excavation. Partial pulpotomy was performed by amputating 2 mm of the exposed pulp, hemostasis was achieved, and the tooth was randomly assigned for the placement of either white MTA (White ProRoot; Dentsply, Tulsa, OK) or CH (Dycal; Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE) as the pulpotomy agent. Postoperative periapical radiographs were taken after placement of the permanent restoration. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was completed after 6 months and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test. Clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of irreversible pulpitis were established in all teeth. Immediate failure occurred in 4 teeth. At 1 year, MTA showed a higher tendency toward success compared with the CH group, and the difference was statistically significant after 2 years (83% vs 55%, P = .052 at 1 year; 85% vs 43%, P = .006 at 2 years). Sex did not have a statistically significant effect on the outcome. MTA partial pulpotomy sustained a good success rate over the 2-year follow-up in mature permanent teeth clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. More than half of the CH cases failed within 2 years. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The analysis of irreversibility, uncertainty and dynamic technical inefficiency on the investment decision in the Spanish olive sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambarraa, Fatima; Stefanou, Spiro; Gil, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses irreversible investment decision-making in the context of uncertainty when allowing for inefficiency to be transmitted over time. Both irreversibility and persistence in technical inefficiency can lead to sluggish adjustment of quasi-fixed factors of production. The context

  20. Lie-admissible invariant treatment of irreversibility for matter and antimatter at the classical and operator levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    It was generally believed throughout the 20th century that irreversibility is a purely classical event without operator counterpart. however, a classical irreversible system cannot be consistently decomposed into a finite number of reversible quantum particles (and. vive versa), thus establishing that the origin of irreversibility is basically unknown at the dawn of the 21-st century. To resolve this problem. we adopt the historical analytical representation of irreversibility by Lagrange and Hamilton, that with external terms in their analytic equations; we show that, when properly written, the brackets of the time evolution characterize covering Lie-admissible algebras; we prove that the formalism has fully consistent operator counterpart given by the Lie-admissible branch of hadronic mechanics; we identify mathematical and physical inconsistencies when irreversible formulations are treated with the conventional mathematics used for reversible systems; we show that when the dynamical equations are treated with a novel irreversible mathematics, Lie-admissible formulations are fully consistent because invariant at both the classical and operator levels; and we complete our analysis with a number of explicit applications to irreversible processes in classical mechanics, particle physics and thermodynamics. The case of closed-isolated systems verifying conventional total conservation laws, yet possessing an irreversible structure, is treated via the simpler Lie-isotopic branch of hadronic mechanics. The analysis is conducted for both matter and antimatter at the classical and operator levels to prevent insidious inconsistencies occurring for the sole study of matter or, separately, antimatter

  1. Comparison of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Mepivacaine and Lidocaine in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Renata Pieroni; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Buscariolo, Inês Aparecida

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2% mepivacaine combined with 1:100,000 epinephrine with 2% lidocaine combined with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy of mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Forty-two patients with irreversible pulpitis who were admitted to the Emergency Center at the University of São Paulo School of Dentistry volunteered to take part in the study and were randomized to receive conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 1.8 or 3.6 mL of either 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. We recorded patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia tested by using electric pulp stimulation, and absence/presence of pain during the subsequent pulpectomy by using a verbal analogue scale. All patients tested reported lip anesthesia after application of either type of inferior alveolar nerve block. Pulpal anesthesia success rates measured by using the pulp tester were satisfactory for both solutions (86% for mepivacaine and 67% for lidocaine). Success rates according to patient report of no pain or mild pain during pulpectomy were higher for mepivacaine solution (55%) than for lidocaine solution (14%). The differences between mepivacaine and lidocaine were statistically significant. Mepivacaine resulted in effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments. The success rates with either solution were not high enough to ensure complete pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does acetaminophen/hydrocodone affect cold pulpal testing in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effects of a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone on cold pulpal testing in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone or placebo. Cold testing with Endo-Ice (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane; Hygenic Corp, Akron, OH) was performed at baseline and every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Pain to cold testing was recorded by the patient using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Patients' reaction to the cold application was also rated. Cold testing at baseline and at 10 minutes resulted in severe pain for both the acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups. Although pain ratings decreased from 20-60 minutes, the ratings still resulted in moderate pain. Patient reaction to cold testing showed that 56%-62% had a severe reaction. Although the reactions decreased in severity over the 60 minutes, 20%-34% still had severe reactions at 60 minutes. Regarding pain and patients' reactions to cold testing, there were no significant differences between the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups at any time period. A combination dose of 1000 mg of acetaminophen/10 mg of hydrocodone did not statistically affect cold pulpal testing in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Patients experienced moderate to severe pain and reactions to cold testing. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anesthetic Success of an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block and Supplemental Articaine Buccal Infiltration for Molars and Premolars in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the anesthetic success of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block, and supplemental articaine buccal infiltration after a failed IAN block, in first and second molars and premolars in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. As part of 6 studies, 375 emergency patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis received 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine via an IAN block. After profound lip numbness, endodontic access and instrumentation were initiated. If the patient felt moderate to severe pain, a supplemental buccal infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was administered (204 patients), and endodontic treatment continued. Success was defined as the ability to access and instrument the tooth without pain (visual analogue scale rating of 0) or mild pain (visual analogue scale rating less than or equal to 54 mm). IAN block success was 28% for the first molars, 25% for the second molars, and 39% for the premolars. There were no significant differences when comparing molars with premolars. For the supplemental articaine buccal infiltration, success was 42% for the first molars, 48% for the second molars, and 73% for the premolars. There were no significant differences when comparing the molars, but there was a significant difference when comparing the premolars with the molars. For patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, the success rates for the IAN block and supplemental buccal infiltration of articaine of the molars and premolars would not be high enough to ensure profound pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anesthetic Efficacy of Gow-Gates Nerve Block, Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block, and Their Combination in Mandibular Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Shafiee, Maryam; Khademi, Abbasali; Memarzadeh, Bahareh

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the Gow-Gates nerve block (GGNB), the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB), and their combination for mandibular molars in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred fifty patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular molar were selected. The patients randomly received 2 GGNB injections, 2 IANB injections, or 1 GGNB injection plus 1 IANB injection of 1.8 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Access cavity preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injections. Lip numbness was a requisite for all of the patients. Success was specified as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings during access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed with the chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests. The success rates of anesthesia were 40%, 44%, and 70% for the GGNB, IANB, and GGNB + IANB groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rate of anesthesia between the GGNB and IANB groups (P > .05). The anesthesia success rate for the GGNB + IANB group was significantly different from those of the GGNB and IANB groups (P < .05). A combination of GGNB and IANB could improve the efficacy of anesthesia in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, but it would still require supplemental anesthesia. Further research may be needed to confirm the results of this study. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Buffered 4% Lidocaine on the Success of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Jared; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Fowler, Sara; Beck, Mike

    2015-06-01

    Medical studies have suggested that buffering local anesthetic may increase the ability to achieve anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 4% buffered lidocaine on the anesthetic success of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received a conventional IAN block using either 2.8 mL 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2.8 mL 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered with sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind manner. For the buffered solution, each cartridge was buffered with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate using the OnPharma (Los Gatos, CA) system to produce a final concentration of 0.18 mEq/mL sodium bicarbonate. Fifteen minutes after administration of the IAN block, profound lip numbness was confirmed, and endodontic access was initiated. Success was defined as no or mild pain (≤54 mm on a 170-mm visual analog scale) on access or instrumentation of the root canal. The success rate for the IAN block was 32% for the buffered group and 40% for the nonbuffered group, with no significant difference (P = .4047) between the groups. Injection pain ratings for the IAN block were not significantly (P = .9080) different between the 2 formulations. For mandibular posterior teeth, a 4% buffered lidocaine formulation did not result in a statistically significant increase in the success rate or a decrease in injection pain of the IAN block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Efficacy of single buccal infiltrations for maxillary first molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy Ulusoy, Ö İ; Alaçam, T

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a single buccal infitration using 4% articaine hydrochloride (HCl) with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine HCl with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine bitartrate for obtaining adequate pulpal anaesthesia in the palatal roots of maxillary first molars associated with irreversible pulpitis. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, fifty subjects were randomly allocated to receive maxillary buccal injections of 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine (n = 25) or 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine bitartrate (n = 25). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pulse rate measurements were recorded during access cavity preparation and initial file placement into the mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal canals. Data were analysed using Duncan and t-tests. There was no significant difference between the two anaesthetic solutions regarding the VAS scores and pulse rate measurements during endodontic procedures. The mean VAS ratings of the 50 patients during file placement into the palatal canals were significantly higher compared with the other three root canal procedures (P pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aza Cope Rearrangement of Propargyl Enammonium Cations Catalyzed By a Self-Assembled `Nanozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Courntey J.; Fiedler, Dorothea; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-27

    The tetrahedral [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} assembly (L = N,N-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene) encapsulates a variety of cations, including propargyl enammonium cations capable of undergoing the aza Cope rearrangement. For propargyl enammonium substrates that are encapsulated in the [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} assembly, rate accelerations of up to 184 are observed when compared to the background reaction. After rearrangement, the product iminium ion is released into solution and hydrolyzed allowing for catalytic turnover. The activation parameters for the catalyzed and uncatalyzed reaction were determined, revealing that a lowered entropy of activation is responsible for the observed rate enhancements. The catalyzed reaction exhibits saturation kinetics; the rate data obey the Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, and competitive inhibition using a non-reactive guest has been demonstrated.

  8. Kinetic evaluation of an anaerobic fluidised-bed reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de la Grasa; Banks, C.J.; Zhengjian Wang [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1995-09-01

    An anaerobic fluidised-bed reactor for purification of slaughterhouse wastewater was modelled as a continuous-flow, completely-mixed homogeneous microbial system, with the feed COD as the limiting-substrate concentration. The average microbial residence time in the reactor was defined in terms of conventional sludge-retention-time. The experimental data obtained indicated that the Michaelis-Menten expression was applicable to a description of substrate utilisation (i.e. COD removal) in the anaerobic fluidised-bed system. The maximum substrate utilisation rate, k, and the Michaelis constant, K{sub s}, were determined to be 1.2/day and 0.039 g/l. The observed biomass yield in the reactor decreased with increasing sludge-retention-time. The specific methane production rate observed was a linear function of the specific substrate-utilisation rate. (Author)

  9. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20......-40% to become approximate to 70% of the rate recorded during 6-24 h of reaction. Although Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not suffice to model the kinetics of the complex multi-enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the data for the glucose inhibition were surprisingly well described by simple Michaelis...

  10. Reversible and Irreversible Behavior of Glass-forming Materials from the Standpoint of Hierarchical Dynamical Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Aaron

    2013-03-01

    Using molecular simulation and coarse-grained lattice models, we study the dynamics of glass-forming liquids above and below the glass transition temperature. In the supercooled regime, we study the structure, statistics, and dynamics of excitations responsible for structural relaxation for several atomistic models of glass-formers. Excitations (or soft spots) are detected in terms of persistent particle displacements. At supercooled conditions, we find that excitations are associated with correlated particle motions that are sparse and localized, and the statistics and dynamics of these excitations are facilitated and hierarchical. Excitations at one point in space facilitate the birth and death of excitations at neighboring locations, and space-time excitation structures are microcosms of heterogeneous dynamics at larger scales. Excitation-energy scales grow logarithmically with the characteristic size of the excitation, giving structural-relaxation times that can be predicted quantitatively from dynamics at short time scales. We demonstrate that these same physical principles govern the dynamics of glass-forming systems driven out-of-equilibrium by time-dependent protocols. For a system cooled and re-heated through the glass transition, non-equilibrium response functions, such as heat capacities, are notably asymmetric in time, and the response to melting a glass depends markedly on the cooling protocol by which the glass was formed. We introduce a quantitative description of this behavior based on the East model, with parameters determined from reversible transport data, that agrees well with irreversible differential scanning calorimetry. We find that the observed hysteresis and asymmetric response is a signature of an underlying dynamical transition between equilibrium melts with no trivial spatial correlations and non-equilibrium glasses with correlation lengths that are both large and dependent upon the rate at which the glass is prepared. The correlation

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of the Mechanism Underlying the Biotransportation of the Active Ingredients in Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Jing; Liao, Zheng-Gen; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Luo, Yun; Li, Zhe; Satterlee, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative method to evaluate the biotransportation of a drug across the cell membrane. Through the application of the law of mass conservation, the drug transportation rate was calculated based on Fick's law of passive diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. The overall membrane-transportation rate was the sum of the passive diffusion rate and the carrier-mediated diffusion rate, which were calculated as the transportation mass divided by the respective rate. The active ingredients of Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma, namely, puerarin and ferulic acid, respectively, were used as two model drugs. The transportation rates of puerarin and ferulic acid were obtained by fitting a model that includes both Fick's law of diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. Compared with the overall transportation, the carrier-mediated transport and passive diffusion of 1.59 mmol/L puerarin were -35.07% and 64.93%, respectively, whereas the respective transportation modes of 0.1 mmol/L ferulic acid were -35.40% and 64.60%, respectively. Verapamil and MK-571 increased the overall transport rate and ratio, and MK-571 treatment changed the carrier-mediated transport from negative to positive. However, the transport rate and ratio of ferulic acid did not change significantly. The cell transportation mechanisms of puerarin and ferulic acid primarily involve simple passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transportation. Moreover, P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein efflux proteins, and other transportation proteins were found to be involved in the transportation of puerarin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Problems of saturation of the excitation and creation of irreversible changes in solid after laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhnyuk, L.A.; Trokhimchuck, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of modeling of processes of the irreversible interaction light and solid is discussed. This problem is connected with the processes of the saturation the excitation of respective scattering centers. The possible cascades of these processes are analyzed. The correlation between nonequilibrium and irreversible phenomena are analyzed. Two-dimensional sphalerite lattice of InSb was used for the kinetic modeling of the hierarchic processes of saturation of the excitation respective chemical bonds. The cascade characteristics of these processes were estimated for the cylindrical form of 'zone of energy scattering' of photon. The comparative analyses these results with results, which were received with the help straight method and method the spherical form of 'zone of energy scattering' of photon, is represented too. The good concordance of experimental and theoretical data was received. (authors)

  13. Irreversible Change of the Pore Structure of ZIF-8 in Carbon Dioxide Capture with Water Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huang; Guo, Ping; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The performance of zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) for CO2 capture under three different conditions (wetted ZIF-8, ZIF-8/water slurry, and ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry) was systemically investigated. This investigation included the study of the pore structure stability of ZIF-8 by using X......-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman detection technologies. Our results show that the CO2 adsorption ability of ZIF-8 could be substantially increased under the existence of liquid water. However, the structure characterization of the recovered ZIF-8...... showed an irreversible change of its framework, which occurs during the CO2 capture process. It was found that there is an irreversible chemical reaction among ZIF-8, water, and CO2, which creates both zinc carbonate (or zinc carbonate hydroxides) and single 2-methylimidazole crystals, and therefore...

  14. Capital dissipation minimization for a class of complex irreversible resource exchange processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen

    2017-05-01

    A model of a class of irreversible resource exchange processes (REPes) between a firm and a producer with commodity flow leakage from the producer to a competitive market is established in this paper. The REPes are assumed to obey the linear commodity transfer law (LCTL). Optimal price paths for capital dissipation minimization (CDM) (it can measure economic process irreversibility) are obtained. The averaged optimal control theory is used. The optimal REP strategy is also compared with other strategies, such as constant-firm-price operation and constant-commodity-flow operation, and effects of the amount of commodity transferred and the commodity flow leakage on the optimal REP strategy are also analyzed. The commodity prices of both the producer and the firm for the CDM of the REPes with commodity flow leakage change with the time exponentially.

  15. Linear irreversible thermodynamics and Onsager reciprocity for information-driven engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shumpei; Ito, Sosuke; Shiraishi, Naoto; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    In the recent progress in nonequilibrium thermodynamics, information has been recognized as a kind of thermodynamic resource that can drive thermodynamic current without any direct energy injection. In this paper, we establish the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics for a broad class of autonomous information processing. In particular, we prove that the Onsager reciprocity holds true with information: The linear response matrix is well-defined and is shown symmetric with both of the information affinity and the conventional thermodynamic affinity. As an application, we derive a universal bound for the efficiency at maximum power for information-driven engines in the linear regime. Our result reveals the fundamental role of information flow in linear irreversible thermodynamics.

  16. Time irreversibility and intrinsics revealing of series with complex network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Shang, Pengjian; Xia, Jianan; Wang, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we analyze time series on the basis of the visibility graph algorithm that maps the original series into a graph. By taking into account the all-round information carried by the signals, the time irreversibility and fractal behavior of series are evaluated from a complex network perspective, and considered signals are further classified from different aspects. The reliability of the proposed analysis is supported by numerical simulations on synthesized uncorrelated random noise, short-term correlated chaotic systems and long-term correlated fractal processes, and by the empirical analysis on daily closing prices of eleven worldwide stock indices. Obtained results suggest that finite size has a significant effect on the evaluation, and that there might be no direct relation between the time irreversibility and long-range correlation of series. Similarity and dissimilarity between stock indices are also indicated from respective regional and global perspectives, showing the existence of multiple features of underlying systems.

  17. Is thermodynamic irreversibility a consequence of the expansion of the Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osváth, Szabolcs

    2018-02-01

    This paper explains thermodynamic irreversibility by applying the expansion of the Universe to thermodynamic systems. The effect of metric expansion is immeasurably small on shorter scales than intergalactic distances. Multi-particle systems, however, are chaotic, and amplify any small disturbance exponentially. Metric expansion gives rise to time-asymmetric behaviour in thermodynamic systems in a short time (few nanoseconds in air, few ten picoseconds in water). In contrast to existing publications, this paper explains without any additional assumptions the rise of thermodynamic irreversibility from the underlying reversible mechanics of particles. Calculations for the special case which assumes FLRW metric, slow motions (v ≪ c) and approximates space locally by Euclidean space show that metric expansion causes entropy increase in isolated systems. The rise of time-asymmetry, however, is not affected by these assumptions. Any influence of the expansion of the Universe on the local metric causes a coupling between local mechanics and evolution of the Universe.

  18. Irreversible thermodynamics, parabolic law and self-similar state in grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    The formalism of the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes is applied to grain growth to investigate the nature of the self-similar state and its corresponding parabolic law. Grain growth does not reach a steady state in the sense that the entropy production remains constant. However, the entropy production can be written as a product of two factors: a scale factor that tends to zero for long times and a scaled entropy production. It is suggested that the parabolic law and the self-similar state may be associated with the minimum of this scaled entropy production. This result implies that the parabolic law and the self-similar state have a sound irreversible thermodynamical basis

  19. Lagrangian formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, K S

    2015-05-28

    We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called "mirror-image" system. The Lagrangian is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the Lagrangian. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such that there exists an "integral of evolution" which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions against 12 oral microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Casemiro,Luciana Assirati; Pires-de-Souza,Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Panzeri,Heitor; Martins,Carlos Henrique Gomes; Ito,Isabel Yoko

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of irreversible hydrocolloids (one containing an antimicrobial agent) prepared with water or with a 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution against 12 strains of the oral microbiota. Twenty specimens (0.5 x 1.0 cm) for each group (1. Jeltrate mixed with water; 2. Jeltrate mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution; 3. Greengel mixed with water; 4. Greengel mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution) were prepared under s...

  1. Direct and irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 by nitroaspirin (NCX 4016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzi, Teresa; Leone, Mario; Maucci, Raffaella; Corazzi, Lanfranco; Gresele, Paolo

    2005-12-01

    Benzoic acid, 2-(acetyl-oxy)-3-[(nitrooxy)methyl]phenyl ester (NCX 4016), a new drug made by an aspirin molecule linked, through a spacer, to a nitric oxide (NO)-donating moiety, is now under clinical testing for the treatment of atherothrombotic conditions. Aspirin exerts its antithrombotic activity by irreversibly inactivating platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. NCX 4016 in vivo undergoes metabolism into deacetylated and/or denitrated metabolites, and it is not known whether NCX 4016 needs to liberate aspirin to inhibit COX-1, or whether it can block it as a whole molecule. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of NCX 4016 and its analog or metabolites on platelet COX-1 and whole blood COX-2 and on purified ovine COX (oCOX)-1 and oCOX-2. In particular, we have compared the mechanism by which NCX 4016 inhibits purified oCOX enzymes with that of aspirin using a spectrophotometric assay. All the NCX 4016 derivatives containing acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the activity of oCOX-1 and oCOX-2, whereas the deacetylated metabolites and the nitric oxide-donating moiety were inactive. Dialysis experiments showed that oCOX-1 inhibition by NCX 4016, similar to aspirin, is irreversible. Reversible COX inhibitors (indomethacin) or salicylic acid incubated with the enzyme before NCX 4016 prevent the irreversible inhibition of oCOX-1 by NCX 4016 as well as by aspirin. In conclusion, our data show that NCX 4016 acts as a direct and irreversible inhibitor of COX-1 and that the presence of a spacer and NO-donating moiety in the molecule slows the kinetics of COX-1 inhibition by NCX 4016, compared with aspirin.

  2. New method for evaluating irreversible adsorption and stationary phase bleed in gas chromatographic capillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bob W; Wright, Cherylyn W

    2012-10-26

    A novel method is described for the evaluation of irreversible adsorption and column bleed in gas chromatographic (GC) columns using a tandem GC approach. This work specifically determined the degree of irreversible adsorption behavior of specific sulfur and phosphorous containing test probe compounds at levels ranging from approximately 50 picograms (pg) to 1 nanogram (ng) on selected gas chromatographic columns. This method does not replace existing evaluation methods that characterize reversible adsorption but provides an additional tool. The test compounds were selected due to their ease of adsorption and their importance in the specific trace analytical detection methodology being developed. Replicate chromatographic columns with 5% phenylmethylpolysiloxane (PMS), polyethylene glycol (wax), trifluoropropylpolysiloxane (TFP), or 78% cyanopropylpolysiloxane stationary phases from a variety of vendors were evaluated. As expected, the results demonstrate that the different chromatographic phases exhibit differing degrees of irreversible adsorption behavior. The results also indicate that all manufacturers do not produce equally inert columns nor are columns from a given manufacturer identical. The wax-coated columns for the test probes used were more inert as a group than 5% PMS coated columns, and they were more reproducibly manufactured. Both TFP and 78% cyanopropylpolysiloxane columns displayed superior inertness to the test compounds compared to either 5% PMS- or wax-coated columns. Irreversible adsorption behavior was characterized for a limited range of stationary phase film thicknesses. In addition, the method was shown effective for characterizing column bleed and methods to remove bleed components. This method is useful in screening columns for demanding applications and to obtain diagnostic information related to improved preparation methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiome of Deep Dentinal Caries Lesions in Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Rachid, Caio T C C; Lima, Kenio C; Assunção, Isauremi V; Gomes, Patrícia N; Siqueira, José F

    2016-01-01

    This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in the advanced front of caries biofilms associated with pulp exposure and irreversible pulpitis. Samples were taken from the deepest layer of dentinal caries lesions associated with pulp exposure in 10 teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. DNA was extracted and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 14 phyla and 101 genera composed by 706 different OTUs. Three phyla accounted for approximately 98% of the sequences: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. These phyla were also the ones with most representatives at the species level. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in 9/10 samples. As for genera, Lactobacillus accounted for 42.3% of the sequences, followed by Olsenella (13.7%), Pseudoramibacter (10.7%) and Streptococcus (5.5%). Half of the samples were heavily dominated by Lactobacillus, while in the other half lactobacilli were in very low abundance and the most dominant genera were Pseudoramibacter, Olsenella, Streptococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. High bacterial diversity occurred in deep dentinal caries lesions associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The microbiome could be classified according to the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Except for Lactobacillus species, most of the highly prevalent and abundant bacterial taxa identified in this study have been commonly detected in infected root canals. The detected taxa can be regarded as candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and possibly the pioneers in pulp invasion to initiate endodontic infection.

  4. Microbiome of Deep Dentinal Caries Lesions in Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela N Rôças

    Full Text Available This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in the advanced front of caries biofilms associated with pulp exposure and irreversible pulpitis. Samples were taken from the deepest layer of dentinal caries lesions associated with pulp exposure in 10 teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. DNA was extracted and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 14 phyla and 101 genera composed by 706 different OTUs. Three phyla accounted for approximately 98% of the sequences: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. These phyla were also the ones with most representatives at the species level. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in 9/10 samples. As for genera, Lactobacillus accounted for 42.3% of the sequences, followed by Olsenella (13.7%, Pseudoramibacter (10.7% and Streptococcus (5.5%. Half of the samples were heavily dominated by Lactobacillus, while in the other half lactobacilli were in very low abundance and the most dominant genera were Pseudoramibacter, Olsenella, Streptococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. High bacterial diversity occurred in deep dentinal caries lesions associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The microbiome could be classified according to the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Except for Lactobacillus species, most of the highly prevalent and abundant bacterial taxa identified in this study have been commonly detected in infected root canals. The detected taxa can be regarded as candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and possibly the pioneers in pulp invasion to initiate endodontic infection.

  5. A relation between irreversibility and unlinkability for biometric template protection algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    井沼, 学

    2014-01-01

    For biometric recognition systems, privacy protection of enrolled users’ biometric information, which are called biometric templates, is a critical problem. Recently, various template protection algorithms have been proposed and many related previous works have discussed security notions to evaluate the protection performance of these protection algorithms. Irreversibility and unlinkability are important security notions discussed in many related previous works. In this paper, we prove that u...

  6. Role of carboxydobacteria in consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz, Germany); Meyer, O.; Seiler, W.

    1981-08-01

    The carbon monoxide consumption rates of the carboxydobacteria Pseudomonas (Seliberia) carboxydohydrogena, P. carboxydovorans, and P. carboxydoflava were measured at high (50%) and low (0.5 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/) mixing ratios of CO in air. CO was only consumed when the bacteria had been grown under CO-autotrophic conditions. At low cell densities the CO comsumption rates measured at low CO mixing ratios were similar in cell suspensions and in mixtures of bacteria in soil. CO consumption observed in natural soil (loess, eolian sand, chernozem) as well as in suspensions or soil mixtures of carboxydobacteria showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Considering the difference of the K/sub m/, values and the observed V/sub max/ values, carboxydobacteria cannot contribute significantly to the consumption of atmospheric CO.

  7. Catalytic Activity of μ-Carbido-Dimeric Iron(IV) Octapropylporphyrazinate in the 3,5,7,2',4'-Pentahydroxyflavone Oxidation Reaction with tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, D. V.; Zaitseva, S. V.; Kudrik, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    It is found for the first time that μ-carbido-dimeric iron(IV) octapropylporphyrazinate displays catalytic activity in the oxidation reaction of natural flavonol morin with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, with the catalyst being stable under conditions of the reaction. The kinetics of this reaction are studied. It is shown the reaction proceeds via tentative formation of a complex between the catalyst and the oxidant, followed by O‒O bond homolytic cleavage. The kinetics of the reaction is described in the coordinates of the Michaelis-Menten equation. A linear dependence of the apparent reaction rate constant on the concentration of the catalyst is observed, testifying to its participation in the limiting reaction step. The equilibrium constants and rates of interaction are found. A mechanism is proposed for the reaction on the basis of the experimental data.

  8. Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-Xylenes by the Newly Isolated Bacterium Comamonas sp. JB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Tao, Wei; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Jingwei; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    A bacterium designated strain JB, able to degrade six benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene (BTEX) compounds, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. Taxonomic analyses showed that the isolate belonged to Comamonas, and until now, the genus Comamonas has not included any known BTEX degraders. The BTEX biodegradation rate was slightly low on the mineral salt medium (MSM), but adding a small amount of yeast extract greatly enhanced the biodegradation. The relationship between specific degradation rate and individual BTEX was described well by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The treatment of petrochemical wastewater containing BTEX mixture and phenol was shown to be highly efficient by BTEX-grown JB. In addition, toxicity assessment indicated the treatment of the petrochemical wastewater by BTEX-grown JB led to less toxicity than untreated wastewater.

  9. One-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: an ongoing multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Yazdani, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) and tooth extraction have been conventional treatment options for management of human mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Excellent short-term treatment outcomes of vital pulp therapy with calcium-enriched mixture cement (VPT/CEM), as a new treatment option, on postoperative pain relief was demonstrated; if intermediate- and long-term treatment outcomes of the new treatment are also non-inferior compared to RCT, then VPT/CEM may become a viable treatment option for management of mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis. In 23 healthcare centers, 407 9- to 65-year-old patients were randomly allocated into two study arms including one-visit RCT (reference treatment; n = 202) and VPT/CEM (alternative treatment; n = 205). Six- and twelve-month clinical and radiographic successes were assessed. Mean follow-up times at 6- and 12-month follow-ups were "6.70 ± 0.68 and 6.72 ± 0.71 months" and "12.96 ± 0.67 and 12.90 ± 0.66 months" in the available cases of RCT and VPT/CEM arms, respectively. Favorable clinical success rates in the two study arms did not show statistical difference; however, the radiographic success rate in the VPT/CEM was significantly greater than RCT arm at the two follow-ups (P pulpitis. The performance of biomaterials such CEM cement may assist in the shift towards more biologic treatments. VPT/CEM may be a realistic alternative treatment for human mature molar teeth with symptoms of irreversible pulpitis; the use of VPT/CEM is highly beneficial for patients as well as general dentists.

  10. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The aim of the research is to contribute to the modeling of this phenomenon. In the present paper the effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric behavior of a lime-cement mortar is extensively studied. The results indicate that NaCl influences the hydric and hygric dilation behavior of the material. The material contaminated with NaCl shrinks during dissolution and dilates during crystallization of the salt. This dilation is irreversible and sufficient to damage the material after few dissolution/crystallization cycles. This behavior is not restricted to NaCl, but is observed in the presence of other salts as well (NaNO 3 and KCl). Outcomes of electron microscopy studies suggest that salts causing irreversible dilation tend to crystallize as layers on the pore wall

  11. Conducts of disinfection, pouring and storage of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions by undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalisson Saymo de Oliveira SILVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obtaining dental models that accurately represent the molded oral tissue requires professional attention, especially when using irreversible hydrocolloid as a molding material. Objective To evaluate the conducts of undergraduate dental students at different internships for the disinfecting procedures, pouring, and storage of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. Material and method This is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study with a census sample of 89 students enrolled in the supervised internships I, II, III and IV. Data collection was performed using a structured questionnaire containing eight questions. Data were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Result Most of the students (88.8% performed the disinfection procedure, for which the most widely used method (64.6% was the application of sodium hypochlorite 1% spray stored in a sealed container. The most common disinfection time was 10 minutes (86.1%. Students in the early internships performed better in regard to the proportion of water/plaster to be used compared with students in the final internships. At all internships, pouring and storage of the ensemble of mold and model were neglected during the setting reaction. There was a statistically significant association between the stage and the disinfection method, the ratio of water/powder and pouring of the model (p<0.05. Conclusion Students exhibited appropriate conduct of disinfection; however, they should be encouraged to use evidence-based clinical practices in order to improve the procedures of pouring and storage of irreversible hydrocolloid molds.

  12. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuhu [PPPL; Calzolaio, Ciro [Univ of Geneva; Senatore, Carmine [Univ of Geneva

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  13. How Effective Is Supplemental Intraseptal Anesthesia in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Stephen; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Fowler, Sara; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have reported high levels of success with intraseptal injection for various dental procedures but provide limited information on the use of the injection during endodontic treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this prospective study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraseptal technique in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block failed. One hundred patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth were recruited. Following profound lip numbness after the administration of the conventional IAN block, endodontic treatment was initiated. Patients still experiencing moderate to severe pain during treatment were administered mesial and distal supplemental intraseptal injections using 0.7 mL 4% articaine with 1:000,000 epinephrine administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery unit. Success was defined as the ability to perform endodontic access and instrumentation with mild to no pain. Success with the IAN block was achieved in 25% of patients. Supplemental intraseptal injections provided success in 29% of patients. Supplemental intraseptal injections achieved profound pulpal anesthesia in 29% of patients when the IAN block failed. This low level of success would not provide predictable levels of anesthesia for patients requiring emergency endodontic treatment for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemical characterization of irreversibly adsorbed germanium on platinum stepped surfaces vicinal to Pt(1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Herrero, E.; Solla-Gullon, J.; Vidal-Iglesias, F.J.; Aldaz, A.; Feliu, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of germanium irreversibly adsorbed at stepped surfaces vicinal to the Pt(1 0 0) pole is reported. The process taking part on the (1 0 0) terraces is evaluated from charge density measurements and calibration lines versus the terrace dimension are plotted. On the series Pt(2n - 1,1,1) having (1 1 1) monoatomic steps, the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly adsorbed germanium is able to account for (n - 0.5) terrace atoms, thus suggesting some steric difficulties in the growth of the adlayer on the (1 0 0) terraces. Conversely, no steric problems are apparent in the series Pt(n,1,0) in which more open (1 0 0) steps are present on the (1 0 0) terraces. In this latter case the charge density under the germanium redox peaks is proportional to the number of terrace atoms. Some comparison is made with other stepped surfaces to understand the behavior and stability of germanium irreversibly adsorbed on the different platinum surface sites

  15. Model for an irreversible bias current in the superconducting qubit measurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, G. D.; Williams, D. A.; Holmes, C. A.; Stace, T. M.; Spiller, T. P.; Barrett, S. D.; Milburn, G. J.; Hasko, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting charge-phase ''quantronium'' qubit is considered in order to develop a model for the measurement process used in the experiment of Vion et al. [Science 296, 886 (2002)]. For this model we propose a method for including the bias current in the readout process in a fundamentally irreversible way, which to first order is approximated by the Josephson junction tilted-washboard potential phenomenology. The decohering bias current is introduced in the form of a Lindblad operator and the Wigner function for the current-biased readout Josephson junction is derived and analyzed. During the readout current pulse used in the quantronium experiment we find that the coherence of the qubit initially prepared in a symmetric superposition state is lost at a time of 0.2 ns after the bias current pulse has been applied, a time scale that is much shorter than the experimental readout time. Additionally we look at the effect of Johnson-Nyquist noise with zero mean from the current source during the qubit manipulation and show that the decoherence due to the irreversible bias current description is an order of magnitude smaller than that found through adding noise to the reversible tilted-washboard potential model. Our irreversible bias current model is also applicable to persistent-current-based qubits where the state is measured according to its flux via a small-inductance direct-current superconducting quantum interference device

  16. Coupled Reversible and Irreversible Bistable Switches Underlying TGFβ-induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Xing, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Whereas several feedback loops have been shown to regulate EMT, it remains elusive how they coordinately modulate EMT response to TGF-β treatment. We construct a mathematical model for the core regulatory network controlling TGF-β-induced EMT. Through deterministic analyses and stochastic simulations, we show that EMT is a sequential two-step program in which an epithelial cell first is converted to partial EMT then to the mesenchymal state, depending on the strength and duration of TGF-β stimulation. Mechanistically the system is governed by coupled reversible and irreversible bistable switches. The SNAIL1/miR-34 double-negative feedback loop is responsible for the reversible switch and regulates the initiation of EMT, whereas the ZEB/miR-200 feedback loop is accountable for the irreversible switch and controls the establishment of the mesenchymal state. Furthermore, an autocrine TGF-β/miR-200 feedback loop makes the second switch irreversible, modulating the maintenance of EMT. Such coupled bistable switches are robust to parameter variation and molecular noise. We provide a mechanistic explanation on multiple experimental observations. The model makes several explicit predictions on hysteretic dynamic behaviors, system response to pulsed stimulation, and various perturbations, which can be straightforwardly tested. PMID:23972859

  17. Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çiftel, Murat; Şimşek, Ayse; Turan, Özlem; Kardelen, Firat; Akçurin, Gayaz; Ertuğ, Halil

    2012-01-01

    To assess endothelial dysfunction and the risk for coronary atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease (CHD). The study included 18 cyanotic patients (the mean age was 12.28 ± 3.26 years) who developed irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to cyanotic and acyanotic CHDs, and 18 control patients (the mean age was 11.78 ± 3.00 years). Study groups were compared for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerotic risk factors. Compared to the control group, the mean FMD was significantly reduced in the cyanotic group (5.26 ± 2.42% and 9.48 ± 2.60%, respectively; P-value < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the groups in CIMT (0.41 ± 0.08 mm and 0.39 ± 0.06 mm, respectively; P-value = 0.299). The levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol were statistically significantly lower compared tothe control group (P-value = 0.001, 0.006 and 0.014, respectively), whereas no statistically significant difference was found in the levels of high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and triglycerides (P-value = 0.113 and 0.975, respectively). Systemic endothelial dysfunction in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to CHD was noted but there was no increased risk for atherosclerosis

  18. Anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis after inferior alveolar nerve block: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramesh, Kumar M

    2013-03-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block (IAN) is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in endodontics. Supplemental injections are essential to overcome failure of IAN block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. To evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth when conventional IAN block failed. Thirty emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth received an IAN block and experienced moderate to severe pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analogue scale ratings intraosseous injection using 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  19. Anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis after inferior alveolar nerve block: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramesh, Kumar M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The inferior alveolar nerve block (IAN) is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in endodontics. Supplemental injections are essential to overcome failure of IAN block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Aim: To evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth when conventional IAN block failed. Materials and Methods: Thirty emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth received an IAN block and experienced moderate to severe pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analogue scale ratings intraosseous injection using 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:23716971

  20. Origin of the irreversibility line in thin YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with and without columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, R.; Konczykowski, M.; Schmidt, B.; Yeshurun, Y.; Shaulov, A.; Villard, C.; Koren, G.

    1996-01-01

    We report on measurements of the angular dependence of the irreversibility temperature T irr (θ) in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films, defined by the onset of a third-harmonic signal and measured by a miniature Hall probe. From the functional form of T irr (θ) we conclude that the origin of the irreversibility line in unirradiated films is a dynamic crossover from an unpinned to a pinned vortex liquid. In irradiated films the irreversibility temperature is determined by the trapping angle. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Concerning the study of the irreversible magnetic behaviour of superconductivity; Contribution a l'etude du comportement magnetique irreversible des supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The influence of the presence of extended lattice defects on the magnetic behaviour has been studied for the case of type I superconductors, such as Re and Ta, and in a more quantitative manner for the type II superconductor niobium. In this case, measurements of the thermal conductivity have given an estimate of the relative concentration of lattice defects in each specimen. These measurements show that the larger the number of lattice defects, the more irreversible becomes the magnetization curve, and the larger becomes the values of the critical current, which is related by a simple model to the magnetization values. Finally, a study by transmission electron microscopy has confirmed on the one hand the diversity of the extended lattice defects and on the other hand has allowed the formulation of several hypothesis on their respective influence. [French] L'influence de la presence de defauts etendus sur le comportement magnetique a ete etudie pour des supraconducteurs de premiere espece, tels que le rhenium et le tantale, et plus quantitativement pour un supraconducteur de deuxieme espece, le niobium. Dans ce cas, des mesures de conductibilite thermique ont permis d'estimer la concentration relative des defauts du reseau dans chaque echantillon. Ces mesures montrent que plus les defauts du reseau sont nombreux, plus la courbe d'aimantation est irreversible, et plus les valeurs du courant critique, reliees par un modele simple aux valeurs de l'aimantation, sont elevees. Enfin une etude par microscopie electronique en transmission - a permis d'une part de constater la diversite des defauts etendus et d'autre part de formuler quelques hypotheses sur leurs influences respectives.

  2. Kinetic characterisation of primer mismatches in allele-specific PCR: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Christy M; Eisenthal, Robert; Cobb, Benjamin D

    2002-12-20

    A novel method of estimating the kinetic parameters of Taq DNA polymerase during rapid cycle PCR is presented. A model was constructed using a simplified sigmoid function to represent substrate accumulation during PCR in combination with the general equation describing high substrate inhibition for Michaelis-Menten enzymes. The PCR progress curve was viewed as a series of independent reactions where initial rates were accurately measured for each cycle. Kinetic parameters were obtained for allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) amplification to examine the effect of mismatches on amplification. A high degree of correlation was obtained providing evidence of substrate inhibition as a major cause of the plateau phase that occurs in the later cycles of PCR.

  3. Characteristics of 36C103- influx into nitrate reductase deficient mutant E1 pisum sativum seedlings: evidence for restricted ''induction'' by nitrate compared with wild type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane-Drummond, C.E.; Jacobsen, E.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrate uptake into seedlings of Pisum sativum L. cv. Rondo mutant E 1 defective for nitrate reductase (NR) and of its parent variety Rondo have been investigated using 36 C10 3 - as an analogue for nitrate. The apparent Michaelis Menten constants (K m ) for 36 ClO 3 - influx measured over 10 min were similar for mutant E 1 and the wild type (Wt). There was a 28% increase in 36 C10 3 - into Wt seedlings following nitrate pretreatment but this was not found when mutant seedlings were used. N starvation increased 36 C10 3 - influx into both mutant and Wt seedlings, and the rate of cycling E/I was also enhanced to a similar extent. The results are discussed in terms of current ideas on the regulation of nitrate uptake and assimilation. (author)

  4. Correlation analysis of reactivity in the oxidation of some organic diols by tripropylammonium fluorochromate in non-aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sheik Mansoor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of some organic diols by tripropylammonium fluorochromate (TriPAFC have been studied in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. The main product of oxidation is the corresponding hydroxy aldehydes. The reaction is first order with respect to TriPAFC and exhibited Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with respect to organic diols. The reaction is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ion dependence has the form: kobs = a + b[H+]. Various thermodynamic parameters for the oxidation have been reported and discussed along with the validity of isokinetic relationship. Oxidation of diols was studied in 18 different organic solvents. The rate data are showing satisfactory correlation with Kamlet–Taft solvotochromic parameters (α, β and π∗. A suitable mechanism of oxidation has been proposed.

  5. AIR POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER: ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION AND RELEASE OF NOXIOUS GASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiaorong

    from animal manure (mixture of urine and feces) by hydrolysis of urinary urea catalyzed by microbial urease present in feces. To better understand the enzymatic process of ammonia formation in manure, experiments based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics were conducted to obtain accurate estimates...... of the kinetic parameters of urease activity of feces and manure from pig and cattle, and to investigate the effects of pH on animal fecal urease by individual ammonium generation rate determination at five pH levels. Investigating the gas production and release mechanisms is important not only for estimating...... characteristics of different types of wastes (e.g., the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH) had great influence on the releases of NH3, CO2, H2S, and SO2. The investigation of kinetic parameter showed that the maximum urease activity for pig feces is at around pH 7, while...

  6. No-threshold dose-response curves for nongenotoxic chemicals: Findings and applications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that no threshold exists when estradiol acts through the same mechanism as an active endogenous estrogen. A Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation accounting for response saturation, background effects, and endogenous estrogen level fit a turtle sex-reversal data set with no threshold and estimated the endogenous dose. Additionally, 31 diverse literature dose-response data sets were analyzed by adding a term for nonhormonal background; good fits were obtained but endogenous dose estimations were not significant due to low resolving power. No thresholds were observed. Data sets were plotted using a normalized MM equation; all 178 data points were accommodated on a single graph. Response rates from ∼1% to >95% were well fit. The findings contradict the threshold assumption and low-dose safety. Calculating risk and assuming additivity of effects from multiple chemicals acting through the same mechanism rather than assuming a safe dose for nonthresholded curves is appropriate

  7. Response to a temperature modulation as a signature of chemical mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoumieux, H; Jullien, L; Lemarchand, A

    2007-11-01

    We consider n reactive species involved in unimolecular reactions and submitted to a temperature modulation of small amplitude. We determine the conditions on the rate constants for which the deviations from the equilibrium concentrations of each species can be optimized and find the analytical expression of the frequency associated with an extremum of concentration shift in the case n=3. We prove that the frequency dependence of the displacement of equilibrium gives access to the number n of species involved in the mechanism. We apply the results to the case of the transformation of a reactant into a product through a possible reactive intermediate and find the order relation obeyed by the activation energies of the different barriers. The results typically apply to enzymatic catalysis with kinetics of Michaelis-Menten type.

  8. Preparation of biosensors by immobilization of polyphenol oxidase in conducting copolymers and their use in determination of phenolic compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böyükbayram, A Elif; Kiralp, Senem; Toppare, Levent; Yağci, Yusuf

    2006-10-01

    Electrochemically produced graft copolymers of thiophene capped polytetrahydofuran (TPTHF1 and TPTHF2) and pyrrole were achieved by constant potential electrolysis using sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as the supporting electrolyte. Characterizations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical conductivities were measured by the four-probe technique. Novel biosensors for phenolic compounds were constructed by immobilizing polyphenol oxidase (PPO) into conducting copolymers prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole with thiophene capped polytetrahydrofuran. Kinetic parameters, maximum reaction rate (V(max)) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) and optimum conditions regarding temperature and pH were determined for the immobilized enzyme. Operational stability and shelf-life of the enzyme electrodes were investigated. Enzyme electrodes of polyphenol oxidase were used to determine the amount of phenolic compounds in two brands of Turkish red wines and found very useful owing to their high kinetic parameters and wide pH working range.

  9. Enantiomeric fractioning, degradation and metabolite formation of Mecoprop in subsoils with a phenoxy acid contamination history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frkova, Zuzana; Johansen, Anders; Karlson, Ulrich G.

    2015-01-01

    for their ability to degrade mecoprop under natural and amended conditions. Degradation of mecoprop was studied at elevated and environmentally relevant mecoprop concentrations as affected by nitrate and glucose at nitrate-reducing conditions and at a presence of oxygen (mimicking purging the soil with air. Results......As persistence and toxicity of the enantiomers of chiral pesticides are different a more comprehensive understanding of the fate of enantiomers of agrochemicals in the environment is necessary. Subsoils sampled vertically (2.5-6 m) at a site with a history of phenoxy acid contamination were used...... and enantioselectivity. Glucose hinders mecoprop degradation and changes the EF. Changing EF confirmed enzymatic dgradation of mecoprop in soils, which was well interpreted using the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. The highest mecoprop degradation rate was measured in soils incubated at nitrate-reducing conditions...

  10. A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on hemoglobin-collagen-CNTs composite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Mei, H; Zheng, W; Pan, P; Sun, X J; Li, F; Guo, F; Zhou, H M; Ma, J Y; Xu, X X; Zheng, Y F

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were successfully incorporated in the composite composed of hemoglobin (Hb) and collagen using co-electrospinning technology. The formed Hb-collagen-CNTs composite nanofibers possessed distinct advantage of three-dimensional porous structure, biocompatibility and excellent stability. The Hb immobilized in the electrospun nanofibers retained its natural structure and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of the direct electron transfer between Hb and electrodes was 5.3s(-1). In addition, the electrospun Hb-collagen-CNTs nanofibers modified electrodes showed good electrocatalytic properties toward H2O2 with a detection limit of 0.91μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) of 32.6μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tomato root growth and phosphorus absorption kinetics by tomato plants as affected by phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, P.C.R.; Barber, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects P concentrations in nutrient solution on root growth and on root physiological characteristics involved in P uptake by tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants, six seedlings were grown in nutrient solution at initial concentrations of 48.5, 97, 194 and 388 μMP until one day before harvest. They were then transferred to solutions with P at 20 μM and 30 μM, and the depletion curves and Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined. The conclusions were that as P supply increased and as the plant P contents are sufficient for maximum growth, the rate of P uptake tends to be lower. The results also indicate that total P uptake by tomato seedlings depends on the amount of root surface area exposed to P. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. A century of enzyme kinetic analysis, 1913 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth A

    2013-09-02

    This review traces the history and logical progression of methods for quantitative analysis of enzyme kinetics from the 1913 Michaelis and Menten paper to the application of modern computational methods today. Following a brief review of methods for fitting steady state kinetic data, modern methods are highlighted for fitting full progress curve kinetics based upon numerical integration of rate equations, including a re-analysis of the original Michaelis-Menten full time course kinetic data. Finally, several illustrations of modern transient state kinetic methods of analysis are shown which enable the elucidation of reactions occurring at the active sites of enzymes in order to relate structure and function. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical identifiability and convergence evaluation for nonlinear pharmacokinetic models with particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Li, Lang

    2014-02-01

    The statistical identifiability of nonlinear pharmacokinetic (PK) models with the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic equation is considered using a global optimization approach, which is particle swarm optimization (PSO). If a model is statistically non-identifiable, the conventional derivative-based estimation approach is often terminated earlier without converging, due to the singularity. To circumvent this difficulty, we develop a derivative-free global optimization algorithm by combining PSO with a derivative-free local optimization algorithm to improve the rate of convergence of PSO. We further propose an efficient approach to not only checking the convergence of estimation but also detecting the identifiability of nonlinear PK models. PK simulation studies demonstrate that the convergence and identifiability of the PK model can be detected efficiently through the proposed approach. The proposed approach is then applied to clinical PK data along with a two-compartmental model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catalytic monolayer voltammetry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy of copper nitrite reductase on cysteamine-modified Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Welinder, A.C.; Hansen, Allan Glargaard

    2003-01-01

    electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM) directly in aqueous acetate buffer, pH 6.0 has been used. High-resolution in situ STM shows that cysteamine packs into ordered domains with strip features of a periodic distance of 11.7 +/- 0.3 Angstrom. No voltammetric signals of the nitrite substrate...... on this surface could be detected. A strong cathodic catalytic wave appears in the presence of nitrite. The catalytic current follows a Michaelis-Menten pattern with a Michaelis constant of K-m approximate to 44 muM, which is close to the value for AxCuNiR in homogeneous solution. The apparent catalytic rate...

  15. Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold for Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshkbaghi, Mahdi; Frouzakis, Christos E; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Karlin, Iliya V

    2016-05-26

    The Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold (SQEM) method is a model reduction technique for chemical kinetics based on entropy maximization under constraints built by the slowest eigenvectors at equilibrium. The method is revisited here and discussed and validated through the Michaelis-Menten kinetic scheme, and the quality of the reduction is related to the temporal evolution and the gap between eigenvalues. SQEM is then applied to detailed reaction mechanisms for the homogeneous combustion of hydrogen, syngas, and methane mixtures with air in adiabatic constant pressure reactors. The system states computed using SQEM are compared with those obtained by direct integration of the detailed mechanism, and good agreement between the reduced and the detailed descriptions is demonstrated. The SQEM reduced model of hydrogen/air combustion is also compared with another similar technique, the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE). For the same number of representative variables, SQEM is found to provide a more accurate description.

  16. The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrard, Victor; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Permeable sediments comprise the majority of shelf sediments, yet the rates of denitrification remain highly uncertain in these environments. Computational models are increasingly being used to understand the dynamics of denitrification in permeable sediments, which are complex environments...... on sediments taken from six shallow coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The results showed that denitrification commenced rapidly (within 30 min) after the onset of anoxia and the kinetics could be well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with half saturation constants (apparent K...... in cohesive sediments despite organic carbon contents one order of magnitude lower for the sediments studied here. The ratio of sediment O-2 consumption to V-max was in the range of 0.02-0.09, and was on average much lower than the theoretical ratio of 0.8. As a consequence, models implemented...

  17. Efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine in block and infiltration anesthesia administered in teeth with irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Kazem, Majeed; Dianat, Omid; Noghrehkar, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Profound pulpal anesthesia in posterior mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis usually requires administering an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) plus other supplemental injections. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the anesthetic success rate of buccal infiltration injections of articaine and lidocaine when supplemented with an IANB. One hundred twenty-five emergency patients who had their first or second mandibular molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis participated in the study and received the IANB by using either 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. One hundred two of the patients reported moderate-to-severe pain upon initiation of their endodontic treatment or through filing of their tooth canals and received supplemental buccal infiltration injections by using the same anesthetic that the IANB had been performed. After the block or the supplemental buccal infiltration injections, success was achieved with no or mild pain during instrumentation of the tooth canals. The success rate after the administration of the infiltration injections after an incomplete IANB by using lidocaine was 29%, whereas by using articaine it was 71% (P pulpitis. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A highly efficient nano-cluster artificial peroxidase and its direct electrochemistry on a nano complex modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Kun; Yang, Wei-Yun; Zhao, Ying-Xue; Xiao, Bao-Lin; Gao, Yun-Fei; Moosavi-Movahedi, Zainab; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    A nano-cluster with highly efficient peroxide activity was constructed based on nafion (NF) and cytochrome c (Cyt c). UV-Vis spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods were utilized for characterization of the nano-structured enzyme or artificial peroxidase (AP). The nano-cluster was composed of a Chain-Ball structure, with an average ball size of about 40 nm. The Michaelis-Menten (K(m)) and catalytic rate (k(cat)) constants of the AP were determined to be 2.5 ± 0.4 µM and 0.069 ± 0.001 s(-1), respectively, in 50 mM PBS at pH 7.0. The catalytic efficiency of the AP was evaluated to be 0.028 ± 0.005 µM(-1) s(-1), which was 39 ± 5% as efficient as the native horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The AP was also immobilized on a functional multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNCTs)-gold colloid nanoparticles (AuNPs) nano-complex modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The cyclic voltammetry of AP on the nano complex modified GC electrode showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of -45 ± 2 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) was evaluated to be 0.65 s(-1). The surface concentration of electroactive AP on GC electrode (Γ) was 7 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) was 0.23 nM.

  19. Effect of relative head position on the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block during endodontic treatment of patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized single-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tilting the head on the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-two patients were divided into two groups: the first group received IANB and the head was tilted in the direction of the block for 15 min, whereas the second group received IANB and the head was tilted to the opposite side. Access cavity preparation was initiated after 15 min. Success was defined as no pain or faint/weak/mild pain during endodontic access preparation and instrumentation. The anesthetic success rates were analyzed by Pearson chi-square test at 5% significance levels. The same side position and opposite side position yielded 41% and 30% anesthetic success rates, respectively; there was no significant difference between the two sides. Relative head position has no effect on the anesthetic success rate of IANB.

  20. Efficacy of Articaine and Lidocaine for Buccal Infiltration of First Maxillary Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Double-blinded Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hamid Reza; Parirokh, Masoud; Nakhaee, Nouzar; V. Abbott, Paul; Samani, Syamak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of 2% lidocaine to 4% articaine in buccal infiltration of maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Moreover, the effect of root length on success of anesthesia irrespective of the type of anesthetic agent was assessed. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients suffering from painful maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis received an infiltration injection of either 4% articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80000 epinephrine. Each patient recorded their pain score in response to a cold test on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (VAS) before commencing the treatment, 5 min following injection, during access preparation, after pulp exposure and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analyzed using the multivariate logistic regression analysis, chi-square and t tests. Results: Finally, 47 out of 50 patients were eligible to be included in this study. The anesthetic success rates in the lidocaine and articaine groups were 56.52% and 66.67%, respectively and the difference was not significant (P=0.474). Irrespective of the anesthetic agent, the length of the palatal root (Odds Ratio=0.24, P=0.007) had an adverse effect on anesthetic success. There was an association between longer palatal root length and anesthetic failure. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine in terms of anesthetic success in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. The length of the palatal root had a significant negative influence on anesthetic success. PMID:27141212

  1. Comparison between prescription of regular or on-demand ibuprofen on postoperative pain after single-visit root canal treatment of teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Sadr, Saeedeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Abbott, Paul V; Manochehrifar, Hamed

    2014-02-01

    Pain management is very important in endodontic practice. The aim of this study was to compare the effect on pain relief of on-demand versus regular prescription of ibuprofen after single-visit root canal treatment in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty mandibular and maxillary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain had single-visit root canal treatment. After this treatment, patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 30 patients each. Patients in group 1 received a single dose of 400 mg ibuprofen and a rescue bag of the same medication to use if they felt pain and needed further medication. Patients in group 2 received the same medication as group 1 patients after treatment, and they were also provided with a prescription to use 400 mg ibuprofen every 6 hours for at least 24 hours. The patients were asked to rate their pain on a visual analog scale for up to 48 hours after treatment. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whiney, chi-square, Fisher exact, and McNemar tests. Two patients were excluded because they did not return their pain record forms. Data analysis of the remaining 58 patients showed no significant difference in pain felt by the patients in groups 1 and 2 at either 24 or 48 hours after treatment (P = .849 and P = .732, respectively). Patients in group 2 used significantly more medication compared with patients in group 1 (P = .04). In patients who had irreversible pulpitis with no moderate to severe spontaneous pain, prescribing ibuprofen on a regular basis after root canal treatment had no significant effect on pain relief compared with an on-demand regimen up to 48 hours after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaesthetic efficacy of supplemental lingual infiltration of mandibular molars after inferior alveolar nerve block plus buccal infiltration in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, L; Luo, J; Yang, D

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of supplemental lingual infiltration (LI) of mandibular molars following an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) plus buccal infiltration (BI) in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Eighty adult patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis participated in this prospective study. All patients received standard IANB via injection of 4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. Ten minutes after the IANB, patients with numbness of the lower lip were randomly divided into two groups. In the BI group, 40 patients received supplemental BI of 0.9 mL of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. In the buccal plus lingual infiltration (BLI) group, 40 patients received supplemental BI of 0.9 mL of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and, subsequently, LIs with the same anaesthetic solution and dose. Endodontic access cavity preparation began 15 min after the IANB. Pain during treatment was recorded using a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale. Success was defined when pain was 'none' or 'mild' on endodontic access and initial instrumentation. The pain was estimated and statistically analysed by the chi-squared test (α = 0.05). The success rates for the BI and BLI groups were 70% and 62.5%, respectively. No statistical difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.478). Supplemental LIs are not recommended for administration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis, because they do not improve the anaesthetic success after IANB plus BI. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Efficacy of preoperative ibuprofen on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Gonzalez, D; Cerda-Cristerna, B I; Chavarria-Bolaños, D; Flores-Reyes, H; Pozos-Guillen, A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of preoperative oral ibuprofen (IBU) on the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs) with mepivacaine containing 1 : 100 000 epinephrine for patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP). The present study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study included two study groups each consisting of 25 patients who exhibited symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth. The patients presented prolonged moderate or severe pain (>10 s) after cold testing and indicated their pain scores on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale. The patients received identically appearing capsules containing either 600 mg IBU (IBUg) or gelatin (placebo, PLAg) 1 h before administration of IANB with 2% mepivacaine containing 1 : 100 000 epinephrine. After 15 min, the anaesthetic blockade was assessed by a three-step examination (lip numbness, positive/negative response to cold testing and clinical discomfort during endodontic access). IANB success was defined as the absence of pain during any of these evaluations. The data were analysed using the chi-squared test. All of the patients reported moderate or severe pain before the preoperative procedure. Statistically significant differences were observed between the IBUg and PLAg (P < 0.05); the success rates for the IANB were 72% (IBUg) and 36% (PLAg). Preoperative oral administration of IBU significantly improved the efficacy of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Dynamics of Irreversible Evaporation of a Water-Protein Droplet and a Problem of Structural and Dynamical Experiments with Single Molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaitan, K V; Armeev, G A; Shaytan, A K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effect of isothermal and adiabatic evaporation of water on the state of a water-protein droplet. The discussed problem is of current importance due to development of techniques to perform single molecule experiments using free electron lasers. In such structure-dynamic experiments the delivery of a sample into the X-ray beam is performed using the microdroplet injector. The time between the injection and delivery is in the order of microseconds. In this paper we developed a specialized variant of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for the study of irreversible isothermal evaporation of the droplet. Using in silico experiments we determined the parameters of isothermal evaporation of the water-protein droplet with the sodium and chloride ions in the concentration range of 0.3 M at different temperatures. The energy of irreversible evaporation determined from in silico experiments at the initial stages of evaporation virtually coincides with the specific heat of evaporation for water. For the kinetics of irreversible adiabatic evaporation an exact analytical solution was obtained in the limit of high thermal conductivity of the droplet (or up to the droplet size of -100 Å). This analytical solution incorporates parameters that are determined using in silico. experiments on isothermal droplet evaporation. We show that the kinetics of adiabatic evaporation and cooling of the droplet scales with the droplet size. Our estimates of the water-protemi droplet. freezing rate in the adiabatic regime in a vacuum chamber show that additional techniques for stabilizing the temperature inside the droplet should be used in order to study the conformational transitions of the protein in single molecules. Isothermal and quasi-isothermal conditions are most suitable for studying the conformational transitions upon object functioning. However, in this case it is necessary to take into account the effects of dehydration and rapid increase of ionic strength in an

  5. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Sonoda; Haruyoshi Yamaza; Lan Ma; Yosuke Tanaka; Erika Tomoda; Reona Aijima; Kazuaki Nonaka; Toshio Kukita; Songtao Shi; Fusanori Nishimura; Takayoshi Yamaza

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we...

  6. KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesi QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN [Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iyan Sofyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: 1 to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2 to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v. The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37x10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum μ =17,5x10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

  7. Quantification of in vivo metabolic kinetics of hyperpolarized pyruvate in rat kidneys using dynamic 13C MRSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Mayer, Dirk; Gu, Meng; Yen, Yi-Fen; Josan, Sonal; Tropp, James; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Hurd, Ralph; Spielman, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    With signal-to-noise ratio enhancements on the order of 10,000-fold, hyperpolarized MRSI of metabolically active substrates allows the study of both the injected substrate and downstream metabolic products in vivo. Although hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, in particular, has been used to demonstrate metabolic activities in various animal models, robust quantification and metabolic modeling remain important areas of investigation. Enzyme saturation effects are routinely seen with commonly used doses of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate; however, most metrics proposed to date, including metabolite ratios, time-to-peak of metabolic products and single exchange rate constants, fail to capture these saturation effects. In addition, the widely used small-flip-angle excitation approach does not correctly model the inflow of fresh downstream metabolites generated proximal to the target slice, which is often a significant factor in vivo. In this work, we developed an efficient quantification framework employing a spiral-based dynamic spectroscopic imaging approach. The approach overcomes the aforementioned limitations and demonstrates that the in vivo (13)C labeling of lactate and alanine after a bolus injection of [1-(13)C]pyruvate is well approximated by saturatable kinetics, which can be mathematically modeled using a Michaelis-Menten-like formulation, with the resulting estimated apparent maximal reaction velocity V(max) and apparent Michaelis constant K(M) being unbiased with respect to critical experimental parameters, including the substrate dose, bolus shape and duration. Although the proposed saturatable model has a similar mathematical formulation to the original Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it is conceptually different. In this study, we focus on the (13)C labeling of lactate and alanine and do not differentiate the labeling mechanism (net flux or isotopic exchange) or the respective contribution of various factors (organ perfusion rate, substrate transport

  8. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Laura A; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B; Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Wright, Jody J; Hallam, Steven J; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-09-20

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L(-1) and 20 μmol⋅L(-1) Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5-33 nmol⋅L(-1) O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis-Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss.

  9. Effect of irreversible processes on the thermodynamic performance of open-cycle desiccant cooling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Dong; Li, Yong; Dai, Yanjun; Ge, Tianshu; Wang, Ruzhu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of irreversible processes on the performance of desiccant cooling cycle are identified. ► The exergy destructions involved are classified by the properties of the individual processes. ► Appropriate indexes for thermodynamic evaluation are proposed based on thermodynamic analyses. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analyses of desiccant cooling cycle usually focus on the overall cycle performance in previous study. In this paper, the effects of the individual irreversible processes in each component on thermodynamic performance are analyzed in detail. The objective of this paper is to reveal the elemental features of the individual components, and to show their effects on the thermodynamic performance of the whole cycle in a fundamental way. Appropriate indexes for thermodynamic evaluation are derived based on the first and second law analyses. A generalized model independent of the connection of components is developed. The results indicate that as the effectiveness of the desiccant wheel increases, the cycle performance is increased principally due to the significant reduction in exergy carried out by exhaust air. The corresponding exergy destruction coefficient of the cycle with moderate performance desiccant wheel is decreased greatly to 3.9%, which is more than 50% lower than that of the cycle with low performance desiccant wheel. The effect of the heat source is similar. As the temperature of the heat source increases from 60 °C to 90 °C, the percentage of exergy destruction raised by exhaust air increases sharply from 5.3% to 21.8%. High heat exchanger effectiveness improves the cycle performance mainly by lowering the irreversibility of the heat exchanger, using less regeneration heat and pre-cooling the process air effectively

  10. A Derivation of a Microscopic Entropy and Time Irreversibility From the Discreteness of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Riek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic microsopic physical laws are time reversible. In contrast, the second law of thermodynamics, which is a macroscopic physical representation of the world, is able to describe irreversible processes in an isolated system through the change of entropy ΔS > 0. It is the attempt of the present manuscript to bridge the microscopic physical world with its macrosocpic one with an alternative approach than the statistical mechanics theory of Gibbs and Boltzmann. It is proposed that time is discrete with constant step size. Its consequence is the presence of time irreversibility at the microscopic level if the present force is of complex nature (F(r ≠ const. In order to compare this discrete time irreversible mechamics (for simplicity a “classical”, single particle in a one dimensional space is selected with its classical Newton analog, time reversibility is reintroduced by scaling the time steps for any given time step n by the variable sn leading to the Nosé-Hoover Lagrangian. The corresponding Nos´e-Hoover Hamiltonian comprises a term Ndf kB T ln sn (kB the Boltzmann constant, T the temperature, and Ndf the number of degrees of freedom which is defined as the microscopic entropy Sn at time point n multiplied by T. Upon ensemble averaging this microscopic entropy Sn in equilibrium for a system which does not have fast changing forces approximates its macroscopic counterpart known from thermodynamics. The presented derivation with the resulting analogy between the ensemble averaged microscopic entropy and its thermodynamic analog suggests that the original description of the entropy by Boltzmann and Gibbs is just an ensemble averaging of the time scaling variable sn which is in equilibrium close to 1, but that the entropy

  11. Parametric analysis of an irreversible proton exchange membrane fuel cell/absorption refrigerator hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Puqing; Zhang, Houcheng

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system mainly consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and an absorption refrigerator is proposed, where the PEMFC directly converts the chemical energy contained in the hydrogen into electrical and thermal energies, and the thermal energy is transferred to drive the bottoming absorption refrigerator for cooling purpose. By considering the existing irreversible losses in the hybrid system, the operating current density region of the PEMFC permits the absorption refrigerator to exert its function is determined and the analytical expressions for the equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system under different operating conditions are specified. Numerical calculations show that the equivalent maximum power density and the corresponding efficiency of the hybrid system can be respectively increased by 5.3% and 6.8% compared to that of the stand-alone PEMFC. Comprehensive parametric analyses are conducted to reveal the effects of the internal irreversibility of the absorption refrigerator, operating current density, operating temperature and operating pressure of the PEMFC, and some integrated parameters related to the thermodynamic losses on the performance of the hybrid system. The model presented in the paper is more general than previous study, and the results for some special cases can be directly derived from this paper. - Highlights: • A CHP system composed of a PEMFC and an absorption refrigerator is proposed. • Current density region enables the absorption refrigerator to work is determined. • Multiple irreversible losses in the system are analytically characterized. • Maximum power density and corresponding efficiency can be increased by 5.3% and 6.8%. • Effects of some designing and operating parameters on the performance are discussed

  12. Reversible and irreversible magnetization of the Chevrel-phase superconductor PbMo6S8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.N.; Ramsbottom, H.D.; Hampshire, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic measurements have been carried out on the hot-isostatically-pressed Chevrel-phase superconductor PbMo 6 S 8 at temperatures from 4.2 K to T c and for magnetic fields up to 12 T. The results show that for the PbMo 6 S 8 compound there is a wide magnetically reversible region, between the irreversibility field B irr and the upper critical field B c2 , on the isothermal magnetic hysteresis curves. The B irr (T) line, i.e., the irreversibility line, was found to obey a power-law expression: B irr =B * (1-T/T c ) α with α∼1.5. Magnetic relaxation measurements revealed that the flux-creep effect in the material studied is substantial and is greater than those observed in conventional metallic alloys, but smaller than in high-temperature superconductors. The existence of the irreversibility line and pronounced flux-creep effect in PbMo 6 S 8 is attributed to the short coherence length of the material. From the reversible magnetization data, the values of the penetration depth, the coherence length, and the critical fields are obtained together with the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. At 4.2 K, the critical current density J c is 10 9 A m -2 at zero field, and decreases to 2x10 8 A m -2 at 10 T. Pinning force curves measured at different temperatures obey a Kramer-scaling law of the form: F p (=J c xB)∝b 1/2 (1-b) 2 , which indicates that the J c is limited by one predominant flux-pinning mechanism

  13. The anti-inflammatory effects of matrix metalloproteinase-3 on irreversible pulpitis of mature erupted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba, Hisanori; Murasawa, Yusuke; Iohara, Koichiro; Isogai, Zenzo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Misako

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA) complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis.

  14. The anti-inflammatory effects of matrix metalloproteinase-3 on irreversible pulpitis of mature erupted teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanori Eba

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis.

  15. Trigeminocardiac reflex during non-surgical root canal treatment of teeth with irreversible pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I.-Sheng Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR is a unique clinical incident of acute change in hemodynamic balance, which may lead to hypotension, bradycardia, and even clinical crisis. Up to date, no study so far considers the impact of non-surgical root canal treatment (NSRCT of irreversible pulpitis teeth under either local infiltration or block anesthesia on hemodynamic change possibly related to TCR. Methods: This study enrolled 111 patients with 138 irreversible pulpitis teeth that were treated by two sessions of NSRCT. The first session involved mainly the removal of vital pulp tissue with the direct stimulation of the dental branches of the trigeminal nerve, and the second session included the root canal enlargement and debridement with minimal disturbance to the dental branches of the trigeminal nerve. Vital signs mainly the blood pressure were recorded during both NSRCT sessions. Results: The incidences of NSRCT patients with MABP decrease ≧10%, ≧15%, or ≧20% were all significantly higher in the first NSRCT session than in the second NSRCT session (all the P-values < 0.001. In the first NSRCT session, the incidence of patients with MABP decrease ≧10% was significantly associated with tooth type. For both upper and lower teeth, the patients with premolars treated by NSRCR had significantly higher incidences of MABP decrease ≧10% than those with either anterior or molar teeth treated by NSRCR (all the P-values < 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that vital pulp extirpation may lead to a substantial drop in patient's blood pressure possibly related to TCR. Keywords: Trigeminocardiac reflex, Non-surgical root canal treatment, Irreversible pulpitis, Mean arterial blood pressure, Hypotension, Teeth

  16. Nonlinear coupled equations for electrochemical cells as developed by the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2014-09-28

    We show how the Butler-Volmer and Nernst equations, as well as Peltier effects, are contained in the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible and irreversible coupling, GENERIC, with a unique definition of the overpotential. Linear flux-force relations are used to describe the transport in the homogeneous parts of the electrochemical system. For the electrode interface, we choose nonlinear flux-force relationships. We give the general thermodynamic basis for an example cell with oxygen electrodes and electrolyte from the solid oxide fuel cell. In the example cell, there are two activated chemical steps coupled also to thermal driving forces at the surface. The equilibrium exchange current density obtains contributions from both rate-limiting steps. The measured overpotential is identified at constant temperature and stationary states, in terms of the difference in electrochemical potential of products and reactants. Away from these conditions, new terms appear. The accompanying energy flux out of the surface, as well as the heat generation at the surface are formulated, adding to the general thermodynamic basis.

  17. Nonlinear coupled equations for electrochemical cells as developed by the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2014-09-01

    We show how the Butler-Volmer and Nernst equations, as well as Peltier effects, are contained in the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible and irreversible coupling, GENERIC, with a unique definition of the overpotential. Linear flux-force relations are used to describe the transport in the homogeneous parts of the electrochemical system. For the electrode interface, we choose nonlinear flux-force relationships. We give the general thermodynamic basis for an example cell with oxygen electrodes and electrolyte from the solid oxide fuel cell. In the example cell, there are two activated chemical steps coupled also to thermal driving forces at the surface. The equilibrium exchange current density obtains contributions from both rate-limiting steps. The measured overpotential is identified at constant temperature and stationary states, in terms of the difference in electrochemical potential of products and reactants. Away from these conditions, new terms appear. The accompanying energy flux out of the surface, as well as the heat generation at the surface are formulated, adding to the general thermodynamic basis.

  18. Anaesthetic efficacy of intraligamentary injection techniques on mandibular molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Wigler, Ronald; Huber, Ronen; Kaufman, Arieh Y

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of intraligamentary injections (ILI) using a two- or four-site injection technique. One hundred and fifty-one mandibular molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received ILI at the mesiobuccal and distobuccal aspects of the roots. Patients who experienced pain when the access cavity was performed received additional supplemental ILI in the mesiolingual and distolingual aspects. Pulpal anaesthesia was considered successful when complete analgesia was achieved. The data were analysed by means of the Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-square tests. IL anaesthesia was successful for 92.1% of the teeth. Forty-eight teeth (31.8%) were sufficiently anaesthetised using the two-site ILI and 91 teeth (60.3%) following supplemental IL anaesthesia in two more sites. The results of this study indicate that the use of four-site IL injections as a primary anaesthetic technique may be considered a favourable alternative to the common IANB. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  19. Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine, an Irreversible Inhibitor of Polyamine Biosynthesis, as a Therapeutic Strategy against Hyperproliferative and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole LoGiudice

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing. However, DFMO was successfully developed to treat African sleeping sickness and is currently one of few clinically used drugs to combat this neglected tropical disease. The other Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved application for DFMO is as an active ingredient in the hair removal cream Vaniqa. In recent years, renewed interest in DFMO for hyperproliferative diseases has led to increased research and promising preclinical and clinical trials. This review explores the use of DFMO for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and hirsutism, as well as its potential as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against colorectal cancer and neuroblastoma.

  20. Studies on the Exergy Transfer Law for the Irreversible Process in the Waxy Crude Oil Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand of oil products in China, the energy consumption of pipeline operation will continue to rise greatly, as well as the cost of oil transportation. In the field of practical engineering, saving energy, reducing energy consumption and adapting to the international oil situation are the development trends and represent difficult problems. Based on the basic principle of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, this paper derives the field equilibrium equations of non-equilibrium thermodynamic process for pipeline transportation. To seek the bilinear form of “force” and “flow” in the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of entropy generation rate, the oil pipeline exergy balance equation and the exergy transfer pipeline dynamic equation of the irreversibility were established. The exergy balance equation was applied to energy balance evaluation system, which makes the system more perfect. The exergy flow transfer law of the waxy oil pipeline were explored deeply from the directions of dynamic exergy, pressure exergy, thermal exergy and diffusion exergy. Taking an oil pipeline as an example, the influence factors of exergy transfer coefficient and exergy flow density were analyzed separately.

  1. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  2. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-09-22

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  3. Resolution of Loschmidt's paradox: The origin of irreversible behavior in reversible atomistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.L.; Hoover, W.G.; Posch, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    We show that Nosromane-bar mechanics provides a link between computer simulations of nonequilibrium processes and real-world experiments. Reversible Nose-bar equations of motion, when used to constrain non- equilibrium boundary regions, generate stable dissipative behavior within an adjoining bulk sample governed by Newton's equations of motion. Thus, irreversible behavior consistent with the second law of thermodynamics arises from completely reversible microscopic motion. Loschmidt's reversibility paradox is surmounted by this Nose-bar-Newton system, because the steady-state nonequilibrium probability density in the many-body phase space is confined to a zero-volume attractor

  4. Optimal allocation of thermodynamic irreversibility for the integrated design of propulsion and thermal management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Adam Charles

    work losses over the time history of the mission. The characterization of the thermodynamic irreversibility distribution helps give the propulsion systems designer an absolute and consistent view of the tradeoffs associated with the design of the entire integrated system. Consequently, this leads directly to the question of the proper allocation of irreversibility across each of the components. The process of searching for the most favorable allocation of this irreversibility is the central theme of the research and must take into account production cost and vehicle mission performance. The production cost element is accomplished by including an engine component weight and cost prediction capability within the system model. The vehicle mission performance is obtained by directly linking the propulsion and thermal management model to a vehicle performance model and flying it through a mission profile. A canonical propulsion and thermal management systems architecture is then presented to experimentally test each element of the methodology separately: first the integrated modeling and simulation, then the irreversibility, cost, and mission performance considerations, and then finally the proper technique to perform the optimal allocation. A goal of this research is the description of the optimal allocation of system irreversibility to enable an engine cycle design with improved performance and cost at the vehicle-level. To do this, a numerical optimization was first used to minimize system-level production and operating costs by fixing the performance requirements and identifying the best settings for all of the design variables. There are two major drawbacks to this approach: It does not allow the designer to directly trade off the performance requirements and it does not allow the individual component losses to directly factor into the optimization. An irreversibility allocation approach based on the economic concept of resource allocation is then compared to the

  5. Effect of tensile stress on the 3D reversible and irreversible differential magnetic susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Weihua; Atherton, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops in three orthogonal directions are measured for a line pipe steel sample while the external magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the tensile stress direction. The total magnetization vector is calculated. This tends to the stress direction when tensile stress is applied. The reversible and irreversible differential magnetic susceptibilities are derived. It is found that the susceptibilities in all three directions are enhanced with increasing tensile stress, although the increase in the stress direction is much larger than in the other directions. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  6. Irreversible traps, their influence on the embrittlement of high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, I; Mansilla, G

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen (H) can be trapped in lattice defects such as vacancies, dislocations, grain boundaries and interfaces between the matrix and precipitates. The effect on the mechanical properties depends on factors inherent in materials such as the activation energy of irreversible traps (H trapped in Network Places) and its sensitivity to embrittlement. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allows the study of those processes in which enthalpy variation occurs. The purpose is to record the difference in enthalpy change that occurs in the sample as a function of temperature or time. This work represents a study of H embrittlement of high strength steel resulfurized

  7. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation of Unresectable Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin Tumor): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melenhorst, Marleen C. A. M., E-mail: m.melenhorst@vumc.nl; Scheffer, Hester J., E-mail: hj.scheffer@vumc.nl; Vroomen, Laurien G. P. H., E-mail: la.vroomen@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Kazemier, Geert, E-mail: g.kazemier@vumc.nl; Tol, M. Petrousjka van den, E-mail: mp.vandentol@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Meijerink, Martijn R., E-mail: mr.meijerink@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel image-guided ablation technique that is rapidly gaining popularity in the treatment of malignant tumors located near large vessels or bile ducts. The presence of metal objects in the ablation zone, such as Wallstents, is generally considered a contraindication for IRE, because tissue heating due to power conduction may lead to thermal complications. This report describes a 66-year-old female with a Bismuth–Corlette stage IV unresectable cholangiocarcinoma with a metallic Wallstent in the common bile duct, who was safely treated with percutaneous IRE with no signs for relapse 1 year after the procedure.

  8. Comparison of Effect of Oral Premedication with Ibuprofen or Dexamethasone on Anesthetic Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Maryam; Mortazavi, Soheil; Forghani, Maryam; Akhlaghi, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of preoperative oral administration of ibuprofen or dexamethasone on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Seventy-eight patients with irreversible pulpitis were randomly divided into 3 groups (26 per group) and given one of the following at 1 hr prior to performing local anesthesia: a placebo; 400 mg ibuprofen; or 4 mg dexamethasone. Each patient recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale before taking the medication or placebo, at 15 min after completion of IANB, and during treatment if pain occurred. The success of the anesthesia was defined as no or mild pain at any stage during the endodontic procedure. The success rate of the IANB was 38.5, 73.1, and 80.8% with the placebo, ibuprofen, and dexamethasone, respectively. Both ibuprofen and dexamethasone were significantly more effective than the placebo. No significant difference was observed, however, between the two experimental medications in terms of effectiveness. The results of the present study suggest that premedication with ibuprofen or dexamethasone increases the success rate of an IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in the mandibular molars.

  9. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Micractinium pusillum Fresenius in the presence of acetate and glucose: effect of light and acetate gradient concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, L; Dauta, A; Loudiki, M

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the importance of secondary mechanism of organic carbon utilization (mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes) in addition to CO2 fixation (photoautotrophic mode) in the green alga, Micractinium pusillum Fresenius (chlorophyta), isolated from a waste stabilization pond. The growth was studied in the presence of acetate and glucose. The incorporation rate of 14C- acetate was measured in the light and in the dark at different concentrations. Finally, in order to underline the role of photosynthesis and respiration processes in the acetate assimilation, the effect of two specific metabolic inhibitors, a specific inhibitor of photosystem II (DCMU) and an uncoupler respiratory (DNP), has been studied. The obtained results showed that M. pusillum grows in the presence of organic substrates, i.e., glucose and acetate, in the light (mixotrophic growth) as well as in the dark (Heterotrophic growth). The growth was much more important in the light than in the dark and more in the presence of glucose than of acetate. In the light, the presence of acetate led to a variation of growth parameters mumax, iotaopt, and beta. The effect of acetate gradient on the growth of the microalga was severe as soon as its concentration in the medium was higher. The acetate uptake followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic in the light as well as in the dark. The capacity of assimilation was slightly higher in the dark. The utilization of DNP and DCMU indicates that acetate incorporation is an active process depending on both anabolic (photosynthesis) and catabolic (respiration) metabolisms, corroborating the model of the Michaelis-Menten kinetic.

  10. An evaluation of the inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenouda, Josephine; Green, Paula; Sultatos, Lester

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are enzymes that belong to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins. While they share many characteristics, they also possess many important differences. For example, whereas they have about 54% amino acid sequence identity, the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase is considerably smaller than that of butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, both have been shown to display simple and complex kinetic mechanisms, depending on the particular substrate examined, the substrate concentration, and incubation conditions. In the current study, incubation of butyrylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.005-3.0 mM, with 317 pM human butyrylcholinesterase in vitro, resulted in rates of production of thiocholine that were accurately described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K m of 0.10 mM. Similarly, the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in vitro by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a k i of 3048 nM -1 h -1 , and a K D of 2.02 nM. In contrast to inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro followed concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics, with the k i increasing as the inhibitor concentration decreased. Chlorpyrifos oxon concentrations of 10 and 0.3 nM gave k i s of 1.2 and 19.3 nM -1 h -1 , respectively. Although the mechanism of concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics is not known, the much smaller, more restrictive active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase almost certainly plays a role. Similarly, the much larger active site gorge of butyrylcholinesterase likely contributes to its much greater reactivity towards chlorpyrifos oxon, compared to acetylcholinesterase.

  11. Depuración aerobia de los efluentes resultantes del proceso de biometanización del alpechín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Padilla, R.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of aerobic treatment in batch regime of the effluents produced in the olive mill wastewater biomethanation process was carried out. An 83% of effluents organic substances was removal after the third day of fermentation. The substrate removal rate follows a zero-order kinetic for high concentrations, and a first-order kinetic for low organic matter concentration, during the last days of fermentation. The kinetic parameters (qmáx and K were obtained from Michaelis- Menten model.

    Se ha efectuado un estudio del proceso de depuración aerobia, en régimen discontinuo, de los efluentes procedentes del proceso de depuración anaerobia o biometanización del alpechín. Se comprueba que el 83% de la materia orgánica presente en este efluente se elimina a partir del tercer día de fermentación. La eliminación de sustrato sigue una cinética de orden cero para altas concentraciones del mismo y una cinética de primer orden para bajas concentraciones de materia orgánica, es decir, durante los últimos días de fermentación. Se aplica el modelo de Michaelis-Menten de eliminación de sustrato para la obtención de los parámetros cinéticos qmáx y Ks que rigen este proceso.

  12. Characterization of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of dihydrocodeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, L. C.; Nation, R. L.; Somogyi, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Using human liver microsomes from donors of the CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizer genotypes, the role of individual cytochromes P-450 in the oxidative metabolism of dihydrocodeine was investigated. Methods The kinetics of formation of N- and O-demethylated metabolites, nordihydrocodeine and dihydromorphine, were determined using microsomes from six extensive and one poor metabolizer and the effects of chemical inhibitors selective for individual P-450 enzymes of the 1A, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E and 3A families and of LKM1 (anti-CYP2D6) antibodies were studied. Results Nordihydrocodeine was the major metabolite in both poor and extensive metabolizers. Kinetic constants for N-demethylation derived from the single enzyme Michaelis-Menten model did not differ between the two groups. Troleandomycin and erythromycin selectively inhibited N-demethylation in both extensive and poor metabolizers. The CYP3A inducer, α-naphthoflavone, increased N-demethylation rates. The kinetics of formation of dihydromorphine in both groups were best described by a single enzyme Michaelis-Menten model although inhibition studies in extensive metabolizers suggested involvement of two enzymes with similar Km values. The kinetic constants for O-demethylation were significantly different in extensive and poor metabolizers. The extensive metabolizers had a mean intrinsic clearance to dihydromorphine more than ten times greater than the poor metabolizer. The CYP2D6 chemical inhibitors, quinidine and quinine, and LKM1 antibodies inhibited O-demethylation in extensive metabolizers; no effect was observed in microsomes from a poor metabolizer. Conclusions CYP2D6 is the major enzyme mediating O-demethylation of dihydrocodeine to dihydromorphine. In contrast, nordihydrocodeine formation is predominantly catalysed by CYP3A. PMID:9431830

  13. Features of alpha-synuclein that could explain the progression and irreversibility of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet eGallegos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein expressed throughout the central nervous system, and it is the main component of Lewy bodies, one of the histopathological features of Parkinson’s disease (PD which is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. The conformational flexibility of α-synuclein allows it to adopt different conformations, i.e. bound to membranes or form aggregates, the oligomers are believed to be the more toxic species. In this review, we will focus on two major features of α-synuclein, transmission and toxicity that could help to understand the pathological characteristics of PD. One important feature of α-synuclein is its ability to be transmitted from neuron to neuron using mechanisms such as endocytosis, plasma membrane penetration or through exosomes, thus propagating the Lewy body pathology to different brain regions thereby contributing to the progressiveness of PD. The second feature of α-synuclein is that it confers cytotoxicity to recipient cells, principally when it is in an oligomeric state. This form causes mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, proteasome impairment, disruption of plasma membrane and pore formation, and lead to apoptosis pathway activation and consequent cell death. The complexity of α-synuclein oligomerization and formation of toxic species could be a major factor for the irreversibility of PD and could also explain the lack of successful therapies to halt the disease.

  14. Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Li, Jiang; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren; Zhao, Jian-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy is suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of ultrafast events. However, the study of irreversible or single shot ultrafast events requires ability to record transient properties at multiple time delays, i.e., time resolved at single shot level, which is not available currently. Here by angular multiplexing use of femtosecond laser pulses, we developed and demonstrated a time resolved, transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique, where burst mode THz pulses were generated and then detected in a single shot measurement manner. The burst mode THz pulses contain 2 sub-THz pulses, and the time gap between them is adjustable up to 1 ns with picosecond accuracy, thus it can be used to probe the single shot event at two different time delays. The system can detect the sub-THz pulses at 0.1 THz-2.5 THz range with signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ˜400 and spectrum resolution of 0.05 THz. System design was described here, and optimizations of single shot measurement of THz pulses were discussed in detail. Methods to improve SNR were also discussed in detail. A system application was demonstrated where pulsed THz signals at different time delays of the ultrafast process were successfully acquired within single shot measurement. This time resolved transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique provides a new diagnostic tool for irreversible or single shot ultrafast events where dynamic information can be extracted at terahertz range within one-shot experiment.

  15. Performance optimum analysis of an irreversible molten carbonate fuel cell–Stirling heat engine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Houcheng; Gao, Songhua; Yan, Huixian

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. - Highlights: • A model of MCFC–Stirling heat engine hybrid system is established. • Analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output are derived. • MCFC performance can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine. • Effects of some operating conditions on the performance are discussed. • Optimum operation regions are subdivided by multi-objective optimization method

  16. Thermodynamic restrictions on linear reversible and irreversible thermo-electro-magneto-mechanical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Santapuri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A unified thermodynamic framework for the characterization of functional materials is developed. This framework encompasses linear reversible and irreversible processes with thermal, electrical, magnetic, and/or mechanical effects coupled. The comprehensive framework combines the principles of classical equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics with electrodynamics of continua in the infinitesimal strain regime.In the first part of this paper, linear Thermo-Electro-Magneto-Mechanical (TEMM quasistatic processes are characterized. Thermodynamic stability conditions are further imposed on the linear constitutive model and restrictions on the corresponding material constants are derived. The framework is then extended to irreversible transport phenomena including thermoelectric, thermomagnetic and the state-of-the-art spintronic and spin caloritronic effects. Using Onsager's reciprocity relationships and the dissipation inequality, restrictions on the kinetic coefficients corresponding to charge, heat and spin transport processes are derived. All the constitutive models are accompanied by multiphysics interaction diagrams that highlight the various processes that can be characterized using this framework. Keywords: Applied mathematics, Materials science, Thermodynamics

  17. Cancelable ECG biometrics using GLRT and performance improvement using guided filter with irreversible guide signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanvit; Minh Phuong Nguyen; Se Young Chun

    2017-07-01

    Biometrics such as ECG provides a convenient and powerful security tool to verify or identify an individual. However, one important drawback of biometrics is that it is irrevocable. In other words, biometrics cannot be re-used practically once it is compromised. Cancelable biometrics has been investigated to overcome this drawback. In this paper, we propose a cancelable ECG biometrics by deriving a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) detector from a composite hypothesis testing in randomly projected domain. Since it is common to observe performance degradation for cancelable biometrics, we also propose a guided filtering (GF) with irreversible guide signal that is a non-invertibly transformed signal of ECG authentication template. We evaluated our proposed method using ECG-ID database with 89 subjects. Conventional Euclidean detector with original ECG template yielded 93.9% PD1 (detection probability at 1% FAR) while Euclidean detector with 10% compressed ECG (1/10 of the original data size) yielded 90.8% PD1. Our proposed GLRT detector with 10% compressed ECG yielded 91.4%, which is better than Euclidean with the same compressed ECG. GF with our proposed irreversible ECG template further improved the performance of our GLRT with 10% compressed ECG up to 94.3%, which is higher than Euclidean detector with original ECG. Lastly, we showed that our proposed cancelable ECG biometrics practically met cancelable biometrics criteria such as efficiency, re-usability, diversity and non-invertibility.

  18. Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity following Reversible and Irreversible Freezing Injury 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswari, S.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed as a site of functional alteration during early stages of freezing injury. To test this, plasma membrane was purified from Solanum leaflets by a single step partitioning of microsomes in a dextran-polyethylene glycol two phase system. Addition of lysolecithin in the ATPase assay produced up to 10-fold increase in ATPase activity. ATPase activity was specific for ATP with a Km around 0.4 millimolar. Presence of the ATPase enzyme was identified by immunoblotting with oat ATPase antibodies. Using the phase partitioning method, plasma membrane was isolated from Solanum commersonii leaflets which had four different degrees of freezing damage, namely, slight (reversible), partial (partially reversible), substantial and total (irreversible). With slight (reversible) damage the plasma membrane ATPase specific activity increased 1.5- to 2-fold and its Km was decreased by about 3-fold, whereas the specific activity of cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase in the microsomes were not different from the control. However, with substantial (lethal, irreversible) damage, there was a loss of membrane protein, decrease in plasma membrane ATPase specific activity and decrease in Km, while cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c reductase were unaffected. These results support the hypothesis that plasma membrane ATPase is altered by slight freeze-thaw stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666856

  19. Irreversible Aspects of Continuum Mechanics and Transfer of Physical Characteristics in Moving Fluids : Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Sedov, L

    1968-01-01

    At its meeting on April 23, 1965 in Paris the Bureau of IUTAM decided to have a Symposium on the Irreversible Aspects of Continaum Mechanics held in June 1966 in Vienna. In addition, a Symposium on the Transfer of Physical Characteristics in Moving Fluids which, orig­ inally, had been scheduled to take place in Stockholm was rescheduled to be held in Vienna immediately following the Symposium on the Irre­ versible Aspects of Continuum Mechanics. It was felt that the subjects of the two symposia were so closely related that participants should be given an opportunity to attend both. Both decisions were unanimously approved by the members of the General Assembly of IUTAM. Prof. H. PARKUS, Vienna, was appointed Chairman of the Symposium on the Irreversible Aspects, and Prof. L. I. SEDOV, Moscow, was appointed Chairman of the Symposium on the Transfer of Physical Characteristics, with Prof. P ARKUS being re­ sponsible for the local organization of both symposia. In accordance with the policy set forth by IUTAM...

  20. Study of the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block using articaine in irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan H; Ravikumar, H; Karale, Rupali; Preethanath, R S; Sukumaran, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) using 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine supplemented with buccal infiltration. Forty five patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were included in the study. The first group of 15 patients received 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine, the second group 2% lidocaine with 1: 80,000 epinephrine and the third group of 15 subjects received 4% articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine. During the access cavity preparation those patients who complained of pain received an additional buccal infiltration. The percentage of subjects who got profound anesthesia and failure to achieve anesthesia were calculated and tabulated using a visual analog scale. The results revealed that 87% of subjects who received 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine got satisfactory anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve block alone. Only 2 (13%) subjects received an additional buccal infiltration and none of the patients failed to obtain complete anesthesia with articaine. In comparison only 40% of subjects got complete anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 and 60% with 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000. It can be concluded that 4% articaine can be used effectively for obtaining profound anesthesia for endodontic procedures in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  1. Thermomagnetic behaviour and compositional irreversibility on (Fe/Si)3 multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badía-Romano, L.; Rubín, J.; Magén, C.; Bartolomé, F.; Sesé, J.; Ibarra, M.R.; Bartolomé, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the correlation between the morphology and magnetic properties of (Fe/Si) 3 multilayers with different Fe layer thicknesses and fixed Si spacer thickness in a broad temperature range (5 R /M S ratios and saturation fields are related to several types of interlayer exchange coupling. 90°-coupling and a superposition of 90° and antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling are found depending on the Fe layer thickness. Magnetization curves were investigated as a function of temperature by in situ annealing. They show an irreversible thermal process as temperature increases from 300 to 450 K that is correlated to the formation of a ferromagnetic silicide phase. At higher temperature this phase transforms into a paramagnetic Fe–Si phase. - Highlights: • A thermomagnetic study on (Fe/Si) 3 multilayers is performed by in situ annealing. • We assess on the Fe layer thickness dependence, while the Si spacer is fixed. • 90° and AF interlayer exchange couplings are found depending on the Fe thickness. • We report an irreversible thermal process, correlated to chemical transformations. • The integrity of these (Fe/Si) 3 films is conserved just till T≈410K

  2. Exergy analysis on the irreversibility of rotary air preheater in thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyue; Zhao Lingling; Zhou Qiangtai; Xu Zhigao; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2008-01-01

    Energy recovery devices can have a substantial impact on process efficiency and their relevance to the problem of conservation of energy resources is generally recognized to be beyond dispute. One type of such a device, which is commonly used in thermal power plants and air conditioning systems, is the rotary air preheater. A major disadvantage of the rotary air preheater is that there is an unavoidable leakage due to carry over and pressure difference. There are gas streams involved in the heat transfer and mixing processes. There are also irreversibilities, or exergy destruction, due to mixing, pressure losses and temperature gradients. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is based from the second law of thermodynamics, which is to build up the relationship between the efficiency of the thermal power plant and the total process of irreversibility in the rotary air preheater using exergy analysis. For this, the effects of the variation of the principal design parameters on the rotary air preheater efficiency, the exergy efficiency, and the efficiency of the thermal power plant are examined by changing a number of parameters of rotary air preheater. Furthermore, some conclusions are reached and recommendations are made so as to give insight on designing some optimal parameters

  3. Performance evaluation and optimization of fluidized bed boiler in ethanol plant using irreversibility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Agung Pambudi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the performance of a fluidized bed boiler in an ethanol production plant through exergy and irreversibility analysis. The study also includes the optimization of the pre-heater and the deaerator in order to improve the system efficiency. Operational data from the ethanol production plant was collected between 2015 and early 2016. The total exergy derived from the fuel was determined to be 7783 kJ/s, while the exergy efficiency of the system was found to be 26.19%, with 2214 kJ/s used in steam production, while 71.55% was lost to component irreversibility and waste heat from the pre-heater. The exergy efficiencies of individual components of the system such as the boiler, deaerator, and pre-heater were found to be 25.82%, 40.13%, and 2.617%, respectively, with the pre-heater having the lowest efficiency. Thus, the pre-heater has the highest potential to significantly improve the efficiency of the boiler system. The optimization of the pre-heater shows that a rise in temperature in the outlet of the pre-heater positively affects the exergy efficiency of the deaerator.

  4. On the existence of physiological age based on functional hierarchy: a formal definition related to time irreversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Gilbert A

    2006-09-01

    The present approach of aging and time irreversibility is a consequence of the theory of functional organization that I have developed and presented over recent years (see e.g., Ref. 11). It is based on the effect of physically small and numerous perturbations known as fluctuations, of structural units on the dynamics of the biological system during its adult life. Being a highly regulated biological system, a simple realistic hypothesis, the time-optimum regulation between the levels of organization, leads to the existence of an internal age for the biological system, and time-irreversibility associated with aging. Thus, although specific genes are controlling aging, time-irreversibility of the system may be shown to be due to the degradation of physiological functions. In other words, I suggest that for a biological system, the nature of time is specific and is an expression of the highly regulated integration. An internal physiological age reflects the irreversible course of a living organism towards death because of the irreversible course of physiological functions towards dysfunction, due to the irreversible changes in the regulatory processes. Following the works of Prigogine and his colleagues in physics, and more generally in the field of non-integrable dynamical systems (theorem of Poincaré-Misra), I have stated this problem in terms of the relationship between the macroscopic irreversibility of the functional organization and the basic mechanisms of regulation at the lowest "microscopic" level, i.e., the molecular, lowest level of organization. The neuron-neuron elementary functional interaction is proposed as an illustration of the method to define aging in the nervous system.

  5. Identification of a constitutive law for trabecular bone samples under remodeling in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louna, Zineeddine; Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    We construct in the present paper constitutive models for bone remodeling based on micromechanical analyses at the scale of a representative unit cell (RUC) including a porous trabecular microstructure. The time evolution of the microstructure is simulated as a surface remodeling process by relating the surface growth remodeling velocity to a surface driving force incorporating a (surface) Eshelby tensor. Adopting the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, a 2D constitutive model based on the setting up of the free energy density and a dissipation potential is identified from FE simulations performed over a unit cell representative of the trabecular architecture obtained from real bone microstructures. The static and evolutive effective properties of bone at the scale of the RUC are obtained by combining a methodology for the evaluation of the average kinematic and static variables over a prototype unit cell and numerical simulations with controlled imposed first gradient rates. The formulated effective growth constitutive law at the scale of the homogenized set of trabeculae within the RUC is of viscoplastic type and relates the average growth strain rate to the homogenized stress tensor. The postulated model includes a power law function of an effective stress chosen to depend on the first and second stress invariants. The model coefficients are calibrated from a set of virtual testing performed over the RUC subjected to a sequence of loadings. Numerical simulations show that overall bone growth does not show any growth kinematic hardening. The obtained results quantify the strength and importance of different types of external loads (uniaxial tension, simple shear, and biaxial loading) on the overall remodeling process and the development of elastic deformations within the RUC.

  6. application of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a new voltammetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer .... ALP labeled goat anti-rabbit ..... Classical Michaelis-Menten kinetic experiments were carried out to measure the maximum.

  7. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Huang, XinPing; Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-09-06

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer.

  8. Irreversibility analysis for optimization design of plate fin heat exchangers using a multi-objective cuckoo search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The first application of IMOCS for plate-fin heat exchanger design. • Irreversibility degrees of heat transfer and fluid friction are minimized. • Trade-off of efficiency, total cost and pumping power is achieved. • Both EGM and EDM methods have been compared in the optimization of PFHE. • This study has superiority over other single-objective optimization design. - Abstract: This paper introduces and applies an improved multi-objective cuckoo search (IMOCS) algorithm, a novel met-heuristic optimization algorithm based on cuckoo breeding behavior, for the multi-objective optimization design of plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs). A modified irreversibility degree of the PFHE is separated into heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility degrees which are adopted as two initial objective functions to be minimized simultaneously for narrowing the search scope of the design. The maximization efficiency, minimization of pumping power, and total annual cost are considered final objective functions. Results obtained from a two dimensional normalized Pareto-optimal frontier clearly demonstrate the trade-off between heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility. Moreover, a three dimensional Pareto-optimal frontier reveals a relationship between efficiency, total annual cost, and pumping power in the PFHE design. Three examples presented here further demonstrate that the presented method is able to obtain optimum solutions with higher accuracy, lower irreversibility, and fewer iterations as compared to the previous methods and single-objective design approaches

  9. Model of the Evolution of Deformation Defects and Irreversible Strain at Thermal Cycling of Stressed TiNi Alloy Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Aleksandr E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This microstructural model deals with simulation both of the reversible and irreversible deformation of a shape memory alloy (SMA. The martensitic transformation and the irreversible deformation due to the plastic accommodation of martensite are considered on the microscopic level. The irreversible deformation is described from the standpoint of the plastic flow theory. Isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening are taken into account and are related to the densities of scattered and oriented deformation defects. It is supposed that the phase transformation and the micro plastic deformation are caused by the generalized thermodynamic forces, which are the derivatives of the Gibbs’ potential of the two-phase body. In terms of these forces conditions for the phase transformation and for the micro plastic deformation on the micro level are formulated. The macro deformation of the representative volume of the polycrystal is calculated by averaging of the micro strains related to the evolution of the martensite Bain’s variants in each grain comprising this volume. The proposed model allowed simulating the evolution of the reversible and of the irreversible strains of a stressed SMA specimen under thermal cycles. The results show a good qualitative agreement with available experimental data. Specifically, it is shown that the model can describe a rather big irreversible strain in the first thermocycle and its fast decrease with the number of cycles.

  10. Steady-state cerebral glucose concentrations and transport in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetter, R.; Ugurbil, K.; Seaquist, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of brain glucose transport across the blood- brain barrier is of importance to understanding brain energy metabolism. The specific kinetics of glucose transport nave been generally described using standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These models predict that the steady- state glucose concentration approaches an upper limit in the human brain when the plasma glucose level is well above the Michaelis-Menten constant for half-maximal transport, K(t). In experiments wh...

  11. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  12. Strain induced irreversible critical current degradation in highly dense Bi-2212 round wire

    CERN Document Server

    Bjoerstad, R; Rikel, M.O.; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Jiang, J; Matras, M; Sugano, M; Hudspeth, J; Di Michiel, M

    2015-01-01

    The strain induced critical current degradation of overpressure processed straight Bi 2212/Ag wires has been studied at 77 K in self-field. For the first time superconducting properties, lattice distortions, composite wire stress and strain have been measured simultaneously in a high energy synchrotron beamline. A permanent Ic degradation of 5% occurs when the wire strain exceeds 0.60%. At a wire strain of about 0.65% a drastic n value and Ic reduction occur, and the composite stress and the Bi-2212 lattice parameter reach a plateau, indicating Bi-2212 filament fracturing. The XRD measurements show that Bi-2212 exhibits linear elastic behaviour up to the irreversible strain limit.

  13. Performance analysis for minimally nonlinear irreversible refrigerators at finite cooling power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) for general refrigerators at finite cooling power have been systematically researched through the minimally nonlinear irreversible model, and its lower and upper bounds in different operating regions have been proposed. Under the tight coupling conditions, we have calculated the universal COP bounds under the χ figure of merit in different operating regions. When the refrigerator operates in the region with lower external flux, we obtained the general bounds (0 present large values, compared to a relative small loss from the maximum cooling power. If the cooling power is the main objective, it is desirable to operate the refrigerator at a slightly lower cooling power than at the maximum one, where a small loss in the cooling power induces a much larger COP enhancement.

  14. Endodontic therapy of a mandibular canine tooth with irreversible pulpitis secondary to dentigerous cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGee, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are uncommon, yet are being reported with increasing frequency in the veterinary literature. Dentigerous cysts are a type of benign odontogenic cyst associated with impacted teeth, most commonly the mandibular first premolar tooth. Significant bone destruction can occur secondary to the expansion of a dentigerous cyst. The expanding cyst can lead to pathology of neighboring teeth, which can include external root resorption or pulpitis. Intraoral dental radiographs are imperative to properly assess the presence and extent of a dentigerous cyst, as well as the status of the neighboring teeth. This case report describes treatment for dentigerous cyst including cyst lining curettage, mandibular bone regeneration, and endodontic therapy for a canine tooth with irreversible pulpitis.

  15. Antibiotics are not useful to reduce pain associated with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Eileen; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical Trials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There were no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials which compared the relief of pain with systemic antibiotics and analgesics against placebo and analgesics in the preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. The primary interest was pain control with an antibiotic or without one in the presence of analgesics. The secondary outcomes were type, dose and frequency of medication for pain relief and any adverse effects related to hypersensitivity or other reactions to either the antibiotic or analgesics.Data extraction and synthesisTwo authors independently assessed the results of the searches. Data extraction and risk bias assessment were also carried out independently. A third reviewer settled any disagreement on inclusion. Since only one study was included a meta-analysis could not be performed.ResultsOnly one double blind randomised clinical trial involving 40 participants with a diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis in one of their teeth was included in this review. This was a low risk, well-constructed double blind study. Half of the participants were treated with penicillin 500 mg, the other with a placebo every six hours over a seven- day period. In addition, all the participants were instructed to initially take one tablet of ibuprofen every 4-6 hours as needed and to take acetaminophen with codeine (two tablets every 4-6 hours) only if the ibuprofen did not relieve the pain.There was no significant difference in the mean total number of ibuprofen tablets over the study period; 9.2(standard deviation (SD) 6.02) in the penicillin group versus, 9.6 (SD 6.34) in the placebo group; mean difference -0.40 (95% CI -4.23 to 3.43); P value = 0.84.The mean total number of Tylenol tablets, 6.9 (SD 6.87), used in the penicillin group versus 4

  16. Thermodynamic reversibility and irreversibility of the reverse transformation in stabilized Cu-Zn-Al martensite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustov, S.; Corro, M.; Pons, J.; Cesari, E.; Van Humbeeck, J.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that both pinning- (mechanical) and reordering-induced (chemical) stabilization components contribute to the overall stabilization effect. An algorithm has been developed for quantitative analysis of the chemical and mechanical stabilization components, using routine calorimetry results. The basic idea underlying this algorithm is that chemical and mechanical stabilization components stem, respectively, from the factors, affecting thermodynamically reversible and irreversible factors during the first reverse transformation of the stabilized martensite. On a thermodynamical level, application of the suggested algorithm has been illustrated using experimental calorimetry results for a Cu-Zn-Al alloy. Here we report analysis of pinning and reordering processes on a microscopic scale, using experimental data on non-linear anelasticity in the same Cu-Zn-Al alloy to track different spatial and temporal localization of these processes during martensite ageing

  17. Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrence in Nonlinear Fiber Optics: The Role of Reversible and Irreversible Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Mussot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU recurrence phenomenon in the 1950 s was a major step in science that later led to the discovery of solitons in nonlinear physics. More recently, it was shown that optical fibers can serve as a medium for observing the FPU phenomenon. In the present work, we have found experimentally and numerically that in the low-dispersion region of an optical fiber, the recurrence is strongly influenced by the third-order-dispersion (TOD term. Namely, the presence of TOD leads to several disappearances and recoveries of the FPU recurrence when the central frequency of the pump wave is varied. The effect is highly nontrivial and can be explained in terms of reversible and irreversible losses caused by Cherenkov radiations interacting with a multiplicity of modes sharing the optical energy in the process of its partition.

  18. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  19. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  20. Chemical modeling of irreversible reactions in nuclear waste-water-rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolery, T.J.

    1981-02-01

    Chemical models of aqueous geochemical systems are usually built on the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium. Though many elementary reactions in a geochemical system may be close to equilibrium, others may not be. Chemical models of aqueous fluids should take into account that many aqueous redox reactions are among the latter. The behavior of redox reactions may critically affect migration of certain radionuclides, especially the actinides. In addition, the progress of reaction in geochemical systems requires thermodynamic driving forces associated with elementary reactions not at equilibrium, which are termed irreversible reactions. Both static chemical models of fluids and dynamic models of reacting systems have been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water-rock interactions. Potential applications in nuclear waste disposal range from problems in geochemical aspects of site evaluation to those of waste-water-rock interactions. However, much further work in the laboratory and the field will be required to develop and verify such applications of chemical modeling

  1. Electric fields control the orientation of peptides irreversibly immobilized on radical-functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lewis J; Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2018-01-24

    Surface functionalization of an implantable device with bioactive molecules can overcome adverse biological responses by promoting specific local tissue integration. Bioactive peptides have advantages over larger protein molecules due to their robustness and sterilizability. Their relatively small size presents opportunities to control the peptide orientation on approach to a surface to achieve favourable presentation of bioactive motifs. Here we demonstrate control of the orientation of surface-bound peptides by tuning electric fields at the surface during immobilization. Guided by computational simulations, a peptide with a linear conformation in solution is designed. Electric fields are used to control the peptide approach towards a radical-functionalized surface. Spontaneous, irreversible immobilization is achieved when the peptide makes contact with the surface. Our findings show that control of both peptide orientation and surface concentration is achieved simply by varying the solution pH or by applying an electric field as delivered by a small battery.

  2. Comparative study of irreversibilities in an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataer, O E [Gazi Univ., Ankara (TR). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Gogus, Y [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1991-03-01

    Irreversibilities in components of an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system (ARS) have been determined by second law analysis. The components of the ARS are as follows: condenser, evaporator, absorber, generator, pump, expansion valves, mixture heat exchanger and refrigerant heat exchanger. It is assumed that the ammonia concentration at the generator exit is, independent of the other parameters, equal to 0.999 and at the evaporator exit the gas is saturated vapour. Pressure losses between the generator and condenser, and the evaporator and absorber are taken into consideration. In the results the dimensionless exergy loss of each component, the exergetic coefficient of performance, the coefficient of performance and the circulation ratio are given graphically for each different generator, evaporator, condenser and absorber temperature. (author).

  3. Studies on thermal reactions and sintering behaviour of red clays by irreversible dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Misra, S. N.; Misra, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal behavior of clays strongly influences that of ceramic bodies made thereof and hence, its study is must for assessing its utility in ceramic products as well as to set the body composition. Irreversible dilatometry is an effective thermal analysis tool for evaluating thermal reactions as well as sintering behavior of clays or clay based ceramic bodies. In this study, irreversible dilatometry of four red clay samples (S, M, R and G) of Gujarat region, which vary in their chemical and mineralogical compositions was carried out using a Dilatometer and compared. Chemical analysis and XRD of red clays were carried out. XRD showed that major clay minerals in S, M and R clays are kaolinite. However, clay marked R and G showed presence of both kaolinite and illite and /muscovite. Presence of non-clay minerals such as hematite, quartz, anatase were also observed in all clays. XRD results were in agreement with chemical analyses results. Rational analyses showed variation in amount of clay and non-clay minerals in red clay samples. Evaluation of dilatometric curves showed that clay marked as S, M and R exhibit patterns typical for kaolinitic clays. Variation in linear expansion (up to 550°C) and shrinkage (above 550°C) between these three clays was found to be related to difference in amount of quartz and kaolinite respectively. However, dilatometric curve of G exhibit a pattern similar to that for an illitic clay. This study confirmed that sintering of investigated kaolinitic and illitic and / muscovitic red clays initiates at above 1060°C and 860°C respectively and this behaviour strongly depends upon type and amount of minerals and their chemical compositions.

  4. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES): Restricted Diffusion does not Necessarily Mean Irreversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagih, Alaa; Mohsen, Laila; Rayan, Moustafa M; Hasan, Mo'men M; Al-Sherif, Ashraf H

    2015-01-01

    Restricted diffusion is the second most common atypical presentation of PRES. This has a very important implication, as lesions with cytotoxic edema may progress to infarction. Several studies suggested the role of DWI in the prediction of development of infarctions in these cases. Other studies, however, suggested that PRES is reversible even with cytotoxic patterns. Our aim was to evaluate whether every restricted diffusion in PRES is reversible and what factors affect this reversibility. Thirty-six patients with acute neurological symptoms suggestive of PRES were included in our study. Inclusion criteria comprised imaging features of atypical PRES where DWI images and ADC maps show restricted diffusion. Patients were imaged with 0.2-T and 1.5-T machines. FLAIR images were evaluated for the severity of the disease and a FLAIR/DWI score was used. ADC values were selectively recorded from the areas of diffusion restriction. A follow-up MRI study was carried out in all patients after 2 weeks. Patients were classified according to reversibility into: Group 1 (reversible PRES; 32 patients) and Group 2 (irreversible changes; 4 patients). The study was approved by the University's research ethics committee, which conforms to the declaration of Helsinki. The age and blood pressure did not vary significantly between both groups. The total number of regions involved and the FLAIR/DWI score did not vary significantly between both groups. Individual regions did not reveal any tendency for the development of irreversible lesions. Similarly, ADC values did not reveal any significant difference between both groups. PRES is completely reversible in the majority of patients, even with restricted diffusion. None of the variables under study could predict the reversibility of PRES lesions. It seems that this process is individual-dependent.

  5. A facile route for irreversible bonding of plastic-PDMS hybrid microdevices at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Linzhi; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2010-05-21

    Plastic materials do not generally form irreversible bonds with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) regardless of oxygen plasma treatment and a subsequent thermal process. In this paper, we perform plastic-PDMS bonding at room temperature, mediated by the formation of a chemically robust amine-epoxy bond at the interfaces. Various plastic materials, such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polyimide (PI), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were adopted as choices for plastic materials. Irrespective of the plastic materials used, the surfaces were successfully modified with amine and epoxy functionalities, confirmed by the surface characterizations such as water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemically robust and irreversible bonding was successfully achieved within 1 h at room temperature. The bonding strengths of PDMS with PMMA and PC sheets were measured to be 180 and 178 kPa, respectively, and their assemblies containing microchannel structures endured up to 74 and 84 psi (510 and 579 kPa) of introduced compressed air, respectively, without destroying the microdevices, representing a robust and highly stable interfacial bonding. In addition to microchannel-molded PDMS bonded with flat plastic substrates, microchannel-embossed plastics were also bonded with a flat PDMS sheet, and both types of bonded assemblies displayed sufficiently robust bonding, tolerating an intense influx of liquid whose per-minute injection volume was nearly 1000 to 2000 times higher than the total internal volume of the microchannel used. In addition to observing the bonding performance, we also investigated the potential of surface amine and epoxy functionalities as durable chemical adhesives by observing their storage-time-dependent bonding performances.

  6. Observer detection of image degradation caused by irreversible data compression processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Flynn, Michael J.; Gross, Barry; Spizarny, David

    1991-05-01

    Irreversible data compression methods have been proposed to reduce the data storage and communication requirements of digital imaging systems. In general, the error produced by compression increases as an algorithm''s compression ratio is increased. We have studied the relationship between compression ratios and the detection of induced error using radiologic observers. The nature of the errors was characterized by calculating the power spectrum of the difference image. In contrast with studies designed to test whether detected errors alter diagnostic decisions, this study was designed to test whether observers could detect the induced error. A paired-film observer study was designed to test whether induced errors were detected. The study was conducted with chest radiographs selected and ranked for subtle evidence of interstitial disease, pulmonary nodules, or pneumothoraces. Images were digitized at 86 microns (4K X 5K) and 2K X 2K regions were extracted. A full-frame discrete cosine transform method was used to compress images at ratios varying between 6:1 and 60:1. The decompressed images were reprinted next to the original images in a randomized order with a laser film printer. The use of a film digitizer and a film printer which can reproduce all of the contrast and detail in the original radiograph makes the results of this study insensitive to instrument performance and primarily dependent on radiographic image quality. The results of this study define conditions for which errors associated with irreversible compression cannot be detected by radiologic observers. The results indicate that an observer can detect the errors introduced by this compression algorithm for compression ratios of 10:1 (1.2 bits/pixel) or higher.

  7. Psychologic adjustment to irreversible vision loss in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra, Hugo; Barbosa, Fernando; Ferreira, Patrícia; Vieira, Cristina R; Perrin, Paul B; Rogers, Heather; Rivera, Diego; Leal, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    To summarize relevant evidence investigating the psychologic adjustment to irreversible vision loss (IVL) in adults. Irreversible vision loss entails a challenging medical condition in which rehabilitation outcomes are strongly dependent on the patient's psychologic adjustment to illness and impairment. So far, no study has systematically reviewed the psychologic adjustment to IVL in adults. We reviewed all articles examining the psychologic adjustment to IVL in adults. We included articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. We performed a keyword literature search using 4 databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct) for all years through July 2014. We assessed risk of bias of selected studies using the RTI Item Bank for Assessing Risk of Bias and Confounding for Observational Studies of Interventions or Exposures and the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials. Of a total of 3948 citations retrieved, we selected 52 eligible studies published between 1946 and 2014. The majority of studies were observational and cross-sectional in nature. Our review suggests that high levels of depression occur during the adjustment to IVL. Better adjustment to IVL was associated with greater acceptance of vision loss and use of instrumental coping, good social support, positivity, and use of assistive aids. The overall findings indicate that IVL often has negative effects on patients' quality of life and mental health and that such effects tend to remain over time. Specific factors and variables associated with the adjustment to IVL need to be clarified through further in-depth and longitudinal research. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversible and irreversible vascular bioeffects induced by ultrasound and microbubbles in chorioallantoic membrane model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapacki, Christine; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Tabuchi, Arata; Karshafian, Raffi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The application of ultrasound and microbubbles at therapeutic conditions has been shown to improve delivery of molecules, cause vasoconstriction, modulate blood flow and induce a vascular shut down in in vivo cancerous tissues. The underlying mechanism has been associated with the interaction of ultrasonically-induced microbubble oscillation and cavitation with the blood vessel wall. In this study, the effect of ultrasound and microbubbles on blood flow and vascular architecture was studied using a fertilized chicken egg CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) model. Methods: CAM at day 12 of incubation (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 38-40) were exposed to ultrasound at varying acoustic pressures (160, 240 and 320 kPa peak negative pressure) in the presence of Definity microbubbles and 70 kDa FITC dextran fluorescent molecules. A volume of 50 µL Definity microbubbles were injected into a large anterior vein of the CAM prior to ultrasound exposure. The ultrasound treatment sequence consisted of 5 s exposure at 500 kHz frequency, 8 cycles and 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 5 s off for a total exposure of 2 minutes. Fluorescent videos and images of the CAM vasculature were acquired using intravital microscopy prior, during and following the ultrasound exposure. Perfusion was quantified by measuring the length of capillaries in a region of interest using Adobe Illustrator. Results and Discussion: The vascular bioeffects induced by USMB increased with acoustic peak negative pressure. At 160 kPa, no visible differences were observed compared to the control. At 240 kPa, a transient decrease in perfusion with subsequent recovery within 15 minutes was observed, whereas at 320 kPa, the fluorescent images showed an irreversible vascular damage. The study indicates that a potential mechanism for the transient decrease in perfusion may be related to blood coagulation. The results suggest that ultrasound and microbubbles can induce reversible and irreversible vascular

  9. Irreversible electroporation of locally advanced solid pseudopapillary carcinoma of the pancreas: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Tarantino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary Carcinoma (SPC is a rare pancreatic Tumor with variable, usually low, malignancy potential. Howewer, several SPC are associated with aggressive behavior, local vascular infiltration, organ invasion, distant metastasis, and can be unresectable. Irreversible Electroporation (IRE is an emerging non-thermal ablation technique for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. We report the results of four year disease-free follow-up in a case of locally advanced unresectable SPC treated with IRE. Presentation of case: A 24-year female patient with SPC of the pancreas underwent IRE during laparotomy under general anesthesia with intubation. Computed Tomography (CT showed complete tumor thrombosis of splenic vein, encasement of celiac artery and mesenteric vein. Six insertions of 3–4 electrodes per insertion were performed. One month-CT-control showed shrinkage of the tumor. 6 months-post-treatment imaging showed complete regression of the mass, patent Splenic/mesenteric veins, absence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Post treatment CTs at 12-18-24-30-36-42-48 months follow-up confirmed absence of local or distant recurrence. Discussion: Surgery is the first choice curative treatment of SPC. Howewer aggressive surgery (duodeno-pancreasectomy in unresectable cases, may have a high risk of recurrences, morbidities and death, and bring concerns about endocrine and exocrine insufficiency in a young patient. In these cases, IRE could be a safe and effective alternative treatment and could realize, in selected cases, the condition for a radical surgery, and a bridge to R-0 resection. Conclusions: IRE could represent an effective alternative therapy to surgery in local advanced, unresectable SPC. Keywords: Pancreatic neoplasm, Solid papillary carcinoma, Intraoperative ultrasound, Irreversible electroporation, Case report

  10. The effects of intercooling and regeneration on the thermo-ecological performance analysis of an irreversible-closed Brayton heat engine with variable-temperature thermal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogut, Oguz Salim; Ust, Yasin; Sahin, Bahri

    2006-01-01

    A thermo-ecological performance analysis of an irreversible intercooled and regenerated closed Brayton heat engine exchanging heat with variable-temperature thermal reservoirs is presented. The effects of intercooling and regeneration are given special emphasis and investigated in detail. A comparative performance analysis considering the objective functions of an ecological coefficient of performance, an ecological function proposed by Angulo-Brown and power output is also carried out. The results indicate that the optimal total isentropic temperature ratio and intercooling isentropic temperature ratio at the maximum ecological coefficient of performance conditions (ECOP max ) are always less than those of at the maximum ecological function ( E-dot max ) and the maximum power output conditions ( W-dot max ) leading to a design that requires less investment cost. It is also concluded that a design at ECOP max conditions has the advantage of higher thermal efficiency and a lesser entropy generation rate, but at the cost of a slight power loss

  11. Comparison of anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi; Shetty, Shashit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was done to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis for inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular posterior teeth. Material and Methods: Patients with irreversible pulpitis referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, K.D. Dental College, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 1.8 mL of either 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. After the patient’s subjective assessment of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation was recorded and the absence/presence of pain was recorded through visual analogue scale. Results: The pulpal anesthesia success for articaine (76%) was slightly more than with lidocaine (58%) as measured with pulp tester as well as for the pain reported during the procedure the success rate of articaine (88%) was slightly more than that of lidocaine (82%) although the difference between the two solutions was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Both the local anesthetic solutions had similar effects on patients with irreversible pulpitis when used for inferior alveolar nerve block. Key words:Anesthesia, articaine, lignocaine, pulpitis. PMID:25674319

  12. Comparison of anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi; Hans, Manoj-Kumar; Shetty, Shashit

    2014-12-01

    This study was done to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis for inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular posterior teeth. Patients with irreversible pulpitis referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, K.D. Dental College, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 1.8 mL of either 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. After the patient's subjective assessment of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation was recorded and the absence/presence of pain was recorded through visual analogue scale. The pulpal anesthesia success for articaine (76%) was slightly more than with lidocaine (58%) as measured with pulp tester as well as for the pain reported during the procedure the success rate of articaine (88%) was slightly more than that of lidocaine (82%) although the difference between the two solutions was not statistically significant. Both the local anesthetic solutions had similar effects on patients with irreversible pulpitis when used for inferior alveolar nerve block. Key words:Anesthesia, articaine, lignocaine, pulpitis.

  13. Effect of preoperative acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of the administration of the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the anesthetic success of mandibular posterior teeth in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone or placebo 60 minutes before the administration of a conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after completion of the block, and all patients used for data analysis had profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recordings) on pulpal access or instrumentation. The success rate for the IAN block was 32% for the combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone and 28% for the placebo dose, with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .662). A combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone given 60 minutes before the administration of the IAN block did not result in a statistically significant increase in anesthetic success for mandibular posterior teeth in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance evaluation of an irreversible Miller cycle comparing FTT (finite-time thermodynamics) analysis and ANN (artificial neural network) prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousapour, Ashkan; Hajipour, Alireza; Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the first and second-laws efficiencies are applied to performance analysis of an irreversible Miller cycle. In the irreversible cycle, the linear relation between the specific heat of the working fluid and its temperature, the internal irreversibility described using the compression and expansion efficiencies, the friction loss computed according to the mean velocity of the piston and the heat-transfer loss are considered. The effects of various design parameters, such as the minimum and maximum temperatures of the working fluid and the compression ratio on the power output and the first and second-laws efficiencies of the cycle are discussed. In the following, a procedure named ANN is used for predicting the thermal efficiency values versus the compression ratio, and the minimum and maximum temperatures of the Miller cycle. Nowadays, Miller cycle is widely used in the automotive industry and the obtained results of this study will provide some significant theoretical grounds for the design optimization of the Miller cycle. - Highlights: • The performance of an irreversible Miller cycle is investigated using FFT. • The effects of design parameters on the performance of the cycle are investigated. • ANN is applied to predict the thermal efficiency and the power output values. • There is an excellent correlation between FTT and ANN data. • ANN can be applied to predict data where FTT analysis has not been performed.

  15. Global analysis of myocardial peptides containing cysteines with irreversible sulfinic and sulfonic Acid post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulech, Jana; Liddy, Kiersten A; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    ) and others (Cys sulfinic [Cys-SO2H] and sulfonic [Cys-SO3H] acids) that are considered "irreversible." We developed an enrichment method to isolate Cys-SO2H/SO3H-containing peptides from complex tissue lysates that is compatible with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acidity of these post...

  16. Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rentzia, A

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial efficacy and effect of 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA(®)) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of gypsum casts retrieved from an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

  17. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Açıkkalp, Emin, E-mail: eacikkalp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik S.E. University, Bilecik (Turkey); Caner, Necmettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.

  18. A master equation for force distributions in soft particle packings - Irreversible mechanical responses to isotropic compression and decompression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical responses of soft particle packings to quasi-static deformations are determined by the microscopic restructuring of force-chain networks, where complex non-affine displacements of constituent particles cause the irreversible macroscopic behavior. Recently, we have proposed a master

  19. Behavior of the irreversibility line in the new superconductor La1.5+xBa1.5+x-yCayCu3Oz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Vargas, C.A.; Pimentel, J.L.; Pureur, P.; Landínez Téllez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The irreversibility properties of high-T c superconductors are of major importance for technological applications. For example, a high irreversibility magnetic field is a more desirable quality for a superconductor . The irreversibility line in the H-T plane is constituted by experimental points, which divides the irreversible and reversible behavior of the magnetization. The irreversibility lines for series of La 1.5+x Ba 1.5+x-y Ca y Cu 3 O z polycrystalline samples with different doping were investigated. The samples were synthesized using the usual solid estate reaction method. Rietveld-type refinement of x-ray diffraction patterns permitted to determine the crystallization of material in a tetragonal structure. Curves of magnetization ZFC-FC for the system La 1.5+x Ba 1.5+x-y Ca y Cu 3 O z , were measured in magnetic fields of the 10-20,000 Oe, and allowed to obtain the values for the irreversibility and critical temperatures. The data of irreversibility temperature allowed demarcating the irreversibility line, T irr (H). Two main lines are used for the interpretation of the irreversibility line: one of those which suppose that the vortexes are activated thermally and the other proposes that associated to T irr a phase transition occurs. The irreversibility line is described by a power law. The obtained results allow concluding that in the system La 1.5+x Ba 1.5+x-y Ca y Cu 3 O z a characteristic bend of the Almeida-Thouless (AT) tendency is dominant for low fields and a bend Gabay-Toulouse (GT) behavior for high magnetic fields. This feature of the irreversibility line has been reported as a characteristic of granular superconductors and it corroborates the topological effects of vortexes mentioned by several authors .

  20. Irreversible thermochromic response of RF sputtered nanocrystalline BaWO4 films for smart window applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anil Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report irreversible thermochromic behaviour of BaWO4 (BWO films for the first time. BWO films have been deposited at different substrate temperatures (RT, 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C using RF magnetron sputtering in pure argon plasma. BWO films deposited at 800 °C exhibit crystalline nature. Also, BWO films deposited in the temperature range of 400 - 600 °C exhibit WO3 as a secondary phase and its weight percentage decreases with an increase in deposition temperature, whereas the films deposited at 800 °C exhibited pure tetragonal phase. FESEM images revealed that as the average particle sizes of the films are higher as compared with the thickness of the films and is explained based on Avrami type nucleation and growth. The transmittance of the films decreases with an increase in deposition temperature up to 600 °C and increases thereafter. Films deposited at 600 °C show ≤ 20% transmittance, looking at the films deposited at room temperature and 800 °C exhibits 90 and 70%, respectively. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the films show profound dependence on crystallinity and packing density. The optical bandgap of BWO films increases significantly with an increase in O2% during the deposition. The optical bandgap of the BWO films deposited at different temperatures in pure argon plasma, are in the range of 3.7 to 3.94 eV whereas the films deposited at 600 °C under different O2 plasma are in the range of 3.6 - 4.5 eV. The formations of colour centres are associated with the oxygen vacancies, which are clearly seen from the optical bandgap studies. The observed irreversible thermochromic behaviour in BWO films is attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies that arises due to the electrons trapped at oxygen vacancies causing an inter valence charge transfer of W5+ to W6+ and is confirmed through the change in the optical density (ΔOD. Further, the Raman spectra are being used to quantify the presence

  1. High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE for non-thermal ablation without muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Christopher B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic irreversible electroporation (IRE is an emerging technology for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. The technique involves delivering a series of unipolar electric pulses to permanently destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells through an increase in transmembrane potential, which leads to the development of a tissue lesion. Clinically, IRE requires the administration of paralytic agents to prevent muscle contractions during treatment that are associated with the delivery of electric pulses. This study shows that by applying high-frequency, bipolar bursts, muscle contractions can be eliminated during IRE without compromising the non-thermal mechanism of cell death. Methods A combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques were performed to investigate high-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE. A theoretical model for determining transmembrane potential in response to arbitrary electric fields was used to identify optimal burst frequencies and amplitudes for in vivo treatments. A finite element model for predicting thermal damage based on the electric field distribution was used to design non-thermal protocols for in vivo experiments. H-FIRE was applied to the brain of rats, and muscle contractions were quantified via accelerometers placed at the cervicothoracic junction. MRI and histological evaluation was performed post-operatively to assess ablation. Results No visual or tactile evidence of muscle contraction was seen during H-FIRE at 250 kHz or 500 kHz, while all IRE protocols resulted in detectable muscle contractions at the cervicothoracic junction. H-FIRE produced ablative lesions in brain tissue that were characteristic in cellular morphology of non-thermal IRE treatments. Specifically, there was complete uniformity of tissue death within targeted areas, and a sharp transition zone was present between lesioned and normal brain. Conclusions H-FIRE is a feasible technique for

  2. Loschmidt echo in many-spin systems: a quest for intrinsic decoherence and emergent irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangara, Pablo R.; Pastawski, Horacio M.

    2017-03-01

    If a magnetic polarization excess is locally injected in a crystal of interacting spins in thermal equilibrium, this ‘excitation’ would spread as consequence of spin-spin interactions. Such an apparently irreversible process is known as spin diffusion and it can lead the system back to ‘equilibrium’. Even so, a unitary quantum dynamics would ensure a precise memory of the non-equilibrium initial condition. Then, if at a certain time, say t/2, an experimental protocol reverses the many-body dynamics by changing the sign of the effective Hamiltonian, it would drive the system back to the initial non-equilibrium state at time t. As a matter of fact, the reversal is always perturbed by small experimental imperfections and/or uncontrolled internal or environmental degrees of freedom. This limits the amount of signal M(t) recovered locally at time t. The degradation of M(t) accounts for these perturbations, which can also be seen as the sources of decoherence. This general idea defines the Loschmidt echo (LE), which embodies the various time-reversal procedures implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we present an invitation to the study of the LE following the pathway induced by the experiments. With such a purpose, we provide a historical and conceptual overview that briefly revisits selected phenomena that underlie the LE dynamics including chaos, decoherence, localization and equilibration. This guiding thread ultimately leads us to the discussion of decoherence and irreversibility as an emergent phenomenon. In addition, we introduce the LE formalism by means of spin-spin correlation functions in a manner suitable for presentation in a broad scope physics journal. Last, but not least, we present new results that could trigger new experiments and theoretical ideas. In particular, we propose to transform an initially localized excitation into a more complex initial state, enabling a dynamically prepared LE. This induces a global definition of the LE in

  3. Magnetic resonance measurement of turbulent kinetic energy for the estimation of irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Hope, Michael D; Tseng, Elaine E; Saloner, David

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the ascending aorta of patients with aortic stenosis and to assess its relationship to irreversible pressure loss. Irreversible pressure loss caused by energy dissipation in post-stenotic flow is an important determinant of the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis. The simplified Bernoulli equation used to estimate pressure gradients often misclassifies the ventricular overload caused by aortic stenosis. The current gold standard for estimation of irreversible pressure loss is catheterization, but this method is rarely used due to its invasiveness. Post-stenotic pressure loss is largely caused by dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy into heat. Recent developments in magnetic resonance flow imaging permit noninvasive estimation of TKE. The study was approved by the local ethics review board and all subjects gave written informed consent. Three-dimensional cine magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to measure TKE in 18 subjects (4 normal volunteers, 14 patients with aortic stenosis with and without dilation). For each subject, the peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was compared with a pressure loss index. The pressure loss index was based on a previously validated theory relating pressure loss to measures obtainable by echocardiography. The total TKE did not appear to be related to global flow patterns visualized based on magnetic resonance-measured velocity fields. The TKE was significantly higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in normal volunteers (p < 0.001). The peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was strongly correlated to index pressure loss (R(2) = 0.91). Peak total TKE in the ascending aorta correlated strongly with irreversible pressure loss estimated by a well-established method. Direct measurement of TKE by magnetic resonance flow imaging may, with further validation, be used to estimate irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2013 American

  4. Incidence of missed inferior alveolar nerve blocks in vital asymptomatic subjects and in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of missed inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks by using a 1- or 2-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in vital asymptomatic teeth and in emergency patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. As part of 37 studies, 3169 subjects/patients were evaluated for missed IAN blocks. The study included 2450 asymptomatic subjects and 719 emergency patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Each subject or patient received either a 1- or 2-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. A missed block was defined as no lip numbness at 15-20 minutes after the IAN block. The effect of anesthetic volume on the incidence of missed blocks was assessed by using mixed models logistic regression with individual studies as a random effect. The incidence of missed blocks for asymptomatic subjects was 6.3% for the 1-cartridge volume and 3.8% for the 2-cartridge volume. For patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis, the incidence of missed blocks was 7.7% for the 1-cartridge volume and 2.3% for the 2-cartridge volume. In both asymptomatic subjects and patients with irreversible pulpitis, the 2-cartridge volume was significantly (P = .0395) better than the 1-cartridge volume. There were no significant effects for pulpal diagnosis (P = .7523) or the pulpal diagnosis and anesthetic volume interaction (P = .3973). Concerning missed IAN blocks, we concluded that administration of a 2-cartridge volume was significantly better (P = .0395) than a 1-cartridge volume in both asymptomatic subjects and emergency patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Irreversible electroporation ablation (IRE of unresectable soft tissue tumors: learning curve evaluation in the first 150 patients treated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prejesh Philips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE is a novel technology that uses peri-target discrete probes to deliver high-voltage localized electric current to induce cell death without thermal-induced coagulative necrosis. "Learnability" and consistently effective results by novice practitioners is essential for determining acceptance of novel techniques. This multi-center prospectively-collected database study evaluates the learning curve of IRE. METHODS: Analysis of 150 consecutive patients over 7 institutions from 9/2010-7/2012 was performed with patients treated divided into 3 groups A (1(st 50 patients treated, B (2(nd 50 and C (3(rd 50 patients treated chronologically and analyzed for outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 167 IRE procedures were performed, with a majority being liver(39.5% and pancreatic(35.5% lesions. The three groups were similar with respect to co-morbidities and demographics. Group C had larger lesions (3.9 vs 3 cm,p=0.001, more numerous lesions (3.2 vs 2.2,p=0.07, more vascular invasion(p=0.001, underwent more associated procedures(p=0.001 and had longer operative times(p<0.001. Despite this, they had similar complication and high-grade complication rates(p=0.24. Attributable morbidity rate was 13.3%(total 29.3% and high-grade complications were seen in 4.19%(total 12.6%. Pancreatic lesions(p=0.001 and laparotomy(p=0.001 were associated with complications. CONCLUSION: The review represents that single largest review of IRE soft tissue ablation demonstrating initial patient selection and safety. Over time, complex treatments of larger lesions and lesions with greater vascular involvement were performed without a significant increase in adverse effects or impact on local relapse free survival. This evolution demonstrates the safety profile of IRE and speed of graduation to more complex lesions, which was greater than 5 cases by institution. IRE is a safe and effective alternative to conventional ablation with a demonstrable

  6. Theoretical Application of Irreversible (Nonequilibrium) Thermodynamic Principles to Enhance Solute Fluxes across Nanofabricated Hemodialysis Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Assem; Elmoselhi, Hamdi; Shoker, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Nanotechnology has the potential to improve hemodialysis membrane technology. Thus, a major objective is to understand how to enhance toxic solute fluxes across these membranes. The aim of this concept building study is to review the application of irreversible thermodynamic (IT) to solute fluxes. Methods. We expanded the application of the Nernst-Planck equation to include the Kedem-Katchalsky equation, pH, membrane thickness, pore size, and electric potential as variables. Results. (1) Reducing the membrane's thickness from 25 μm to 25 nm increased the flux of creatinine, β2-microglobulin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by a thousand times but prevented completely albumin flux, (2) applying an electric potential of 50–400 mV across the membrane enhanced the flux of the respective molecules by 71.167 × 10−3, 38.7905 × 10−8, and 0.595 × 10−13 mol/s, and (3) changing the pH from 7.35 to 7.42 altered the fluxes minimally. Conclusions. The results supported an argument to investigate the application of IT to study forces of fluxes across membranes. Reducing the membrane's thickness—together with the application of an electrical potential—qualities achievable by nanotechnology, can enhance the removal of uremic toxins by many folds. However, changing the pH at a specific membrane thickness does not affect the flux significantly. PMID:23209903

  7. Avoiding neuromuscular stimulation in liver irreversible electroporation using radiofrequency electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Mercadal, Borja; Moll, Xavier; Fondevila, Dolors; Andaluz, Anna; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-02-01

    Electroporation-based treatments typically consist of the application of high-voltage dc pulses. As an undesired side effect, these dc pulses cause electrical stimulation of excitable tissues such as motor nerves. The present in vivo study explores the use of bursts of sinusoidal voltage in a frequency range from 50 kHz to 2 MHz, to induce irreversible electroporation (IRE) whilst avoiding neuromuscular stimulation. A series of 100 dc pulses or sinusoidal bursts, both with an individual duration of 100 µs, were delivered to rabbit liver through thin needles in a monopolar electrode configuration, and thoracic movements were recorded with an accelerometer. Tissue samples were harvested three hours after treatment and later post-processed to determine the dimensions of the IRE lesions. Thermal damage due to Joule heating was ruled out via computer simulations. Sinusoidal bursts with a frequency equal to or above 100 kHz did not cause thoracic movements and induced lesions equivalent to those obtained with conventional dc pulses when the applied voltage amplitude was sufficiently high. IRE efficacy dropped with increasing frequency. For 100 kHz bursts, it was estimated that the electric field threshold for IRE is about 1.4 kV cm-1 whereas that of dc pulses is about 0.5 kV cm-1.

  8. Interplay of Determinism and Randomness: From Irreversibility to Chaos, Fractals, and Stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonis, A.

    2017-12-01

    We will start our discussion into randomness by looking exclusively at our formal mathematical system to show that even in this pure and strictly logical system one cannot do away with randomness. By employing simple mathematical models, we will identify the three possible sources of randomness: randomness due to inability to find the rules (irreversibility), randomness due to inability to have infinite power (chaos), and randomness due to stochastic processes. Subsequently we will move from the mathematical system to our physical world to show that randomness, through the quantum mechanical character of small scales, through chaos, and because of the second law of thermodynamics, is an intrinsic property of nature as well. We will subsequently argue that the randomness in the physical world is consistent with the three sources of randomness suggested from the study of simple mathematical systems. Many examples ranging from purely mathematical to natural processes will be presented, which clearly demonstrate how the combination of rules and randomness produces the world we live in. Finally, the principle of least effort or the principle of minimum energy consumption will be suggested as the underlying principle behind this symbiosis between determinism and randomness.

  9. Characterizing Time Irreversibility in Disordered Fermionic Systems by the Effect of Local Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, Shreya; De Tomasi, Giuseppe; Heyl, Markus; Heller, Eric J.; Pollmann, Frank

    2017-07-01

    We study the effects of local perturbations on the dynamics of disordered fermionic systems in order to characterize time irreversibility. We focus on three different systems: the noninteracting Anderson and Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) models and the interacting spinless disordered t -V chain. First, we consider the effect on the full many-body wave functions by measuring the Loschmidt echo (LE). We show that in the extended or ergodic phase the LE decays exponentially fast with time, while in the localized phase the decay is algebraic. We demonstrate that the exponent of the decay of the LE in the localized phase diverges proportionally to the single-particle localization length as we approach the metal-insulator transition in the AAH model. Second, we probe different phases of disordered systems by studying the time expectation value of local observables evolved with two Hamiltonians that differ by a spatially local perturbation. Remarkably, we find that many-body localized systems could lose memory of the initial state in the long-time limit, in contrast to the noninteracting localized phase where some memory is always preserved.

  10. Alternatives to the discrete cosine transform for irreversible tomographic image compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Full-frame irreversible compression of medical images is currently being performed using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Although the DCT is the optimum fast transform for video compression applications, the authors show here that it is out-performed by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and discrete Hartley transform (DHT) for images obtained using positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and possibly for certain types of digitized radiographs. The difference occurs because PET and MRI images are characterized by a roughly circular region D of non-zero intensity bounded by a region R in which the Image intensity is essentially zero. Clipping R to its minimum extent can reduce the number of low-intensity pixels but the practical requirement that images be stored on a rectangular grid means that a significant region of zero intensity must remain an integral part of the image to be compressed. With this constraint imposed, the DCT loses its advantage over the DFT because neither transform introduces significant artificial discontinuities. The DFT and DHT have the further important advantage of requiring less computation time than the DCT

  11. First-order irreversible thermodynamic approach to a nonsteady RLC circuit as an energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, G; Arias, L A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show a RLC-circuit as energy converter within the context of first-order irreversible thermodynamics (FOIT). For our analysis, we propose an isothermic model with transient elements and passive elements. With the help of the dynamic equations, the Kirchhoff equations, we found the generalized fluxes and forces of the circuit, the equation system shows symmetry of the cross terms, this property is characteristic of the steady state linear systems, but in this case phenomenological coefficients are function of time. Then, we can use these relations, similar to the linear Onsager relations, to construct the characteristic functions of the RLC energy converter: the power output, efficiency, dissipation and ecological function, and study its energetic performance. The study of performance of the converter is based on two parameters, the coupling parameter and the ''forces ratio'' parameter, in this case as functions of time. We find that the behavior of the non-steady state converter is similar to the behavior of steady state energy converter. We will explain the linear and symmetric behavior of the converter in the frequencies space rather than in the time space. Finally, we establish optimal operation regimes of economic degree of coupling for this energy converter

  12. The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape produced by irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabe, M.; Morrone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape are producing irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape. The changes take place mainly in: a) Depredation mining activity on the hills, b) Advance of the constructions on the hills. c) Superficial drainage changes by tubes and dike deficiencies) Stuffed of diggings with industrials solids remainders. The presence of System of Tandilia hills grants a high landscaping and economic value to the area. The mining activity and the related tourism constructions are in constant development. The mentioned activities are harnessed by the economic height of last five years, since Tandil is chosen as place of permanent residence by job and educational supply, and tourism by near accessibility from Buenos Aires city. Like consequence, it takes place great urban expansion where particular houses stand out, also districts, countries; and the related ones to the tourist activity like inns, that are located on the hills, generating changes in the landscape. The study area is located in the S-SW-SE sector of the city of Tandil, head of the party homonym of the Southeastern center of the province of Buenos Aires. The purpose of this paper aim to emphasize the anthropological action like main agent the natural landscape alteration, generating environmental problems. Aerial photography, and topographic maps to scale: 1:50000 were used. (author)

  13. Irreversible adsorption of atmospheric helium on olivine: A lobster pot analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protin, Marie; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Marrocchi, Yves; Mathon, François

    2016-04-01

    This study reports new experimental results that demonstrate that large amounts of atmospheric helium may be adsorbed onto the surfaces of olivine grains. This behavior is surface-area-related in that this contamination preferentially affects grains that are smaller than 125 μm in size. One of the most striking results of our study is that in vacuo heating at 900 °C for 15 min is not sufficient to completely remove the atmospheric contamination. This suggests that the adsorption of helium may involve high-energy trapping of helium through irreversible anomalous adsorption. This trapping process of helium can thus be compared to a ;lobster pot; adsorption: atmospheric helium easily gets in, but hardly gets out. While this type of behavior has previously been reported for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe), this is the first time that it has been observed for helium. Adsorption of helium has, until now, generally been considered to be negligible on silicate surfaces. Our findings have significant implications for helium and noble gas analysis of natural silicate samples, such as for cosmic-ray exposure dating or noble gas characterization of extraterrestrial material. Analytical procedures in future studies should be adapted in order to avoid this contamination. The results of this study also allow us to propose an alternative explanation for previously described matrix loss of cosmogenic 3He.

  14. The identification of irreversible rituximab-resistant lymphoma caused by CD20 gene mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Y [Department of Clinical Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Olympas Bio-Imaging Lab, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Terui, Y [Department of Clinical Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, K [Division of Pathology, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto-Mishima, Y; Matsusaka, S [Department of Clinical Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Utsubo-Kuniyoshi, R [Department of Clinical Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Olympas Bio-Imaging Lab, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Hatake, K [Department of Clinical Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    C-terminal mutations of CD20 constitute part of the mechanisms that resist rituximab therapy. Most CD20 having a C-terminal mutation was not recognized by L26 antibody. As the exact epitope of L26 has not been determined, expression and localization of mutated CD20 have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we revealed that the binding site of L26 monoclonal antibody is located in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD20 molecule, which was often lost in mutated CD20 molecules. This indicates that it is difficult to distinguish the mutation of CD20 from under expression of the CD20 protein. To detect comprehensive CD20 molecules including the resistant mutants, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody that recognizes the N-terminal cytoplasm region of CD20 molecule. We screened L26-negative cases with our antibody and found several mutations. A rituximab-binding analysis using the cryopreserved specimen that mutation was identified in CD20 molecules indicated that the C-terminal region of CD20 undertakes a critical role in presentation of the large loop in which the rituximab-binding site locates. Thus, combination of antibodies of two kinds of epitope permits the identification of C-terminal CD20 mutations associated with irreversible resistance to rituximab and may help the decision of the treatment strategy.

  15. Enzymatic treatment for controlling irreversible membrane fouling in cross-flow humic acid-fed ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chien-Hwa [Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Nanya Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fang, Lung-Chen; Lateef, Shaik Khaja [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chung-Hsin, E-mail: chunghsinwu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien Kung Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Fang [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Exploring reasonable ways to remove foulant is of great importance in order to allow sustainable operation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in water/wastewater treatment technology. Compounds of organic and inorganic origin largely contribute to irreversible fouling. This study attempted to remove problem of UF membrane fouling by using four different enzymes including {alpha}-amylase, lipase, cellulase and protease. This investigation showed that none of the above mentioned enzymes was found to be effective for the removal of foulant when used alone. However, when these enzymes were used in combination with NaOH and citric acid, about 90% cleaning was achieved. The addition of non-ionic surfactant to the enzymatic solution appears to increase the efficiency of flux recovery by reducing the adhesion of foulant species to the membrane surface through the decrease of contact angle. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were employed to qualitatively illustrate the foulant characteristics. The surface roughness through AFM was used to explain the potential mechanism for the enzymatic cleaning.

  16. The Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on the Achilles Tendon: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Song

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential effects of irreversible electroporation ablation on the Achilles tendon in a rabbit model and to compare the histopathological and biomechanical changes between specimens following electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation.A total of 140 six-month-old male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, 70 in the radiofrequency ablation group and 70 in the electroporation group. In situ ablations were applied directly to the Achilles tendons of rabbits using typical electroporation (1800 V/cm, 90 pulses and radiofrequency ablation (power control mode protocols. Histopathological and biomechanical evaluations were performed to examine the effects of electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation over time.Both electroporation and radiofrequency ablation produced complete cell ablation in the target region. Thermal damage resulted in tendon rupture 3 days post radiofrequency ablation. In contrast, electroporation-ablated Achilles tendons preserved their biomechanical properties and showed no detectable rupture at this time point. The electroporation-ablated tendons exhibited signs of recovery, including tenoblast regeneration and angiogenesis within 2 weeks, and the restoration of their integral structure was evident within 12 weeks.When applying electroporation to ablate solid tumors, major advantage could be that collateral damage to adjacent tendons or ligaments is minimized due to the unique ability of electroporation ablation to target the cell membrane. This advantage could have a significant impact on the field of tumor ablation near vital tendons or ligaments.

  17. The Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on the Achilles Tendon: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Zheng, Jingjing; Yan, Mingwei; Ding, Weidong; Xu, Kui; Fan, Qingyu; Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of irreversible electroporation ablation on the Achilles tendon in a rabbit model and to compare the histopathological and biomechanical changes between specimens following electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation. A total of 140 six-month-old male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, 70 in the radiofrequency ablation group and 70 in the electroporation group. In situ ablations were applied directly to the Achilles tendons of rabbits using typical electroporation (1800 V/cm, 90 pulses) and radiofrequency ablation (power control mode) protocols. Histopathological and biomechanical evaluations were performed to examine the effects of electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation over time. Both electroporation and radiofrequency ablation produced complete cell ablation in the target region. Thermal damage resulted in tendon rupture 3 days post radiofrequency ablation. In contrast, electroporation-ablated Achilles tendons preserved their biomechanical properties and showed no detectable rupture at this time point. The electroporation-ablated tendons exhibited signs of recovery, including tenoblast regeneration and angiogenesis within 2 weeks, and the restoration of their integral structure was evident within 12 weeks. When applying electroporation to ablate solid tumors, major advantage could be that collateral damage to adjacent tendons or ligaments is minimized due to the unique ability of electroporation ablation to target the cell membrane. This advantage could have a significant impact on the field of tumor ablation near vital tendons or ligaments.

  18. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguo Yao

    Full Text Available Irreversible electroporation (IRE produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  19. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenguo; Lv, Yanpeng; Dong, Shoulong; Zhao, Yajun; Liu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs) to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs) to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP) or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs) treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  20. Irreversible electropermeabilization of the human pathogen Candida albicans: an in-vitro experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Svediene, Jurgita; Markovskaja, Svetlana; Paskevicius, Algimantas; Novickij, Jurij

    2015-02-01

    Pathogenic fungi cause many life-threatening infections, especially among individuals with immune system dysfunction. The antifungal drugs commonly used to suppress fungal pathogens can result in long-lasting and toxic therapy. In this work, irreversible electropermeabilization was used to investigate the dynamics of the decrease in Candida albicans colony vitality after application of a pulsed electric field (PEF) and use of antifungal drugs. The fungi were subjected to single 250-µs to 2-ms (0.5-2.5 kV/cm) pulses or repeated short 5-µs pulses, and efficacy was compared. It was shown that electropermeabilization combined with antifungal agents results in rapid and more effective treatment, eliminating more than 90% of C. albicans colony-forming units in a single procedure, which is advantageous in biomedicine. It was also observed that, because of application of PEF and use of the antifungal agents, the Candida cells form cell aggregates and average live cell size is reduced by as much as 53%.