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Sample records for irreversible airway dilatation

  1. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystn. pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been obsd. in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The

  2. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The aim of the research is to contribute to the modeling of this phenomenon. In the present paper the effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric behavior of a lime-cement mortar is extensively studied. The results indicate that NaCl influences the hydric and hygric dilation behavior of the material. The material contaminated with NaCl shrinks during dissolution and dilates during crystallization of the salt. This dilation is irreversible and sufficient to damage the material after few dissolution/crystallization cycles. This behavior is not restricted to NaCl, but is observed in the presence of other salts as well (NaNO 3 and KCl). Outcomes of electron microscopy studies suggest that salts causing irreversible dilation tend to crystallize as layers on the pore wall

  3. Old dilemma : asthma with irreversible airway obstruction or COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Vonk, Judith M.; Bulkmans, Nicole; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Gouw, Annette; Grunberg, Katrien; Mauad, Thais; Popper, Helmut; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio; Vrugt, Bart; Wright, Joanne L.; Yang, Hui-Min; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Older asthmatic patients may develop fixed airway obstruction and clinical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the added value of pathological evaluation of bronchial biopsies to help differentiate asthma from COPD, taking into account smoking, age, and inhaled

  4. Balloon dilation and airway stenting for benign and malignant tracheal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianhai; Yang Renjie; Zhang Hongzhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of balloon dilation and airway stenting performed under fluoroscopic guidance for the treatment of benign and malignant tracheal stenosis. Methods: Under fluoroscopic guidance, balloon dilation and airway stenting were performed in 45 patients with tracheobronchial stricture. Of the 45 patients,malignant tracheal stenosis was seen in 37, including mediastinal nodal metastases (n=14), esophageal carcinoma (n=13), lung carcinoma (n= 4), adenocarcinoma of bronchus (n=3), lymphoma (n=2) and laryngocarcinoma (n=1), and benign tracheal stenosis was seen in 8, including endobronchial tuberculosis (n=6), retrosternal thyroid adenoma (n=1) and endotracheal intubation (n=1). Airway stenting with self-expandable metal stent was employed in 38 patients and balloon dilation in 7 patients. All the procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Results: A total of 53 self-expandable metal stents was implanted in 38 patients. The clinical symptoms were immediately relived after the procedure in all patients except for one patient who died from choking of sputum. No stent migration was observed. Restenosis developed in 4 patients, which was successfully treated with repeated stenting and balloon dilation. Nineteen times of balloon dilation procedure were accomplished in 7 patients. Marked remission of clinical symptoms was seen in most cases. During a follow-up period (ranged from 0 to 124 months with a mean of 24.5 months) 31 patients died. Conclusion: For both benign and malignant tracheal stenosis, balloon dilation with airway stenting performed under fluoroscopic guidance is a safe and efficient therapy with instant curative effect in relieving clinical symptoms. (authors)

  5. Percutaneous dilational tracheotomy for airway management in a newborn with Pierre-Robin syndrome and a glossopharyngeal web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirat, Arash; Candan, Selim; Unlükaplan, Aytekin; Kömürcü, Ozgür; Kuşlu, Selim; Arslan, Gülnaz

    2012-04-01

    Pierre-Robin syndrome (PRS) is often associated with difficulty in endotracheal intubation. We present the use of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy (PDT) for airway management of a newborn with PRS and a glossopharyngeal web. A 2-day-old term newborn with PRS and severe obstructive dyspnea was evaluated by the anesthesiology team for airway management. A direct laryngoscopy revealed a glossopharyngeal web extending from the base of the tongue to the posterior pharyngeal wall. The infant was spontaneously breathing through a 2 mm diameter fistula in the center of this web. It was decided that endotracheal intubation was impossible, and a PDT was planned. The trachea of the newborn was cannulated, using a 20 gauge peripheral venous catheter and a 0.71 mm guide wire was introduced through this catheter. Using 5 French, 7 French, 9 French, and 11 French central venous catheter kit dilators, staged tracheotomy stoma dilation was performed. By inserting a size 3.0 tracheotomy cannula, PDT was successfully completed in this newborn. This case describes the successful use of PDT for emergency airway management of a newborn with PRS and glossopharyngeal web.

  6. Enhanced airway dilation by positive-pressure inflation of the lungs compared with active deep inspiration in patients with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, Annelies M.; Janssen, Kirsten; de Jeu, Ronald C.; van der Plas, Dirk T.; Schot, Robert; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Deep inspiration temporarily reduces induced airways obstruction in healthy subjects. This bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is impaired in asthma. Passive machine-assisted lung inflation may augment bronchodilation compared with an active deep inspiration in patients with asthma by either

  7. Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family history of dilated cardiomyopathy Inflammation of heart muscle from immune system disorders, such as lupus Neuromuscular disorders, such as muscular dystrophy Complications Complications from dilated cardiomyopathy include: Heart ...

  8. Treatment of multiple-level tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to endobronchial tuberculosis using bronchoscopic balloon dilatation with topical mitomycin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Harun, Hafaruzi; Hassan, Tidi M; Ban, Andrea Y L; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Abdul Rahaman, Jamalul Azizi

    2016-04-14

    Tracheobronchial stenosis is a known complication of endobronchial tuberculosis. Despite antituberculous and steroid therapy, the development of bronchial stenosis is usually irreversible and requires airway patency to be restored by either bronchoscopic or surgical interventions. We report the use of balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C to successful restore airway patency. We present a 24-year old lady with previous pulmonary tuberculosis and laryngeal tuberculosis in 2007 and 2013 respectively who presented with worsening dyspnoea and stridor. She had total left lung collapse with stenosis of both the upper trachea and left main bronchus. She underwent successful bronchoscopic balloon and manual rigid tube dilatation with topical mitomycin-C application over the stenotic tracheal segment. A second bronchoscopic intervention was performed after 20 weeks for the left main bronchus stenosis with serial balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C application. These interventions led to significant clinical and radiographic improvements. This case highlights that balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C application should be considered in selected patients with tracheobronchial stenosis following endobronchial tuberculosis, avoiding airway stenting and invasive surgical intervention.

  9. Achalasia: Dilation, Injection or Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Peracchia, Alberto; Bonavina, Luigi

    2000-01-01

    Achalasia results from irreversible alterations of the esophageal myenteric plexus. The target of treatment in this setting is to reduce lower esophageal sphincter resistance to passage of the bolus. Definitive treatment of the disease requires pneumatic dilation or Heller myotomy. Although no controlled studies comparing modern endoscopic and surgical techniques are available, laparoscopic surgery is emerging as the initial intervention of choice.

  10. Achalasia: Dilation, Injection or Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Peracchia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Achalasia results from irreversible alterations of the esophageal myenteric plexus. The target of treatment in this setting is to reduce lower esophageal sphincter resistance to passage of the bolus. Definitive treatment of the disease requires pneumatic dilation or Heller myotomy. Although no controlled studies comparing modern endoscopic and surgical techniques are available, laparoscopic surgery is emerging as the initial intervention of choice.

  11. Paschke Dilations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Westerbaan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1973 Paschke defined a factorization for completely positive maps between C*-algebras. In this paper we show that for normal maps between von Neumann algebras, this factorization has a universal property, and coincides with Stinespring's dilation for normal maps into B(H.

  12. Irreversible social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, A.J.K.; Romijn, H.A.; Collste, G.; Reuter, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate how irreversible social change should be evaluated from an ethical perspective. First; we analyse the notion of irreversibility in general terms. We define a general notion of what makes a change irreversible; drawing on discussions in ecology and economics. This notion is

  13. Dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, M.; Cuocolo, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques are easily obtainable, noninvasive examinations that provide useful information in the evaluation, diagnosis and management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The gated blood pool scan allows the assessment of ventricular size, configuration, and wall and septal thickness. These data allow the functional class of the cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) to be defined. Often THallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging adds further information and is particularly useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and in depicting septal abnormalities in hipertrophic cardiomyopathy. Useful as these techniques are, they are not substitutes for conventional approaches to diagnosis. Careful history taking and physical examination, as well as scrutiny of the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and echocardiogram should be standard practice for the evaluation of patients with suspected cardiomyopathy. Judicious use of noninvasive techniques may obviate the need for cardiac catheterization in many patients

  14. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  15. Esophageal dilatation using the Eder Puestow dilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, C M; Dowling, B L; Gear, M W

    1976-06-01

    We have performed fifty-one dilatations in twenty-six patients using an end-viewing fiberoptic endoscope and Eder Puestow dilators. All (except two) were performed using intravenous diazepam, the majority on an outpatient basis. The only complication has been a single case of aspiration pneumonia. We have found this method of esophageal dilatation particularly useful in the preoperative dilatation of benign strictures, and in those elderly frail patients who are unsuitable for surgery. Transthoracic resection of the stricture is avoided and thus transabdominal repair of the hiatus hernia may be undertaken.

  16. Dilations and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Fredenhagen, K.

    1976-07-01

    As a consequence of the geometrical features of dilations massless particles do not interact in a local, dilationally invariant quantum theory. This result also holds in models in which dilations are only an asymptotically visible symmetry of the S-matrix. (orig.) [de

  17. Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Tomé, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...

  18. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  19. Relapsing polychondritis and airway involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Boiselle, Phillip; Sung, Arthur; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Michaud, Gaetane; Majid, Adnan; Herth, Felix J F; Trentham, David

    2009-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP). Retrospective chart review and data analysis of RP patients seen in the Rheumatology Clinic and the Complex Airway Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from January 2004 through February 2008. RP was diagnosed in 145 patients. Thirty-one patients had airway involvement, a prevalence of 21%. Twenty-two patients were women (70%), and they were between 11 and 61 years of age (median age, 42 years) at the time of first symptoms. Airway symptoms were the first manifestation of disease in 17 patients (54%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 20 patients (64%), followed by cough, stridor, and hoarseness. Airway problems included the following: subglottic stenosis (n = 8; 26%); focal and diffuse malacia (n = 15; 48%); and focal stenosis in different areas of the bronchial tree in the rest of the patients. Twelve patients (40%) required and underwent intervention including balloon dilatation, stent placement, tracheotomy, or a combination of the above with good success. The majority of patients experienced improvement in airway symptoms after intervention. One patient died during the follow-up period from the progression of airway disease. The rest of the patients continue to undergo periodic evaluation and intervention. In this largest cohort described in the English language literature, we found symptomatic airway involvement in RP to be common and at times severe. The nature of airway problems is diverse, with tracheomalacia being the most common. Airway intervention is frequently required and in experienced hands results in symptom improvement.

  20. Pnematic Dilation in Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bittinger

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic dilation is the most common first-line therapy for the treatment of achalasia. The aim of dilation is a controlled disruption of circular muscle fibres of the lower esophageal sphincter to reduce the functional obstruction. Several types of dilators and different dilation techniques are used, but the achieved results are similar. The mean success rate is about 80% in the short term, but some patients need redilation in the further course (particularly young patients. Best long term results are obtained if the lower esophageal sphincter pressure can be reduced below 10 mmHg. Major complications are rare after pneumatic dilation; the most serious complication is esophageal perforation, which occurs at a mean rate of about 2.5%. Considering the pros and cons of other effective forms of treatment of achalasia (esophagomyotomy and intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin, pneumatic dilation is still the treatment of choice in the majority of patients with achalasia.

  1. Irreversibility and conditional probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mathematical entropy - unlike physical entropy - is simply a measure of uniformity for probability distributions in general. So understood, conditional entropies have the same logical structure as conditional probabilities. If, as is sometimes supposed, conditional probabilities are time-reversible, then so are conditional entropies and, paradoxically, both then share this symmetry with physical equations of motion. The paradox is, of course that probabilities yield a direction to time both in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, while the equations of motion do not. The supposed time-reversibility of both conditionals seems also to involve a form of retrocausality that is related to, but possibly not the same as, that described by Costa de Beaurgard. The retrocausality is paradoxically at odds with the generally presumed irreversibility of the quantum mechanical measurement process. Further paradox emerges if the supposed time-reversibility of the conditionals is linked with the idea that the thermodynamic entropy is the same thing as 'missing information' since this confounds the thermodynamic and mathematical entropies. However, it is shown that irreversibility is a formal consequence of conditional entropies and, hence, of conditional probabilities also. 8 refs. (Author)

  2. Nonequilibrium and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book concentrates on the properties of the stationary states in chaotic systems of particles or fluids, leaving aside the theory of the way they can be reached. The stationary states of particles or of fluids (understood as probability distributions on microscopic configurations or on the fields describing continua) have received important new ideas and data from numerical simulations and reviews are needed. The starting point is to find out which time invariant distributions come into play in physics. A special feature of this book is the historical approach. To identify the problems the author analyzes the papers of the founding fathers Boltzmann, Clausius and Maxwell including translations of the relevant (parts of ) historical documents. He also establishes a close link between treatment of irreversible phenomena in statistical mechanics and the theory of chaotic systems at and beyond the onset of turbulence as developed by Sinai, Ruelle, Bowen (SRB) and others: the author gives arguments intending t...

  3. Airway stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Colleen

    2018-01-01

    Stents and tubes to maintain the patency of the airways are commonly used for malignant obstruction and are occasionally employed in benign disease. Malignant airway obstruction usually results from direct involvement of bronchogenic carcinoma, or by extension of carcinomas occurring in the esophagus or the thyroid. External compression from lymph nodes or metastatic disease from other organs can also cause central airway obstruction. Most malignant airway lesions are surgically inoperable due to advanced disease stage and require multimodality palliation, including stent placement. As with any other medical device, stents have significantly evolved over the last 50 years and deserve an in-depth understanding of their true capabilities and complications. Not every silicone stent is created equal and the same holds for metallic stents. Herein, we present an overview of the topic as well as some of the more practical and controversial issues surrounding airway stents. We also try to dispel the myths surrounding stent removal and their supposed use only in central airways. At the end, we come to the long-held conclusion that stents should not be used as first line treatment of choice, but after ruling out the possibility of curative surgical resection or repair. PMID:29707506

  4. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Allyson C; Kinns, Jennifer; Weisse, Chick

    2006-08-01

    A dog was examined because of a 6-month history of upper airway stridor that began after postoperative regurgitation of gastric contents. Constant stridor was evident during inspiration and expiration, although it was worse during inspiration. The stridor was no longer evident when the dog's mouth was manually held open. Computed tomography, rhinoscopy, and fluoroscopy were used to confirm a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis. The dog was anesthetized, and balloon dilatation of the stenosis was performed. Prednisone was prescribed for 4 weeks after the procedure to decrease fibrous tissue formation. Although the dog was initially improved, signs recurred 3.5 weeks later, and balloon dilatation was repeated. This time, however, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Two months later, although the dog did not have clinical signs of stridor, a third dilatation procedure was performed because mild stenosis was seen on follow-up computed tomographic images; again, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Three and 6 months after the third dilatation procedure, the dog reportedly was clinically normal. Findings suggest that balloon dilatation may be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs.

  5. Time dilation in quantum systems and decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, Igor; Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-01-01

    Both quantum mechanics and general relativity are based on principles that defy our daily intuitions, such as time dilation, quantum interference and entanglement. Because the regimes where the two theories are typically tested are widely separated, their foundational principles are rarely jointly studied. Recent works have found that novel phenomena appear for quantum particles with an internal structure in the presence of time dilation, which can take place at low energies and in weak gravitational fields. Here we briefly review the effects of time dilation on quantum interference and generalize the results to a variety of systems. In addition, we provide an extended study of the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity that are of relevance for the effects and also address several questions that have been raised, such as the description in different reference frames, the role of the equivalence principle and the effective irreversibility of the decoherence. The manuscript clarifies some of the counterintuitive aspects arising when quantum phenomena and general relativistic effects are jointly considered. (paper)

  6. Airway resistance at maximum inhalation as a marker of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor George T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics exhibit reduced airway dilation at maximal inspiration, likely due to structural differences in airway walls and/or functional differences in airway smooth muscle, factors that may also increase airway responsiveness to bronchoconstricting stimuli. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the minimal airway resistance achievable during a maximal inspiration (Rmin is abnormally elevated in subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness. Methods The Rmin was measured in 34 nonasthmatic and 35 asthmatic subjects using forced oscillations at 8 Hz. Rmin and spirometric indices were measured before and after bronchodilation (albuterol and bronchoconstriction (methacholine. A preliminary study of 84 healthy subjects first established height dependence of baseline Rmin values. Results Asthmatics had a higher baseline Rmin % predicted than nonasthmatic subjects (134 ± 33 vs. 109 ± 19 % predicted, p = 0.0004. Sensitivity-specificity analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that baseline Rmin was able to identify subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20 min % predicted, FEV1 % predicted, and FEF25-75 % predicted, respectively. Also, 80% of the subjects with baseline Rmin min > 145% predicted had hyperresponsive airways, regardless of clinical classification as asthmatic or nonasthmatic. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline Rmin, a measurement that is easier to perform than spirometry, performs as well as or better than standard spirometric indices in distinguishing subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness from those without hyperresponsive airways. The relationship of baseline Rmin to asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness likely reflects a causal relation between conditions that stiffen airway walls and hyperresponsiveness. In conjunction with symptom history, Rmin could provide a clinically useful tool for assessing asthma and monitoring response to treatment.

  7. Dilatations and factorizable equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humi, Mayer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the dilatation operator in one dimension can be used to enlarge the Lie algebra generated by the raising and lowering operators for some classes of special functions. As a result, we are able to derive new recursion relations and addition formulae for these functions. Furthermore, we derive generalized ladder operators for these functions under coordinate stretching and translations

  8. Impossible Airway Requiring Venovenous Bypass for Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan Gardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elective surgical airway is the definitive management for a tracheal stenotic lesion that is not a candidate for tracheal resection, or who has failed multiple-tracheal dilations. This case report details the management of a patient who has failed an elective awake tracheostomy secondary to the inability to be intubated as well as severe scar tissue at the surgical site. A combination of regional anesthesia and venovenous bypass is used to facilitate the surgical airway management of this patient. Cerebral oximetry and a multidisciplinary team approach aid in early detection of an oxygenation issue, as well as the emergent intervention that preserved this patient’s life.

  9. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and Curettage ( ... February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage (D& ...

  10. A Case Report of Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is mostly an idiopathic disease with a progressive and irreversible course. It carries poor prognosis and outcome. Rarely, a reversible metabolic etiology that is amenable to specific therapy is identified. Alteration in thyroid status can lead to changes in systolic and diastolic function of left ventricle. Heart is sensitive to thyroid hormone changes, and cardiac disorders are commonly associated with both hyper and hypothyroidism. Diastolic dysfunction is the most common abnormality reported in hypothyroidism. In systolic function, prolonged systolic time interval or normal cardiac function has been reported by most workers. DCM is a rare presentation of hypothyroidism. Here, we report a case of 40-year-old female diagnosed with DCM due to hypothyroidism

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  13. Intrinsic irreversibility in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.; Petrosky, T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum theory has a dual structure: while solutions of the Schroedinger equation evolve in a deterministic and time reversible way, measurement introduces irreversibility and stochasticity. This presents a contrast to Bohr-Sommerfeld-Einstein theory, in which transitions between quantum states are associated with spontaneous and induced transitions, defined in terms of stochastic processes. A new form of quantum theory is presented here, which contains an intrinsic form of irreversibility, independent of observation. This new form applies to situations corresponding to a continuous spectrum and to quantum states with finite life time. The usual non-commutative algebra associated to quantum theory is replaced by more general algebra, in which operators are also non-distributive. Our approach leads to a number of predictions, which hopefully may be verified or refuted in the next years. (orig.)

  14. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  15. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy via Griggs Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Hasan Ali; Vafaii, Kamran; Chalechale, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saeed; Kaviannezhad, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Tracheostomy is considered the airway management of choice for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation support. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheotomy (PDT) is a technique that can be performed easily and rapidly at bedside and is particularly useful in the intensive care setting. The Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy is unique in its utilization of a guide wire dilator forceps. We aimed to describe the early perioperative and late postoperative complications of PDT using the Griggs technique in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients who underwent tracheostomy in the ICU of the Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from June 2011 to June 2015. PDT was performed in 184 patients with the Griggs technique. Demographic variables, as well as perioperative and late postoperative complications were recorded. The mean age of patients was 57.3 ± 15.37 years. The most common primary causes of tracheostomy were hypoxic brain damage disorders (43.2%) and pneumonia (14.8%). Perioperative and early complications occurred in 16.7 % of procedures, of which 9.3% were bleedings (minor, significant and major). Furthermore, the incidence of late complications was 8.6%, including: stomal infection, difficult replace tracheostomy tube, tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheal stenosis, and tracheomalacia. PDT via Griggs technique is a safe, quick, and effective method. The low incidence of complications indicates that bedside percutaneous tracheostomy can be performed safely as a routine procedure for daily care implemented in the ICU.

  16. Irreversible stochastic processes on lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Models for irreversible random or cooperative filling of lattices are required to describe many processes in chemistry and physics. Since the filling is assumed to be irreversible, even the stationary, saturation state is not in equilibrium. The kinetics and statistics of these processes are described by recasting the master equations in infinite hierarchical form. Solutions can be obtained by implementing various techniques: refinements in these solution techniques are presented. Programs considered include random dimer, trimer, and tetramer filling of 2D lattices, random dimer filling of a cubic lattice, competitive filling of two or more species, and the effect of a random distribution of inactive sites on the filling. Also considered is monomer filling of a linear lattice with nearest neighbor cooperative effects and solve for the exact cluster-size distribution for cluster sizes up to the asymptotic regime. Additionally, a technique is developed to directly determine the asymptotic properties of the cluster size distribution. Finally cluster growth is considered via irreversible aggregation involving random walkers. In particular, explicit results are provided for the large-lattice-size asymptotic behavior of trapping probabilities and average walk lengths for a single walker on a lattice with multiple traps. Procedures for exact calculation of these quantities on finite lattices are also developed

  17. Ecological optimization for generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Zhu Xiaoqin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    The optimal ecological performance of a Newton's law generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerator with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the exergy output rate and exergy loss rate (entropy production rate) of the refrigerator. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the optimal performance of generalized irreversible refrigerators

  18. Bronchoscopic guidance of endovascular stenting limits airway compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Mohammad; Hagood, James; Moore, John; El-Said, Howaida

    2015-04-01

    Bronchial compression as a result of pulmonary artery and aortic arch stenting may cause significant respiratory distress. We set out to limit airway narrowing by endovascular stenting, by using simultaneous flexible bronchoscopy and graduated balloon stent dilatation, or balloon angioplasty to determine maximum safe stent diameter. Between August 2010 and August 2013, patients with suspected airway compression by adjacent vascular structures, underwent CT or a 3D rotational angiogram to evaluate the relationship between the airway and the blood vessels. If these studies showed close proximity of the stenosed vessel and the airway, simultaneous bronchoscopy and graduated stent re-dilation or graduated balloon angioplasty were performed. Five simultaneous bronchoscopy and interventional catheterization procedures were performed in four patients. Median age/weight was 33 (range 9-49) months and 14 (range 7.6-24) kg, respectively. Three had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and one had coarctation of the aorta (CoA). All had confirmed or suspected left main stem bronchial compression. In three procedures, serial balloon dilatation of a previously placed stent in the CoA was performed and bronchoscopy was used to determine the safest largest diameter. In the other two procedures, balloon testing with simultaneous bronchoscopy was performed to determine the stent size that would limit compression of the adjacent airway. In all cases, simultaneous bronchoscopy allowed selection of an ideal caliber of the stent that optimized vessel diameter while minimizing compression of the adjacent airway. In cases at risk for airway compromise, flexible bronchoscopy is a useful tool to guide endovascular stenting. Maximum safe stent diameter can be determined without risking catastrophic airway compression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Brain Abscess after Esophageal Dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

    2007-01-01

    Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted...... with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case...... illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation....

  20. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; van Zuuren, Esther J; Farman, Allan G; Al-Langawi, Jassim Hasan

    2016-02-17

    Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2013. To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 27 January 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 27 January 2016); EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 27 January 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (to 27 January 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to 27 January 2016). There were no language restrictions in the searches of the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials which compared pain relief with systemic antibiotics and analgesics, against placebo and analgesics in the acute preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. Two review authors screened studies and extracted data independently. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADEpro software. Pooling of data was not possible and a descriptive summary is presented. One trial assessed at low risk of bias, involving 40 participants was included in this update of the review. The quality of the body of evidence was rated low for the different outcomes. There was a close parallel distribution of the pain ratings in both the intervention and placebo groups over the seven-day study period. There was insufficient evidence to claim or refute a benefit for penicillin for pain intensity. There was no significant difference in the mean total number of ibuprofen tablets over the

  1. Quantum mechanical irreversibility and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Grigolini, P

    1993-01-01

    This book is intended as a tutorial approach to some of the techniques used to deal with quantum dissipation and irreversibility, with special focus on their applications to the theory of measurements. The main purpose is to provide readers without a deep expertise in quantum statistical mechanics with the basic tools to develop a critical judgement on whether the major achievements in this field have to be considered a satisfactory solution of quantum paradox, or rather this ambitious achievement has to be postponed to when a new physics, more general than quantum and classical physics, will

  2. Roentgenoendovascular dilatation of brachycephalic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Kachel, R.; Glazer, F.; Matevosov, A.L.; Dzhoraev, I.G.; Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt

    1988-01-01

    The authors reported the technique, methods of and indications for roentgenoendovascular dilation in stenotic and occlusive lesions of the brachycephalic branches of the aorta. A total of 102 vascular dilations were perfomed in 76 patients resulting in a good angiographic and clinical effect. In 2 patients the first world prosthetics was performed using an original coiled nitinol prosthesis

  3. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-01-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment. (orig.) [de

  4. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-11-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment.

  5. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace Engagement DONATE YOUR PROPERTY eCards for a Cure About ... airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation Positive Expiratory Pressure Clinical Trials Clinical Trials ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage ... LEGACY GIFT Sponsor a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In ...

  13. Balloon dilatation of ureteric strictures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punekar S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Evaluation of dilatation as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of ureteric strictures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated this technique in 16 patients with ureteric and secondary pelviureteric junction strictures from June 1998. Of these, 7 were men and 9 were women. The age range was from 14 to 40 years. RESULTS: Balloon dilatation was successful in 69% of patients. Strictures secondary to previous surgery had nearly 100% success. Of the 8 cases diagnosed as genitourinary tuberculosis, success rate was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Factors affecting success of balloon dilatation are: a age of the stricture b length of the stricture and c etiology of the stricture. In a select group of patients with fresh post-operative or post-inflammatory strictures, balloon dilatation may be an attractive alternative to surgery.

  14. Percutaneous Dilational Tracheotomy in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Ersoy, Zeynep; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Gedik, Ender; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients may require percutaneous dilational tracheotomy because of prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway issues, but data regarding its safety and effectiveness in solid-organ transplant recipients are scarce. Here, we evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and benefits in terms of lung mechanics, complications, and patient comfort of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy in solid-organ transplant recipients. Medical records from 31 solid-organ transplant recipients (median age of 41.0 years [interquartile range, 18.0-53.0 y]) who underwent percutaneous dilational tracheotomy at our hospital between January 2010 and March 2015 were analyzed, including primary diagnosis, comorbidities, duration of orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, the time interval between transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, tracheotomy-related complications, and pulmonary compliance and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 24.0 (interquartile range, 18.0-29.0). The median interval from transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy was 105.5 days (interquartile range, 13.0-2165.0 d). The only major complication noted was left-sided pneumothorax in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen before and after procedure (170.0 [interquartile range, 102.2-302.0] vs 210.0 [interquartile range, 178.5-345.5]; P = .052). However, pulmonary compliance results preprocedure and postprocedure were significantly different (0.020 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.015-0.030 L/cm H2O] vs 0.030 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.020-0.041 L/cm H2O); P = .001]). Need for sedation significantly decreased after tracheotomy (from 17 patients [54.8%] to

  15. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema......-20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter...... and emphysema, respectively. Conclusions – Airway distensibility decreases significantly with increasing severity of both GOLD status and emphysema, indicating that in COPD the dynamic change in airway calibre during respiration is compromised. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema appear to be interacting...

  16. Anomalies, Unitarity and Quantum Irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and Box R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a and a', the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total RG flows of a and a' are equal and therefore the a'-ambiguity can be consistently removed through the identification a'=a. The picture that emerges clarifies several long-standing issues. The interplay between unitarity and renormalization implies that the flux of the renormalization group is irreversible. A monotonically decreasing a-function interpolating between the appropriate values is naturally provided by a'. The total a-flow is expressed non-perturbatively as the invariant (i.e. scheme-independent) area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. We test this prediction to the fourth loop order in perturbation theory, in QCD with Nf ~< ...

  17. Examination of various postulates of irreversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1977-01-01

    Firstly, it is shown that it is necessary to break the reversible character of the B.B.G.K.Y. system of equations by means of a postulate of irreversibility to obtain a kinetic equation compatible with the second principle of thermodynamics. Next, three postulates of irreversibility are examined: that of molecular chaos, that of linear relaxation and, finally, that of superposition. Then the corresponding kinetic equations and the expressions for the viscosity coefficient to which they lead are determined. Comparison with experiment is made each time. Lastly, an attempt to obtain an irreversible kinetic equation without introducing a postulate of irreversibility in the B.B.G.K.Y. system is realized. This consists in adding a complementary irreversible term to the fundamental equation of the dynamics of a particle. The suggested term is of quantum origin and leads to a kinetic equation of the Fokker-Planck type.

  18. Effect of NaCI on the hydric and hygric dilation behaviour of lime-cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage due to NaCl crystallization has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decay. Irreversible dilation during NaCl crystallization has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a systematic

  19. Effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric dilation behaviour of lime-cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage due to NaCl crystallization has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decay. Irreversible dilation during NaCl crystallization has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a systematic

  20. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy for ICU patients with severe brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dongyuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To sum up our experience in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT in ICU patient with severe brain injury. Methods: Between November 2011 and April 2014, PDTs were performed on 32 severe brain injury patients in ICU by a team of physicians and intensivists. The success rate, effi cacy, safety, and complications including stomal infection and bleeding, paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, as well as clinically significant tracheal stenosis were carefully monitored and recorded respectively. Results: The operations took 4-15 minutes (mean 9.1 minutes±4.2 minutes. Totally 4 cases suffered from complications in the operations: 3 cases of stomal bleeding, and 1 case of intratracheal bloody secretion, but none required intervention. Paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, or clinically signifi cant tracheal stenosis were not found in PDT patients. There was no procedure-related death occurring during or after PDT. Conclusion: Our study demonstrats that PDT is a safe, highly effective, and minimally invasive procedure. The appropriate sedation and airway management perioperatively help to reduce complication rates. PDT should be performed or supervised by a team of physicians with extensive experience in this procedure, and also an intensivist with experience in diffi cult airway management. Key words: Brain injuries; Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy; ICU

  1. Dilatation effect of ''quantum clocks''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The relativistic dilatation effect of the life-time of unstable microparticles combined with quantum symmetry of their description results in the ''quantum-dilatation'' dilemma. It is due to the classical character of the relativity theory which here reveals itself in the classical world-line of the clock necessary in order to deduce the dilatation effect from the Lorentz transformation. It is shown how to solve this dilemma, basing on the relation continuum C 4 . Two types of measurements of time intervals, the direct and indirect one, are analyzed. The former type corresponds to the external space-time continuum, where any direct measurement takes place, and the latter, to the internal relation continuum C 4 , where the internal structures of isolated micro-systems are sunk. (author)

  2. Effects of Depth of Propofol and Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Upper Airway Collapsibility, Respiratory Genioglossus Activation, and Breathing in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Jeroen C P; Pierce, Eric; Diaz-Gil, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    . Measurements included bispectral index, genioglossus electromyography, ventilation, hypopharyngeal pressure, upper airway closing pressure, and change in end-expiratory lung volume during mask pressure drops. RESULTS: A total of 393 attempted breaths during occlusion maneuvers were analyzed. Upper airway......BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics and propofol impair upper airway stability and possibly respiratory upper airway dilator muscle activity. The magnitudes of these effects have not been compared at equivalent anesthetic doses. We hypothesized that upper airway closing pressure is less negative...... closing pressure was significantly less negative at deep versus shallow anesthesia (-10.8 ± 4.5 vs. -11.3 ± 4.4 cm H2O, respectively [mean ± SD]) and correlated with the bispectral index (P airway at deep anesthesia. Respiratory genioglossus activity during airway...

  3. Optimization of an irreversible Stirling regenerative cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-González, G; Cano-Bianco, M; León-Galicia, A; Rivera-Camacho, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Stirling regenerative cycle with some irreversibilities is analyzed. The analyzed irreversibilities are located at the heat exchangers. They receive a finite amount of heat and heat leakage occurs between both reservoirs. Using this model, power and the efficiency at maximum power are obtained. Some optimal design parameters for the exchanger heat areas and thermal conductances are presented. The relation between the power, efficiency and the results obtained are shown graphically

  4. Irreversible thermodynamics of Poisson processes with reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, V; Fort, J

    1999-11-01

    A kinetic model is derived to study the successive movements of particles, described by a Poisson process, as well as their generation. The irreversible thermodynamics of this system is also studied from the kinetic model. This makes it possible to evaluate the differences between thermodynamical quantities computed exactly and up to second-order. Such differences determine the range of validity of the second-order approximation to extended irreversible thermodynamics.

  5. Airway management in neuroanesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Airway management for neuroanesthesiology brings together some key principles that are shared throughout neuroanesthesiology. This article appropriately targets the cervical spine with associated injury and the challenges surrounding airway management. The primary focus of this article is on the unique airway management obstacles encountered with cervical spine injury or cervical spine surgery, and unique considerations regarding functional neurosurgery are addressed. Furthermore, topics related to difficult airway management for those with rheumatoid arthritis or pituitary surgery are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  7. A Comparison of Over-the-Counter Mechanical Nasal Dilators: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Nicole; Badger, Christopher; Tjoa, Tjoson; Wong, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The internal nasal valve is the narrowest part of the nasal airway and a common site of inspiratory collapse and obstruction of nasal airflow. Over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators are an alternative to surgical intervention that attempts to improve airflow through the internal nasal valve. To determine the efficacy of over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators and classify these products by mechanism. A database of 33 available over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators was generated via a PubMed search as well as an internet search via Amazon.com and Google, conducted from April 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015. Products determined to be unavailable or discontinued were excluded from the database. Of the devices examined in published literature, efficacy was based on objective measures, such as measured airflow, the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, and changes in resistance. Measures of reported sleep quality or patient perception were excluded. An analysis of each product's mechanism revealed 4 broad classes: external nasal dilator strips, nasal stents, nasal clips, and septal stimulators. A review demonstrated 5 studies supporting the use of external nasal dilator strips, 4 studies supporting the use of nasal clips, 1 study supporting the use of nasal stents, and no studies supporting the use of septal stimulators. Our findings suggest that external nasal dilator strips and nasal clips effectively relieve obstruction of the internal nasal valve and may be an alternative to surgical intervention in some patients.

  8. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  9. Balloon dilatation of iatrogenic urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acunas, B.; Acunas, G.; Gokmen, E.; Celik, L.

    1988-01-01

    Balloon dilatation of the urethra was performed in five patients with iatrogenic urethral strictures. The urethral strictures were successfully negotiated and dilated in all patients. Redilatation became necessary in a period ranging from 3 to 10 months. The authors believe that balloon dilatation of the urethra can be safely and successfully performed; the procedure produces minimal trauma and immediate relief of symptoms. (orig.)

  10. Obstetric airway management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anesthesia.8 ... Both of the mortalities occurred secondary to solid ... The large number of deaths ... subcategories of patients as a first-line airway device, and are increasingly being ... outline the problems with obstetric airway management, and then focus on a few of the ...

  11. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  12. Irreversibility and self-organization in spin glasses. 1. Origin of irreversibility in spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrov, V.P.; Kurbatov, A.M.

    1989-05-01

    The origin of irreversibility in spin glasses is found out on the basis of the analytical study of the well-known TAP equations. Connection between irreversible jumpwise transitions and a positive feedback in spin glasses is discussed. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  13. Airway smooth muscle cells : regulators of airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuyderduyn, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Airways from asthmatic subjects are more responsive to bronchoconstrictive stimuli than airways from healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells mediate contraction of the airways by responding to the bronchoconstrictive stimuli, which was thought to be the primary role of ASM cells. In this

  14. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De

    1990-01-01

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used

  15. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used.

  16. Durability of Silicone Airway Stents in the Management of Benign Central Airway Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karush, Justin M; Seder, Christopher W; Raman, Anish; Chmielewski, Gary W; Liptay, Michael J; Warren, William H; Arndt, Andrew T

    2017-10-01

    The literature is devoid of a comprehensive analysis of silicone airway stenting for benign central airway obstruction (BCAO). With the largest series in the literature to date, we aim to demonstrate the safety profile, pattern of re-intervention, and duration of silicone airway stents. An institutional database was used to identify patients with BCAO who underwent rigid bronchoscopy with dilation and silicone stent placement between 2002 and 2015 at Rush University Medical Center. During the study period, 243 stents were utilized in 63 patients with BCAO. Pure tracheal stenosis was encountered in 71% (45/63), pure tracheomalacia in 11% (7/63), and a hybrid of both in 17% (11/63). Median freedom from re-intervention was 104 (IQR 167) days. Most common indications for re-intervention include mucus accumulation (60%; 131/220), migration (28%; 62/220), and intubation (8%; 18/220). The most common diameters of stent placed were 12 mm (94/220) and 14 mm (96/220). The most common lengths utilized were 30 mm (60/220) and 40 mm (77/220). Duration was not effected by stent size when placed for discrete stenosis. However, 14 mm stents outperformed 12 mm when tracheomalacia was present (157 vs. 37 days; p = 0.005). Patients with a hybrid stenosis fared better when longer stents were used (60 mm stents outlasted 40 mm stents 173 vs. 56 days; p = 0.05). Rigid bronchoscopy with silicone airway stenting is a safe and effective option for the management of benign central airway obstruction. Our results highlight several strategies to improve stent duration.

  17. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  18. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a

  19. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hamiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the

  20. Onsager's reciprocity theorem in extended irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Colin, L.S.; Velasco, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we shall discuss the Onsager relations for the transport coefficients in a dilute monatomic gas described by the extended irreversible thermodynamics. Our discussion is based on a 26 variables description of the system and its corresponding comparison with the kinetic reciprocity between coefficients is shown (Author)

  1. A kinetic equation for irreversible aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, D.H.

    1990-09-01

    We introduce a kinetic equation for describing irreversible aggregation in the ballistic regime, including velocity distributions. The associated evolution for the macroscopic quantities is studied, and the general solution for Maxwell interaction models is obtained in the Fourier representation. (author). 23 refs

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will ... best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

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    Full Text Available ... about the needs of people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related ... then move the mucus out of the airways so it can be coughed out. These medications can ...

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    Full Text Available ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

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  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care ... attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member of your CF care ...

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    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: June 2018 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

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    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that ... into the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series Find Out More About ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

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    Full Text Available ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. This medication helps to widen your airways (bronchi) by relaxing the ...

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    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

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    Full Text Available ... in part to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of ... a cure for CF and supports a broad range of research initiatives to tackle the disease from ...

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    Full Text Available ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall ...

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    Full Text Available ... huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how ... What is CF? About Cystic Fibrosis CF Genetics Diagnosis Testing for CF Life With CF Caring for ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... CFTR Modulator Therapies Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices PICCs and Ports Partnerships for ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ... Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (the Vest) Follow ...

  3. Laryngotracheal Stenosis: Risk Factors for Tracheostomy Dependence and Dilation Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Pandian, Vinciya; Best, Simon; Motz, Kevin M; Allen, Clint; Kim, Young; Akst, Lee; Hillel, Alexander T

    2017-02-01

    Objective Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a fibrotic process that narrows the upper airway and has a significant impact on breathing and phonation. Iatrogenic injury from endotracheal and/or tracheostomy tubes is the most common etiology. This study investigates differences in LTS etiologies as they relate to tracheostomy dependence and dilation interval. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Single-center tertiary care facility. Subjects and Methods Review of adult patients with LTS was performed between 2004 and 2015. The association of patient demographics, comorbidities, disease etiology, and treatment modalities with patient outcomes was assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to determine factors associated with tracheostomy dependence and time to second procedure, respectively. Results A total of 262 patients met inclusion criteria. Iatrogenic patients presented with greater stenosis ( P = .023), greater length of stenosis ( P = .004), and stenosis farther from the vocal folds ( P tracheostomy dependence. Nonsmokers, patients without tracheostomy, and idiopathic LTS patients had a significantly longer time to second dilation procedure. Conclusion Iatrogenic LTS presents with a greater disease burden and higher risk of tracheostomy dependence when compared with other etiologies of LTS. Comorbid conditions promoting microvascular injury-including smoking, COPD, and diabetes-were prevalent in the iatrogenic cohort. Changes in hospital practice patterns to promote earlier tracheostomy in high-risk patients could reduce the incidence of LTS.

  4. Clinical review: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Mariam A; Hijazi, Mohammed H

    2006-01-01

    As the number of critically ill patients requiring tracheotomy for prolonged ventilation has increased, the demand for a procedural alternative to the surgical tracheostomy (ST) has also emerged. Since its introduction, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies (PDT) have gained increasing popularity. The most commonly cited advantages are the ease of the familiar technique and the ability to perform the procedure at the bedside. It is now considered a viable alternative to (ST) in the intensive care unit. Evaluation of PDT procedural modifications will require evaluation in randomized clinical trials. Regardless of the PDT technique, meticulous preoperative and postoperative management are necessary to maintain the excellent safety record of PDT. PMID:16356203

  5. Airway management in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration.

  6. Irreversibility and self-organization in spin glasses. 2. Irreversibility and the problem of configuration averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrov, V.P.; Kurbatov, A.M.

    1989-05-01

    The generalization of a configuration averaging to a system displaying irreversible effects is suggested. The properties of the ''pathological'' equilibrium state at low temperatures are determined and discussed. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs

  7. The effect of disease and respiration on airway shape in patients with moderate persistent asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Montesantos

    Full Text Available Computational models of gas transport and aerosol deposition frequently utilize idealized models of bronchial tree structure, where airways are considered a network of bifurcating cylinders. However, changes in the shape of the lung during respiration affect the geometry of the airways, especially in disease conditions. In this study, the internal airway geometry was examined, concentrating on comparisons between mean lung volume (MLV and total lung capacity (TLC. A set of High Resolution CT images were acquired during breath hold on a group of moderate persistent asthmatics at MLV and TLC after challenge with a broncho-constrictor (methacholine and the airway trees were segmented and measured. The airway hydraulic diameter (Dh was calculated through the use of average lumen area (Ai and average internal perimeter (Pi at both lung volumes and was found to be systematically higher at TLC by 13.5±9% on average, with the lower lobes displaying higher percent change in comparison to the lower lobes. The average internal diameter (Din was evaluated to be 12.4±6.8% (MLV and 10.8±6.3% (TLC lower than the Dh, for all the examined bronchi, a result displaying statistical significance. Finally, the airway distensibility per bronchial segment and per generation was calculated to have an average value of 0.45±0.28, exhibiting high variability both between and within lung regions and generations. Mixed constriction/dilation patterns were recorded between the lung volumes, where a number of airways either failed to dilate or even constricted when observed at TLC. We conclude that the Dh is higher than Din, a fact that may have considerable effects on bronchial resistance or airway loss at proximal regions. Differences in caliber changes between lung regions are indicative of asthma-expression variability in the lung. However, airway distensibility at generation 3 seems to predict distensibility more distally.

  8. Effect of Low-Dose, Long-Term Roxithromycin on Airway Inflammation and Remodeling of Stable Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB is characterized by airway expansion and recurrent acute exacerbations. Macrolide has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic airway diseases. Objective. To assess the efficacy of roxithromycin on airway inflammation and remodeling in patients with NCFB under steady state. Methods. The study involved an open-label design in 52 eligible Chinese patients with NCFB, who were assigned to control (receiving no treatment and roxithromycin (receiving 150 mg/day for 6 months groups. At baseline and 6 months, the inflammatory markers such as interleukin- (IL-8, neutrophil elastase (NE, matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP9, hyaluronidase (HA, and type IV collagen in sputum were measured, along with the detection of dilated bronchus by throat computed tomography scan, and assessed the exacerbation. Results. Forty-three patients completed the study. The neutrophil in the sputum was decreased in roxithromycin group compared with control (P<0.05. IL-8, NE, MMP-9, HA, and type IV collagen in sputum were also decreased in roxithromycin group compared with the control group (all P<0.01. Airway thickness of dilated bronchus and exacerbation were reduced in roxithromycin group compared with the control (all P<0.05. Conclusions. Roxithromycin can reduce airway inflammation and airway thickness of dilated bronchus in patients with NCFB.

  9. Dilation of non-quasifree dissipative evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varilly, J C [Costa Rica Univ., San Jose. Escuela de Matematica

    1981-03-01

    A semigroup evolution for the 1/2-spin which admits a conservative dilation is known to be governed by a Bloch equation in a standard form. Here we construct a conservative dilation directly from the Bloch equation, thus yielding an example of a dilation scheme for an evolution which is not quasifree. Moreover, we show that this conservative evolution is never ergodic in the non-quasifree case.

  10. Dynamical and hamiltonian dilations of stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Gruemm, H.-R.

    1982-01-01

    This is a study of the problem, which stochastic processes could arise from dynamical systems by loss of information. The notions of ''dilation'' and ''approximate dilation'' of a stochastic process are introduced to give exact definitions of this particular relationship. It is shown that every generalized stochastic process is approximately dilatable by a sequence of dynamical systems, but for stochastic processes in full generality one needs nets. (Author)

  11. A characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, E.; Grossmann, A.; Paul, T.

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H o -bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic

  12. Characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, E; Grossmann, A; Paul, T

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H/sub o/-bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic.

  13. Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çiftel, Murat; Şimşek, Ayse; Turan, Özlem; Kardelen, Firat; Akçurin, Gayaz; Ertuğ, Halil

    2012-01-01

    To assess endothelial dysfunction and the risk for coronary atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease (CHD). The study included 18 cyanotic patients (the mean age was 12.28 ± 3.26 years) who developed irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to cyanotic and acyanotic CHDs, and 18 control patients (the mean age was 11.78 ± 3.00 years). Study groups were compared for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerotic risk factors. Compared to the control group, the mean FMD was significantly reduced in the cyanotic group (5.26 ± 2.42% and 9.48 ± 2.60%, respectively; P-value < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the groups in CIMT (0.41 ± 0.08 mm and 0.39 ± 0.06 mm, respectively; P-value = 0.299). The levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol were statistically significantly lower compared tothe control group (P-value = 0.001, 0.006 and 0.014, respectively), whereas no statistically significant difference was found in the levels of high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and triglycerides (P-value = 0.113 and 0.975, respectively). Systemic endothelial dysfunction in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to CHD was noted but there was no increased risk for atherosclerosis

  14. ACUTE GASTRIC DILATATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  15. The actin regulator zyxin reinforces airway smooth muscle and accumulates in airways of fatal asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R Rosner

    Full Text Available Bronchospasm induced in non-asthmatic human subjects can be easily reversed by a deep inspiration (DI whereas bronchospasm that occurs spontaneously in asthmatic subjects cannot. This physiological effect of a DI has been attributed to the manner in which a DI causes airway smooth muscle (ASM cells to stretch, but underlying molecular mechanisms-and their failure in asthma-remain obscure. Using cells and tissues from wild type and zyxin-/- mice we report responses to a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration. At the level of the cytoskeleton, zyxin facilitated repair at sites of stress fiber fragmentation. At the level of the isolated ASM cell, zyxin facilitated recovery of contractile force. Finally, at the level of the small airway embedded with a precision cut lung slice, zyxin slowed airway dilation. Thus, at each level zyxin stabilized ASM structure and contractile properties at current muscle length. Furthermore, when we examined tissue samples from humans who died as the result of an asthma attack, we found increased accumulation of zyxin compared with non-asthmatics and asthmatics who died of other causes. Together, these data suggest a biophysical role for zyxin in fatal asthma.

  16. Optima and bounds for irreversible thermodynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper bounds and optima for irreversible thermodynamic processes and their application in different fields are discussed. The tools of finite time thermodynamics are presented and especially optimal control theory is introduced. These methods are applied to heat engines, including models of the Diesel engine and a light-driven engine. Further bounds for irreversible processes are introduced, discussing work deficiency and its relation to thermodynamic length. Moreover the problem of dissipation in systems composed of several subsystems is studied. Finally, the methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to thermodynamic processes described on a more microscopic level. The process used as an example is simulated annealing. It is shown how optimal control theory is applied to find the optimal cooling schedule for this important stochastic optimization method

  17. Time in Science: Reversibility vs. Irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeau, Yves

    To discuss properly the question of irreversibility one needs to make a careful distinction between reversibility of the equations of motion and the choice of the initial conditions. This is also relevant for the rather confuse philosophy of the wave packet reduction in quantum mechanics. The explanation of this reduction requires also to make precise assumptions on what initial data are accessible in our world. Finally I discuss how a given (and long) time record can be shown in an objective way to record an irreversible or reversible process. Or: can a direction of time be derived from its analysis? This leads quite naturally to examine if there is a possible spontaneous breaking of the time reversal symmetry in many body systems, a symmetry breaking that would be put in evidence objectively by looking at certain specific time correlations.

  18. Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  19. Airway exploration in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando GÓMEZ-SÁEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The management of the airways represents a constant challenge in pediatric practice. In the last years, bronchoscopy has become an essential technique in the diagnosis and treatment of various abnormalities of the child's respiratory system. The special characteristics of the pediatric airway and the differentiated pathology it presents give pediatric bronchoscopy its own entity. Pediatric bronchoscopy is a safe technique with many applications, both diagnostic and therapeutic. The use of both types of bronchoscopes (flexible and rigid allows to take advantage of each one of them. Flexible bronchoscopy in pediatrics is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that provides anatomical and dynamic information on the airways, as well as cytological and microbiological studies. The simplicity and low risk of this technique, in addition to not requiring general anesthesia, allows it to be performed even at the head of the patient, which has led to an increasingly extensive field of indications. The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the timeliness of the pediatric bronchoscopy procedure, especially about its indications. Method: Narrative review. Conclusion: The endoscopic examination of the airway is a cost-effective technique in pediatrics, with little complications and can offer very valuable diagnostic information, as well as perform certain therapeutic procedures. It is recommended that all professionals involved in the management of patients with airway pathology should know their indications, contraindications, complications, as well as their therapeutic applications.

  20. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past few years substantial efforts were made to optimize the fabrication techniques of various high temperature superconductors for commercial applications. In addition to Bi-2223 tapes, Y-123 coated conductors have the potential for large-scale production and are considered as the second generation of superconducting 'wires' for high current applications. This work reports on magnetic and transport current investigations of Y-123 thick films deposited on either single crystalline substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or on metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). At the beginning, a short introduction of the general idea of a coated conductor and of the different production techniques is presented, followed by a description of the different experimental set-ups and the evaluation methods. The main part starts with the results obtained from SQUID magnetometry and ac-susceptibility measurements including the transition temperatures T c , the field dependence of the magnetic critical current densities and the irreversibility lines. In addition, some issues concerning the granular structure and the inter- and intragranular current distribution of the superconducting films are discussed. The investigations by transport currents are focused on the behavior of the application relevant irreversible parameters. These are the angular and the field dependence of the critical transport current densities at 77 and 60 K, as well as the temperature dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J c

  1. Reversible bronchial dilatation in children: comparison of serial high-resolution computer tomography scans of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, E.A. E-mail: erol.gaillard@lwh-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Carty, H.; Heaf, D.; Smyth, R.L

    2003-09-01

    Introduction: bronchiectasis is generally considered irreversible in the adult population, largely based on studies employing bronchography in cases with a significant clinical history. It is assumed, that the same is true for children. Few studies have examined the natural history of bronchiectasis in children and diagnostic criteria on high-resolution computer tomography of the lungs are derived from studies on adults. Frequently, bronchiectasis is reported in children in cases where localised bronchial dilatation is present, incorrectly labelling these children with an irreversible life-long condition. Objective: to evaluate changes in appearance of bronchial dilatation, unrelated to cystic fibrosis in children, as assessed by sequential high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Methods: the scans of 22 children with a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis, seen at Alder Hey Children's Hospital between 1994 and 2000, who had at least two CT scans of the lungs were reviewed by a single radiologist, who was blinded to the original report. Results: following a median scan interval of 21 months (range 2-43), bronchial dilatation resolved completely in six children and there was improvement in appearances in a further eight, with medical treatment alone. Discussion: a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis should be considered with caution in children as diagnostic criteria derived from studies in adults have not been validated in children and the condition is generally considered irreversible.

  2. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buhl, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Cepeda Sarabia, A. M.; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; de Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Fink Wagner, A.; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garcés, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzmán, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; de Manuel Keenoy, E.; Masjedi, M. R.; Melen, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Momas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Radier Pontal, F.; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schünemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  3. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  4. Dilation operator in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.

    1984-01-01

    The electromagnetic field is expanded in a series of O(4) eigenstates of total spin, and quantized by specifying commutators on surfaces of constant x/sub μ/x/sup μ/ = R 2 in four-dimensional Euclidean space. It is demonstrated that, under an arbitrary gauge transformation, some of the O(4) eigenstates are invariant; these gauge-invariant states are labeled by SU(2)xSU(2) total (orbital plus internal) spin quantum numbers (A,B) and with Anot =B. Only these gauge-invariant states are nontrivial in the absence of sources, and are quantized. The leading-twist quantum states of the dilation field theory contain the minimum number of these dilation photons. The remaining spin degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field are most simply written as a function of the form partial/sub μ/phi(x)+x/sub μ/psi(x)/R 2 . phi(x) is obviously devoid of physics while psi(x) is a classical field propagating between radial projections of two electric currents x/sub μ/ J/sup μ/(x) and y/sub μ/ J/sup μ/(y) only if x/sub μ/ x/sup μ/ = y/sub μ/ y/sup μ/. The quantization procedure described herein may be applied to non-Abelian theories. The procedure does not lead to a gauge-invariant decomposition of a non-Abelian field, but the identification of leading-twist quantum states is preserved in the zero-coupling limit

  5. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Patient Health Information ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What Is CPAP? The most common and effective nonsurgical treatment for ...

  6. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  7. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia

  8. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  9. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  10. One-day transhepatic billary stricture dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Saini, S.; Hahn, P.F.; Silverman, S.G.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome technical problems in percutaneous transhepatic dilatation or biliary strictures, the authors performed the entire procedure in a single session with the patient under general anesthesia (N = 7). Six patients had a biliary-enteric anastomosis, and one patient had a traumatic mid common bile duct stricture. All bile ducts were of normal caliber or were minimally dilated by US or transhepatic cholangiography. Dilatation was performed via a fresh transhepatic drainage catheter in six patients and via an in-dwelling T-tube in one patient. High-pressure balloons (10-12 mm) were placed after catheter dilation of the tract, and balloons were inflated for 5-10 minutes three to five times. Dilation was stopped with a waist was no longer present. No strictures have recurred in patients followed up to 24 months

  11. Equine recurrent airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Niedźwiedź

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dustexposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.

  12. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  13. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

  15. Statistical mechanics out of equilibrium the irreversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Estrada, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    A Round Table about the issue of Irreversibility and related matters has taken place during the last (20th) Statistical Mechanics Conference, held in Paris (July 1998). This article tries to provide a view (necessarily limited, and hence, uncompleted) of some approaches to the subject: the one based upon deterministic chaos (which is currently giving rise to a very active research) and the classical interpretation due to Boltzmann. An attempt has been made to write this article in a self-contained way, and to avoid a technical presentation wherever possible. (Author) 29 refs

  16. A mechanism for upper airway stability during slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, David G; Saboisky, Julian P; Deyoung, Pam; Matteis, Paul; Jordan, Amy S; Trinder, John; Smales, Erik; Hess, Lauren; Guo, Mengshuang; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-04-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is diminished (sometimes markedly) during slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to understand why SWS stabilizes the upper airway. Increased single motor unit (SMU) activity of the major upper airway dilating muscle (genioglossus) should improve upper airway stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that genioglossus SMUs would increase their activity during SWS in comparison with Stage N2 sleep. The activity of genioglossus SMUs was studied on both sides of the transition between Stage N2 sleep and SWS. Sleep laboratory. Twenty-nine subjects (age 38 ± 13 yr, 17 males) were studied. SWS. Subjects slept overnight with fine-wire electrodes in their genioglossus muscles and with full polysomnographic and end tidal carbon dioxide monitors. Fifteen inspiratory phasic (IP) and 11 inspiratory tonic (IT) units were identified from seven subjects and these units exhibited significantly increased inspiratory discharge frequencies during SWS compared with Stage N2 sleep. The peak discharge frequency of the inspiratory units (IP and IT) was 22.7 ± 4.1 Hz in SWS versus 20.3 ± 4.5 Hz in Stage N2 (P sleep (82.6 ± 39.5 %TI, P sleep (12.6 ± 3.1 Hz, P = 0.035). There was minimal recruitment or derecruitment of units between SWS and Stage N2 sleep. Increased genioglossus SMU activity likely makes the airway more stable and resistant to collapse throughout the respiratory cycle during SWS.

  17. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    Paediatric airway management is a great challenge, especially for anaesthesiologists working in departments with a low number of paediatric surgical procedures. The paediatric airway is substantially different from the adult airway and obstruction leads to rapid desaturation in infants and small...... children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis. CF CARE CENTER finder We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  2. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs and policies to improve the lives of people with CF. Help us by raising awareness of CF, participating in a fundraising event, or volunteering ... clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ... Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (the Vest) Follow ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  7. Modulation of lung inflammation by vessel dilator in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier Stephania A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and its receptor, NPRA, have been extensively studied in terms of cardiovascular effects. We have found that the ANP-NPRA signaling pathway is also involved in airway allergic inflammation and asthma. ANP, a C-terminal peptide (amino acid 99–126 of pro-atrial natriuretic factor (proANF and a recombinant peptide, NP73-102 (amino acid 73–102 of proANF have been reported to induce bronchoprotective effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma. In this report, we evaluated the effects of vessel dilator (VD, another N-terminal natriuretic peptide covering amino acids 31–67 of proANF, on acute lung inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Methods A549 cells were transfected with pVD or the pVAX1 control plasmid and cells were collected 24 hrs after transfection to analyze the effect of VD on inactivation of the extracellular-signal regulated receptor kinase (ERK1/2 through western blot. Luciferase assay, western blot and RT-PCR were also performed to analyze the effect of VD on NPRA expression. For determination of VD's attenuation of lung inflammation, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and then treated intranasally with chitosan nanoparticles containing pVD. Parameters of airway inflammation, such as airway hyperreactivity, proinflammatory cytokine levels, eosinophil recruitment and lung histopathology were compared with control mice receiving nanoparticles containing pVAX1 control plasmid. Results pVD nanoparticles inactivated ERK1/2 and downregulated NPRA expression in vitro, and intranasal treatment with pVD nanoparticles protected mice from airway inflammation. Conclusion VD's modulation of airway inflammation may result from its inactivation of ERK1/2 and downregulation of NPRA expression. Chitosan nanoparticles containing pVD may be therapeutically effective in preventing allergic airway inflammation.

  8. Percutaneous balloon dilation of pulmonary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Yangde; Huang Ming; Li Jinkang; Qian Jinqing; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Siyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Review our experience of balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis in 32 cases. Methods: Totally 32 cases of pulmonary stenosis admitted from 1995-2001 with age of 1.5-13 yrs mean 6.8. Diagnosis was made by clinical manifestations, EKG, ECHO and angiocardiography. Results: Before dilation, the mean systolic pressure of right ventricle was (93.5 ± 28.5) mmHg, after the procedure it reduced to (42 ± 9.0) mmHg. The pressure gradient between right ventricle and pulmonary artery before dilation was (76 ± 30) mmHg and become (24.5 ± 8.5) mmHg after dilation. The gradient pressure after dilation was less than 25 mmHg in 90.6% cases. A case of Noonan syndrome showed no response to balloon dilation and died during valvulectomy from accompanying left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: Balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis is effective and safe. The selection of proper diameter of pulmonary valvular rings and sized of the balloon are the major factors

  9. Extraglottic airway devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma B

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bimla Sharma, Chand Sahai, Jayashree Sood Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Perioperative Medicine, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India Abstract: Extraglottic airway devices (EADs have revolutionized the field of airway management. The invention of the laryngeal mask airway was a game changer, and since then, there have been several innovations to improve the EADs in design, functionality, safety and construction material. These have ranged from changes in the shape of the mask, number of cuffs and material used, like rubber, polyvinylchloride and latex. Phthalates, which were added to the construction material in order to increase device flexibility, were later omitted when this chemical was found to have serious adverse reproductive outcomes. The various designs brought out by numerous companies manufacturing EADs resulted in the addition of several devices to the airway market. These airway devices were put to use, many of them with inadequate or no evidence base regarding their efficacy and safety. To reduce the possibility of compromising the safety of the patient, the Difficult Airway Society (DAS formed the Airway Device Evaluation Project Team (ADEPT to strengthen the evidence base for airway equipment and vet the new extraglottic devices. A preuse careful analysis of the design and structure may help in better understanding of the functionality of a particular device. In the meantime, the search for the ideal EAD continues. Keywords: extraglottic airway devices, laryngeal mask airway, other extraglottic airway devices, safety, technology update

  10. Irreversible electroporation: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagstaff PGK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter GK Wagstaff,1 Mara Buijs,1 Willemien van den Bos,1 Daniel M de Bruin,2 Patricia J Zondervan,1 Jean JMCH de la Rosette,1 M Pilar Laguna Pes1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: The field of focal ablative therapy for the treatment of cancer is characterized by abundance of thermal ablative techniques that provide a minimally invasive treatment option in selected tumors. However, the unselective destruction inflicted by thermal ablation modalities can result in damage to vital structures in the vicinity of the tumor. Furthermore, the efficacy of thermal ablation intensity can be impaired due to thermal sink caused by large blood vessels in the proximity of the tumor. Irreversible electroporation (IRE is a novel ablation modality based on the principle of electroporation or electropermeabilization, in which electric pulses are used to create nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. In theory, IRE has the potential of overcoming the aforementioned limitations of thermal ablation techniques. This review provides a description of the principle of IRE, combined with an overview of in vivo research performed to date in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. Keywords: irreversible electroporation, IRE, tumor, ablation, focal therapy, cancer

  11. Laryngeal debridement: an alternative treatment for a laryngopyocele presenting with severe airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Pittore, B; Frampton, S; Brennan, P; Puxeddu, R

    2011-04-01

    The laryngocele is an abnormal saccular dilatation of the ventricle of Morgagni, which maintains its communication with the laryngeal vestibule. Three types of laryngoceles have been described: internal, external, and combined or mixed in relation to the position of the sac with respect to the thyrohyoid membrane. If the laryngocele becomes obstructed and infected it leads to the so-called laryngopyocele which, although a rare disease (8% of laryngoceles), can become an emergency causing severe airway obstruction needing urgent management, even tracheostomy. An alternative method is presented of emergency management of an internal laryngopyocele causing severe airway obstruction using a laryngeal microdebrider and avoiding tracheostomy.

  12. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures.

  13. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures

  14. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  15. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  16. Fluoroscopic guided benign oesophageal stricture dilatation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gilliard bougienage (SGB) with balloon dilatation and the combination of both methods for the treatment of BOSs in children at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Methods. A retrospective review of the patient notes on all children 12 ...

  17. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dilated cardiomyopathy: the complexity of a diverse genetic architecture. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2013 Sep;10(9):531- ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical ...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class II...

  20. Time-dependent dilatancy for brittle rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study on time-dependent dilatancy behaviors for brittle rocks. The theory employs a well-accepted postulation that macroscopically observed dilatancy originates from the expansion of microcracks. The mechanism and dynamic process that microcracks initiate from local stress concentration and grow due to localized tensile stress are analyzed. Then, by generalizing the results from the analysis of single cracks, a parameter and associated equations for its evolution are developed to describe the behaviors of the microcracks. In this circumstance, the relationship between microcracking and dilatancy can be established, and the theoretical equations for characterizing the process of rock dilatancy behaviors are derived. Triaxial compression and creep tests are conducted to validate the developed theory. With properly chosen model parameters, the theory yields a satisfactory accuracy in comparison with the experimental results.

  1. On $rho$-dilations of commuting operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-20 ISSN 0379-4024 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07880S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : regular unitary dilation * rho-dilation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016 http://www.mathjournals.org/jot/2017-078-001/2017-078-001-001. html

  2. Basic quantum irreversibility in neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H

    2009-01-01

    The transition between the quantum and classical world is a topical problem in quantum physics, which can be investigated by neutron interferometric methods. Here we discuss unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments and we show how entanglement effects in a single-particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, i.e. an entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom in single-particle systems. This contextuality phenomenon also shows that a quantum system carries much more information than usually extracted. In all cases of an interaction, parasitic beams are produced which cannot be recombined completely with the original beam. This means that a complete reconstruction of the original state is, in principle, impossible which causes a kind of intrinsic irreversibility. Even small interaction potentials can have huge effects when they are applied in quantum Zeno-like experiments. The path towards advanced neutron quantum optics will be discussed.

  3. Competing irreversible cooperative reactions on polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.; Hoffman, D.K.; Burgess, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    We analyze model processes involving competition between several irreversible reactions at the sites of a 1D, infinite, uniform polymer chain. These reactions can be cooperative, i.e., the corresponding rates depend on the state of the surrounding sites. An infinite hierarchy of rate equations is readily derived for the probabilities of various subconfigurations. By exploiting a shielding property of suitable blocks of unreacted sites, we show how exact hierarchy truncation and solution is sometimes possible. The behavior of solutions is illustrated in several cases by plotting families of ''reaction trajectories'' for varying ratios of reactant concentrations. As a specific application, we consider competition between coordination of ZnCl 2 to pairs of oxygen atoms and to single oxygen atoms in poly(propylene oxide). The observed glass transition temperature behavior is eludicated

  4. Synergetcs - a field beyond irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haken, H.

    1978-01-01

    This lecture introduces the reader to synergetics, a very young field of interdisciplinary research, which is devoted to the question of self-organization and, quite generally, to the birth of new qualities. After comparing the role of thermodynamics, irreversible thermodynamics and synergetics in the description of phenomena we give a few examples for self-oragnizing systems. Next we outline the mathematical approach and consider the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equations for non equilibrium phase transitions. We continue by applying these equations to the problem of morphogenesis in biology. We close our lecture by extending the formalism to spatially inhomogeneous or oscillating systems and arrive at order-parameter equations which are capable of describing new large classes of higher bifurcation schemes. (HJ)

  5. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  6. Percutaneous dilatation of biliary benign strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Sung, Kyu Bo; Han, Man Chung; Park, Yong Hyun; Yoon, Yong Bum [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    Percutaneous biliary dilation was done in 3 patients with benign strictures. The first case was 50-year-old male who had multiple intrahepatic stones with biliary stricture. The second 46-year-old female and the third 25-year-old male suffered from recurrent cholangitis with benign stricture of anastomotic site after choledocho-jejunostomy. In the first case, a 6mm diameter Grunzing dilatation balloon catheter was introduced through the T-tube tract. In the second case, the stricture was dilated with two balloons of 5mm and 8mm in each diameter sequentially through the U-loop tract formed by surgically made jejunostomy and percutaneous transhepatic puncture. In the third case, the dilatation catheter was introduced through the percutaneous transhepatic tract. Dilatation was made with a pressure of 5 to 10 atmospheres for 1 to 3 minutes duration for 3 times. In all 3 cases, the strictures were successfully dilated and in second and third cases internal stent was left across the lesion for prevention of restenosis.

  7. Entropy, Extropy and the Physical Driver of Irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We point out that the fundamental irreversibility of Nature requires the introduction of a suitable measure for the distance from equilibrium. We show that entropy, which is widely held to be such a measure, suffers from the problem that it does not have a physical meaning, since it is introduced on the basis of mathematical arguments. As a consequence, the basic physics beyond irreversibility has remained obscure. We present here a simple but transparent physical approach for solving the problem of irreversibility. This approach shows that extropy, the fundamental thermodynamic variable introduced by Katalin Martinás, is the suitable measure for the distance from equilibrium, since it corresponds to the actual driver of irreversible processes. Since extropy explicitly contains in its definition all the general thermodynamic forces that drive irreversible processes, extropy is the suitable physical measure of irreversibility.

  8. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  9. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  10. Fully Covered Metallic Stents for the Treatment of Benign Airway Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlqvist, Caroline; Ocak, Sebahat; Gourdin, Maximilien; Dincq, Anne Sophie; Putz, Laurie; d’Odémont, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We herein report our experience with new fully covered self-expanding metallic stents in the setting of inoperable recurrent benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Methods. Between May 2010 and July 2014, 21 Micro-Tech® FC-SEMS (Nanjing Co., Republic of Korea) were placed in our hospital in 16 patients for inoperable, recurrent (after dilatation), and symptomatic benign airway stenosis. Their medical files were retrospectively reviewed in December 2014, with focus on stent’s toleranc...

  11. Anticholinergic treatment in airways diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic airways diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma is increasing. They lead to symptoms such as a cough and shortness of breath, partially through bronchoconstriction. Inhaled anticholinergics are one of a number of treatments designed to treat bronchoconstriction in airways disease. Both short-acting and long-acting agents are now available and this review highlights their efficacy and adverse event profile in chronic airways diseases.

  12. Magnetic resonance measurement of turbulent kinetic energy for the estimation of irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Hope, Michael D; Tseng, Elaine E; Saloner, David

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the ascending aorta of patients with aortic stenosis and to assess its relationship to irreversible pressure loss. Irreversible pressure loss caused by energy dissipation in post-stenotic flow is an important determinant of the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis. The simplified Bernoulli equation used to estimate pressure gradients often misclassifies the ventricular overload caused by aortic stenosis. The current gold standard for estimation of irreversible pressure loss is catheterization, but this method is rarely used due to its invasiveness. Post-stenotic pressure loss is largely caused by dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy into heat. Recent developments in magnetic resonance flow imaging permit noninvasive estimation of TKE. The study was approved by the local ethics review board and all subjects gave written informed consent. Three-dimensional cine magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to measure TKE in 18 subjects (4 normal volunteers, 14 patients with aortic stenosis with and without dilation). For each subject, the peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was compared with a pressure loss index. The pressure loss index was based on a previously validated theory relating pressure loss to measures obtainable by echocardiography. The total TKE did not appear to be related to global flow patterns visualized based on magnetic resonance-measured velocity fields. The TKE was significantly higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in normal volunteers (p < 0.001). The peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was strongly correlated to index pressure loss (R(2) = 0.91). Peak total TKE in the ascending aorta correlated strongly with irreversible pressure loss estimated by a well-established method. Direct measurement of TKE by magnetic resonance flow imaging may, with further validation, be used to estimate irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2013 American

  13. Upper airway muscles awake and asleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sériès, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    Upper airway (UA) structures are involved in different respiratory and non-respiratory tasks. The coordination of agonist and antagonist UA dilators is responsible for their mechanical function and their ability to maintain UA patency throughout the respiratory cycle. The activity of these muscles is linked with central respiratory activity but also depends on UA pressure changes and is greatly influenced by sleep. UA muscles are involved in determining UA resistance and stability (i.e. closing pressure), and the effect of sleep on these variables may be accounted for by its effect on tonic and phasic skeletal muscle activities. The mechanical effects of UA dilator contraction also depend on their physiological properties (capacity to generate tension in vitro, activity of the anaerobic enzymatic pathway, histo-chemical characteristics that may differ between subjects who may or may not have sleep-related obstructive breathing disorders). These characteristics may represent an adaptive process to an increased resistive loading of these muscles. The apparent discrepancy between the occurrence of UA closure and an increased capacity to generate tension in sleep apnea patients may be due to a reduction in the effectiveness of UA muscle contraction in these patients; such an increase in tissue stiffness could be accounted for by peri-muscular tissue characteristics. Therefore, understanding of UA muscle physiological characteristics should take into account its capacity for force production and its mechanical coupling with other UA tissues. Important research goals for the future will be to integrate these issues with other physiological features of the disease, such as UA size and dimension, histological characteristics of UA tissues and the effect of sleep on muscle function. Such integration will better inform understanding of the role of pharyngeal UA muscles in the pathophysiology of the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.

  14. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  15. Relationship between airway pathophysiology and airway inflammation in older asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Gibson, Peter G; Pretto, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    -dose ratio (%fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/mg saline). Airway closure was assessed during bronchoconstriction percent change in forced vital capacity (FVC)/percent change in FEV1 (i.e. Closing Index). Airway inflammation was assessed by induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). RESULTS...

  16. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics. We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the fourth one, which was a deviant target consisting of either a looming or a receding disc. The duration of the target was systematically varied and participants judged whether the target was shorter or longer than all other events. A time dilation effect was observed only for looming targets. Relative to the static standards, the looming as well as the receding targets induced increased activation of the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortices (the “core control network”. The decisive contrast between looming and receding targets representing the time dilation effect showed strong asymmetric activation and, specifically, activation of cortical midline structures (the “default network”. These results provide the first evidence that the illusion of temporal dilation is due to activation of areas that are important for cognitive control and subjective awareness. The involvement of midline structures in the temporal dilation illusion is interpreted as evidence that time perception is related to self-referential processing.

  17. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    -specific assessment. Data from patients' pre-operative airway assessment are registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Objective scores for intubation and mask ventilation grade the severity of airway managements. The accuracy of predicting difficult intubation and mask ventilation is measured for each group...... the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non...... that registration of the SARI and predictors for difficult mask ventilation are mandatory for the intervention group but invisible to controls....

  18. Impairment of flow-mediated dilation correlates with aortic dilation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Munenori; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Omori, Kazuko; Imai, Yasushi; Fujita, Daishi; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masayoshi; Morota, Tetsuro; Nawata, Kan; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nakao, Tomoko; Maemura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by genetic abnormality of microfibrillar connective tissue proteins. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to cause aortic dilation in subjects with a bicuspid aortic valve; however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial damaging factors has not been elucidated in Marfan syndrome. Flow-mediated dilation, a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, was evaluated in 39 patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic diameter was measured at the aortic annulus, aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta by echocardiography, and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). The mean value of flow-mediated dilation was 6.5 ± 2.4 %. Flow-mediated dilation had a negative correlation with the diameter of the ascending thoracic aorta (AscAd)/BSA (R = -0.39, p = 0.020) and multivariate analysis revealed that flow-mediated dilation was an independent factor predicting AscAd/BSA, whereas other segments of the aorta had no association. Furthermore, Brinkman index had a somewhat greater influence on flow-mediated dilation (R = -0.42, p = 0.008). Although subjects who smoked tended to have a larger AscAd compared with non-smokers (AscA/BSA: 17.3 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 3.0 mm/m(2), p = 0.013), there was no significant change in flow-mediated dilation, suggesting that smoking might affect aortic dilation via an independent pathway. Common atherogenic risks, such as impairment of flow-mediated dilation and smoking status, affected aortic dilation in subjects with Marfan syndrome.

  19. Randomized controlled trial comparing esophageal dilation to no dilation among adults with esophageal eosinophilia and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitt, R T; Ates, F; Slaughter, J C; Higginbotham, T; Shepherd, B D; Sumner, E L; Vaezi, M F

    2016-11-01

    The role of esophageal dilation in patients with esophageal eosinophilia with dysphagia remains unknown. The practice of dilation is currently based on center preferences and expert opinion. The aim of this study is to determine if, and to what extent, dysphagia improves in response to initial esophageal dilation followed by standard medical therapies. We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled trial evaluating adult patients with dysphagia and newly diagnosed esophageal eosinophilia from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomized to dilation or no dilation at time of endoscopy and blinded to dilation status. Endoscopic features were graded as major and minor. Subsequent to randomization and endoscopy, all patients received fluticasone and dexlansoprazole for 2 months. The primary study outcome was reduction in overall dysphagia score, assessed at 30 and 60 days post-intervention. Patients with severe strictures (less than 7-mm esophageal diameter) were excluded from the study. Thirty-one patients were randomized and completed the protocol: 17 randomized to dilation and 14 to no dilation. Both groups were similar with regard to gender, age, eosinophil density, endoscopic score, and baseline dysphagia score. The population exhibited moderate to severe dysphagia and moderate esophageal stricturing at baseline. Overall, there was a significant (P dysphagia score at 30 and 60 days post-randomization compared with baseline in both groups. No significant difference in dysphagia scores between treatment groups after 30 (P = 0.93) or 60 (P = 0.21) days post-intervention was observed. Esophageal dilation did not result in additional improvement in dysphagia score compared with treatment with proton pump inhibitor and fluticasone alone. In patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia without severe stricture, dilation does not appear to be a necessary initial treatment strategy. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Formation of Irreversible H-bonds in Cellulose Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Rick S. Reiner; Nicole M. Stark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of formation of irreversible Hbonds in cellulose is important in a number of fields. For example, fields as diverse as pulp and paper and enzymatic saccharification of cellulose are affected. In the present investigation, the phenomenon of formation of irreversible H-bonds is studied in a variety of celluloses and under two different drying conditions....

  1. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    side ... For irreversible cycle, the internal irreversibility, i.e., non-isentropic losses in the ... constant thermal capacitance rate (the product of mass flow rate and specific heat), .... reversed Brayton cycle is dependent on the external heat transfer ...

  2. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  3. Transition to Clean Capital, Irreversible Investment and Stranded Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a Ramsey model with two types of capital to analyze the optimal transition to clean capital when polluting investment is irreversible. The cost of climate mitigation decomposes as a technical cost of using clean instead of polluting capital and a transition cost from the irreversibility of pre-existing polluting capital. With a carbon price, the transition cost can be limit...

  4. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  5. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.; Parker, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  6. Irreversible work in a thermal medium with colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Takahiro

    2009-10-01

    Irreversible work and its fluctuations in a classical system governed by non-Markovian stochastic dynamics are investigated. The production of irreversible work depends not only on the protocol of an operation but also on the details of the non-Markovian memory. We consider a generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and derive an expression for the irreversible work in the case of slow operations by carrying out an expansion of this memory kernel in the parameter representing the length of the memory. We apply our formulation to a harmonically trapped system and demonstrate the efficiency of a cycle by evaluating the irreversible work. It is found that a decrease in the irreversible work due to the memory effect can occur for an operation through which the trap is squeezed. The results for this harmonic system are verified exactly in the case that the memory kernel has exponential decay.

  7. Irreversible work in a thermal medium with colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    Irreversible work and its fluctuations in a classical system governed by non-Markovian stochastic dynamics are investigated. The production of irreversible work depends not only on the protocol of an operation but also on the details of the non-Markovian memory. We consider a generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and derive an expression for the irreversible work in the case of slow operations by carrying out an expansion of this memory kernel in the parameter representing the length of the memory. We apply our formulation to a harmonically trapped system and demonstrate the efficiency of a cycle by evaluating the irreversible work. It is found that a decrease in the irreversible work due to the memory effect can occur for an operation through which the trap is squeezed. The results for this harmonic system are verified exactly in the case that the memory kernel has exponential decay

  8. Irreversible thermodynamic analysis and application for molecular heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Açıkkalp, Emin

    2017-09-01

    Is there a link between the macroscopic approach to irreversibility and microscopic behaviour of the systems? Consumption of free energy keeps the system away from a stable equilibrium. Entropy generation results from the redistribution of energy, momentum, mass and charge. This concept represents the essence of the thermodynamic approach to irreversibility. Irreversibility is the result of the interaction between systems and their environment. The aim of this paper is to determine lost works in a molecular engine and compare results with macro (classical) heat engines. Firstly, irreversible thermodynamics are reviewed for macro and molecular cycles. Secondly, irreversible thermodynamics approaches are applied for a quantum heat engine with -1/2 spin system. Finally, lost works are determined for considered system and results show that macro and molecular heat engines obey same limitations. Moreover, a quantum thermodynamic approach is suggested in order to explain the results previously obtained from an atomic viewpoint.

  9. Postmortem magnetic resonance appearances of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street and UCLH NHS Foundation Trusts, London (United Kingdom); Judge-Kronis, Lydia [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening condition characterised by complete or near-complete developmental obstruction of the foetal airway. Although antenatal imaging findings have been described, the postmortem MRI findings have not been reported. To present postmortem MRI features of CHAOS. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital pathology and imaging databases for cases of CHAOS over a 2-year period. We identified two cases of CHAOS. In both cases, postmortem plain radiographs demonstrated gross abdominal distension with distortion and splaying of the rib cage. Both foetuses had characteristic postmortem MRI findings including large-volume fluid-filled lungs on T2-weighted imaging, diaphragmatic eversion, fluid-filled airway dilatation below the level of obstruction, centrally positioned and compressed heart, and massive ascites. One foetus had an associated limb abnormality. Postmortem MRI in foetuses suspected of having CHAOS allows confirmation of the diagnosis, determination of the anatomical level of the atresia or stenosis, and identification of associated abnormalities without the need for invasive autopsy. (orig.)

  10. Balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Cheol Soo

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the result of transurethral balloon dilatation in 11 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia with double lumen balloon catheter at 4 atmosphere for 10 minutes. After dilatation, the prostatism symptom scores improved in 10 out of 11 patients and the mean diameter of the prostatic urethra significantly increased form 4.3 mm to 10.2 mm (ρ < 0.005). The procedures were successful not only in lateral lobe hypertrophy but also in median lobe hypertrophy of the prostate. Postdilatation MRI of 1 patient showed an intact prostatic capsule and no periprostatic hematoma. Complications did not develop except in 1 patient with mild hematuria and incontinence. These preliminary results suggest that transurethral balloon dilatation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for benign prostatic hypertrophy

  11. Rhinosinusitis and the lower airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, Peter W.; Hens, Greet

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between upper and lower airway disease has been recognized for centuries, with recent studies showing a direct link between upper and airway inflammation in allergic patients. The mechanisms underlying the interaction between nasal and bronchial inflammation have primarily been

  12. Anaesthesia and subglottic airway obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-14

    Jul 14, 2009 ... Introduction. Surgery on the upper airway remains challenging for both surgeon and ... from her upper airway obstruction rather than asthma.1 She had made a long ... patient was well oxygenated with oxygen saturation above. 95%. .... Difficulties relate to tidal volume measurement, CO2 detection and the.

  13. Mixed Mode cohesive law with interface dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    displacements. As the crack faces displace relatively to each other, the roughness asperities ride on top of each other and result in an opening (dilatation) in the normal direction. Furthermore, the interaction of the crack surfaces in the contact zone gives rise to compressive normal stresses and frictional...... shear stresses opposing the crack face displacements. A phenomenological Mixed Mode cohesive zone law, derived from a potential function, is developed to describe the above mentioned fracture behaviour under monotonic opening. The interface dilatation introduces two new lengths. The cohesive law...

  14. Retrograde transurethral balloon dilation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Wasserman, N.F.; Lund, G.; Hulbert, J.; Hunter, D.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of patients with documented benign prostatic hypertrophy evaluated by urodynamic studies, voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, and MR imaging underwent dilation performed using a retrograde transurethral approach with 25-mm balloon dilators inflated at a pressure of 3-4 atm for 10 minutes. Immediately after the procedure, retrograde and voiding cystourethrography as well as MR imaging were performed. A Foley catheter was left in place for 24 hours. Complete relief of symptoms has occurred in all of the patients during the follow-up period. No significant complications other than transient hematuria resulted from the procedure. Results of the comparison studies and of MR imaging are discussed

  15. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  16. Irreversible Sorption of Contaminants During Ferrihydrite Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.L.; Arthur, S.E.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Westrich, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    A better understanding of the fraction of contaminants irreversibly sorbed by minerals is necessary to effectively quantify bioavailability. Ferrihydrite, a poorly crystalline iron oxide, is a natural sink for sorbed contaminants. Contaminants may be sorbed/occluded as ferrihydrite precipitates in natural waters or as it ages and transforms to more crystalline iron oxides such as goethite or hematite. Laboratory studies indicate that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Np, Pb, Sr, U, and Zn are irreversibly sorbed to some extent during the aging and transformation of synthetic ferrihydrite. Barium, Ra and Sr are known to sorb on ferrihydrite in the pH range of 6 to 10 and sorb more strongly at pH values above its zero point of charge (pH> 8). We will review recent literature on metal retardation, including our laboratory and modeling investigation of Ba (as an analogue for Ra) and Sr adsorption/resorption, during ferrihydrite transformation to more crystalline iron oxides. Four ferrihydrite suspensions were aged at pH 12 and 50 C with or without Ba in 0.01 M KN03 for 68 h or in 0.17 M KN03 for 3424 h. Two ferrihydrite suspensions were aged with and without Sr at pH 8 in 0.1 M KN03 at 70C. Barium or Sr sorption, or resorption, was measured by periodically centrifuging suspension subsamples, filtering, and analyzing the filtrate for Ba or Sr. Solid subsamples were extracted with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate (pH 3 in the dark) and with 6 M HCl to determine the Fe and Ba or Sr attributed to ferrihydrite (or adsorbed on the goethite/hematite stiace) and the total Fe and Ba or Sr content, respectively. Barium or Sr occluded in goethite/hematite was determined by the difference between the total Ba or Sr and the oxalate extractable Ba or Sr. The percent transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite/hematite was estimated from the ratio of oxalate and HC1 extractable Fe. All Ba was retained in the precipitates for at least 20 h. Resorption of Ba reached a maximum of 7 to 8% of the Ba2+ added for

  17. Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, T.; Itai, Y.; Tasaka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder

  18. Lipopolysaccharide does not alter small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Chantal; Royce, Simon G; Vlahos, Ross; Bourke, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been associated with occupational airway diseases with asthma-like symptoms and in acute exacerbations of COPD. The direct and indirect effects of LPS on small airway reactivity have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that both in vitro and in vivo LPS treatment would increase contraction and impair relaxation of mouse small airways. Lung slices were prepared from naïve Balb/C mice and cultured in the absence or presence of LPS (10 μg/ml) for up to 48 h for measurement of TNFα levels in conditioned media. Alternatively, mice were challenged with PBS or LPS in vivo once a day for 4 days for preparation of lung slices or for harvest of lungs for Q-PCR analysis of gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptors involved in airway contraction. Reactivity of small airways to contractile agonists, methacholine and serotonin, and bronchodilator agents, salbutamol, isoprenaline and rosiglitazone, were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy. In vitro LPS treatment of slices increased TNFα release 6-fold but did not alter contraction or relaxation to any agonists tested. In vivo LPS treatment increased lung gene expression of TNFα, IL-1β and ryanodine receptor isoform 2 more than 5-fold. However there were no changes in reactivity in lung slices from these mice, even when also incubated with LPS ex vivo. Despite evidence of LPS-induced inflammation, neither airway hyperresponsiveness or impaired dilator reactivity were evident. The increase in ryanodine receptor isoform 2, known to regulate calcium signaling in vascular smooth muscle, warrants investigation. Since LPS failed to elicit changes in small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices following in vitro or in vivo treatment, alternative approaches are required to define the potential contribution of this endotoxin to altered small airway reactivity in human lung diseases.

  19. Supplemental Carbon Dioxide Stabilizes the Upper Airway in Volunteers Anesthetized with Propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscic, Katarina Jennifer; Bøgh Stokholm, Janne; Patlak, Johann; Deng, Hao; Simons, Jeroen Cedric Peter; Houle, Timothy; Peters, Jürgen; Eikermann, Matthias

    2018-05-10

    Propofol impairs upper airway dilator muscle tone and increases upper airway collapsibility. Preclinical studies show that carbon dioxide decreases propofol-mediated respiratory depression. We studied whether elevation of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) via carbon dioxide insufflation reverses the airway collapsibility (primary hypothesis) and impaired genioglossus muscle electromyogram that accompany propofol anesthesia. We present a prespecified, secondary analysis of previously published experiments in 12 volunteers breathing via a high-flow respiratory circuit used to control upper airway pressure under propofol anesthesia at two levels, with the deep level titrated to suppression of motor response. Ventilation, mask pressure, negative pharyngeal pressure, upper airway closing pressure, genioglossus electromyogram, bispectral index, and change in end-expiratory lung volume were measured as a function of elevation of PETCO2 above baseline and depth of propofol anesthesia. PETCO2 augmentation dose-dependently lowered upper airway closing pressure with a decrease of 3.1 cm H2O (95% CI, 2.2 to 3.9; P < 0.001) under deep anesthesia, indicating improved upper airway stability. In parallel, the phasic genioglossus electromyogram increased by 28% (23 to 34; P < 0.001). We found that genioglossus electromyogram activity was a significant modifier of the effect of PETCO2 elevation on closing pressure (P = 0.005 for interaction term). Upper airway collapsibility induced by propofol anesthesia can be reversed in a dose-dependent manner by insufflation of supplemental carbon dioxide. This effect is at least partly mediated by increased genioglossus muscle activity.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide does not alter small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Donovan

    Full Text Available The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been associated with occupational airway diseases with asthma-like symptoms and in acute exacerbations of COPD. The direct and indirect effects of LPS on small airway reactivity have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that both in vitro and in vivo LPS treatment would increase contraction and impair relaxation of mouse small airways. Lung slices were prepared from naïve Balb/C mice and cultured in the absence or presence of LPS (10 μg/ml for up to 48 h for measurement of TNFα levels in conditioned media. Alternatively, mice were challenged with PBS or LPS in vivo once a day for 4 days for preparation of lung slices or for harvest of lungs for Q-PCR analysis of gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptors involved in airway contraction. Reactivity of small airways to contractile agonists, methacholine and serotonin, and bronchodilator agents, salbutamol, isoprenaline and rosiglitazone, were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy. In vitro LPS treatment of slices increased TNFα release 6-fold but did not alter contraction or relaxation to any agonists tested. In vivo LPS treatment increased lung gene expression of TNFα, IL-1β and ryanodine receptor isoform 2 more than 5-fold. However there were no changes in reactivity in lung slices from these mice, even when also incubated with LPS ex vivo. Despite evidence of LPS-induced inflammation, neither airway hyperresponsiveness or impaired dilator reactivity were evident. The increase in ryanodine receptor isoform 2, known to regulate calcium signaling in vascular smooth muscle, warrants investigation. Since LPS failed to elicit changes in small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices following in vitro or in vivo treatment, alternative approaches are required to define the potential contribution of this endotoxin to altered small airway reactivity in human lung diseases.

  1. Hydraulic urethral dilatation after optical internal urethrotomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the rate of early recurrence of urethral stricture in the first six months in patients who perform hydraulic urethral dilatation(HUD) after optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and compare the early recurrence Fate in patients who perform HUD after OIU with the recurrence rates in patients reported in the ...

  2. Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Esophageal Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markar, Sheraz; Zaninotto, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    Pneumatic dilation is a well-established treatment modality that has withstood the test of time. Prospective and randomized trials have shown that in expert hands, it provides results similar to a laparoscopic Heller myotomy with fundoplication. In addition, it should be considered the primary form of treatment in patients who experience recurrence of symptoms after a surgical myotomy.

  3. Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs

  4. Gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus is a medical and surgical emergency that principally affects large-breed dogs. Surgical treatment should be undertaken as soon as the patient has been stabilized with fluid therapy and decompression. A gastrectomy might be required if the stomach is becoming necrotic. A gastropexy is required to prevent recurrence.

  5. Interface dilation : the overflowing cylinder technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink - Martens, D.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A pure steady-state dilation of a liquid interface, either liquid-air or water-oil, can be accomplished far from equilibrium by means of the overflowing cylinder technique. The resulting dynamic surface tension data correlate well with characteristic parameters of processes like foaming,

  6. Airway necrosis after salvage esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norimitsu; Hokamura, Nobukazu; Tachimori, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Salvage esophagectomy is the sole curative intent treatment for patients with persistent or recurrent locoregional disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal carcinoma. However, salvage esophagectomy is a very high-risk operation, and airway necrosis is a fatal complication. Between 1997 and 2007, 49 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. We retrospectively compared patients with and without airway necrosis, and investigated operative procedures related to airway necrosis. Airway necrosis occurred in five patients (10.2%), of four patients (80%) died during their hospitalization. Airway necrosis seemed to be closely related to operative procedures, such as resection of bronchial artery and cervical and subcarinal lymph node dissection. Bronchogastric fistula following necrosis of gastric conduit occured in 2 patients reconstructed through posterior mediastinal route. Airway necrosis is a highly lethal complication after salvage esophagectomy. It is important in salvage esophagectomy to take airway blood supply into consideration sufficiently and to reconstruct through retrosternal route to prevent bronchogastric fistula. (author)

  7. Irreversible adsorption of particles on heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Jaszczółt, Katarzyna; Michna, Aneta; Siwek, Barbara; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Zembala, Maria

    2005-12-30

    Methods of theoretical and experimental evaluation of irreversible adsorption of particles, e.g., colloids and globular proteins at heterogeneous surfaces were reviewed. The theoretical models were based on the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach. Within the scope of these models, localized adsorption of particles occurring as a result of short-ranged attractive interactions with discrete adsorption sites was analyzed. Monte-Carlo type simulations performed according to this model enabled one to determine the initial flux, adsorption kinetics, jamming coverage and the structure of the particle monolayer as a function of the site coverage and the particle/site size ratio, denoted by lambda. It was revealed that the initial flux increased significantly with the site coverage theta(s) and the lambda parameter. This behavior was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the scaled particle theory. It also was demonstrated that particle adsorption kinetics and the jamming coverage increased significantly, at fixed site coverage, when the lambda parameter increased. Practically, for alpha = lambda2theta(s) > 1 the jamming coverage at the heterogeneous surfaces attained the value pertinent to continuous surfaces. The results obtained prove unequivocally that spherically shaped sites were more efficient in binding particles in comparison with disk-shaped sites. It also was predicted that for particle size ratio lambda charge. Particle deposition occurred under diffusion-controlled transport conditions and their coverage was evaluated by direct particle counting using the optical and electron microscopy. Adsorption kinetics was quantitatively interpreted in terms of numerical solutions of the governing diffusion equation with the non-linear boundary condition derived from Monte-Carlo simulations. It was proven that for site coverage as low as a few percent the initial flux at heterogeneous surfaces attained the maximum value pertinent to homogeneous

  8. Airway fibroepithelial polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Labarca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroepithelial polyps are benign lesions, frequently found in the skin and genitourinary tract. Airway involvement is rare, and few case reports have been published. Our patient was a 79 y.o. male smoker, who was referred to us with a 3-month history of dry cough. At physical examination, the patient looked well, but a chest CT showed a 6-mm polyp lesion in his trachea. A flexible bronchoscopy confirmed this lesion, and forceps biopsies were performed. Argon plasma coagulation was used to completely resect and treat the lesion. Pathological analysis revealed a fibroepithelial polyp (FP. The aim of this manuscript is to report a case of FP with bronchoscopic management and to review the current literature about this condition.

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Irreversible Maisotsenko Reciprocating Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible Maisotsenko reciprocating Brayton cycle (MRBC model is established using the finite time thermodynamic (FTT theory and taking the heat transfer loss (HTL, piston friction loss (PFL, and internal irreversible losses (IILs into consideration in this paper. A calculation flowchart of the power output (P and efficiency (η of the cycle is provided, and the effects of the mass flow rate (MFR of the injection of water to the cycle and some other design parameters on the performance of cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. Furthermore, the superiority of irreversible MRBC is verified as the cycle and is compared with the traditional irreversible reciprocating Brayton cycle (RBC. The results can provide certain theoretical guiding significance for the optimal design of practical Maisotsenko reciprocating gas turbine plants.

  10. Performance Optimization of Irreversible Air Heat Pumps Considering Size Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuehong; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the size of an irreversible air heat pump (AHP), heating load density (HLD) is taken as thermodynamic optimization objective by using finite-time thermodynamics. Based on an irreversible AHP with infinite reservoir thermal-capacitance rate model, the expression of HLD of AHP is put forward. The HLD optimization processes are studied analytically and numerically, which consist of two aspects: (1) to choose pressure ratio; (2) to distribute heat-exchanger inventory. Heat reservoir temperatures, heat transfer performance of heat exchangers as well as irreversibility during compression and expansion processes are important factors influencing on the performance of an irreversible AHP, which are characterized with temperature ratio, heat exchanger inventory as well as isentropic efficiencies, respectively. Those impacts of parameters on the maximum HLD are thoroughly studied. The research results show that HLD optimization can make the size of the AHP system smaller and improve the compactness of system.

  11. General thermodynamic performance of irreversible absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiling; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang

    2011-01-01

    The absorption heat pump (AHP) was studied with thermodynamics. A four reservoirs model of absorption heat pump was established considering the heat resistance, heat leak and the internal irreversibility. The reasonable working regions, the performance effects of irreversibility, heat leak and the correlation of four components were studied. When studying the effects of internal irreversibility, two internal irreversibility parameters (I he for generator-absorber assembly and I re for evaporator-condenser assembly) were introduced to distinguish the different effects. When studying the heat transfer relations of four components, a universal relationship between the main parameters were deduced. The results which have more realized meaning show that, the reduction of the friction, heat loss, and internal dissipations of the evaporator-condenser assembly are more important than its reduction of generator-absorber assembly, and lessening the heat leak of generator are more important than its reduction of other components to improve the AHP performance.

  12. Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G.

    2013-01-01

    Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.

  13. Kinetic theory of nonequilibrium ensembles, irreversible thermodynamics, and generalized hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...

  14. Traumatic tracheobronchial stricture treated with the Eder-Puestow dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, H G

    1980-09-01

    A case of tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to trauma is presented. Primary reconstruction resulted in stricture in the distal part of the trachea. Resection and anastomosis was followed by restenosis, which had to be treated endoscopically. Endobronchial resections and forceful dilatations with stiff bronchoscopes were done weekly for about 11 months without lasting benefit. After changing to Eder-Puestow dilators, the dilatations could be done at steadily increasing intervals. This method of dilatation was found to be safe, effective and less traumatic.

  15. The contribution of airway smooth muscle to airway narrowing and airway hyperresponsiveness in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J G; Duguet, A; Eidelman, D H

    2000-08-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), the exaggerated response to constrictor agonists in asthmatic subjects, is incompletely understood. Changes in either the quantity or properties of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are possible explanations for AHR. Morphometric analyses demonstrate structural changes in asthmatic airways, including subepithelial fibrosis, gland hyperplasia/hypertrophy, neovascularization and an increase in ASM mass. Mathematical modelling of airway narrowing suggests that, of all the changes in structure, the increase in ASM mass is the most probable cause of AHR. An increase in ASM mass in the large airways is more closely associated with a greater likelihood of dying from asthma than increases in ASM mass in other locations within the airway tree. ASM contraction is opposed by the elastic recoil of the lungs and airways, which appears to limit the degree of bronchoconstriction in vivo. The cyclical nature of tidal breathing applies stresses to the airway wall that enhance the bronchodilating influence of the lung tissues on the contracting ASM, in all probability by disrupting cross-bridges. However, the increase in ASM mass in asthma may overcome the limitation resulting from the impedances to ASM shortening imposed by the lung parenchyma and airway wall tissues. Additionally, ASM with the capacity to shorten rapidly may achieve shorter lengths and cause a greater degree of bronchoconstriction when stimulated to contract than slower ASM. Changes in ASM properties are induced by the process of sensitization and allergen-exposure such as enhancement of phospholipase C activity and inositol phosphate turnover, and increases in myosin light chain kinase activity. Whether changes in ASM mass or biochemical/biomechanical properties form the basis for asthma remains to be determined.

  16. Anisotropic shift of the irreversibility line by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzopf, F.M.; Wiesinger, H.P.; Weber, H.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Frischherz, M.C.; Kirk, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    The irreversibility line of high-T c superconductors is shifted considerably by irradiating the material with fast neutrons. The anisotropic and non-monotonous shift is qualitatively explained by a simple model based on an interaction between three pinning mechanisms, the intrinsic pinning by the ab-planes, the weak pinning by the pre-irradiation defect structure, and strong pinning by neutron induced defect cascades. A correlation between the cascade density and the position of the irreversibility line is observed

  17. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  18. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  19. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Woong, E-mail: cooljay@korea.ac.kr; Lu, David S. K., E-mail: dlu@mednet.ucla.edu; Osuagwu, Ferdnand, E-mail: fosuagwu@mednet.ucla.edu; Raman, Steven, E-mail: sraman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States); Lassman, Charles, E-mail: classman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Pathology (United States)

    2013-11-07

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

  20. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Lu, David S. K.; Osuagwu, Ferdnand; Raman, Steven; Lassman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position

  1. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mong, Andrew; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra S.; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coleman, Beverly G. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan; Johnson, Mark; Wilson, R.D.; Adzick, N.S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kreiger, Portia [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare disorder defined as any fetal abnormality that obstructs the larynx or trachea. Prompt airway intervention at delivery after accurate prenatal diagnosis may allow survival of this otherwise fatal condition. To identify prenatal MRI findings in CHAOS, to compare these findings with those of fetal US, to determine if imaging alters diagnosis and management decisions, and to correlate prenatal with postnatal imaging findings. Records and MRI scans of ten fetuses with CHAOS were reviewed, and the findings correlated with outside and same-day fetal US and postnatal imaging findings. Fetal lung volumes were measured on MRI scans. Large lung volumes were found in 90% of the fetuses. Increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and a dilated, fluid-filled lower airway were identified in all. The obstruction level was identified in 90%. MRI changed screening US diagnosis in 70%, but was concordant with the tertiary care US imaging in 90%. Seven fetuses were terminated or died in utero, and three fetuses survived after ex utero intrapartum tracheostomy placement. Autopsy or bronchoscopy performed in 60% confirmed CHAOS. Postnatal chest radiographs and CT showed hyperinflation, while US and fluoroscopy showed diminished diaphragmatic motion. MRI demonstrates large lung volumes, increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and dilated fluid-filled lower airway, and usually identifies the obstruction level. The degree of correlation between MRI and tertiary prenatal US is high, but CHAOS is frequently misdiagnosed on screening US. Correct diagnosis may enable planned airway management. Voluminous lungs and diaphragmatic abnormalities persist on postnatal imaging. (orig.)

  2. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mong, Andrew; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra S.; Jaramillo, Diego; Coleman, Beverly G.; Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan; Johnson, Mark; Wilson, R.D.; Adzick, N.S.; Kreiger, Portia

    2008-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare disorder defined as any fetal abnormality that obstructs the larynx or trachea. Prompt airway intervention at delivery after accurate prenatal diagnosis may allow survival of this otherwise fatal condition. To identify prenatal MRI findings in CHAOS, to compare these findings with those of fetal US, to determine if imaging alters diagnosis and management decisions, and to correlate prenatal with postnatal imaging findings. Records and MRI scans of ten fetuses with CHAOS were reviewed, and the findings correlated with outside and same-day fetal US and postnatal imaging findings. Fetal lung volumes were measured on MRI scans. Large lung volumes were found in 90% of the fetuses. Increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and a dilated, fluid-filled lower airway were identified in all. The obstruction level was identified in 90%. MRI changed screening US diagnosis in 70%, but was concordant with the tertiary care US imaging in 90%. Seven fetuses were terminated or died in utero, and three fetuses survived after ex utero intrapartum tracheostomy placement. Autopsy or bronchoscopy performed in 60% confirmed CHAOS. Postnatal chest radiographs and CT showed hyperinflation, while US and fluoroscopy showed diminished diaphragmatic motion. MRI demonstrates large lung volumes, increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and dilated fluid-filled lower airway, and usually identifies the obstruction level. The degree of correlation between MRI and tertiary prenatal US is high, but CHAOS is frequently misdiagnosed on screening US. Correct diagnosis may enable planned airway management. Voluminous lungs and diaphragmatic abnormalities persist on postnatal imaging. (orig.)

  3. Results of endoscopic surgery and intralesional steroid therapy for airway compromise due to tracheobronchial Wegener's granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R. Nouraei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG. There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life-threatening condition. Objective: To assess the results of laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery, and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Methods: Records of eighteen previously-untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006 were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. Results: There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16 years [range 13–74]. There were thirteen patients with tracheal, and five patients with tracheal and bronchial lesions. The average tracheal lesion height was 8 (3 mm, located 23 (9 mm below the glottis. There were 1, 10 and 7 Myer-Cotton grade I, II and III lesions respectively. Mean intervention-free interval following minimally-invasive treatment was 26 (2.8 months. Following endobronchial therapy the median intervention-free interval was 22 months (p>0.8 vs. tracheal lesions. No patient required a tracheostomy or endoluminal stenting. Conclusions: Intralesional steroid therapy and conservative endoluminal surgery is an effective strategy for treating airway compromise due to active tracheal and bronchial WG, obviating the need for airway bypass or stenting. We recommend the combination of endotracheal dilatation, conservative laser surgery and steroid therapy as the standard of care for treating airway compromise due to obstructive tracheobronchial WG.

  4. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  5. Cosmic time dilation: The clock paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic time dilation is reviewed in a cosmological context. We show that a clock or twin paradox does not arise if cosmic time is properly taken into account. The receding galaxy background provides a unique frame of reference, and the proper times of geodesic as well as accelerated observers can be linked to the universal cosmic time parameter. This suggests to compare the proper time differentials of the respective observers by determining their state of motion in the galaxy grid. In this way, each observer can figure out whether his proper time is dilated or contracted relative to any other. In particular one can come to unambiguous conclusions on the aging of uniformly moving observers, without reference to asymmetries in measurement procedures or accelerations they may have undergone

  6. Construction of wavelets with composite dilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guochang; Li Zhiqiang; Cheng Zhengxing

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome classical wavelets' shortcoming in image processing problems, people developed many producing systems, which built up wavelet family. In this paper, the notion of AB-multiresolution analysis is generalized, and the corresponding theory is developed. For an AB-multiresolution analysis associated with any expanding matrices, we deduce that there exists a singe scaling function in its reducing subspace. Under some conditions, wavelets with composite dilations can be gotten by AB-multiresolution analysis, which permits the existence of fast implementation algorithm. Then, we provide an approach to design the wavelets with composite dilations by classic wavelets. Our way consists of separable and partly nonseparable cases. In each section, we construct all kinds of examples with nice properties to prove our theory.

  7. Gallium 67 scintigraphic examination of dilated myocardiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfranchi, J.; Sachs, R.N.; Beaudet, B.; Deblock, C.; Tellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients were diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathies, based on increases in the cardiothoracic index > 0.50, in the diastolic and systolic diameters of the left ventricle, and in the telediastolic volume of the left ventricle, which was indexed by body surface determined by contrast ventriculography. They underwent gallium 67 scintigraphic examination of the myocardium, in order to non-invasively detect the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate. Fifteen of them also had endomyocardial biopsies and all had virology check-up. The results were disappointing. Only in one case was the scintigraphic image undeniably positive; in 20 other patients the findings were dubious or negative. This technique did not demonstrate the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate and thus an association between myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, could not be established [fr

  8. Histologic characterization of canine dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Jönsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by chamber dilatation and myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The clinical diagnosis is based on findings on echocardiographic and Doppler examinations, with the active exclusion of other acquired or congenital heart diseases. However, the echocardiographic criteria for the diagnosis of DCM are not wholly specific for the disease, and histologic examination may be necessary for final diagnosis. Review of reports on histologic findings in dogs with clinically diagnosed DCM reveals two histologically distinct forms of DCM: 1) cardiomyopathy of Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, corresponding to the "fatty infiltration-degenerative" type and 2) the form seen in many giant, large-, and medium-sized breeds, including some Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, classified as the "attenuated wavy fiber" type of DCM. The histologic changes of the attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM may precede clinical and echocardiographic signs of heart disease, thus indicating an early stage of DCM.

  9. Characterization of dilation analytic integral kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, A D [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1979-11-01

    The author characterises integral operators belonging to B(L/sup 2/(R/sup 3/)) which are dilatation analytic in the Cartesian product of two sectors Ssub(a) contains C as analytic functions from Ssub(a) X Ssub(a) into B(L/sup 2/(..cap omega..)), the space of bounded operators on square integrable functions on the unit sphere ..cap omega.., which satisfy certain norm estimates uniformly on every subsector.

  10. Dilatation transformation in the string model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikashige, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Hosoda, M; Saito, S

    1975-05-01

    Dilatation transformation is discussed in the string model. We show that it becomes meaningful in the infinite slope limit of Regge trajectories for the motion of a free string. It turns out to be equivalent to the high energy limit of the dual amplitudes, with the Regge slope kept finite, in the case of interacting strings. The scaling phenomenon is explained from this point of view.

  11. Sparse geometric graphs with small dilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronov, B.; Berg, de M.; Cheong, O.; Gudmundsson, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Vigneron, A.; Deng, X.; Du, D.

    2005-01-01

    Given a set S of n points in the plane, and an integer k such that 0 = k dilation O(n / (k + 1)) can be computed in time O(n log n). We also construct n–point sets for which any geometric graph with n – 1 + k edges

  12. Balloon Dilatation of Esophageal Strictures/Achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwal, Tarun; Adam, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder characterized by increased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, diminished-to-absent peristalsis in the distal portion of the esophagus composed of smooth muscle, and lack of a coordinated LES relaxation in response to swallowing. These abnormalities are recognized radiographically by aperistalsis, esophageal dilatation, and decreased opening of the LES, with a characteristic “bird-beak” appearance. The principal symptom of this disorder is dysp...

  13. Computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma. Dilatation of intrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soomi; Nakamura, Hitonobu; Tanaka, Ken; Hori, Shinichi; Tokunaga, Kou [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1983-10-01

    Based on a series of CT of the liver in 125 patients with hepatoma and 45 patients with metastatic hepatic tumors, the mode of dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct was examined. In patients with hepatoma, partia dilatations of intrahepatic bile duct were more commonly seen than general dilatations. On the other hand, there was no case of partial dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct in patients with metastatic hepatic tumors. It could be concluded that partial dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct is an useful CT finding to make a diagnosis of hepatoma, particularly to differentiate hepatoma from metastatic hepatic tumor.

  14. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, L.; Cavallo, A.; Perin, B.; Bighi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  15. Attribution of irreversible loss to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Bresch, David; Hansen, Gerrit; James, Rachel; Mechler, Reinhard; Stone, Dáithí; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    The Paris Agreement (2015) under the UNFCCC has anchored loss and damage in a separate article which specifies that understanding and support should be enhanced in areas addressing loss and damage such as early warning, preparedness, insurance and resilience. Irreversible loss is a special category under loss and damage but there is still missing clarity over what irreversible loss actually includes. Many negative impacts of climate change may be handled or mitigated by existing risk management, reduction and absorption approaches. Irreversible loss, however, is thought to be insufficiently addressed by risk management. Therefore, countries potentially or actually affected by irreversible loss are calling for other measures such as compensation, which however is highly contested in international climate policy. In Paris (2015) a decision was adopted that loss and damage as defined in the respective article of the agreement does not involve compensation and liability. Nevertheless, it is likely that some sort of mechanism will eventually need to come into play for irreversible loss due to anthropogenic climate change, which might involve compensation, other forms of non-monetary reparation, or transformation. Furthermore, climate litigation has increasingly been attempted to address negative effects of climate change. In this context, attribution is important to understand the drivers of change, what counts as irreversible loss due to climate change, and, possibly, who or what is responsible. Here we approach this issue by applying a detection and attribution perspective on irreversible loss. We first analyze detected climate change impacts as assessed in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. We distinguish between irreversible loss in physical, biological and human systems, and accordingly identify the following candidates of irreversible loss in these systems: loss of glaciers and ice sheets, loss of subsurface ice (permafrost) and related loss of lake systems; loss

  16. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  17. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukioka, Takuma; Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh-Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty.

  18. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the “dust bowl” era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ≈1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

  19. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy...... and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking...... and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5...

  20. Management of the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D E; Wiener-Kronish, J P

    1991-09-01

    For clinicians involved in airway management, a plan of action for dealing with the difficult airway or a failed intubation should be developed well in advance of encountering a patient in whom intubation is not routine. When difficulty is anticipated, the equipment necessary for performing a difficult intubation should be immediately available. It also is prudent to have a surgeon skilled in performing a tracheotomy and a criothyroidotomy stand by. The intubation should be attempted in the awake state, preferably using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. The more challenging situation is when the difficult airway is confronted unexpectedly. After the first failed attempt at laryngoscopy, head position should be checked and the patient ventilated with oxygen by mask. A smaller styletted tube and possibly a different laryngoscope blade should be selected for a second attempt at intubation. The fiberoptic bronchoscope and other equipment for difficult intubation should be obtained. A second attempt should then be made. If this is unsuccessful, the patient should be reoxygenated, and assistance including a skilled anesthesiologist and surgeon should be summoned. On a third attempt, traction to the tongue can be applied by an assistant, a tube changer could be used to enter the larynx, or one of the other special techniques previously described can be used. If this third attempt fails, it may be helpful to have a physician more experienced in airway management attempt intubation after oxygen has been administered to the patient. If all attempts are unsuccessful, then invasive techniques to secure the airway will have to be performed.

  1. Comparison of Pneumatic Dilation with Pneumatic Dilation Plus Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bakhshipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation (PD, an appropriate long-term therapy, and botulinum toxin injection (BT that is a relatively short-term therapy. This study aimed to compare therapeutic effect of repetitive pneumatic dilation with a combined method (botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation in a group of achalasia patients who are low responder to two initial pneumatic dilations. Thirty- four patients with documented primary achalasia that had low response to two times PD (<50% decrease in symptom score and barium height at 5 minute in timed esophagogram after 3month of late PD were randomized to receive pneumatic dilation (n=18 or botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation by four weeks interval (n=16, PD and BT+PD groups respectively. Symptom scores were evaluated before and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a decrease in symptom score ≥ 50% of baseline. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age and achalasia type. Remission rate of patients in BT-PD group in comparison with PD group were 87.5% vs. 67.1% (P = 0.7, 87.5% vs. 61.1% (P = 0.59 and 87.5% vs. 55.5% (P = 0.53 at 1, 6 and 12 months respectively .There were no major complications in either group. The mean symptom score decreased by 62.71% in the BT-PD group (P < 0.002 and 50.77% in the PD group (P < 0.01 at the end of the first year. Despite a better response rate in BT+PD group, a difference was not statistically significant. A difference may be meaningful if a large numbers of patients are included in the study.

  2. The Role of Airway and Endobronchial Ultrasound in Perioperative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Votruba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increased use of ultrasound in evaluation of the airway and the lower parts of the respiratory system. Ultrasound examination is fast and reliable and can be performed at the bedside and does not carry the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. Apart from use in diagnostics it may also provide safe guidance for invasive and semi-invasive procedures. Ultrasound examination of the oral cavity structures, epiglottis, vocal cords, and subglottic space may help in the prediction of difficult intubation. Preoperative ultrasound may diagnose vocal cord palsy or deviation or stenosis of the trachea. Ultrasonography can also be used for confirmation of endotracheal tube, double-lumen tube, or laryngeal mask placement. This can be achieved by direct examination of the tube inside the trachea or by indirect methods evaluating lung movements. Postoperative airway ultrasound may reveal laryngeal pathology or subglottic oedema. Conventional ultrasound is a reliable real-time navigational tool for emergency cricothyrotomy or percutaneous dilational tracheostomy. Endobronchial ultrasound is a combination of bronchoscopy and ultrasonography and is used for preoperative examination of lung cancer and solitary pulmonary nodules. The method is also useful for real-time navigated biopsies of such pathological structures.

  3. Reversible and Irreversible Binding of Nanoparticles to Polymeric Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H. Binder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.

  4. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  5. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway. PMID:17184555

  6. Clinical review: management of difficult airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway.

  7. Drug development for airway diseases: looking forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holgate, Stephen; Agusti, Alvar; Strieter, Robert M.; Anderson, Gary P.; Fogel, Robert; Bel, Elisabeth; Martin, Thomas R.; Reiss, Theodore F.

    2015-01-01

    Advancing drug development for airway diseases beyond the established mechanisms and symptomatic therapies requires redefining the classifications of airway diseases, considering systemic manifestations, developing new tools and encouraging collaborations

  8. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran

    2015-05-06

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  9. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran; Vuong, Francois; Hu, Jingyi; Li, Sheng; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Cornelissen, Emile R.; Heijman, Sebastiaan G.J.; Rietveld, Luuk C.

    2015-01-01

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  10. A new approach to irreversibility in deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    We use concepts of statistical mechanics to discuss the irreversible character of the experimental data in deep inelastic collisions. A definition of irreversibility proposed by Ruch permits a unified overview on current theories which describe these reactions. An information theoretical analysis of the data leads to a Fokker-Planck equation for the collective variables (excitation energy, charge and mass). The concept of mixing distance can serve as a quantitative measure to characterize the 'approach to equilibrium'. We apply it to the brownian motion as an illustration and also to the phenomenological analysis of deep inelastic scattering data with interesting results. (orig.)

  11. The thermomechanics of nonlinear irreversible behaviors an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    1999-01-01

    In this invaluable book, macroscopic irreversible thermodynamics is presented in its realm and its splendor by appealing to the notion of internal variables of state. This applies to both fluids and solids with or without microstructures of mechanical or electromagnetic origin. This unmatched richness of essentially nonlinear behaviors is the result of the use of modern mathematical techniques such as convex analysis in a clear-cut framework which allows one to put under the umbrella of "irreversible thermodynamics" behaviors which until now have been commonly considered either not easily cove

  12. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    OpenAIRE

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainl...

  13. [Etiology and airway management in children with tracheobronchomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Schonfeld, Tommy; Chen, Tong-xin

    2009-02-01

    To investigate etiology and airway management in children with tracheobronchomalacia. Bronchoscopic examinations were performed in 671 children. The cases with tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia were analyzed in etiopathogenesis and summarized their therapy simultaneously. Bronchoscopic examination indicated tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in 148 cases, tracheomalacia in 77 cases and bronchomalacia in 71 cases. Among the cases with tracheomalacia, compression by vascular rings was found in 46 cases, incorporated congenital esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula was found in 5 cases, tracheomalacia was associated with tracheostoma and mechanical ventilation in 6 cases, with congenital airway malformation in 11 cases and isolated tracheomalacia was found in 4 cases. Among the cases with bronchomalacia, incorporated congenital cardiovascular malformation was found in 64 cases, congenital airway malformation in 6 cases and isolated bronchomalacia in 1 case. Ten children with anomalous innominate artery underwent aortopexy, twelve children with dextro-aorta arch with concomitant aberrant left subclavian artery and double aorta underwent arches vascular ring lysis, six children with pulmonary sling underwent plasty. Severe malacia segments were resected directly in four children during operation. Mechanical ventilation was performed in 38 children. Tracheostoma was performed in 4 children to treat tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia, it could relieve symptom to a certain extent. In 2 children metal stents were inserted into the bronchus for the treatment of bronchomalacia, one was successful and the other needed re-insertion of stent again, these two patients underwent balloon-dilatation in distal part of stent afterwards. The congenital cardiovascular malformation was the main reason to develop tracheobronchomalacia in children. The symptom of majority of the cases with cardiovascular malformation would be improved within 6 months after surgical intervention

  14. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Virginie Van Wassenhove; Bud Craig; Martin P Paulus; Martin P Paulus

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the...

  15. The Neural Substrates of Subjective Time Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Marc; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This ”time dilation effect” has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration exce...

  16. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Simpson; Jennifer Edwards; Thomas F. N. Ferguson-Mignan; Malcolm Cobb; Nigel P. Mongan; Catrin S. Rutland

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In th...

  17. Safety of Performing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy in Patients with Preexisting Barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Chyun Sheu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1985 by Ciaglia et al, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT has gradually become the procedure of choice in establishing a long-term airway in many intensive care units (ICU. However, the safety of performing PDT in patients with barotrauma is still unknown and has never been reported. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with AIDS, who was admitted to our medical ICU for pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. He developed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum as complications of mechanical ventilation. After stabilization of the barotrauma, he underwent PDT with the standard Ciaglia Blue Rhino technique. However, rapid and extensive progression of preexisting barotrauma occurred shortly after PDT. This severe complication was nearly fatal. The prolonged procedure during which the susceptible lung was exposed to longer duration of high airway pressure was thought to be the mechanism of rapid deterioration of the preexisting barotrauma. With aggressive supportive care, the patient survived. To prevent further deterioration of preexisting barotrauma during and after PDT in future cases, we propose some principles that should be strictly followed. Under administration of these principles, we safely performed PDT in another case with preexisting barotrauma 1 month later.

  18. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...

  19. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained to di...

  20. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...

  1. Multiscale Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. The method uses a voxel classification based appearance model, which involves the use of a classifier that is trai...

  2. Functional phenotype of airway myocytes from asthmatic airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha

    In asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell plays a central role in disease pathogenesis through cellular changes which may impact on its microenvironment and alter ASM response and function. The answer to the long debated question of what makes a 'healthy' ASM cell become 'asthmatic' still

  3. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mibu (Japan); Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Mibu (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  4. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  5. Roentgenoendovascular dilatation and recanalization of vessels of lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.; Gotman, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using roentgenoendovascular dilatation (RED) of vessels of lower extremities are presented. RED is recommended in treating patients with short segmented stenoses of common and external illiac arteries and also with the similar damages of surficial femoral arteries. Dilatation is a success when there is permeability in at least one of the three central crus arteries. Success of delayed results of vessel dilatation is to a certain degree in inverse proportion to time and length of occlusion

  6. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  7. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  8. Characterization of phosphorus metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffermann, W.; Chew, W.; Tavares, N.J.; Donnelly, T.; Parmley, W.W.; Chatterjee, K.; Wolfe, C.; Higgins, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Five patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction, ∼25%) and six normal volunteers were studied with localized, gated P-31 MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T. The typical peaks of adenogine triphosphate (ATP[, phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphodiesters (PD), and peaks attributable to 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, inorganic phosphate, and phosphomonoesters were identified and the areas under each peak numerically integrated after baseline correction. PCr/β-ATP was not significantly lower (1.42 +- 0.06 vs 1.54 +- 0.04), but PD/PCr (1.1 +- 0.02 vs 0.6 +- 0.1) (P ≤ .01) and PD/β-ATP (1.50 +- 0.04 vs 0.97 +- 0.17) (P ≤ .05) were significantly higher in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy compared with normal volunteers. Thus, localized, gated P-31 MR spectroscopy in cardiomyopathic patients identifies abnormal myocardial phosphorus metabolism, which might become useful to monitor noninvasively the response to positive inotropic therapy

  9. Gastric Dilation and Volvulus Syndrome in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami S. Bhatia

    Full Text Available Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV in dogs is an abnormal accumulation of gastric gas (dilatation, which may be complicated by rotation of the stomach (volvulus about its mesentric axis. A number of factors, both environmental and host have been implicated in GDV. This syndrome has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, haemolymphatic-immune, renal and central nervous systems. Clinical signs include distended, painful, tympanic abdomen, retching, unproductive vomiting, hypersalivation, respiratory distress accompanied by varying degrees of shock. Treatment of GDV includes medical and fluid therapy at shock dosages to initially stabilize the patient followed by gastric decompression. Surgical procedure comprises of gastric derotation followed by partial gastrectomy or spleenectomy depending upon gastric or spleenic viability and lastly, permanent right sided gastropexy. Post surgical considerations include frequent small meals instead of one large meal, avoiding vigorous activity immediately after meals and not allowing animal to gorge on water after meals or activities. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 554-557

  10. Dilated congestive cardiomyopathy in Doberman pinschers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy of Doberman Pinschers (DCDP) is a progressive disease often presenting with a history of episodic weakness and syncope, or with clinical signs of predominantly left-sided congestive heart failure. A systematic dissection and histomorphologic evaluation of the heart from 32 Doberman Pinschers with a clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy revealed a highly specific location for the characteristic myocardial lesions. The lesions of DCDP were found only in the left ventricular free wall, and in 30 cases, the lesions were characterized by myofiber degeneration and atrophy, and replacement of myocardium by dense bundles of collagen and clusters of adipocytes. In the two remaining hearts, myofiber atrophy and degeneration were accompanied by collagen deposition, but not adipocytes. In stained longitudinal (base to apex) tissue sections of the left ventricle, the lesions of DCDP were usually apparent to the unaided eye; appearing as a central linear pale zone, aligned in the long axis of the ventricular free wall. The lesions did not contain inflammatory cell infiltrates and often involved >50% of ventricular wall

  11. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  12. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  13. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and the Jeffreys type constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyukov, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    A postulate of extended irreversible thermodynamics is considered, according to which the entropy density is a function of the internal energy, the specific volume, and their material time derivatives. On the basis of this postulate, entropy balance equations and phenomenological equations are obtained, which directly lead to the Jeffreys type constitutive equations

  14. Investment Irreversibility and Precautionary Savings in General Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, João

    than irreversibility effects. If shocks are idiosyncratic and affect a cross section of agents over capital, an increase in their variance may induce an increase in aggregate investment even if all agents have an incentive to invest less, because zero investment is now an active lower bound for part...

  15. The degree of irreversibility in deterministic finite automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Holzer, Markus; Kutrib, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the language, and show that the degree induces a strict infinite hierarchy of languages. We examine how the degree of irreversibility behaves under the usual language operations union, intersection, complement, concatenation, and Kleene star, showing tight bounds (some asymptotically) on the degree....

  16. Optimization at different loads by minimization of irreversibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.F.V.; Niu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the irreversibility of the power cycle was chosen as the objective function as this function can successfully measure both the quality and quantity of energy flow in the cycle. Minimization of the irreversibility ensures that the power cycle will operate more efficiently. One feature of the present work is that the boiler, turbine, condenser and heaters are treated as one system for the purpose of optimization. In the optimization model, nine regression formulae are used, which are obtained from the measured test data. From the results of the present work, it can be seen that the optimization model developed can represent the effect of operational parameters on the power plant first and second law efficiency. Some of the results can be used to provide guidance for the optimal operation of the power plant. When the power cycle works at full load, the main steam temperature and pressure should be at the upper limit for minimal irreversibility of the system. If the load is less than 65% of its design capacity, the steam temperature and pressure should be decreased for a lower irreversibility of the system

  17. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fer law system generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle model with finite-rate heat ...... Chen L, Sun F, Wu C 2004b Optimum allocation of heat exchanger area for refrigeration and air conditioning plants. Appl. Energy 77(3): 339– ...

  18. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for irreversible heat pumps working on reversed Brayton cycle with constant-temperature heat reservoirs by taking exergetic efficiency as the optimization objective combining exergy concept with finite-time thermodynamics (FTT). Exergetic efficiency is ...

  19. Reversible and irreversible heat engine and refrigerator cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2018-05-01

    Although no reversible thermodynamic cycles exist in nature, nearly all cycles covered in textbooks are reversible. This is a review, clarification, and extension of results and concepts for quasistatic, reversible and irreversible processes and cycles, intended primarily for teachers and students. Distinctions between the latter process types are explained, with emphasis on clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) cycles. Specific examples of each are examined, including Carnot, Kelvin and Stirling cycles. For the Stirling cycle, potentially useful task-specific efficiency measures are proposed and illustrated. Whether a cycle behaves as a traditional refrigerator or heat engine can depend on whether it is reversible or irreversible. Reversible and irreversible-quasistatic CW cycles both satisfy Carnot's inequality for thermal efficiency, η ≤ η C a r n o t . Irreversible CCW cycles with two reservoirs satisfy the coefficient of performance inequality K ≤ K C a r n o t . However, an arbitrary reversible cycle satisfies K ≥ K C a r n o t when compared with a reversible Carnot cycle operating between its maximum and minimum temperatures, a potentially counterintuitive result.

  20. Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick

    2014-09-08

    Vaginal dilation therapy is advocated after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina), but can be uncomfortable and psychologically distressing. To assess the benefits and harms of different types of vaginal dilation methods offered to women treated by pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to June week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 24) and CINAHL (1982 to 2013). Comparative data of any type, which evaluated dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. We found no trials and therefore analysed no data. We identified no studies for inclusion in the original review or for this update. However, we felt that some studies that were excluded warranted discussion. These included one randomised trial (RCT), which showed no improvement in sexual scores associated with encouraging women to practise dilation therapy; a recent small RCT that did not show any advantage to dilation over vibration therapy during radiotherapy; two non-randomised comparative studies; and five correlation studies. One of these showed that objective measurements of vaginal elasticity and length were not linked to dilation during radiotherapy, but the study lacked power. One study showed that women who dilated tolerated a larger dilator, but the risk of objectivity and bias with historical controls was high. Another study showed that the vaginal measurements increased in length by a mean of 3 cm after dilation was introduced 6 to 10 weeks after radiotherapy, but there was no control group; another case series showed the opposite. Three recent studies showed less stenosis associated with prophylactic dilation after radiotherapy. One small case series suggested that dilation years after radiotherapy might restore the

  1. Investigation of airways using MDCT for visual and quantitative assessment in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Brillet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Yves Brillet1, Catalin I Fetita2, Amaury Saragaglia2, Anne-Laure Brun3, Catherine Beigelman-Aubry3, Françoise Prêteux2, Philippe A Grenier31Department of Radiology, Avicenne Hospital, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Léonard de Vinci–Paris Nord, EA 2361, Bobigny, France; 2ARTEMIS Department, Institut National des Télécommunications, Université Paris V, Evry, France; 3Department of Radiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, FranceAbstract: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT acquisition during a single breath hold using thin collimation provides high resolution volumetric data set permitting multiplanar and three dimensional reconstruction of the proximal airways. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, this technique provides an accurate assessment of bronchial wall thickening, tracheobronchial deformation, outpouchings reflecting dilatation of the submucous glands, tracheobronchomalacia, and expiratory air trapping. New software developed to segment adequately the lumen and walls of the airways on MDCT scans allows quantitative assessment of the airway dimensions which has shown to be reliable in clinical practice. This technique can become important in longitudinal studies of the pathogenesis of COPD, and in the assessment of therapeutic interventions.Keywords: COPD – tracheobronchial tree, multidetector CT – airway remodeling, tracheobronchomalacia

  2. Impediment in upper airway stabilizing forces assessed by phrenic nerve stimulation in sleep apnea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vérin E

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forces developed during inspiration play a key role in determining upper airway stability and the occurrence of nocturnal breathing disorders. Phrenic nerve stimulation applied during wakefulness is a unique tool to assess Upper airway dynamic properties and to measure the overall mechanical effects of the inspiratory process on UA stability. Objectives To compare the flow/pressure responses to inspiratory and expiratory twitches between sleep apnea subjects and normal subjects. Methods Inspiratory and expiratory twitches using magnetic nerve stimulation completed in eleven untreated sleep apnea subjects and ten normal subjects. Results In both groups, higher flow and pressure were reached during inspiratory twitches. The two groups showed no differences in expiratory twitch parameters. During inspiration, the pressure at which flow-limitation occurred was more negative in normals than in apneic subjects, but not reaching significance (p = 0.07. The relationship between pharyngeal pressure and flow adequately fitted with a polynomial regression model providing a measurement of upper airway critical pressure during twitch. This pressure significantly decreased in normals from expiratory to inspiratory twitches (-11.1 ± 1.6 and -15.7 ± 1.0 cm H2O respectively, 95% CI 1.6–7.6, p Conclusion Inspiratory-related upper airway dilating forces are impeded in sleep apnea patients.

  3. Awake Craniotomy: A New Airway Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Chitra; Schlichter, Rolf A; Baranov, Dimitry; Kofke, W Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Awake craniotomies have been performed regularly at the University of Pennsylvania since 2004. Varying approaches to airway management are described for this procedure, including intubation with an endotracheal tube and use of a laryngeal mask airway, simple facemask, or nasal cannula. In this case series, we describe the successful use (i.e., no need for endotracheal intubation related to inadequate gas exchange) of bilateral nasopharyngeal airways in 90 patients undergoing awake craniotomies. The use of nasopharyngeal airways can ease the transition between the asleep and awake phases of the craniotomy without the need to stimulate the airway. Our purpose was to describe our experience and report adverse events related to this technique.

  4. Pharyngeal airway changes following mandibular setback surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of dentofacial deformities with jaw osteotomies has an effect on airway anatomy and therefore mandibular setback surgery has the potential to diminish airway size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mandibular setback surgery on airway size. 8 consecutive patients were examined prospectively. All patients underwent mandibular setback surgery. Cephalometric analysis was performed preoperatively and 3 months post operatively with particular attention to pharyngeal airway changes. Pharyngeal airway size decreased considerably in all, patients thus predisposing to development of obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, large anteroposterior discrepancies should be corrected by combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies.

  5. Plethysmographic evaluation of airway obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjer, Philippus Hermanus

    1971-01-01

    A number of aspects of body plethysmography were investigated in this study: measurement of airway resistance and thoracic gas volume, the relationship of these variables with other parameters of lung mechanics, with indices of alveolar ventilation and with arterial blood gases. Furthermore the

  6. allergy, asthma airway and anaphylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perioperative preparation of children presenting for surgery aims to identify medical problems that might influence the outcome and to institute management strategies to reduce those risks. Respiratory and airway complications remain the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in modern paediatric ...

  7. Serelaxin Elicits Bronchodilation and Enhances β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Airway Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Lam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with β-adrenoceptor agonists does not fully overcome the symptoms associated with severe asthma. Serelaxin elicits potent uterine and vascular relaxation via its cognate receptor, RXFP1, and nitric oxide (NO signaling, and is being clinically evaluated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its direct bronchodilator efficacy has yet to be explored. Tracheal rings were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350g and tricolor guinea pigs, and precision cut lung slices (PCLS containing intrapulmonary airways were prepared from rats only. Recombinant human serelaxin (rhRLX alone and in combination with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist; recently described as a novel dilator or β-adrenoceptor agonists (isoprenaline, salbutamol were added either to pre-contracted airways, or before contraction with methacholine or endothelin-1. Regulation of rhRLX responses by epithelial removal, indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor and ODQ (guanylate cyclase inhibitor were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize RXFP1 to airway epithelium and smooth muscle. rhRLX elicited relaxation in rat trachea and PCLS, more slowly than rosiglitazone or isoprenaline, but potentiated relaxation to both these dilators. It markedly increased β-adrenoceptor agonist potency in guinea pig trachea. rhRLX, rosiglitazone and isoprenaline pretreatment also inhibited the development of rat tracheal contraction. Bronchoprotection by rhRLX increased with longer pre-incubation time, and was partially reduced by epithelial removal, indomethacin and/or L-NAME. SQ22536 and ODQ also partially inhibited rhRLX-mediated relaxation in both intact and epithelial-denuded trachea. RXFP1 expression in airway was at higher levels in epithelium than smooth muscle.In summary, rhRLX elicits large and small airway relaxation via epithelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms, likely

  8. Measures of thermodynamic irreversibility in deterministic and stochastic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    It is generally observed that if a dynamical system is sufficiently complex, then as time progresses it will share out energy and other properties amongst its component parts to eliminate any initial imbalances, retaining only fluctuations. This is known as energy dissipation and it is closely associated with the concept of thermodynamic irreversibility, measured by the increase in entropy according to the second law. It is of interest to quantify such behaviour from a dynamical rather than a thermodynamic perspective and to this end stochastic entropy production and the time-integrated dissipation function have been introduced as analogous measures of irreversibility, principally for stochastic and deterministic dynamics, respectively. We seek to compare these measures. First we modify the dissipation function to allow it to measure irreversibility in situations where the initial probability density function (pdf) of the system is asymmetric as well as symmetric in velocity. We propose that it tests for failure of what we call the obversibility of the system, to be contrasted with reversibility, the failure of which is assessed by stochastic entropy production. We note that the essential difference between stochastic entropy production and the time-integrated modified dissipation function lies in the sequence of procedures undertaken in the associated tests of irreversibility. We argue that an assumed symmetry of the initial pdf with respect to velocity inversion (within a framework of deterministic dynamics) can be incompatible with the Past Hypothesis, according to which there should be a statistical distinction between the behaviour of certain properties of an isolated system as it evolves into the far future and the remote past. Imposing symmetry on a velocity distribution is acceptable for many applications of statistical physics, but can introduce difficulties when discussing irreversible behaviour. (paper)

  9. Airway malacia in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoffy, Kimberly E; Modaff, Peggy; Pauli, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of airway malacia in infants and young children with achondroplasia, a population well known to be at risk for a variety of respiratory problems. We also wished to evaluate what, if any, contribution airway malacia makes to the complex respiratory issues that may be present in those with achondroplasia. Retrospective chart review of all infants and young children with achondroplasia who were assessed through the Midwest Regional Bone Dysplasia Clinics from 1985 through 2012 (n = 236) was completed. Records of comprehensive clinical examinations, polysomnographic assessments, and airway visualization were reviewed and abstracted using a data collection form. Analyses were completed comparing the group with and those without evidence for airway malacia. Thirteen of 236 patients (5.5%) were found to have airway malacia. Most of those affected had lower airway involvement (9/13). The presence of airway malacia was correlated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea as well as need for oxygen supplementation, airway surgeries and tracheostomy placement. Although estimates of the frequency of airway malacia in the general population are limited, its frequency in children with achondroplasia appears to be much higher than any published general population estimate. The presence of airway malacia appears to confound other breathing abnormalities in this population and results in the need for more invasive airway treatments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of Electrocautery Needle Knife Combined with Balloon Dilatation versus Balloon Dilatation in the Treatment of Tracheal Fibrotic Scar Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Chen, Min; Mu, Deguang; Jin, Faguang

    Electrocautery needle knives can largely reduce scar and granulation tissue hyperplasia and play an important role in treating patients with benign stricture. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation versus balloon dilatation alone in the treatment of tracheal stenosis caused by tracheal intubation or tracheotomy. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 43 patients with tracheal stenosis caused by tracheotomy or tracheal intubation in our department from January 2013 to January 2016. Among these 43 patients, 23 had simple web-like stenosis and 20 had complex steno sis. All patients were treated under general anaesthesia, and the treatment methods were (1) balloon dilatation alone, (2) needle knife excision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation, and (3) needle knife radial incision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation. After treatment the symptoms, such as shortness of breath, were markedly improved immediately in all cases. The stenosis degree of patients who were treated with the elec-trocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation had better improvement compared with that of those treated with balloon dilatation treatment alone after 3 months (0.45 ± 0.04 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05, p knife combined with balloon dilatation is an effective and safe treatment for tracheal fibrotic stenosis compared with balloon dilatation alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  12. Protective effects of valproic acid against airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling in a mouse model of allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Dang, William; Ververis, Katherine; De Sampayo, Nishika; El-Osta, Assam; Tang, Mimi L K; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-12-01

    Airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness are major aspects of asthma pathology that are not targeted optimally by existing anti-inflammatory drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have a wide range of effects that may potentially abrogate aspects of remodeling. One such histone deacetylase inhibitor is valproic acid (2-propylvaleric acid). Valproic acid is used clinically as an anti-epileptic drug and is a potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases but also inhibits class II histone deacetylases. We used valproic acid as a molecular model of histone deacetylase inhibition in vivo in chronic allergic airways disease mice with airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. Wild-type Balb/c mice with allergic airways disease were treated with valproic acid or vehicle control. Airway inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and examination of lung tissue sections. Remodeling was assessed by morphometric analysis of histochemically stained slides and lung function was assessed by invasive plethysmography measurement of airway resistance. Valproic acid treatment did not affect inflammation parameters; however, valproic acid treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickness as compared to vehicle treated mice (p < 0.01), reduced subepithelial collagen deposition (p < 0.05) and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for the two highest doses of methacholine, respectively). These findings show that treatment with valproic acid can reduce structural airway remodeling changes and hyperresponsiveness, providing further evidence for the potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of asthma.

  13. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  14. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  15. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F N; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  16. Percutaneous balloon dilatation for transplant ureteral strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Taechun (Korea, Republic of); Banner, Marc P [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-09-15

    We report 10 kidney allografted patients treated for 11 ureteral strictures with standard endourlogic balloon catheter dilatation and internal stenting between August 1979 and December 1991. They have been followed until 2 to 140 months (mean 42). We compared and analyzed the 6 successful strictures (54%) and 5 unsuccessful strictures. There was no statistically significant difference of demographic, clinical and radiologic interventional techniques between two groups. But there was slightly higher success rate in abruptly narrowed shorter fibrotic strictures in ureteroneocystomy sites than smoothly taped longer ones in other sites of the ureter. Longterm stenting by the transplantation team with cystoscopic removal of internal ureteral stents by urologists resulted in 3 cases of stent occlusion, encrustation or fracture. Exact early diagnosis of ureteral stricture with continued close follow up and proper radiologic interventional procedure with optimal stenting period may increase the success rate and still provide an alternative to surgery.

  17. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062

  18. BNNT-mediated irreversible electroporatio: its potential on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Raffa, Cristina Riggio, Michael W. Smith, Kevin C. Jordan, Wei Cao, Alfred Cuschieri

    2012-10-01

    Tissue ablation, i.e., the destruction of undesirable tissues, has become an important minimally invasive technique alternative to resection surgery for the treatment of tumours. Several methods for tissue ablation are based on thermal techniques using cold, e.g. cryosurgery [1] or heat, e.g. radiofrequency [2] or high-intensity focused ultrasound [3] or nanoparticle-mediated irradiation [4]. Alternatively, irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been proposed as non thermal technique for minimally invasive tissue ablation based on the use of electrical pulses. When the electric field is applied to a cell, a change in transmembrane potential is induced, which can cause biochemical and physiological changes of the cell. When the threshold value of the transmembrane potential is exceeded, the cell membrane becomes permeable, thus allowing entrance of molecules that otherwise cannot cross the membrane [5]. A further increase in the electric field intensity may cause irreversible membrane permeabilization and cell death. These pulses create irreversible defects (pores) in the cell membrane lipid bilayer, causing cell death through loss of cell homeostasis [6]. This is desirable in tumour ablation in order to produce large cell death, without the use of cytostatic drugs. A study of Davalos, Mir and Rubinsky showed that IRE can ablate substantial volumes of tissue without inducing a thermal effect and therefore serve as an independent and new tissue ablation modality; this opened the way to the use of IRE in surgery [7]. Their finding was subsequently confirmed in studies on cells [8], small animal models [9] and in large animal models in the liver [10] and the heart [11]. The most important finding in these papers is that irreversible electroporation produces precisely delineated ablation zones with cell scale resolution between ablated and non-ablated areas, without zones in which the extent of damage changes gradually as during thermal ablation. Furthermore, it is

  19. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G.; Plets, C.

    1999-01-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.)

  20. Acute gastric dilatation secondary to septicemia in newborn: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... case of acute gastric dilatation that developed in a two-days old child who was born premature and was suffering from septicemia and respiratory distress. The causes and the differential diagnosis of the rare condition are discussed. Keywords: Acute, dilatation, gastric, newborn. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol.

  1. Characteristic adaptations of the extracellular matrix in dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louzao-Martinez, Laura; Vink, Aryan; Harakalova, Magdalena; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a relatively common heart muscle disease characterized by the dilation and thinning of the left ventricle accompanied with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Myocardial fibrosis is a major feature in DCM and therefore it is inevitable that corresponding

  2. Molecular genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Dobermann dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabej, Polona

    2005-01-01

    Canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium associated with dilatation and impaired contraction of the ventricles. It primarily affects large and giant breed dogs with Dobermanns being one of the most frequently affected. The high prevalence of DCM in specific breeds suggests

  3. Airway structure and function in Eisenmenger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, K O; Johnson, P R; Black, J L; Glanville, A R; Armour, C L

    1998-10-01

    The responsiveness of airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome (n = 5) was compared with that in airways from organ donors (n = 10). Enhanced contractile responses to cholinergic stimulation were found in airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. The maximal responses to acetylcholine, carbachol, and parasympathetic nerve stimulation in airway tissue from these patients were 221%, 139%, and 152%, respectively, of the maximal responses obtained in donor tissue. Further, relaxation responses to isoproterenol and levocromakalim were absent (n = 2) or markedly impaired (n = 3) in airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. This attenuated relaxation response was nonspecific in that it was also absent after vasoactive intestinal peptide, sodium nitroprusside, papaverine, and electrical field application. These observations can most likely be explained by a decrease in intrinsic smooth muscle tone, as precontraction of airways revealed relaxation responses that were equivalent to those obtained in donor tissues. Morphometric analysis of tissues used for the functional studies revealed no differences in the airway dimensions (internal perimeter) or airway wall components (e.g., smooth muscle, cartilage) or total area to explain these observations. Although the mechanism for this observed decrease in intrinsic airway smooth muscle tone is not certain, it may be due to alteration in the substructure of the airway wall or, alternatively, may result from the continued release of depressant factors in the vicinity of the smooth muscle which permanently alters smooth muscle responsiveness.

  4. Early cystic fibrosis lung disease: Role of airway surface dehydration and lessons from preventive rehydration therapies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Marcus A; Graeber, Simon Y; Stahl, Mirjam; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in the first months of life and remains one of the most common fatal hereditary diseases. Early therapeutic interventions may provide an opportunity to prevent irreversible lung damage and improve outcome. Airway surface dehydration is a key disease mechanism in CF, however, its role in the in vivo pathogenesis and as therapeutic target in early lung disease remains poorly understood. Mice with airway-specific overexpression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (βENaC-Tg) recapitulate airway surface dehydration and phenocopy CF lung disease. Recent studies in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration produces early mucus plugging in the absence of mucus hypersecretion, which triggers airway inflammation, promotes bacterial infection and causes early mortality. Preventive rehydration therapy with hypertonic saline or amiloride effectively reduced mucus plugging and mortality in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice. These results support clinical testing of preventive/early rehydration strategies in infants and young children with CF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pouch dilatation following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: psychobehavioral factors (can psychiatrists predict pouch dilatation?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman; Al Atar, Ashraf; Bidlake, Louise; Fienness, Alberic; McCluskey, Sara; Nussey, S; Bano, Gal; Morgan, John

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is increasingly being performed in morbidly obese individuals for weight loss. Some patients develop pouch dilatation as a postoperative complication that limits the utility of the procedure. Surgical variables are poor predictors of this complication. 5 patients from a series of 157 who underwent LAGB at a single center developed the condition. Psychiatric and surgical case-notes were analyzed retrospectively for the presence of operationally defined psychiatric disorders and compared to 10 controls from the same population. Cases were significantly more likely to have past or current binge eating, emotionally triggered eating with reduced awareness of the link, a history of affective disorder, reduced sexual functioning and successful preoperative weight loss. No difference between groups was observed for compliance with orlistat, childhood sexual abuse, relationships with parents, history of bulimia nervosa, rate of band inflation or preoperative BMI. Psychological factors may be better predictors of pouch dilatation than biomedical variables. Disordered eating can be an attempt to modulate negative emotions. Pouch dilatation may be a consequence of this eating behavior.

  6. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  7. Prostaglandin E2 to diagnose between reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, M; Ferrante, M; Ciavarelli, L; Brunetti, L; Vacca, M; Spoto, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify a correlation between the grade of inflammation and the concentration of PGE2 in human dental pulp. A total of 25 human dental pulps were examined by histological analysis and radioimmunologic dosage of PGE2. The pulps used in this experiment were from healthy and symptomatic teeth; the first ones were collected from teeth destined to be extracted for orthodontic reasons. An increase was observed of PGE2 in reversible pulpitis compared with healthy pulps and with the irreversible pulpitis and the clear decrease of these when NSAIDs are taken. This study demonstrates that PGE2 level is correlated to histological analysis thus allowing to distinguish symptomatic teeth in reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

  8. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Ecological optimization for an irreversible magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Wu Guo-Xing

    2013-01-01

    An irreversible Ericsson refrigeration cycle model is established, in which multi-irreversibilities such as finite-rate heat transfer, regenerative loss, heat leakage, and the efficiency of the regenerator are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the cooling rate, coefficient of performance (COP), power input, exergy output rate, entropy generation rate, and ecological function are derived. The influences of the heat leakage and the time of the regenerative processes on the ecological performance of the refrigerator are analyzed. The optimal regions of the ecological function, cooling rate, and COP are determined and evaluated. Furthermore, some important parameter relations of the refrigerator are revealed and discussed in detail. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful in gaining a deep understanding of the magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Reversing the irreversible: From limit cycles to emergent time symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2018-01-01

    In 1979 Penrose hypothesized that the arrows of time are explained by the hypothesis that the fundamental laws are time irreversible [R. Penrose, in General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey (1979)]. That is, our reversible laws, such as the standard model and general relativity are effective, and emerge from an underlying fundamental theory which is time irreversible. In [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.084007; 90, 044035 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.044035; 93, 084039 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.084039] we put forward a research program aiming at realizing just this. The aim is to find a fundamental description of physics above the Planck scale, based on irreversible laws, from which will emerge the apparently reversible dynamics we observe on intermediate scales. Here we continue that program and note that a class of discrete dynamical systems are known to exhibit this very property: they have an underlying discrete irreversible evolution, but in the long term exhibit the properties of a time reversible system, in the form of limit cycles. We connect this to our original model proposal in [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.084007], and show that the behaviors obtained there can be explained in terms of the same phenomenon: the attraction of the system to a basin of limit cycles, where the dynamics appears to be time reversible. Further than that, we show that our original models exhibit the very same feature: the emergence of quasiparticle excitations obtained in the earlier work in the space-time description is an expression of the system's convergence to limit cycles when seen in the causal set description.

  11. Irreversible pulpitis and achieving profound anesthesia: Complexities and managements

    OpenAIRE

    Modaresi, Jalil; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid; Sabzian, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Dental pain management is one of the most critical aspects of modern dentistry. Irreversible pulpitis and further root canal therapy might cause an untolerated pain to the patients. The improvements in anesthetic agents and techniques were one of the advantages of studying nerve biology and stimulation. This article tried to overview of the nerve activities in inflammatory environments or induced pain. Furthermore, the proper advises, and supplementary techniques were reviewed for better pain...

  12. β-characterization by irreversibility analysis: A thermoeconomic diagnosis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleta-Aguilar, Alejandro; Olivares-Arriaga, Abraham; Cano-Andrade, Sergio; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reconciliation methodology for the diagnosis of energy systems. The methodology is based on the characterization of irreversibilities in the components of an energy system. These irreversibilities can be attributed to malfunctions or dysfunctions. The characterization of irreversibilities as presented here makes possible to reconcile the Actual Operating Condition (AOC) versus the Reference Operating Condition (ROC) of the energy system in a real-time manner. The diagnosis methodology introduces a parameter β, which represents the total exergy or useful work of a component in terms of its inlet and output streams at either design (full-load) or off-design (partial-load) conditions. The methodology is applied to the diagnosis of an actual Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant. Data for the model is obtained directly from the plant by monitoring its performance at every time; thus, a real-time thermodynamic diagnosis for the system is obtained. Results show that the methodology presented here is able to detect and quantify the deviations on the performance of the NGCC power plant during its real-time operation. Based on the detection and quantification of these deviations, the user is able to make recommendations to schedule maintenance on the components where the irreversibilities are present. - Highlights: • A new methodology for thermoeconomic diagnosis of energy systems is presented. • A parameter β is defined for characterization of the components of an energy system. • The β characterization methodology is tested in a real 420 MW NGCC power plant. • Results show that the complexity of a diagnosis analysis is reduced substantially.

  13. Variability of Irreversible Poleward Transport in the Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Mark; Douglass, Anne; Newman, Paul; Nash, Eric; Witte, Jacquelyn; Ziemke, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The ascent and descent of the Brewer-Dobson circulation plays a large role in determining the distributions of many constituents in the extratropical lower stratosphere. However, relatively fast, quasi-horizontal transport out of the tropics and polar regions also significantly contribute to determining these distributions. The tropical tape recorder signal assures that there must be outflow from the tropics into the extratropical lower stratosphere. The phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and state of the polar vortex are known to modulate the transport from the tropical and polar regions, respectively. In this study we examine multiple years of ozone distributions in the extratropical lower stratosphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Aura High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). The distributions are compared with analyses of irreversible, meridional isentropic transport. We show that there is considerable year-to-year seasonal variability in the amount of irreversible transport from the tropics, which is related to both the phase of the QBO and the state of the polar vortex. The reversibility of the transport is consistent with the number of observed breaking waves. The variability of the atmospheric index of refraction in the lower stratosphere is shown to be significantly correlated with the wave breaking and amount of irreversible transport. Finally, we will show that the seasonal extratropical stratosphere to troposphere transport of ozone can be substantially modulated by the amount of irreversible meridional transport in the lower stratosphere and we investigate how observable these differences are in data of tropospheric ozone.

  14. Magnetic irreversibility in granular superconductors: ac susceptibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.; Obradors, X.; Fontcuberta, J.; Vallet, M.; Gonzalez-Calbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements of a ceramic weak-coupled superconductor in very low ac fields (2mG, 111Hz) are reported. We present evidence for the observation of the magnetic irreversibility following a ZFC-FC thermal cycling by means of ac susceptibilty measurements. It is shown that this technique also reflect local magnetic field effects in granular superconductors, as previously suggested in microwave surface resistance and I-V characteristics. (orig.)

  15. Irreversibility analysis in the process of solar distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez, S; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; López, R; Lara, A

    2017-01-01

    In this work an irreversibility analysis for the thermal process of solar distillation of three different substances is presented, for which it employs a solar still of a slope where three experimental tests with 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl 2 were performed. Temperature data principally in the glass cover, absorber plate, fluid, environment and the incident solar radiation on the device were obtained. With measurements of temperature, solar radiation and exergetic balance, irreversibilities are found on the device. The results show that the highest values of irreversibilities are concentrated in the absorber plate with an average of 321 W, 342 W and 276 W, followed by the cover glass with an average of 75.8 W, 80.4 W and 86.7 W and finally the fluid with 15.3 W, 15.9 W and 16 W, for 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl 2 . (paper)

  16. Irreversibility and Action of the Heat Conduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irreversibility (that is, the “one-sidedness” of time of a physical process can be characterized by using Lyapunov functions in the modern theory of stability. In this theoretical framework, entropy and its production rate have been generally regarded as Lyapunov functions in order to measure the irreversibility of various physical processes. In fact, the Lyapunov function is not always unique. In the represent work, a rigorous proof is given that the entransy and its dissipation rate can also serve as Lyapunov functions associated with the irreversibility of the heat conduction process without the conversion between heat and work. In addition, the variation of the entransy dissipation rate can lead to Fourier’s heat conduction law, while the entropy production rate cannot. This shows that the entransy dissipation rate, rather than the entropy production rate, is the unique action for the heat conduction process, and can be used to establish the finite element method for the approximate solution of heat conduction problems and the optimization of heat transfer processes.

  17. Anesthetic Efficacy in Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Carlos E; Sampaio, Roberta M; Horliana, Anna C R T; Armonia, Paschoal L; Rocha, Rodney G; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2016-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block has a high failure rate in the treatment of mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine, 2% lidocaine and 2% mepivacaine, all in combination with 1:100,000 epinephrine, in patients with irreversible pulpitis of permanent mandibular molars during a pulpectomy procedure. Sixty-six volunteers from the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, randomly received 3.6 mL of local anesthetic as a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The subjective signal of lip numbness, pulpal anesthesia and absence of pain during the pulpectomy procedure were evaluated respectively, by questioning the patient, stimulation using an electric pulp tester and a verbal analogue scale. All patients reported the subjective signal of lip numbness. Regarding pulpal anesthesia success as measured with the pulp tester, the success rate was respectively 68.2% for mepivacaine, 63.6% for articaine and 63.6% for lidocaine. Regarding patients who reported no pain or mild pain during the pulpectomy, the success rate was, respectively 72.7% for mepivacaine, 63.6% for articaine and 54.5% for lidocaine. These differences were not statistically significant. Neither of the solutions resulted in 100% anesthetic success in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars.

  18. Irreversible performance of a quantum harmonic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezek, Yair; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-05-01

    The unavoidable irreversible loss of power in a heat engine is found to be of quantum origin. Following thermodynamic tradition, a model quantum heat engine operating in an Otto cycle is analysed, where the working medium is composed of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators and changes in volume correspond to changes in the curvature of the potential well. Equations of motion for quantum observables are derived for the complete cycle of operation. These observables are sufficient to determine the state of the system and with it all thermodynamical variables. Once the external controls are set, the engine settles to a limit cycle. Conditions for optimal work, power and entropy production are derived. At high temperatures and quasistatic operating conditions, the efficiency at maximum power coincides with the endoreversible result \\eta_q=1-\\sqrt{{T_c}/{T_h}} . The optimal compression ratio varies from {\\cal C} =\\sqrt{T_h/T_c} in the quasistatic limit where the irreversibility is dominated by heat conductance to {\\cal C} =(T_h/T_c)^{1/4} in the sudden limit when the irreversibility is dominated by friction. When the engine deviates from adiabatic conditions, the performance is subject to friction. The origin of this friction can be traced to the noncommutability of the kinetic and potential energy of the working medium.

  19. Articaine for supplemental intraosseous anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Jason; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effect of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for supplemental intraosseous injection in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-seven emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain upon endodontic access. The Stabident system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Success of the intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain upon endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results demonstrated that anesthetic success was obtained in 86% (32 of 37) of the patients. Maximum mean heart rate was increased 32 beats/minute during the intraosseous injection. We can conclude that when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the intraosseous injection of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine would be successful 86% of the time in achieving pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis.

  20. Irreversible Local Markov Chains with Rapid Convergence towards Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C.; Krauth, Werner

    2017-12-01

    We study the continuous one-dimensional hard-sphere model and present irreversible local Markov chains that mix on faster time scales than the reversible heat bath or Metropolis algorithms. The mixing time scales appear to fall into two distinct universality classes, both faster than for reversible local Markov chains. The event-chain algorithm, the infinitesimal limit of one of these Markov chains, belongs to the class presenting the fastest decay. For the lattice-gas limit of the hard-sphere model, reversible local Markov chains correspond to the symmetric simple exclusion process (SEP) with periodic boundary conditions. The two universality classes for irreversible Markov chains are realized by the totally asymmetric SEP (TASEP), and by a faster variant (lifted TASEP) that we propose here. We discuss how our irreversible hard-sphere Markov chains generalize to arbitrary repulsive pair interactions and carry over to higher dimensions through the concept of lifted Markov chains and the recently introduced factorized Metropolis acceptance rule.

  1. Self-dilation for therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures: towards a systematic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halsema, Emo E.; 't Hoen, Chantal A.; de Koning, Patricia S.; Rosmolen, Wilda D.; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Bergman, Jacques J.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures (TRBES) suffer from chronic dysphagia and generally require repeated endoscopic dilations. For selected patients, esophageal self-dilation may improve patient's autonomy and reduce the number of endoscopic dilations. We evaluated the

  2. Irreversible dynamics, Onsager-Casimir symmetry, and an application to turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2014-10-01

    Irreversible contributions to the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems can be formulated in terms of dissipative, or irreversible, brackets. We discuss the structure of such irreversible brackets in view of a degeneracy implied by energy conservation, where we consider different types of symmetries of the bracket corresponding to the Onsager and Casimir symmetries of linear irreversible thermodynamics. Slip and turbulence provide important examples of antisymmetric irreversible brackets and offer guidance for the more general modeling of irreversible dynamics without entropy production. Conversely, turbulence modeling could benefit from elucidating thermodynamic structure. The examples suggest constructing antisymmetric irreversible brackets in terms of completely antisymmetric functions of three indices. Irreversible brackets without well-defined symmetry properties can arise for rare events, causing big configurational changes.

  3. 75 FR 13079 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; MAHAN AIRWAYS; Mahan Airways, Mahan Tower, No. 21, Azadegan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Regulations and TDO, a United Kingdom court found Mahan Airways in contempt of court on February 1, 2010, for... contempt finding against Mahan Airways in the U.K. litigation, which I understand is still ongoing. I note...

  4. Airway injury during emergency transcutaneous airway access: a comparison at cricothyroid and tracheal sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) may be required in emergencies, but inadvertent tracheal cannulation may occur. In this study, we compared airway injury between the tracheal and CTM sites using different techniques for airway access.

  5. Management of benign stenoses of the large airways in the university hospital in Prague, Czech Republic, in 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marel, Miloslav; Pekarek, Zdenek; Spasova, Irena; Pafko, Pavel; Schutzner, Jan; Betka, Jan; Pospisil, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Clinically significant benign stenoses of the large airways develop in about 1% of patients after intubation. The management of benign stenoses is not unified around the world, nor are there any accepted methods for their screening. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare results of interventional bronchoscopy and surgical therapy of benign stenoses as well as to propose an algorithm for the management of this airways disorder. Prospective study on 80 consecutive patients with benign stenoses of the large airways admitted to the Pulmonary Department of the University Hospital of Prague-Motol. Sixty-two patients developed stenoses after endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy, in 18 patients the stenosis was caused by other diseases or pathological situations. Thirty-eight patients were sent for surgical resection of the stenotic part of the airways. 2 surgically treated patients developed recurrence of the stenosis and had to be reoperated on. Narrowing of the trachea at the site of end-to-end anastomosis developed in 6 other patients and was cured by interventional bronchoscopy. The remaining 42 patients were treated by interventional bronchoscopy (Nd-YAG laser, electrocautery, stent) which was curative in 35 patients. Sixty-five patients were alive at the time of evaluation, 15 patients died. Five of them died between 3 and 14 (median 4) months after surgery from a disease other than airway stenosis. Ten nonresected patients also died, with 1 exception, due to a disease other than airway stenosis; the median survival was 9 months. We recommend to assess the patient for surgery after the initial diagnosis and therapeutic bronchoscopy with dilatation of the stenosis. If the patient is not a suitable candidate for resection, interventional bronchoscopy is an appropriate alternative for the management of benign stenoses of the large airways. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Emergency surgical airway management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C V; Nørskov, A K; Wetterslev, J

    2016-01-01

    for difficult airway management. RESULTS: In the DAD cohort 27 out of 452 461 patients had an ESA representing an incidence of 0.06 events per thousand (95% CI; 0.04 to 0.08). A total of 12 149/452 461 patients underwent Ear-Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery, giving an ESA incidence among ENT patients of 1.6 events...... of which three failed. Reviewers evaluated airway management as satisfactory in 10/27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ESA in the DAD cohort was 0.06 events per thousand. Among ENT patients, the ESA Incidence was 1.6 events per thousand. Airway management was evaluated as satisfactory for 10......BACKGROUND: The emergency surgical airway (ESA) is the final option in difficult airway management. We identified ESA procedures registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) and described the performed airway management. METHODS: We extracted a cohort of 452 461 adult patients undergoing...

  7. Mediators on human airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C; Johnson, P; Anticevich, S; Ammit, A; McKay, K; Hughes, M; Black, J

    1997-01-01

    1. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma may be due to several abnormalities, but must include alterations in the airway smooth muscle responsiveness and/or volume. 2. Increased responsiveness of airway smooth muscle in vitro can be induced by certain inflammatory cell products and by induction of sensitization (atopy). 3. Increased airway smooth muscle growth can also be induced by inflammatory cell products and atopic serum. 4. Mast cell numbers are increased in the airways of asthmatics and, in our studies, in airway smooth muscle that is sensitized and hyperresponsive. 5. We propose that there is a relationship between mast cells and airway smooth muscle cells which, once an allergic process has been initiated, results in the development of critical features in the lungs in asthma.

  8. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4 and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2. Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN, the hypoglossal nerve (HGN, the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN with the phrenic nerve (PN. Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  9. Upper gastrointestinal strictures: The results of balloon dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, In Wook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal strictures is an accepted mode of therapy. The authors report the balloon dilatation in 11 consecutive patients. The lesions treated included 10 benign strictures, and 1 esophageal cancer. Esophageal balloon were ranged from 2 mm in diameter, 4 cm in length, to 30 mm in diameter, 8 cm in length. Inflation was held for from 30 to 60 seconds and then repeated two or three times during each session. The balloons were inflated to pressure of from 2 to 12 atmospheres. There were from 1 to 13 dilatations. Two esophageal perforations were occurred in one esophagitis patient and other lye stricture patient. Two perforations were not required any surgical repair. All dilatation were performed without anesthesia. All strictures were responded immediately to dilatation. Prolonged course of treatment were needed with chronic severe esophagitis, lye stricture, gastrojejunostomy with chemotherapy, as a result, all patients, except esophageal cancer, could take regular diet after balloon catheter dilatation. Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal stenosis was effective and safe. It should be considered before other methods of treatment applicable.

  10. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  11. The effect of pneumatic dilation in management of postfundoplication dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunjaya, D; Podboy, A; Blackmon, S H; Katzka, D; Halland, M

    2017-06-01

    Fundoplication surgery is a commonly performed procedure for gastro-esophageal reflux disease or hiatal hernia repair. Up to 10% of patients develop persistent postoperative dysphagia after surgery. Data on the effectiveness of pneumatic dilation for treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify clinical factors associated with successful response to pneumatic dilation among patients with persistent postfundoplication dysphagia (PPFD). We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for PPFD between 1999 and 2016. Patients with dysphagia or achalasia prior to fundoplication were excluded. Demographic information, surgical history, severity of dysphagia, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data pertaining to esophagram, manometry, endoscopy, and pneumatic dilation were also collected. We identified 38 patients (82% female, 95% Caucasian, and median age 59 years) with PPFD who completed pneumatic dilation. The median postfundoplication dysphagia score was 2. Eleven patients had abnormal peristalsis on manometry. Seventeen patients reported response (seven complete) with an average decrease of 1 in their dysphagia score. Fifteen patients underwent reoperation due to PPFD. Hiatal hernia repair was the only factor that predicts a higher response rate to pneumatic dilation. Only one patient in our study developed complication (pneumoperitoneum) from pneumatic dilation. We found that pneumatic dilation to be a safe treatment option for PPFD with moderate efficacy. Patients who developed PPFD after a hiatal hernia repair may gain the greatest benefit after pneumatic dilation. We were not able to identify additional clinical, radiological, endoscopic, or manometric parameters that were predictive of response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Airway contractility and remodeling : Links to asthma symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Adrian R.; Syyong, Harley T.; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Murphy, Thomas M.; Maarsingh, Harm; Deng, Linhong; Maksym, Geoffrey N.; Bosse, Ynuk

    Respiratory symptoms are largely caused by obstruction of the airways. In asthma, airway narrowing mediated by airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction contributes significantly to obstruction. The spasmogens produced following exposure to environmental triggers, such as viruses or allergens, are

  13. Comparison between children dilated computer and retinoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Qi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the dilation effect of computer optometry and retinoscopy optometry before and after mydriasis in children and to understand whether the application of computer refractor in children.METHODS: Therelated data of 500 children cases(1 000 eyeswith ametropia in our hospital were analyzed. The children firstly received computer optometry, and then use the 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel drops, respectively. After 3d, they were performed computer optometry and retinoscopy, and compared the effect of two refraction.RESULTS: Spherical reading of computer optometry group was 2.70±2.75DS, cylinder degree was 1.54±1.10DC, were lower than those of retinoscopy group(PPPP>0.05. Before mydriasis, astigmatism was 1.54±1.10D, astigmatic axis was(14.38±11.11°. After mydriasis, astigmatism was 1.45±1.21D and astigmatic axis was(12.78±10.31°, significantly higher than those of retinoscopy(PCONCLUSION: Children optometry concerns the visual development of children. Computer optometry and retinoscopy are the pros and cons. As for computer optometry can not replace retinoscopy optometry, it can be used as an auxiliary tool for fast optometry.

  14. The Mutations Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruti Parvari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure and a major indication for heart transplantation in children and adults. This paper describes the state of the genetic knowledge of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. The identification of the causing mutation is important since presymptomatic interventions of DCM have proven value in preventing morbidity and mortality. Additionally, as in general in genetic studies, the identification of the mutated genes has a direct clinical impact for the families and population involved. Identifying causative mutations immediately amplifies the possibilities for disease prevention through carrier screening and prenatal testing. This often lifts a burden of social isolation from affected families, since healthy family members can be assured of having healthy children. Identification of the mutated genes holds the potential to lead to the understanding of disease etiology, pathophysiology, and therefore potential therapy. This paper presents the genetic variations, or disease-causing mutations, contributing to the pathogenesis of hereditary DCM, and tries to relate these to the functions of the mutated genes.

  15. Gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, C J; Walsh, V P

    2003-12-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a disease in which there is gross distension of the stomach with fluid or gas and gastric malpositioning. It causes pathology of multiple organ systems and is rapidly fatal. It is common in large- and giant-breed dogs. The disease appears to have a familial predisposition. Thoracic depth/width ratio also appears to predispose dogs to GDV. Implicated dietary factors include dietary particle size, frequency of feeding, speed of eating, aerophagia and an elevated feed bowl. A fearful temperament and stressful events may also predispose dogs to GDV. Abdominal distension, non-productive retching, restlessness, signs of shock, tachypnoea and dyspnoea are possible clinical signs. Initial treatment includes treatment of shock and gastric decompression. Surgical treatment should be performed promptly. There are no studies comparing the use of different anaesthetic agents in the anaesthetic management of GDV. Pre-medication with an opioid/benzodiazepine combination has been recommended. Induction agents that cause minimal cardiovascular changes such as opioids, neuroactive steroidal agents and etomidate are recommended. Anaesthesia should be maintained with an inhalational agent. Surgical therapy involves decompression, correction of gastric malpositioning, debridement of necrotic tissue, and gastropexy. Options for gastropexy include incisional, tube, circumcostal, belt-loop, incorporating, and laparoscopic gastropexy. Expected mortality with surgical therapy is 15-24%. Prognostic factors include mental status on presentation, presence of gastric necrosis, presence of cardiac arrhythmia and plasma lactate levels. Prophylactic gastropexy should be considered in dogs identified as being at high risk.

  16. Eder Puestow dilatation of benign rectal stricture following anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Tydeman, G; Lewis, M H

    1990-01-01

    Benign anastomotic stricture following anterior resection can be difficult to manage when the stricture is proximal. The acceptable surgical options are either a redo low resection with its accompanying hazards or, alternatively, the formation of a permanent colostomy. Although dilatation of such strictures is possible by blind passage of metal bougies, the authors believe that this technique must be regarded as hazardous. A technique of dilatation is described that is usually reserved for esophageal stricture, namely, Eder Puestow dilatation over a guide wire inserted under direct vision. Although this technique may not be without risk, this readily available equipment may be valuable in making a further resection unnecessary.

  17. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in brown bear (Ursus arctos)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Darko; Özvegy, Jòzsef; Aničić, Milan; Vučićević, Ivana; Nešić, Slađan; Kukolj, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a life-threatening condition characterized by rapid accumulation of food and gases that cause displacement and distension of the stomach. The large and giant, deep-chested breeds of dogs are at higher risk for developing the gastric dilatation and volvulus. Uncommonly, it can also develop in cats, but it is also described in free-range polar bears. A case of gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brown bear (Ursus arctos) is described in this paper. This case ...

  18. Characterization and Long-Term Prognosis of Postmyocarditic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Compared With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Marco; Anzini, Marco; Bussani, Rossana; Artico, Jessica; Barbati, Giulia; Stolfo, Davide; Gigli, Marta; Muça, Matilda; Naso, Paola; Ramani, Federica; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-09-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) is the final common pathway of different pathogenetic processes and presents a significant prognostic heterogeneity, possibly related to its etiologic variety. The characterization and long-term prognosis of postmyocarditic dilated cardiomyopathy (PM-DC) remain unknown. This study assesses the clinical-instrumental evolution and long-term prognosis of a large cohort of patients with PM-DC. We analyzed 175 patients affected with DC consecutively enrolled from 1993 to 2008 with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) data available. PM-DC was defined in the presence of borderline myocarditis at EMB or persistent left ventricular dysfunction 1 year after diagnosis of active myocarditis at EMB. Other patients were defined as affected by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Analysis of follow-up evaluations was performed at 24, 60, and 120 months. We found 72 PM-DC of 175 enrolled patients (41%). Compared with IDC, patients with PM-DC were more frequently females and less frequently presented a familial history of DC. No other baseline significant differences were found. During the long-term follow-up (median 154, first to third interquartile range 78 to 220 months), patients with PM-DC showed a trend toward slower disease progression. Globally, 18 patients with PM-DC (25%) versus 49 with IDC (48%) experienced death/heart transplantation (p = 0.045). The prognostic advantage for patients with PM-DC became significant beyond 40 months of follow-up. At multivariable time-dependent Cox analysis, PM-DC was confirmed to have a global independent protective role (hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.97, p = 0.04). In conclusion, PM-DC is characterized by better long-term prognosis compared with IDC. An exhaustive etiologic characterization appears relevant in the prognostic assessment of DC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining the complex modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Shalinie; See, Howard; Thomas, Graham; Swain, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the visco-elastic response of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material during setting. A novel squeeze film Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR, GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia) was used to determine the complex modulus of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material (Algident, ISO 1563 Class A Type 1, Dentalfarm Australia Pty. Ltd.) during setting after mixing. Data was collected every 30s for 10 min in one study and every 10 min for a total of 60 min in another study. A high level of repeatability was observed. The results indicate that the MFR is capable of recording the complex shear modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid for 60 min from the start of mixing and to simultaneously report the changing visco-elastic parameters at all frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 Hz. The storage modulus shows a dramatic increase to 370% of its starting value after 6 min and then reduces to 55% after 60 min. The loss modulus increases to a maximum of 175% of its starting value after 10 min and then reduces to 94% after 60 min. The MFR enables the changes in the complex modulus through the complete setting process to be followed. It is anticipated this approach may provide a better method to compare the visco-elastic properties of impression materials and assist with identification of optimum types for different clinical requirements. The high stiffness of the instrument and the use of band-limited pseudo-random noise as the input signal are the main advantages of this technique over conventional rheometers for determining the changes in alginate visco-elasticity.

  20. Dimensional Stability of Color-Changing Irreversible Hydrocolloids after Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi AAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Disinfection of dental impressions is a weak point in the dental hygiene chain. In addition, dental office personnel and dental technicians are endangered by cross-contamination. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dimensional stability of two color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid materials (IH after disinfection with glutaraldehyde. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, impressions were made of a master maxillary arch containing three reference inserts on the occlucal surface of the left and right maxillary second molars and in the incisal surface of the maxillary central incisors. Two types of color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid (tetrachrom, cavex were used. Glutaraldehyde 2% was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the impressions. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type IV gypsum. The linear dimensional change of the stone casts was measured with a profile projector. For statistical analysis, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests were used (α=0.05. Results: By immersion method, the casts fabricated from tetrachrom were 0.36% larger in the anteroposterior (AP and 0.05% smaller in cross arch (CA dimensions; however, the casts prepared after spraying of tetrachrom were 0.44% larger in the AP and 0.10% smaller in CA dimensions. The casts made from Cavex were 0.05% smaller in the AP and 0.02% smaller in CA dimensions after spraying and 0.01% smaller in the AP and 0.003% smaller in CA dimensions after immersion. Generally there were not significant differences in AP and CA dimensions of the experimental groups compared to the control (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Disinfection of the tested color-changing irreversible hydrocolloids by glutaraldahyde 2% did not compromise the accuracy of the obtained casts.

  1. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Vazquez, Jose'

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the concept of non-equilibrium temperature from the perspectives of extended irreversible thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, and statistical mechanics. The relations between different proposals are explicitly examined in two especially simple systems: an ideal gas in steady shear flow and a forced harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath. We examine with special detail temperatures related to the average molecular kinetic energy along different spatial directions, to the average configurational energy, to the derivative of the entropy with respect to internal energy, to fluctuation-dissipation relation and discuss their measurement.

  2. Exactly solvable irreversible processes on one-dimensional lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, N.O.; Evans, J.W.; Hoffman, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the kinetics of a process where the sites of an infinite 1-D lattice are filled irreversibly and, in general, cooperatively by N-mers (taking N consecutive sites at a time). We extend the previously available exact solution for nearest neighbor cooperative effects to range N cooperative effects. Connection with the continuous ''cooperative car parking problem'' is indicated. Both uniform and periodic lattices, and empty and certain partially filled lattice initial conditions are considered. We also treat monomer ''filling in stages'' for certain highly autoinhibitory cooperative effects of arbitrary range

  3. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The other conditions in the spectrum, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy , are characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of ... linked dilated cardiomyopathy is sometimes classified as subclinical Becker muscular dystrophy. Related Information What does it mean if a ...

  4. Cushing’s Disease Presented by Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dilated cardiomyopathy is rarely reported among CS patients especially without hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Materials and Methods. We hereby report a Cushing’s syndrome case presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy. Results. A 48-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with severe proximal myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy without ventricular hypertrophy. Cushing’s disease was diagnosed and magnetic-resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma. Under diuretic and ketoconazole treatments, she underwent a successful transnasal/transsphenoidal adenomectomy procedure. Full recovery of symptoms and echocardiographic features was achieved after six months of surgery. Conclusion. Cushing’s syndrome must be kept in mind as a reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Recovery of cardiomyopathy is achieved with successful surgery.

  5. Refractory esophageal strictures: what to do when dilation fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckel, P.G. van; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Benign esophageal strictures arise from a diversity of causes, for example esophagogastric reflux, esophageal resection, radiation therapy, ablative therapy, or the ingestion of a corrosive substance. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation using

  6. Balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guoping; Yu Juming; Zhong Weixing; Zhu Ming; Wu Yeming; Shi Chengren

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the methods and effect of balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children. Methods: 9 cases had an anastomotic stenosis after surgical correction of esophageal atresia; 11 cases of esophageal stenosis due to ingestion of caustics; one case had an lower esophageal stenosis after Nissen surgery and one case after gastro-esophagoplasty. Age ranged from 17 days to 7 years. Each case had a barium esophagram before balloon dilation. The balloon size varied from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Results: 21 cases were successful after dilation of balloon catheter. There were no esophageal perforation and complications. The satisfactory results maintained from six months to thirty months. Conclusions: Balloon catheter dilation is a simple, safe and reliable method for the treatment of benign esophageal strictures in children as the first choice

  7. Frequency and clinical genetics of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency and clinical genetics of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in Cape Town: Implications for the evaluation of patients with unexplained cardiomyopathy. NBA Ntusi, A Wonkam, G Shaboodien, M Badri, BM Mayosi ...

  8. Percutaneous dilatation of benign ureteral stricture -a case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kyu Bo; Ahn, Jung Sook; Ham, So Hie; Woo, Won Hyung [Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Percutaneous ureteral dilatation was done with balloon catheter and ureteral stent. A 40 year old woman had a pelvic surgery due to inflammatory cyst and this surgery was complicated by incidental cutting of right ureter and ureteroureteral anastomosis was done. After 1 month, she was suffered from severe right flank pain, nausea and vomiting, and showed delayed visualization of pelvocalyceal system with dilatation in intravenous pyelography. Percutaneous nephrostomy was done and complete obstruction at lower ureter was seen in antegrade pyelography. 4 mm balloon catheter was introduced through the nephrostomy tract and dilatation was done with a pressure of 5 atm for 1 minute duration for 4 times and no. 7 double J ureteral stent was left across the lesion for prevention of restenosis. Ureteral stent was removed after 2 months, and successful dilatation was seen and no evidence of restenosis in 5 weeks follow up.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of oesophageal dilation under general anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C H; Rasmussen, V; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    , but was not associated with the actual time of oesophageal distension. Thus, all cases of myocardial ischaemia were related to the time of extubation. No lasting complications were seen, and all patients could be discharged a maximum of 24 hours after the procedure. Pneumatic dilation of the oesophagus under general......Myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias may occur during oesophageal dilation under conscious sedation, but no prospective data exist regarding dilation under general anaesthesia. We have studied the haemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes during routine oesophageal balloon dilation...... the procedure. Four patients developed significant hypotension at the time of balloon inflation with two patients requiring medical intervention to re-establish sufficient cardiovascular function. Tachycardia and ST-deviation occurred in four and three patients, respectively, during the general anaesthesia...

  10. Pneumatic dilatation in achalasia cardia results and follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe A

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic dilatation is one of the more recent methods in the management of achalasia cardia. Fifty dilatations were done in 42 patients with achalasia cardia over 5 years. There was a significant decrease in the maximum diameter of the oesophagus and a significant increase in diameter in the narrowed lower oesophageal segment in all the patients. Of the patients studied, 95.23% were relieved of their symptoms after only one to two sessions. There were no immediate complications. Out of the 38 patients on long term follow up, 8 (21.05% had recurrence of symptoms. On repeat dilatations, 4 (50% of them had good response. Late complication like reflux oesophagitis was observed in only 1 patient over a median follow up period of 22 months. It was thus concluded that pneumatic dilatation is a safe, simple and effective procedure in managing patients with achalasia cardia.

  11. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated cardiomyopathy patients: A clinical trial. PLN Kaparthi, G Namita, LK Chelluri, VSP Rao, PK Shah, A Vasantha, SK Ratnakar, K Ravindhranath ...

  12. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  13. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle......, and pairs airway branches with the accompanying artery, then quantifies airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis by measuring the wall-artery ratio (WAR) and lumen and outer wall airway-artery ratio (AAR). Measurements that do not use the artery size for normalization are also extracted, including wall...... area percentage (WAP), wall thickness ratio (WTR), and airway diameters. Results: The method was thoroughly evaluated using 8000 manual annotations of airway-artery pairs from 24 full-inspiration pediatric CT scans (12 diseased and 12 controls). Limits of agreement between the automatically...

  14. Autologous Cricoid Cartilage as a Graft for Airway Reconstruction in an Emergent Technique - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Izadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laryngotracheal stenosis can be caused after traumatic injuries to the neck from the subglottic larynx to the trachea. Patients with laryngotracheal stenosis often need a tracheotomy and occasionally may become tracheotomy dependent. Different procedures have been described for the management of these lesions. Management options include techniques of endoscopic dilation, laser resection, laryngo-fissure, and an innovative array of plastic reconstructions with or without the use of stents.   Case Report:This paper presents airway reconstruction in a young patient with severe subglottic stenosis due to a blunt trauma to the neck, who was treated using particles of an autologous fractured cricoid cartilage as the source for airway augmentation. An incision was made in the anterior midline of the cricoid lamina and deepened through the scar tissue to the posterior cricoid lamina. Then two lateral incisions (right & left were made in the cricoid lamina and fractured cartilage particles and the scar tissue were removed via these two lateral incisions. The mucosal lining at the right and left of the midline incision, after debulking, were sutured to a lateral position. Thereafter three cartilage particles were used to reconstruct the anterior cricoid lamina and augment the lumen.   Conclusion:  It is worth to mention that an autologus cartilage graft can be used for certain cases with traumatic airway stenosis. Further follow up and more patients are needed to approve this method of reconstructive surgery in emergent situations.

  15. An unusual triad: Bilateral dilated odontoma, hypodontia and peg laterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphy Alphonsa Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of bilateral dilated odontoma affecting a microdontic permanent lateral incisor in a 30 year old female patient with hypodontia and peglateral teeth with its clinical, radiological and histological features, which has yet been not reported. Bilateral presence of dilated odontoma is not a common occurrence, although a single tooth involvement in each case has been reported in the literature.

  16. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  17. Cystic dilatation of ventriculus terminalis in adults: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, R.; Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Kudo, S.; Sakai, S.; Murata, S.

    1998-01-01

    We report the MRI findings in two patients with cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis. The latter is usually a tiny ependyma-lined cavity of the conus medullaris. In both cases the markedly dilated ventriculus terminalis was seen as a rounded cavity with regular margins, the content of which gave the same signal as cerebrospinal fluid with all MR pulse sequences. No contrast enhancement was seen. (orig.)

  18. Markers of Airway Remodeling in Bronchopulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Chernyshova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about markers of airway remodeling in bronchopulmonary diseases. There is described the influence of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor, collagen autoantibodies III type, endothelin-1 on the processes of morphological airway reconstruction as smooth muscle hypertrophy, enhanced neovascularization, epithelial cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, compaction of the basal membrane, observed in bronchial asthma.

  19. Bronchology Treatment Of The Malignant Airway Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, R. et al

    2007-01-01

    Central airway stenosis is benign or malignant etiology. Multidiscplinary approach is useful in treatment central airway stenosis. In inoperable cases, interventional bronchology is good therapeutic alternative. We can use NdYAG laser, argon plasma coagulation, elektrocautery, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy and stents for obstruction release. In malignant stenosis, we combine often methods of the interventional bronchology with brachytherapy, chemotherapy and external radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Athletic Trainers' Knowledge Regarding Airway Adjuncts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor; Roman, Christopher; Mata, Heather Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research suggests that knowledge gaps regarding the appropriate use of airway adjuncts exist among various health care practitioners, and that knowledge is especially limited within athletic training. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived knowledge (PK) and actual knowledge (AK) of airway adjunct use and the…

  1. Trefoil factor-2 reverses airway remodeling changes in allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Lim, Clarice; Muljadi, Ruth C; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C; Giraud, Andrew S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) is a small peptide with an important role in mucosal repair. TFF2 is up-regulated in asthma, suggesting a role in asthma pathogenesis. Given its known biological role in promoting epithelial repair, TFF2 might be expected to exert a protective function in limiting the progression of airway remodeling in asthma. The contribution of TFF2 to airway remodeling in asthma was investigated by examining the expression of TFF2 in the airway and lung, and evaluating the effects of recombinant TFF2 treatment on established airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD). BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline for 9 weeks, whereas mice with established OVA-induced AAD were treated with TFF2 or vehicle control (intranasally for 14 d). Effects on airway remodeling, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness were then assessed, whereas TFF2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. TFF2 expression was significantly increased in the airways of mice with AAD, compared with expression levels in control mice. TFF2 treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickening, subepithelial collagen deposition, goblet-cell metaplasia, bronchial epithelium apoptosis, and airway hyperresponsiveness (all P < 0.05, versus vehicle control), but TFF2 treatment did not influence airway inflammation. The increased expression of endogenous TFF2 in response to chronic allergic inflammation is insufficient to prevent the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic AAD. However, exogenous TFF2 treatment is effective in reversing aspects of established airway remodeling. TFF2 has potential as a novel treatment for airway remodeling in asthma.

  2. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  3. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  4. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Gi Jae; Yu, Pil Mun

    1992-01-01

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively

  5. Treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation: A forgotten tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization and dilation, urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy as well. Although treatment option depends on the type, length and aetiology of stricture, the choice can be influenced to varying degrees by the simplicity of the method, the preferences of the patient the available accoutrements and the patient health condition. Both urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy require anaesthesia and thus are not suitable for many elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients. On the other hand, dilations are easy to perform in every day clinical practice however they have been associated with iatrogenic urethral trauma. In contrast, balloon dilation under vision dilates by radial application of forces against the stricture, avoiding the potentially shearing forces associated with sequential rigid dilation. Since it reduces the possibility of an iatrogenic urethral trauma and the subsequent spongiofibrosis may lead into improved therapeutic outcomes. In this report we describe a technique for the treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation in elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients.

  6. Treatments for pediatric achalasia: Heller myotomy or pneumatic dilatation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C; Michaud, L; Mougenot, J-F; Lamblin, M-D; Philippe-Chomette, P; Cargill, G; Bonnevalle, M; Boige, N; Bellaïche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P; Gottrand, F; Cezard, J-P

    2010-03-01

    The treatment of achalasia consists of reducing distal esophageal obstruction by either Heller myotomy surgery or endoscopic pneumatic dilatation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short- and middle-term results of these procedures in children. For technical reasons, children under six years old (n=8) were treated by surgery only, whereas patients over six years old (n=14) were treated by either Heller myotomy or pneumatic dilatation. Of the children aged under six years, 75% were symptom-free at six months and 83% at 24 months of follow-up. Of the patients aged over six years, complete remission was achieved by Heller myotomy in 44.5% vs. 55.5% by pneumatic dilatation after six months, and in 40% vs. 65%, respectively, after 24 months. Both pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy showed significant rates of failure. These results suggest that pneumatic dilatation may be considered a primary treatment in children over six years old. Also, where necessary, Heller myotomy and pneumatic dilatation may be used as complementary treatments.

  7. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianguo; Song Jinwen; Yang Yan; Liu Xiaohong; Fu Zhiming; Zhang Yaqin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  8. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung [Seoul Natioal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Jae [Inje University Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively.

  9. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  10. Linear Dimensional Stability of Irreversible Hydrocolloid Materials Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different irreversible hydrocolloid materials over time. A metal mold was designed with custom trays made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex, sheets 0.125 mm thick). Perforations were made in order to improve retention of the material. Five impressions were taken with each of the following: Kromopan 100 (LASCOD) [AlKr], which has dimensional stability of 100 hours, and Phase Plus (ZHERMACK) [AlPh], which has dimensional stability of 48 hours. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 minutes; 12, 24 and 96 hours), using an "ad-hoc" device. The images were analyzed with software (UTHSCSA Image Tool) by measuring the distance between intersection of the lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. Initial and final values were (mean and standard deviation): AlKr: 16.44 (0.22) and 16.34 (0.11), AlPh: 16.40 (0.06) and 16.18 (0.06). Statistical evaluation showed significant effect of material and time factors. Under the conditions in this study, time significantly affects the linear dimensional stability of irreversible hydrocolloid materials. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadras, Angel, E-mail: angel.cuadras@upc.edu; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos [Instrumentation, Sensor and Interfaces Group, Electronic Engineering Department, Escola d' Enginyeria de Telecomunicació i Aeronàutica de Castelldefels EETAC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Tech (UPC), Castelldefels-Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4–8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance.

  12. Influence of delayed pouring on irreversible hydrocolloid properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Becker Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of irreversible hydrocolloid materials poured immediately and after different storage periods. Four alginates were tested: Color Change (Cavex; Hydrogum (Zhermack; Hydrogum 5 (Zhermack; and Hydro Print Premium (Coltene. Their physical properties, including the recovery from deformation (n = 3, compressive strength (n = 3, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility (n = 3, were analyzed according to ANSI/ADA specification no. 18. Specimens were stored at 23ºC and humidity and were then poured with gypsum immediately and after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test at p < 0.05. All of the alginate impression materials tested exhibited detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility at all times. Hydro Print Premium and Hydrogum 5 showed recovery from deformation, as established by ANSI/ADA specification no. 18, after 5 days of storage. As the storage time increased, the compressive strength values also increased. Considering the properties of compounds' recovery from deformation, compressive strength, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility, irreversible hydrocolloids should be poured immediately.

  13. Voter model with arbitrary degree dependence: clout, confidence and irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2014-03-01

    The voter model is widely used to model opinion dynamics in society. In this paper, we propose three modifications to incorporate heterogeneity into the model. We address the corresponding oversimplifications of the conventional voter model which are unrealistic. We first consider the voter model with popularity bias. The influence of each node on its neighbors depends on its degree. We find the consensus probabilities and expected consensus times for each of the states. We also find the fixation probability, which is the probability that a single node whose state differs from every other node imposes its state on the entire system. In addition, we find the expected fixation time. Then two other extensions to the model are proposed and the motivations behind them are discussed. The first one is confidence, where in addition to the states of neighbors, nodes take their own state into account at each update. We repeat the calculations for the augmented model and investigate the effects of adding confidence to the model. The second proposed extension is irreversibility, where one of the states is given the property that once nodes adopt it, they cannot switch back. This is motivated by applications where, agents take an irreversible action such as seeing a movie, purchasing a music album online, or buying a new product. The dynamics of densities, fixation times and consensus times are obtained.

  14. Irreversibility in physics stemming from unpredictable symbol-handling agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2016-05-01

    The basic equations of physics involve a time variable t and are invariant under the transformation t --> -t. This invariance at first sight appears to impose time reversibility as a principle of physics, in conflict with thermodynamics. But equations written on the blackboard are not the whole story in physics. In prior work we sharpened a distinction obscured in today's theoretical physics, the distinction between obtaining evidence from experiments on the laboratory bench and explaining that evidence in mathematical symbols on the blackboard. The sharp distinction rests on a proof within the mathematics of quantum theory that no amount of evidence, represented in quantum theory in terms of probabilities, can uniquely determine its explanation in terms of wave functions and linear operators. Building on the proof we show here a role in physics for unpredictable symbol-handling agents acting both at the blackboard and at the workbench, communicating back and forth by means of transmitted symbols. Because of their unpredictability, symbol-handling agents introduce a heretofore overlooked source of irreversibility into physics, even when the equations they write on the blackboard are invariant under t --> -t. Widening the scope of descriptions admissible to physics to include the agents and the symbols that link theory to experiments opens up a new source of time-irreversibility in physics.

  15. Advanced Caries Microbiota in Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Lima, Kenio C; Assunção, Isauremi V; Gomes, Patrícia N; Bracks, Igor V; Siqueira, José F

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial taxa in the forefront of caries biofilms are candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and are possibly the first ones to invade the pulp and initiate endodontic infection. This study examined the microbiota of the most advanced layers of dentinal caries in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. DNA extracted from samples taken from deep dentinal caries associated with pulp exposures was analyzed for the presence and relative levels of 33 oral bacterial taxa by using reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay. Quantification of total bacteria, streptococci, and lactobacilli was also performed by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations between the target bacterial taxa and clinical signs/symptoms were also evaluated. The most frequently detected taxa in the checkerboard assay were Atopobium genomospecies C1 (53%), Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus (37%), Streptococcus species (33%), Streptococcus mutans (33%), Parvimonas micra (13%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (13%), and Veillonella species (13%). Streptococcus species, Dialister invisus, and P. micra were significantly associated with throbbing pain, S. mutans with pain to percussion, and Lactobacillus with continuous pain (P pulpitis is suspected. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadras, Angel; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4–8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance

  17. Irreversible absorption heat-pump and its optimal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Qin Xiaoyong; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of an endoreversible absorption heat-pump cycle, a generalized irreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption heat-pump cycle model is established by taking account of the heat resistances, heat leak and irreversibilities due to the internal dissipation of the working substance. The heat transfer between the heat reservoir and the working substance is assumed to obey the linear (Newtonian) heat-transfer law, and the overall heat-transfer surface area of the four heat-exchangers is assumed to be constant. The fundamental optimal relations between the coefficient of performance (COP) and the heating-load, the maximum COP and the corresponding heating-load, the maximum heating load and the corresponding COP, as well as the optimal temperatures of the working substance and the optimal heat-transfer surface areas of the four heat-exchangers are derived by using finite-time thermodynamics. Moreover, the effects of the cycle parameters on the characteristics of the cycle are studied by numerical examples

  18. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  19. Innovative Application of a Microlaryngeal Surgery Tube for difficult Airway Management in a Case of Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabani, Michell; Gupta, Akhilesh; Bannerjee, Neerja Gaur; Sood, Rajesh; Dass, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    An 11-year-old male child, known case of down's syndrome with congenital oesophageal stricture was posted for oesophageal dilatation. Preoperative airway assessment revealed a high arched palate, receding mandible and Mallampati Score of 2. During surgery, after loss of consciousness which was described as loss of eyelash reflex and adequate jaw relaxation, direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation was attempted with a cuffed endotracheal tube number 5.0mm ID (internal diameter). The endotracheal tube could not be negotiated smoothly, so 5.0mm ID uncuffed endotracheal tube was used which passed through easily, but on auscultation revealed a significant leak. Later, intubation via a Micro Laryngeal Surgery (MLS) cuffed tube 4.0mm ID was attempted. The MLS tube advanced smoothly and there was no associated leak on positive pressure ventilation. Thus by innovative thinking and avant-garde reasoning, a definitive airway device could be positioned with no other suitable alternative at hand.

  20. Achalasia: pneumatic Dilation. Experience in a reference hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Martin; Farfan, Yezid; Molano, Juan; Rey, Mario; Martinez, Julian; Marulanda, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Chalasia has an incidence of 1:100.000. The therapy for achalasia, focus on reducing the pressure gradient across the LES, which can be achieved by forceful pneumatic dilation of the gastroesophageal junction, surgical myotomy or by pharmacological agents, injected endoscopically or taken orally. Pneumatic balloon dilation is regarded as the first-Line treatment, with an initial success rate of 85% to 90%. The objective of this study is to show our experience with pneumatic balloon dilation in the patients with diagnosis of achalasia from the hospital La Samaritana during a period from February 2002 to February 2005. Patients diagnosed with achalasia from the department of gastroenterology and endoscopy of the Hospital La Samaritana during period of February 2002 to February 2005 was included. Procedures were made in fluoroscopy room. The patients received intravenous sedation and analgesia. We used a Regiflex balloon, 3.5 cm diameter. Balloons were inflated with saline water and water-soluble contrast during one minute. We diagnosed 19 patients with achalasia during period from February 2002 to February 2005, 14 were females and 5 males (26%); we made pneumatic dilation in 11 patients (60%), 9 were females (82%) with mean age 38.9 years (ranged from 16 to 13 years). Three patients (21%) underwent once pneumatic dilation and the rest (8 patients) underwent twice (73%). We don't report any perforation. So far we have followed the patients ambulatory during period from 6 months to 2 years. We find recurrence one year after of the pneumatic dilation in a female patient 22 years old (9%). The pneumatic dilation as cost-effective therapy, with a good initial success, but in the longer the follow-up lower the success rate and low morbidity (4). We suggest making only two pneumatic dilations. Today, there isn't consensus on the optimal endoscopic dilation technique and we believe that the sedation must be included in this procedure. In the future, we need more comparative

  1. Non-invasive assessment of right ventricular function at rest and on exercise in obstructive airways disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddel, A.; Martin, W.; McGhie, I.; Neilly, B.; Stevenson, R.; Hutton, I.

    1985-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of right ventricular function is of clinical interest in the patient with obstructive airways disease. Gated Xenon 133 scanning allows right ventricular function to be evaluated in isolation from the left ventricle, and with rapid clearance from the lungs, scans may be repeated within 5 minutes. 400mBq of Xenon 133 were injected intravenously over 20 seconds and images were obtained using a mobile gamma camera. Maximal symptom limited exercise was performed on a supine bicycle ergometer. The normal range for right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was obtained from 10 volunteers - 40-55% at rest rising by 5-15% during exercise. In 10 patients with acute obstructive airways disease, all had reduced RVEF 21 +- 3%. In chronic obstructive airways disease, if resting RVEF was greater than 30%, ejection fraction increased on exercise. If resting ejection fraction was abnormal than RVEF was reduced or unchanged on exercise (mean 15 +- 9%), and this was associated with dilatation of both the right ventricle and atrium. In conclusion, gated Xenon 133 offers a simple method of assessing right ventricular function at rest and on exercise in the patient with obstructive airways disease

  2. Treatment of Ureterointestinal Anastomotic Strictures by Diathermal or Cryoplastic Dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsi, Franco; Penco, Silvia; Matei, Victor; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Cobelli, Ottavio De

    2007-01-01

    Background. Ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures (UAS) complicate 10-15% of surgeries for urinary diversion and are the main cause of deterioration in renal function. Treatments are surgical revision, management with autostatic stent, balloon dilatation, endoscopic incision, and percutaneous transrenal diathermy (Acucise). A new option is cryoplastic dilatation (Polar-Cath). Purpose. To assess the feasibility, complications, and preliminary results of UAS treatment using the Acucise and Polar-Cath systems. Methods. Nineteen UAS, diagnosed by ultrasonography or computed tomography and sequential renal scintigraphy, occurred in 15 cancer patients after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Fifteen were managed with balloon diathermy and 4 by balloon cryoplasty in a three-stage procedure-percutaneous nephrostomy, diathermal or cryoplastic dilatation, and transnephrostomic control with nephrostomy removal-each separated by 15 days. All patients gave written informed consent. Results. Dilatations were successful in all cases. The procedure is simple and rapid (about 45 min) under fluoroscopic control and sedation. Procedural complications occurred in 1 (5%) patient with UAS after Wallace II uretero-ileocutaneostomy: a common iliac artery lesion was induced by diathermal dilatation, evident subsequently, and required surgical repair. Patency with balloon diathermy was good, with two restenoses developing over 12 months (range 1-22) of follow-up. With balloon cryoplastic dilatation, one restenosis developed in the short term; follow-up is too brief to assess the long-term efficacy. Conclusion. Our short-term results with diathermal and cryoplastic dilatation to resolve UAS are good. If supported by longer follow-up, the techniques may be considered as first-choice approaches to UAS. Surgery should be reserved for cases in which this minimally invasive technique fails

  3. Importance of early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without biliary dilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Tabata, Taku; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Igarashi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops. METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients

  4. Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy--a 3 year experience in a general hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C C; Lee, H S; Balan, S

    2004-12-01

    All percutaneous tracheostomies performed in the general intensive care unit (ICU), Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, from July 1999 to June 2002 were studied. The tracheostomies were performed as an elective bedside technique in the ICU. A total of 352 percutaneous tracheostomies were performed. Eighty-eight percent of the tracheostomies were completed within 15 minutes. The most common complication was bleeding which occurred in 52 patients (14.7%). The rest of the complications encountered were:- transient hypoxia twelve (3.4%), inability/ difficulty to insert tracheostomy tube eight (2.3%), false passage four (1.1%), transient hypotension two (0.6%), pneumothorax two (0.6%), peristomal infection two (0.6%), subcutaneous emphysema one (0.3%), cuff rupture one (0.3%), oesophageal cannulation one (0.3%), and granuloma formation one (0.3%). Conversion to conventional tracheostomies were performed on 7 patients (2%). There was one unfortunate death related to percutaneous tracheostomy. In conclusion, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy can be used safely to manage the airway of critically ill patients.

  5. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  6. Post-extubation airway obstruction. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro SÁNCHEZ-TABERNERO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: airway obstruction after extubation in any surgery is a critical event with low incidence, which may require reintubation or tracheostomy, which often otolaryngologist is required. Objective: To determine the prevalence of BVA and its causes through systematic literature review. Method: Literature review in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane clinical trials, meta-analysis, reviews and case series and control over airway obstruction after extubation that requires reintubation in adults. Results: 6 studies and one clinical practice guidelines were selected. The most common cause of extubation failure is blocking the airway for various reasons (pharyngeal muscle weakness residual effect -often farmacologycal-, laryngospasm, vocal cord paralysis, edema of upper respiratory tract, cervical postoperative hematoma, foreign bodies or secretions. Most cases of re-intubation occurred within 2 hours after extubation. Conclusions: The most common cause of failure after general anesthesia extubation is blocking the airway generally caused by residual neuromuscular blocking effect. Airway obstruction risk increases in airway and head and neck surgery. Difficult intubation guidlines have improved performance and reduced adverse events and similar strategies must be implemented in extubation. The procedure extubation and reintubation should be documented. Working groups airway must be multidisciplinary and include specialists in otolaryngology.

  7. Irreversible Thermodynamics of the Universe: Constraints from Planck Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy; Biswas, Atreyee

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with irreversible universal thermodynamics. The homogenous and isotropic flat model of the universe is chosen as open thermodynamical system and nonequilibrium thermodynamics comes into picture. For simplicity, entropy flow is considered only due to heat conduction. Further, due to Maxwell-Cattaneo modified Fourier law for nonequilibrium phenomenon, the temperature satisfies damped wave equation instead of heat conduction equation. Validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) has been investigated for universe bounded by apparent or event horizon with cosmic substratum as perfect fluid with constant or variable equation of state or interacting dark species. Finally, we have used three Planck data sets to constrain the thermal conductivity λ and the coupling parameter b 2 . These constraints must be satisfied in order for GSLT to hold for universe bounded by apparent or event horizons

  8. Advertising and Irreversible Opinion Spreading in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián

    Irreversible opinion spreading phenomena are studied on small-world and scale-free networks by means of the magnetic Eden model, a nonequilibrium kinetic model for the growth of binary mixtures in contact with a thermal bath. In this model, the opinion of an individual is affected by those of their acquaintances, but opinion changes (analogous to spin flips in an Ising-like model) are not allowed. We focus on the influence of advertising, which is represented by external magnetic fields. The interplay and competition between temperature and fields lead to order-disorder transitions, which are found to also depend on the link density and the topology of the complex network substrate. The effects of advertising campaigns with variable duration, as well as the best cost-effective strategies to achieve consensus within different scenarios, are also discussed.

  9. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Beille, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Berling, D.; Loegel, B. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R. [EPM-MATFORMAG, Laboratoire dElaboration par Procede Magnetique, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe ac <100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL close-quote s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  11. Thermodynamic Optimality criteria for biological systems in linear irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimal, J C; Sánchez, N; Ramírez, PR

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the methodology of the so-called Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT) is applied; although traditionally used locally to study general systems in non-equilibrium states in which it is consider both internal and external contributions to the entropy increments in order to analyze the efficiency of two coupled processes with generalized fluxes J 1 , J 2 and their corresponding forces X 1 , X 2 . We extend the former analysis to takes into account two different operating regimes namely: Omega Function and Efficient Power criterion, respectively. Results show analogies in the optimal performance between and we can say that there exist a criteria of optimization which can be used specially for biological systems where a good design of the biological parameters made by nature at maximum efficient power conditions lead to more efficient engines than those at the maximum power conditions or ecological conditions. (paper)

  12. A quantum analogy for the linear thermodynamics of irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Mengual, J.A.; Tejerina-Garcia, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, a model for the transport through a liquid junction of two solutions of the same components, based on quantum-mechanical considerations, is established. A small energy difference, compared with the molecules' energy, among the molecules placed at both sides of the junction is assumed to exist. The liquid junction is assimilated to a potential barrier, getting the material flow from the transmission coefficient of the barrier, when the energy difference is caused by a temperature gradient, a concentration gradient, or both gradients acting together. In all cases, equations formally identical to those of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are obtained. In the last case, the heat flow is also determined. (author)

  13. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  14. Irreversibility of world-sheet renormalization group flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliynyk, T.; Suneeta, V.; Woolgar, E.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the irreversibility of a wide class of world-sheet renormalization group (RG) flows to first order in α ' in string theory. Our techniques draw on the mathematics of Ricci flows, adapted to asymptotically flat target manifolds. In the case of somewhere-negative scalar curvature (of the target space), we give a proof by constructing an entropy that increases monotonically along the flow, based on Perelman's Ricci flow entropy. One consequence is the absence of periodic solutions, and we are able to give a second, direct proof of this. If the scalar curvature is everywhere positive, we instead construct a regularized volume to provide an entropy for the flow. Our results are, in a sense, the analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem for world-sheet RG flows on noncompact spacetimes (though our entropy is not the Zamolodchikov C-function)

  15. Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations

  16. Structural transition models for a class or irreversible aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1995-02-01

    A progress report on two recent theoretical approaches proposed to understand the physics of irreversible fractal aggregates showing up a structural transition from a rather dense to a more multibranched growth is presented. In the first approach the transition is understood by solving the Poisson equation on a squared lattice. The second approach is based on the discretization of the Biharmonic equation. Within these models the transition appears when the growth velocity at the fractal surface presents a minimum. The effects of the surrounding medium and geometrical constraints for the seed particles are considered. By using the optical diffraction method, the structural transition is further characterized by a decrease in the fractal dimension for this peculiar class of aggregates. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  17. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p

  18. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is associated with an altered airway microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Kiilerich, Pia; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthmatic patients have higher microbiome diversity and an altered composition, with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared with healthy control subjects. Studies comparing airway inflammation and the airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not receiving anti......-inflammatory treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relationship between the airway microbiome and patterns of airway inflammation in steroid-free patients with asthma and healthy control subjects. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from 23 steroid-free nonsmoking patients with asthma and 10...... and AHR to mannitol but not airway neutrophilia. The overall composition of the airway microbiome of asthmatic patients with the lowest levels of eosinophils but not asthmatic patients with the highest levels of eosinophils deviated significantly from that of healthy subjects. Asthmatic patients...

  19. Radioaerosol lung imaging in small airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T; Dorow, P; Felix, R

    1981-06-01

    Aerosol inhalation lung imaging was performed in 35 asymptomatic smokers who have been selected on the basis of abnormal findings in small airways pulmonary function tests. Qualitative (image inspection) and quantitative (aerosol distribution index = ADI) analysis of the radioaerosol lung patterns was accomplished. Compared to healthy subjects as well as to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease significant differences of mean aerosol distribution homogeneity were observed. A characteristic type of abnormal aerosol pattern, indicating peripheral airways obstruction, was found in 71% of the patients with small airways disease.

  20. Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of 20 chest computed tomography (CT) scans...... of subjects ranging from healthy volunteers to patients with severe pathologies, scanned at different sites, with different CT scanner brands, models, and scanning protocols. Three performance measures covering different aspects of segmentation quality were computed for all participating algorithms. Results...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auringer, S.T.; Bisset, G.S. III; Myer, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the pediatric airway is often complex and may require multiple imaging techniques and invasive procedures. We performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the airway in 34 children with clinical evidence of chronic airway obstruction and compared MR findings with those obtained by surgery and/or endoscopy. MR diagnoses included vascular compression in 15 patients, primary tracheomalacic states in 12 patients, and mediastinal masses in 4 patients. Findings were normal for 3 patients. The MR findings were in agreement with the endoscopic findings in 25 to 28 cases and in agreement with the surgical findings in 21 to 21 cases. (orig./GDG)

  2. The Social Cost of Stochastic and Irreversible Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Judd, K. L.; Lontzek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Many scientists are worried about climate change triggering abrupt and irreversible events leading to significant and long-lasting damages. For example, a rapid release of methane from permafrost may lead to amplified global warming, and global warming may increase the frequency and severity of heavy rainfall or typhoon, destroying large cities and killing numerous people. Some elements of the climate system which might exhibit such a triggering effect are called tipping elements. There is great uncertainty about the impact of anthropogenic carbon and tipping elements on future economic wellbeing. Any rational policy choice must consider the great uncertainty about the magnitude and timing of global warming's impact on economic productivity. While the likelihood of tipping points may be a function of contemporaneous temperature, their effects are long lasting and might be independent of future temperatures. It is assumed that some of these tipping points might occur even in this century, but also that their duration and post-tipping impact are uncertain. A faithful representation of the possibility of tipping points for the calculation of social cost of carbon would require a fully stochastic formulation of irreversibility, and accounting for the deep layer of uncertainties regarding the duration of the tipping process and also its economic impact. We use DSICE, a DSGE extension of the DICE2007 model of William Nordhaus, which incorporates beliefs about the uncertain economic impact of possible climate tipping events and uses empirically plausible parameterizations of Epstein-Zin preferences to represent attitudes towards risk. We find that the uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change imply carbon taxes much higher than implied by deterministic models. This analysis indicates that the absence of uncertainty in DICE2007 and similar IAM models may result in substantial understatement of the potential benefits of policies to reduce GHG emissions.

  3. Constructal theory through thermodynamics of irreversible processes framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Point to area flow problem is solved through Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. → A new optimisation criterion is defined: the exergy or entropy impedance. → Optimisation is performed following two different routes, constructal or global. → Global optimisation is more efficient than constructal optimisation. → Global optimisation enhances the domain of construct benefits. - Abstract: Point to volume flow problem is revisited on a thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP) basis. The first step consists in evaluating the local entropy production of the system, and deducing from this expression the phenomenological laws. Then, the total entropy production can be simply evaluated. It is demonstrated that total entropy production can be written in a remarkable form: the product of the so-called entropy impedance with the square of the heat flux. As the heat flux is given, optimisation consists in minimising the entropy impedance. It is also shown that minimising entropy impedance minimises the maximum temperature difference. Applied to the elemental volume, this optimisation process leads to a shape factor close to the one already published. For the first construction, the equivalent system is defined as stated by Prigogine: when subjected to the same constraints, two systems are thermodynamically equivalent if their entropy production is equal. Two optimisation routes are then investigated: a global optimisation where all scales are taken into account and the constructal optimisation where the system is optimised scale by scale. In this second case, results are close to Ghodossi's work. When global optimisation is performed, it is demonstrated that conductive paths have to be spread uniformly in the active material (i.e. the number of elemental volumes must go to infinite). Comparing the two routes, global optimisation leads to better performance than constructal optimisation. Moreover, global optimisation enlarges the domain of

  4. The detection of local irreversibility in time series based on segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy for the detection of local irreversibility in stationary time series based on multiple scale. The detection is beneficial to evaluate the displacement of irreversibility toward local skewness. By means of this method, we can availably discuss the local irreversible fluctuations of time series as the scale changes. The method was applied to simulated nonlinear signals generated by the ARFIMA process and logistic map to show how the irreversibility functions react to the increasing of the multiple scale. The method was applied also to series of financial markets i.e., American, Chinese and European markets. The local irreversibility for different markets demonstrate distinct characteristics. Simulations and real data support the need of exploring local irreversibility.

  5. Bovine aortic arch: A novel association with thoracic aortic dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, C.D.; Urbania, T.H.; Crook, S.E.S.; Hope, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between bovine arch and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the thorax of 191 patients with dilated thoracic aortas and 391 consecutive, unselected patients as controls were retrospectively reviewed. Bovine arch was considered present if either a shared origin of the left common carotid and innominate arteries or an origin of the left common carotid from the innominate artery was identified. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between subgroups. Results: A trend towards increased prevalence of bovine arch was seen in patients with dilated aortas (26.2%) compared to controls (20.5%, p = 0.12). The association was statistically significant in patients over 70 years old (31.9%, p = 0.019) and when dilation involved the aortic arch (47.6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An association between bovine arch and aortic dilation is seen in older patients, and when dilation involves the aortic arch. Bovine arch should be considered a potential risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

  6. Critical Airway Team: A Retrospective Study of an Airway Response System in a Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emily C; Myer, Charles M; Oehler, Jennifer; Das, Bobby; Kerrey, Benjamin T

    2017-12-01

    Objective Study the performance of a pediatric critical airway response team. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Freestanding academic children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A structured review of the electronic medical record was conducted for all activations of the critical airway team. Characteristics of the activations and patients are reported using descriptive statistics. Activation of the critical airway team occurred 196 times in 46 months (March 2012 to December 2015); complete data were available for 162 activations (83%). For 49 activations (30%), patients had diagnoses associated with difficult intubation; 45 (28%) had a history of difficult laryngoscopy. Results Activation occurred at least 4 times per month on average (vs 3 per month for hospital-wide codes). The most common reasons for team activation were anticipated difficult intubation (45%) or failed intubation attempt (20%). For 79% of activations, the team performed an airway procedure, most commonly direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Bronchoscopy was performed in 47% of activations. Surgical airway rescue was attempted 4 times. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation occurred in 41 activations (25%). Twenty-nine patients died during or following team activation (18%), including 10 deaths associated with the critical airway event. Conclusion Critical airway team activation occurred at least once per week on average. Direct laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation, and bronchoscopic procedures were performed frequently; surgical airway rescue was rare. Most patients had existing risk factors for difficult intubation. Given our rate of serious morbidity and mortality, primary prevention of critical airway events will be a focus of future efforts.

  7. Control of upper airway muscle activity in younger versus older men during sleep onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert B; White, David P; Pierce, Robert J; Malhotra, Atul; Edwards, Jill K; Dunai, Judy; Kleverlaan, Darci; Trinder, John

    2003-01-01

    Pharyngeal dilator muscles are clearly important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA). We have previously shown that the activity of both the genioglossus (GGEMG) and tensor palatini (TPEMG) are decreased at sleep onset, and that this decrement in muscle activity is greater in the apnoea patient than in healthy controls. We have also previously shown this decrement to be greater in older men when compared with younger ones. In order to explore the mechanisms responsible for this decrement in muscle activity nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was applied to reduce negative pressure mediated muscle activation. We then investigated the effect of sleep onset (transition from predominantly α to predominantly θ EEG activity) on ventilation, upper airway muscle activation and upper airway resistance (UAR) in middle-aged and younger healthy men. We found that both GGEMG and TPEMG were reduced by the application of nasal CPAP during wakefulness, but that CPAP did not alter the decrement in activity in either muscle seen in the first two breaths following an α to θ transition. However, CPAP prevented both the rise in UAR at sleep onset that occurred on the control night, and the recruitment in GGEMG seen in the third to fifth breaths following the α to θ transition. Further, GGEMG was higher in the middle-aged men than in the younger men during wakefulness and was decreased more in the middle-aged men with the application of nasal CPAP. No differences were seen in TPEMG between the two age groups. These data suggest that the initial sleep onset reduction in upper airway muscle activity is due to loss of a ‘wakefulness’ stimulus, rather than to loss of responsiveness to negative pressure. In addition, it suggests that in older men, higher wakeful muscle activity is due to an anatomically more collapsible upper airway with more negative pressure driven muscle activation. Sleep onset per se does not appear to have a greater

  8. Endoscope-guided pneumatic dilation for treatment of esophageal achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Wu, Keng-Liang; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin

    2010-01-01

    Pneumatic dilation (PD) is considered to be the first line nonsurgical therapy for achalasia. The principle of the procedure is to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter by tearing its muscle fibers by generating radial force. The endoscope-guided procedure is done without fluoroscopic control. Clinicians usually use a low-compliance balloon such as Rigiflex dilator to perform endoscope-guided PD for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. It has the advantage of determining mucosal injury during the dilation process, so that a repeat endoscopy is not needed to assess the mucosal tearing. Previous studies have shown that endoscope-guided PD is an efficient and safe nonsurgical therapy with results that compare well with other treatment modalities. Although the results may be promising, long-term follow-up is required in the near future. PMID:20101764

  9. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy following total artificial heart implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Serrano, Maria Rosario; Guersoy, Dilek; Autschbach, Ruediger; Goetzenich, Andreas; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2015-07-01

    Coagulation disorders and an immune-altered state are common among total artificial heart patients. In this context, we sought to evaluate the safety of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in cases of prolonged need for mechanical ventilatory support. We retrospectively analysed the charts of 11 total artificial heart patients who received percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. We focused on early and late complications. We observed no major complications and no procedure-related deaths. Early minor complications included venous oozing (45.4%) and one case of local infection. Late complications, including subglottic stenosis, stomal infection or infections of the lower respiratory tract, were not observed. In conclusion, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in total artificial heart patients is safe. Considering the well-known benefits of early tracheotomy over prolonged translaryngeal intubation, we advocate early timing of therapy in cases of prolonged mechanical ventilation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Routine airway surveillance in pediatric tracheostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergin, Ozgul; Adil, Eelam; Kawai, Kosuke; Watters, Karen; Moritz, Ethan; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review airway findings in children with tracheostomies who underwent surveillance direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy (DLB) to determine the yield of routine airway evaluation in these patients. Retrospective chart review at tertiary referral children's hospital. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all of the children with tracheostomies who underwent DLB after tracheostomy between 1984 and 2015. A total of 303 patients met inclusion criteria. The median time interval between tracheostomy and first follow-up DLB was 12.0 months (IQR 4.8-28.9 months). There was no significant difference in the incidence of airway lesions between patients who underwent endoscopy tracheostomy versus those who had a longer time interval between tracheostomy and DLB (p = 0.16). One hundred sixty seven patients (55.1%) were diagnosed with lesions, with suprastomal granulation (39.9%) being the most common. Symptomatic patients were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion identified (69.9% versus 42.0%; p tracheostomy were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion (p = 0.01). The high incidence of airway lesions noted during surveillance DLB support the utility of routine airway endoscopy in pediatric tracheostomy patients. Symptomatic patients, those with ventilator dependence, or cardiopulmonary or trauma indications for tracheostomy are more likely to have airway lesions and should be monitored closely. The ideal time interval between surveillance endoscopies needs to be examined further. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Impending Airway Compromise due to Cystic Hygroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Shavit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-month-old infant, who arrived in the pediatric emergency department (ED with a cervical cystic hygroma causing an impending compromise of the airway. We recognize that such a lesion can rapidly progress, and the judicious use of imaging in the ED may help to avoid airway compromise and possibly fatal complications. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:368–369.

  12. Airways obstruction, coal mining, and disability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K; Zaldivar, G

    1994-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the inhalation of coal in the absence of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or smoking can lead to disabling airways obstruction. The cause of such obstruction has been variously attributed to emphysema or bronchitis. The frequency of significant airways obstruction in a group of United States coal miners seeking compensation for occupationally induced pulmonary impairment was therefore determined. In a sample of 611 "Black Lung" claimants there...

  13. PLUNC: a multifunctional surfactant of the airways

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jennifer; Gakhar, Lokesh; Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Porter, Edith; McCray, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia throughout the mammalian conducting airways. Despite its homology with the innate immune defence molecules BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) and LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein), it has been difficult to define the functions of PLUNC. Based on its marked hydrophobicity and expression pattern, we hypothesized that PLUNC is an airway surfactant. We found that purified r...

  14. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü

    Purpose: Quantitative airway assessment is often performed in specific branches to enable comparison of measurements between patients and over time. Little is known on the accuracy in locating these branches. We determined inter- and intra-observer agreement of manual labeling of segmental bronch...... disagreement in expert labeling, possibly reflecting large anatomical heterogeneity and changes with inspiration. Consistent airway measurement cannot be guaranteed based on manual localization....

  15. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G

    2003-11-07

    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  16. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field{N}$. Arb......This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...

  17. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Julia R; Jung, SeungWoo

    2017-03-30

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented.

  18. Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if......, the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example...

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure. An update for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes Bottner, Paola; Córdova Fernández, Tamara; Larraín Valenzuela, Marcos; Cruces Romero Presentación de Casos Clínicos, Pablo

    2018-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the main cause of heart failure leading to heart transplant. Its prognosis is variable and depends on the etiology, the patient's age at onset, and the severity. The management of dilated cardiomyopathy is aimed at minimizing symptoms and preventing disease progression; it requires a comprehensive screening for comorbidities and the prevention of complications to improve the overall status of these children and mitigate their prognosis. Here we present a review oriented at the multidisciplinary management that pediatricians should consider when seeing these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  20. Gastric dilatation-volvulus after splenic torsion in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, D L; Nemzek, J; Riggs, C; Walshaw, R

    1995-08-01

    Two dogs developed gastric dilatation-volvulus 2 and 17 months, respectively, after splenectomy for treatment of splenic torsion. Splenic displacement and torsion may stretch the gastric ligaments, allowing increased mobility of the stomach. After splenectomy, an anatomic void may be created in the cranioventral part of the abdomen, contributing to the mobility of the stomach. Veterinarians treating dogs with isolated splenic torsion may wish to consider prophylactic gastropexy at splenectomy, to reduce the chance of future gastric dilatation-volvulus. Prophylactic gastropexy should be done only if the dog's hemodynamic status is stable enough to allow for performance of the additional surgery.

  1. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  2. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berraies A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent exacerbations. Remodeling is an early event in asthma described as a consequence of production of mediators and growth factors by inflammatory and resident bronchial cells. Consequently, lung function is altered, with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second and exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness. Subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle cell hypertrophy are typical features of structural changes in the airways. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency enhances inflammation and bronchial anomalies. In severe asthma of childhood, major remodeling is observed in patients with low vitamin D levels. Conversely, the antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in smooth muscle cells have been described in several experiments. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the relationship between vitamin D and asthma, and focus on its effect on airway remodeling and its potential therapeutic impact for asthma.Keywords: vitamin D, asthma, airway remodeling, airway smooth muscle, supplementation

  3. Atopic asthmatic immune phenotypes associated with airway microbiota and airway obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Turturice

    Full Text Available Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids.To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics.A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13 were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry. These individuals were compared to age matched non-asthmatic controls (n = 6 and to themselves after six weeks of treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP. Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined by metagenomic shotgun sequencing.Unsupervised clustering of cytokines and chemokines prior to treatment with FP identified two asthmatic phenotypes (AP, termed AP1 and AP2, with distinct bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory profiles. AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-2 was observed. A module of highly correlated cytokines that include MIP-1β and TNF-α was identified that negatively correlated with pulmonary function. Independently, IL-2 was positively correlated with pulmonary function. The airway microbiome composition correlated with asthmatic phenotypes. AP2, prior to FP treatment, was enriched with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unique associations between IL-2 or the cytokine module and the microbiota composition of the airways were observed in asthmatics subjects prior to treatment but not after or in controls.The underlying inflammation in atopic asthma is related to the composition of microbiota and is associated with severity of airway obstruction. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids was associated with changes in the airway inflammatory response to

  4. Airway foreign body in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina GONZÁLEZ-HERRERO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aspiration of a foreign body in children is a frequent emergency in pediatrics, being potentially lethal. Method: Narrative review. Results: This pathology mainly affects children under 5 years of age with a peak of incidence between the first and third years of life. The clinic will depend on the type of foreign body (size, shape, possibility of breaking, organic or not, the age of the child and the location of the object. In our environment, the most frequent is the aspiration of nuts (peanuts and sunflower seeds. After the initial picture, an asymptomatic period tends to occur, which favors delayed diagnosis and leads to possible errors in the diagnosis. Discussion: An adequate clinical history and a high diagnostic suspicion are fundamental to favor an early treatment. The presence of a normal chest X-ray does not exclude the presence of a foreign body in the airway, so a bronchoscopy is indicated if the diagnostic suspicion is high. The treatment of choice is extraction by rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of flexible fibrobronchoscope. Conclusions: Conclusions: The aspiration of a foreign body is a pediatric emergency that requires a diagnosis and early treatment. The highest incidence occurs in children under 3 years and more frequently in men. The most commonly aspirated material in our environment are nuts, mainly located in the bronchial tree. The initial episode may go unnoticed, delaying the diagnosis and may lead to progressive respiratory distress in the child. A detailed clinical history and suspicion of this pathology are essential in children at risk age who present with cough and dyspnea of sudden onset. The existence of a normal chest radiograph should not postpone bronchoscopy when there is high clinical suspicion. The treatment of choice for the extraction of foreign bodies in airways in children is rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of the flexible fibrobronchoscope

  5. ESTIMATION OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGEABILITY AT FATIGUE OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Damageability estimation of carbon steel in the conditions of cyclic loading. Methodology. The steel fragments of railway wheel rim and rail head served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65 % С, 0.67 % Mn, 0.3 % Si, 0.027 % P, 0.028 % S и 0.7 % C, 0.82 % Mn, 0.56 % Si, 0.025 % P, 0.029 % S accordingly. The microstructure of tested steels corresponded to the state of metal after a hot plastic deformation. The fatigue research was conducted in the conditions of symmetric bend using the proof-of-concept machine of type «Saturn-10». Full Wohler diagrams and the lines corresponding to forming of sub-and micro cracks were constructed. The distribution analysis of internal stresses in the metal under cyclic loading was carried out using the microhardness tester of PMT-3 type.Findings. On the basis of fatigue curves for high-carbon steels analysis the positions of borders dividing the areas of convertible and irreversible damages were determined. The article shows that with the growth of carbon concentration in the steel at invariability of the structural state an increase of fatigue limit is observed. At the same time the acceleration of processes, which determine transition terms from the stage of forming of submicrocracks to the microcracks occurs. The research of microhardness distribution in the metal after destruction confirmed the nature of carbon amount influence on the carbon steel characteristics. Originality. Regardless on the stages of breakdown site forming the carbon steels behavior at a fatigue is determined by the ration between the processes of strengthening and softening. At a cyclic loading the heterogeneity of internal stresses distribution decreases with the increase of distance from the destruction surface. Analysis of metal internal restructuring processes at fatigue loading made it possible to determine that at the stages prior to incubation period in the metal microvolumes the cells are already

  6. Dilated uropathies in children; Dilatation des reins et voies urinaires chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouissou, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    These uropathies are frequent in children and are often diagnosed by ante-natal ultrasound examination. The dilatation, hydronephrosis or uretero-hydro-nephrosis may be due to a large pattern of malformations, either anatomical dysplasia, vesico-ureteric reflux or obstruction of the pelvi-ureteric junction, of the vesical-ureteric junction or due to a chronic urethral obstruction. The investigations must determine the exact urinary tract abnormalities, the renal function and the uro-dynamic change. They are guided by the ultrasound findings and cystography. In obstructive malformation, the MAG3 renogram with furosemide test is the best way to precise the uro-dynamic status, but it requires a careful technique in children and its interpretation is sometimes equivocal. DMSA scan is very useful to give precise separate kidney function and to follow the maturational change with age. All the results must be carefully analysed ; the final therapeutic decision and specially surgery is dependent of the type of uropathy and its natural history. In many cases, surgical treatment is only indicated after a longer follow-up and repeated evaluations. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Airway, responsiveness and inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Lund, T.K.; Barnes, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whereas increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are well documented in adult elite athletes, it remains uncertain whether the same airway changes are present in adolescents involved in elite sport. Objective: To investigate airway responsiveness and airway....... There was no difference in FeNO, cellular composition of sputum, airway reactivity, or prevalence of having AHR to methacholine and/or EVH between swimmers with and without respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Adolescent elite swimmers do not have significant signs of airway damage after only a few years of intense training...... and competition. This leads us to believe that elite swimmers do not have particularly susceptible airways when they take up competitive swimming when young, but that they develop respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, and AHR during their swimming careers Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  8. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Subramanyam

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. Methods: IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1 mcg/kg/h and high (3 mcg/kg/h dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway. Results and conclusions: Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16 ± 11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways.

  9. Mechanical interactions between adjacent airways in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Bates, Jason H T

    2014-03-15

    The forces of mechanical interdependence between the airways and the parenchyma in the lung are powerful modulators of airways responsiveness. Little is known, however, about the extent to which adjacent airways affect each other's ability to narrow due to distortional forces generated within the intervening parenchyma. We developed a two-dimensional computational model of two airways embedded in parenchyma. The parenchyma itself was modeled in three ways: 1) as a network of hexagonally arranged springs, 2) as a network of triangularly arranged springs, and 3) as an elastic continuum. In all cases, we determined how the narrowing of one airway was affected when the other airway was relaxed vs. when it narrowed to the same extent as the first airway. For the continuum and triangular network models, interactions between airways were negligible unless the airways lay within about two relaxed diameters of each other, but even at this distance the interactions were small. By contrast, the hexagonal spring network model predicted that airway-airway interactions mediated by the parenchyma can be substantial for any degree of airway separation at intermediate values of airway contraction forces. Evidence to date suggests that the parenchyma may be better represented by the continuum model, which suggests that the parenchyma does not mediate significant interactions between narrowing airways.

  10. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii) bro...

  13. SLOWLY ADAPTING SENSORY UNITS HAVE MORE RECEPTORS IN LARGE AIRWAYS THAN IN SMALL AIRWAYS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory units of pulmonary slowly adapting receptors (SARs are more active in large airways than in small airways. However, there is no explanation for this phenomenon. Although sensory structures in large airways resemble those in small airways, they are bigger and more complex. Possibly, a larger receptor provides greater surface area for depolarization, and thus has a lower activating threshold and/or a higher sensitivity to stretch, leading to more nerve electrical activities. Recently, a single sensory unit has been reported to contain multiple receptors. Therefore, sensory units in large airways may contain more SARs, which may contribute to high activities. To test this hypothesis, we used a double staining technique to identify sensory receptor sizes. We labeled the sensory structure with Na+/K+-ATPase antibodies and the myelin sheath with myelin basic protein (MBP antibodies. A SAR can be defined as the end formation beyond MBP labeling. Thus, we are able to compare sizes of sensory structures and SARs in large (trachea and bronchi vs small (bronchioles 0.05. However, the sensory structure contains more SARs in large airways than in small airways (9.6±0.6 vs 3.6±0.3; P<0.0001. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that greater numbers of SARs in sensory units of large airways may contribute to higher activities.

  14. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, R; Wung, J T

    1998-01-01

    Progress in neonatal intensive care is closely linked to improvements in the management of respiratory failure in small infants. This applies to the care of the preterm infants with immature lungs, and also to treatment of the preterm or full term infants with specific diseases that are associated with respiratory failure. Respiratory distress of the newborn continues to account for significant morbidity in the intensive care unit. The spectrum of disease ranges from mild distress to severe respiratory failure requiring varying degrees of support. The current modalities of ventilatory assistance range from the more benign continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to conventional mechanical ventilation, and on to high frequency ventilation. It is a reasonable supposition that the type of ventilatory assistance provided to these infants should be graded according to the severity of the disease. However, the principal objective in selecting the mode of respiratory support should be to use a modality which results in minimal volo- or barotrauma to the infant. The following detailed description on CPAP explains its physiological effects, delivery system, indications for use, application, maintenance, and associated complications. The equipment described is simple to use, has a greater cost benefit, and has a more universal application, which is of help to smaller units including those in the developing parts of the world. We have also included our institutional clinical experience of CPAP usage in very low birth weight infants from the periods before and after commercial availability of surfactant in the United States.

  15. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  16. A minimal dissipation type-based classification in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kazakov, V.; Kolinko, N. A.

    2003-10-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  17. Multiscale Analysis of Time Irreversibility Based on Phase-Space Reconstruction and Horizontal Visibility Graph Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui; Xia, Jianan

    Time irreversibility is an important property of nonequilibrium dynamic systems. A visibility graph approach was recently proposed, and this approach is generally effective to measure time irreversibility of time series. However, its result may be unreliable when dealing with high-dimensional systems. In this work, we consider the joint concept of time irreversibility and adopt the phase-space reconstruction technique to improve this visibility graph approach. Compared with the previous approach, the improved approach gives a more accurate estimate for the irreversibility of time series, and is more effective to distinguish irreversible and reversible stochastic processes. We also use this approach to extract the multiscale irreversibility to account for the multiple inherent dynamics of time series. Finally, we apply the approach to detect the multiscale irreversibility of financial time series, and succeed to distinguish the time of financial crisis and the plateau. In addition, Asian stock indexes away from other indexes are clearly visible in higher time scales. Simulations and real data support the effectiveness of the improved approach when detecting time irreversibility.

  18. Spectral deformation techniques applied to the study of quantum statistical irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbage, M.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure of analytic continuation of the resolvent of Liouville operators for quantum statistical systems is discussed. When applied to the theory of irreversible processes of the Brussels School, this method supports the idea that the restriction to a class of initial conditions is necessary to obtain an irreversible behaviour. The general results are tested on the Friedrichs model. (Auth.)

  19. Phase control of light amplification with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer in a Λ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Shi; Wu Jinhui; Gao Jinyue; Pan Chunliu

    2002-01-01

    We use the relative phase of two coherent fields for the control of light amplification with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer in a Λ system. The population inversion and gain with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer are shown as the relative phase is varied. We support our results by numerical calculation and analytical explanation

  20. Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2000-01-01

    I discuss the idea that quantum irreversibility is a general principle of nature and a related "conformal hypothesis", stating that all fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points. In particular, the Newton constant should be viewed as a low-energy effect of the RG scale. This approach leads naturally to consider higher-spin conformal field theories, which are here classified, as candidate high-energy theories. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. The central charges c and a are well defined and positive. I calculate their values and study the operator-product structure. Fermionic theories have no gauge invariance and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a...

  1. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, Nancy E.; Gibbs, James P.

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations. - Road deicing salts irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

  2. Scaling Law for Irreversible Entropy Production in Critical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Prasanna Venkatesh, B; Han, Seungju; Jo, Junghyo; Watanabe, Gentaro; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2016-06-09

    We examine the Jarzynski equality for a quenching process across the critical point of second-order phase transitions, where absolute irreversibility and the effect of finite-sampling of the initial equilibrium distribution arise in a single setup with equal significance. We consider the Ising model as a prototypical example for spontaneous symmetry breaking and take into account the finite sampling issue by introducing a tolerance parameter. The initially ordered spins become disordered by quenching the ferromagnetic coupling constant. For a sudden quench, the deviation from the Jarzynski equality evaluated from the ideal ensemble average could, in principle, depend on the reduced coupling constant ε0 of the initial state and the system size L. We find that, instead of depending on ε0 and L separately, this deviation exhibits a scaling behavior through a universal combination of ε0 and L for a given tolerance parameter, inherited from the critical scaling laws of second-order phase transitions. A similar scaling law can be obtained for the finite-speed quench as well within the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  3. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  4. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, Nancy E., E-mail: karraker@hku.hk [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Gibbs, James P [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations. - Road deicing salts irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

  5. Irreversible Markov chains in spin models: Topological excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ze; Krauth, Werner

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the convergence of the irreversible event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm for continuous spin models in the presence of topological excitations. In the two-dimensional XY model, we show that the local nature of the Markov-chain dynamics leads to slow decay of vortex-antivortex correlations while spin waves decorrelate very quickly. Using a Fréchet description of the maximum vortex-antivortex distance, we quantify the contributions of topological excitations to the equilibrium correlations, and show that they vary from a dynamical critical exponent z∼ 2 at the critical temperature to z∼ 0 in the limit of zero temperature. We confirm the event-chain algorithm's fast relaxation (corresponding to z = 0) of spin waves in the harmonic approximation to the XY model. Mixing times (describing the approach towards equilibrium from the least favorable initial state) however remain much larger than equilibrium correlation times at low temperatures. We also describe the respective influence of topological monopole-antimonopole excitations and of spin waves on the event-chain dynamics in the three-dimensional Heisenberg model.

  6. Reversibility and irreversibility from an initial value formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel, A.

    2013-01-01

    From a time evolution equation for the single particle distribution function derived from the N-particle distribution function (A. Muriel, M. Dresden, Physica D 101 (1997) 297), an exact solution for the 3D Navier–Stokes equation – an old problem – has been found (A. Muriel, Results Phys. 1 (2011) 2). In this Letter, a second exact conclusion from the above-mentioned work is presented. We analyze the time symmetry properties of a formal, exact solution for the single-particle distribution function contracted from the many-body Liouville equation. This analysis must be done because group theoretic results on time reversal symmetry of the full Liouville equation (E.C.G. Sudarshan, N. Mukunda, Classical Mechanics: A Modern Perspective, Wiley, 1974). no longer applies automatically to the single particle distribution function contracted from the formal solution of the N-body Liouville equation. We find the following result: if the initial momentum distribution is even in the momentum, the single particle distribution is reversible. If there is any asymmetry in the initial momentum distribution, no matter how small, the system is irreversible.

  7. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performance characteristics of the ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle are investigated and the effects of some key irreversibilities on the performance of the cycle are revealed. By using the optimal-control theory, the optimal relation between the coefficient of performance and the cooling rate is derived and some important performance bounds, e.g., the maximum cooling rate, the maximum coefficient of performance, are determined. Moreover, the optimal operating regions for cooling rate, coefficient of performance and the optimal operating temperatures of a cyclic working substance in the two heat-transfer processes are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of magnetization and magnetic field on the performance characteristics of the cycle are discussed. The results obtained here have general significance and can be deduced to the related ones of the Stirling refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic salt as a cyclic working substance

  8. The effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE on nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: If a critical nerve is circumferentially involved with tumor, radical surgery intended to cure the cancer must sacrifice the nerve. Loss of critical nerves may lead to serious consequences. In spite of the impressive technical advancements in nerve reconstruction, complete recovery and normalization of nerve function is difficult to achieve. Though irreversible electroporation (IRE might be a promising choice to treat tumors near or involved critical nerve, the pathophysiology of the nerve after IRE treatment has not be clearly defined. METHODS: We applied IRE directly to a rat sciatic nerve to study the long term effects of IRE on the nerve. A sequence of 10 square pulses of 3800 V/cm, each 100 µs long was applied directly to rat sciatic nerves. In each animal of group I (IRE the procedure was applied to produce a treated length of about 10 mm. In each animal of group II (Control the electrodes were only applied directly on the sciatic nerve for the same time. Electrophysiological, histological, and functional studies were performed on immediately after and 3 days, 1 week, 3, 5, 7 and 10 weeks following surgery. FINDINGS: Electrophysiological, histological, and functional results show the nerve treated with IRE can attain full recovery after 7 weeks. CONCLUSION: This finding is indicative of the preservation of nerve involving malignant tumors with respect to the application of IRE pulses to ablate tumors completely. In summary, IRE may be a promising treatment tool for any tumor involving nerves.

  9. Dilatancy of Shear Transformations in a Colloidal Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. Z.; Jiang, M. Q.; Lu, X.; Qin, Z. X.; Huang, Y. J.; Shen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Shear transformations, as fundamental rearrangement events operating in local regions, hold the key of plastic flow of amorphous solids. Despite their importance, the dynamic features of shear transformations are far from clear, which is the focus of the present study. Here, we use a colloidal glass under shear as the prototype to directly observe the shear-transformation events in real space. By tracing the colloidal-particle rearrangements, we quantitatively determine two basic properties of shear transformations: local shear strain and dilatation (or free volume). It is revealed that the local free volume undergoes a significantly temporary increase prior to shear transformations, eventually leading to a jump of local shear strain. We clearly demonstrate that shear transformations have no memory of the initial free volume of local regions. Instead, their emergence strongly depends on the dilatancy ability of these local regions, i.e., the dynamic creation of free volume. More specifically, the particles processing the high dilatancy ability directly participate in subsequent shear transformations. These results experimentally enrich Argon's statement about the dilatancy nature of shear transformations and also shed insight into the structural origin of amorphous plasticity.

  10. Gravitational time dilation and length contraction in fields exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we use our new metric tensor exterior to a massiv3e oblate spheroid to study the gravitational phenomena of time dilation and length contraction. It turns out most profoundly that, the above phenomena hold good in the gravitational field exterior to an oblate spheroid. We then use the oblate spheroidal Earth to ...

  11. Case Report Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy A bed side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tracheostomy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in critically ill patients. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT), according to ciaglias technique described in 1985, has become the most popular technique for percutaneous tracheostomy and is demonstrably as safe as surgical.

  12. Pneumatic Dilation versus Laparoscopic Heller's Myotomy for Idiopathic Achalasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Annese, Vito; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Chaussade, Stanislas; Costantini, Mario; Cuttitta, Antonello; Elizalde, J. Ignasi; Fumagalli, Uberto; Gaudric, Marianne; Rohof, Wout O.; Smout, André J.; Tack, Jan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Lei, A.; Bartelsman, J.; Hirsch, D.; Klinkenberg-Knol, E. C.; Cuesta, M. A.; Simmermacher, R. K. J.; Kuipers, E. J.; Bonjer, H. J.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Ringers, J.; Lerut, A.; Metman, E. H.; Huten, N.; Letessier, E.; Dousset, B.; Pera, M.; Perez de la Serna, J.; Malesci, Alberto; Andriulli, A.; Scaramuzzi, G.; de Santo, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many experts consider laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) to be superior to pneumatic dilation for the treatment of achalasia, and LHM is increasingly considered to be the treatment of choice for this disorder. Methods We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed achalasia to

  13. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Schantz, A L; Toftager-Larsen, K

    1990-01-01

    A case of non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section is reported, with a review of the literature on the diagnosis and management of this entity. Fifteen cases have been described. Attention is called to this rare complication and to the accompanying pseudo...

  15. Peripartum cardiomyopathy as a part of familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y. van Spaendonck-Zwarts (Karin); J.P. van Tintelen (Peter); D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); R. van der Werf (Rik); J.D.H. Jongbloed (Jan); W.J. Paulus (Walter); D. Dooijes (Dennis); M.P. van den Berg (Maarten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND-: Anecdotal cases of familial clustering of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and familial occurrences of PPCM and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) together have been observed, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of PPCM. We hypothesized that

  16. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... conical and expansible material made from the root of a seaweed (Laminaria digitata or Laminaria japonica...

  17. Left coronary aneurysmal dilation and subaortic stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Juan L; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Girard, Christiane; Pibarot, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Upon physical examination, the auscultated heart rate was 120 beats/min, and a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with a point of maximal intensity over the left heart base radiating up the neck was heard. The standard echocardiographic examination showed subaortic stenosis and an anechoic tubular structure extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the left ventricular posterior wall. Aneurysmal left coronary artery (CA) was confirmed by angiography. The dog was euthanized and post-mortem examination showed severe dilatation of the proximal left CA and confirmed the subaortic stenosis. Histopathology did not demonstrate abnormalities in the walls of the CA, aorta or pulmonary artery. The exact cause of the CA aneurysmal dilation remains unknown. Subaortic stenosis, elevated coronary vascular resistance or a congenital anomaly may have contributed to the dilation. To our knowledge, coronary aneurysmal dilation has never been described in dogs. Standard echocardiography provides reliable information on coronary anatomy.

  18. Dilation-optimal edge deletion in polygonal cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahn, H.K.; Farshi, M.; Knauer, C.; Smid, M.H.M.; Wang, Y.; Tokuyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    Let C be a polygonal cycle on n vertices in the plane. A randomized algorithm is presented which computes in O(n log3 n) expected time, the edge of C whose removal results in a polygonal path of smallest possible dilation. It is also shown that the edge whose removal gives a polygonal path of

  19. 28. Critical pulmonary valve stenosis: Medical management beyond balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Phentolamine and/or Captopril have a therapeutic role in neonates with critical PVS who remain oxygen dependent after balloon dilation. Both medicationslead to vasodilatation of pulmonary and systemic vascularity. They facilitate inflowto the right ventricle. Right to left shunt across a PFO or/ ASD minimizesand saturation improves leading to a significantreduction in length of hospitalization.

  20. A dynamical approach to time dilation and length contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.K.; Muynck, de W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Simple models of length and time measuring instruments are studied in order to see under what conditions a relativistic description of the dynamics of accelerated motion can be consistent with the kinematic prescriptions of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. The outcomes obtained for the

  1. Connect the dot: Computing feed-links with minimum dilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronov, B.; Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Löffler, M.; Luo, J.; Silveira, R.I.; Speckmann, B.; Dehne, F.; Gavrilova, M.; Sack, J.-R.; Tóth, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    A feed-link is an artificial connection from a given location p to a real-world network. It is most commonly added to an incomplete network to improve the results of network analysis, by making p part of the network. The feed-link has to be "reasonable", hence we use the concept of dilation to

  2. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy-a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Emes, Richard D; Cobb, Malcolm A; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction which often leads to congestive heart failure. Although multiple human loci have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, the identified variants are typically associated with rare monogenic forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The potential for multigenic interactions contributing to human dilated cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood. Consistent with this, several known human dilated cardiomyopathy loci have been excluded as common causes of canine dilated cardiomyopathy, although canine dilated cardiomyopathy resembles the human disease functionally. This suggests additional genetic factors contribute to the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype.This study represents a meta-analysis of available canine dilated cardiomyopathy genetic datasets with the goal of determining potential multigenic interactions relating the sex chromosome genotype (XX vs. XY) with known dilated cardiomyopathy associated loci on chromosome 5 and the PDK4 gene in the incidence and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. The results show an interaction between known canine dilated cardiomyopathy loci and an unknown X-linked locus. Our study is the first to test a multigenic contribution to dilated cardiomyopathy and suggest a genetic basis for the known sex-disparity in dilated cardiomyopathy outcomes.

  3. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy—a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction which often leads to congestive heart failure. Although multiple human loci have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, the identified variants are typically associated with rare monogenic forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The potential for multigenic interactions contributing to human dilated cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood. Consistent with this, several known human dilated cardiomyopathy loci have been excluded as common causes of canine dilated cardiomyopathy, although canine dilated cardiomyopathy resembles the human disease functionally. This suggests additional genetic factors contribute to the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype.This study represents a meta-analysis of available canine dilated cardiomyopathy genetic datasets with the goal of determining potential multigenic interactions relating the sex chromosome genotype (XX vs. XY with known dilated cardiomyopathy associated loci on chromosome 5 and the PDK4 gene in the incidence and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. The results show an interaction between known canine dilated cardiomyopathy loci and an unknown X-linked locus. Our study is the first to test a multigenic contribution to dilated cardiomyopathy and suggest a genetic basis for the known sex-disparity in dilated cardiomyopathy outcomes.

  4. Results of Eder-Puestow dilatation in the management of esophageal peptic strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, E; Boesby, S; Spencer, J

    1983-01-01

    Eder-Puestow dilatation of esophageal strictures is a safe procedure. The treatment is followed by symptomatic improvement, but the effect of dilatation on the patients' nutritional state has so far not been reported. We have reviewed 33 patients with benign esophageal stricture with special regard to the effect of dilatation on body weight. A total of 152 dilatations was carried out. All patients had dysphagia, 32 patients had heartburn and 20 had regurgitation. Hiatus hernia was present in 29 patients. Thirteen patients had antireflux surgery; 10 operations were performed before, and four during the dilatation period. One patient required no further dilatations after operation. Dilators greater than 35 FG were passed in 85% of the dilatations. No serious complications occurred. Patients were followed for up to 5 yr (mean follow-up: 27 months). The mean interval between dilatations was 7 months. Body weight was recorded before and one month after dilatation on 78 occasions. There was a significant overall weight increase of 0.78 kg 1 month after dilatation. The mean weight increase was greater after the first dilatation (1.06 kg) than after subsequent ones (0.6 kg). We found that Eder-Puestow dilatation in patients with benign esophageal stricture led to symptomatic improvement and was followed by an increase in body weight.

  5. Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, S.K.; Kaushik, S.C.; Salohtra, R.

    2002-01-01

    This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

  6. Generalized irreversible heat-engine experiencing a complex heat-transfer law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Li Jun; Sun Fengrui

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental optimal relation between optimal power-output and efficiency of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat-engine is derived based on a generalized heat-transfer law, including a generalized convective heat-transfer law and a generalized radiative heat-transfer law, q ∝ (ΔT n ) m . The generalized irreversible Carnot-engine model incorporates several internal and external irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, bypass heat-leak, friction, turbulence and other undesirable irreversibility factors. The added irreversibilities, besides heat resistance, are characterized by a constant parameter and a constant coefficient. The effects of heat-transfer laws and various loss terms are analyzed. The results obtained corroborate those in the literature

  7. Psychological and neural mechanisms of subjective time dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie evan Wassenhove

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For a given physical duration, certain events can be experienced as subjectively longer in duration than others. Try this for yourself: take a quick glance at the second hand of a clock. Immediately, the tick will pause momentarily and appear to be longer than the subsequent ticks. Yet, they all last exactly one second. By and large, a deviant or an unexpected stimulus in a series of similar events (same duration, same features can elicit a relative overestimation of subjective time (or "time dilation" but, as is shown here, this is not always the case. We conducted an event-related functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI study on the time dilation effect. Participants were presented with a series of five visual discs, all static and of equal duration (standards except for the fourth one, a looming or a receding target. The duration of the target was systematically varied and participants judged whether it was shorter or longer than all other standards in the sequence. Subjective time dilation was observed for the looming stimulus but not for the receding one, which was estimated to be of equal duration to the standards. The neural activation for targets (looming and receding contrasted with the standards revealed an increased activation of the anterior insula and of the anterior cingulate cortex. Contrasting the looming with the receding targets (i.e. capturing the time dilation effect proper revealed a specific activation of cortical midline structures. The implication of midline structures in the time dilation illusion is here interpreted in the context of self-referential processes.

  8. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy without fiber optic bronchoscopy-Evaluation of 80 intensive care units cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Calvache (Jose Andrés); R.A. Molina García (Rodrigo); A.L. Trochez (Adolfo); J. Benitez (Javier); L.A. Flga (Lucía Arroyo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The development of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy techniques (PDT) has facilitated the procedure in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Objective: To describe the early intra and post-operative complications in ICU patients requiring percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

  9. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during hydraulic dilation therapy in achalasia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, W.F.; Bogte, A.; Siersema, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility is predictive of long-term clinical success after achalasia treatment. A new commercially available hydraulic dilation balloon is capable of measuring EGJ opening diameters whilst simultaneously dilating the EGJ.

  10. Proposal for a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy, hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy, and its implications for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Yigal M; Elliott, Perry M; Arbustini, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Disease proposes a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in an attempt to bridge the gap between our recent understanding of the disease spectrum and its clinical presentation in relatives, which is key for early diagnosis...

  11. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  12. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  13. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  14. Optical coherence tomography of the newborn airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Su, Jianping; Wright, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Kim, David C; Barretto, Roberto; Ahuja, Gurpreet; Sepehr, Ali; Perez, Jorge; Sills, Jack H; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-05-01

    Acquired subglottic stenosis in a newborn is often associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. This condition is generally diagnosed during operative endoscopy after airway injury has occurred. Unfortunately, endoscopy is unable to characterize the submucosal changes observed in such airway injuries. Other modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, do not possess the necessary level of resolution to differentiate scar, neocartilage, and edema. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that produces high-resolution, cross-sectional images of living tissue (8 to 20 microm). We examined the ability of this noninvasive technique to characterize the newborn airway in a prospective clinical trial. Twelve newborn patients who required ventilatory support underwent OCT airway imaging. Comparative analysis of intubated and non-intubated states was performed. Imaging of the supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and trachea was performed in 12 patients, revealing unique tissue characteristics as related to turbidity, signal backscattering, and architecture. Multiple structures were identified, including the vocal folds, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, ducts, glands, and vessels. Optical coherence tomography clearly identifies in vivo tissue layers and regional architecture while offering detailed information concerning tissue microstructures. The diagnostic potential of this technology makes OCT a promising modality in the study and surveillance of the neonatal airway.

  15. Role of chemical drive in recruiting upper airway and inspiratory intercostal muscles in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, S; Chonan, T; Hida, W; Satoh, M; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Upper airway dilating muscle activity increases during apneic episodes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To elucidate the relative contribution of chemical and nonchemical stimuli to augmentation of the upper airway dilating muscle, we measured the response of genioglossus muscle (GG) and inspiratory intercostal muscle (IIM) activities to obstructive apnea during non-REM sleep and compared them with the response to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia during awake periods in seven male patients with OSA. GG EMG was measured with a wire electrode inserted percutaneously, and IIM EMG was measured with surface electrodes placed in the second intercostal space parasternally. Responses to hypoxia and to hypercapnia were assessed by rebreathing methods in the supine position while awake. Following these measurements, a sleep study was conducted with the EMG electrodes placed in the same locations. The relationship between GG and IIM activities during the cycle of apnea and postapneic ventilation in non-REM sleep was quasi-linear, and the slope of the regression line was significantly greater than those during progressive hypoxia and progressive hypercapnia. The amplitude of GG activity at 70% of maximum IIM activities in the hypoxic test was 140 +/- 20% (mean +/- SEM) during non-REM sleep, which was also significantly greater than that during hypoxia (51 +/- 10%) and that during hypercapnia (59 +/- 15%). These results suggest that nonchemical factors contribute considerably to augmentation of GG activity during obstructive apneic episodes. The nonchemical stimuli may arise from mechanoreceptors activated by upper airway obstruction and behavioral factors associated with change in sleep states.

  16. Canine candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy: annotation of and polymorphic markers for 14 genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Anje C; Leegwater, Peter AJ; van Oost, Bernard A; Ollier, William E; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease occurring in humans and domestic animals and is characterized by dilatation of the left ventricle, reduced systolic function and increased sphericity of the left ventricle. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in several, mostly large and giant, dog breeds, such as the Dobermann and the Great Dane. A number of genes have been identified, which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in the human, mouse and hamster. Thes...

  17. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Emes, Richard D.; Cobb, Malcolm A.; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic d...

  18. Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2000-08-01

    I discuss the properties of the central charges c and a for higher-derivative and higher-spin theories (spin 2 included). Ordinary gravity does not admit a straightforward identification of c and a in the trace anomaly, because it is not conformal. On the other hand, higher-derivative theories can be conformal, but have negative c and a. A third possibility is to consider higher-spin conformal field theories. They are not unitary, but have a variety of interesting properties. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. There exists a conserved spin-2 current (not the canonical stress tensor) defining positive central charges c and a. I calculate the values of c and a and study the operator-product structure. Higher-spin conformal spinors have no gauge invariance, admit a standard definition of c and a and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a conformal window and non-trivial interacting fixed points. There are composite operators of high spin and low dimension, which violate the Ferrara-Gatto-Grillo theorem. Finally, other theories, such as conformal antisymmetric tensors, exhibit more severe internal problems. This research is motivated by the idea that fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points, and quantum irreversibility should be a general principle of nature.

  19. A model of irreversible jam formation in dense traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, J. G.; Bunzarova, N. Zh.; Pesheva, N. C.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2018-03-01

    We study an one-dimensional stochastic model of vehicular traffic on open segments of a single-lane road of finite size L. The vehicles obey a stochastic discrete-time dynamics which is a limiting case of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. This dynamics has been previously used by Bunzarova and Pesheva (2017) for an one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation. The model was shown to have three stationary phases: a many-particle one, MP, a phase with completely filled configuration, CF, and a boundary perturbed MP+CF phase, depending on the values of the particle injection (α), ejection (β) and hopping (p) probabilities. Here we extend the results for the stationary properties of the MP+CF phase, by deriving exact expressions for the local density at the first site of the chain and the probability P(1) of a completely jammed configuration. The unusual phase transition, characterized by jumps in both the bulk density and the current (in the thermodynamic limit), as α crosses the boundary α = p from the MP to the CF phase, is explained by the finite-size behavior of P(1). By using a random walk theory, we find that, when α approaches from below the boundary α = p, three different regimes appear, as the size L → ∞: (i) the lifetime of the gap between the rightmost clusters is of the order O(L) in the MP phase; (ii) small jams, separated by gaps with lifetime O(1) , exist in the MP+CF phase close to the left chain boundary; and (iii) when β = p, the jams are divided by gaps with lifetime of the order O(L 1 / 2) . These results are supported by extensive Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. Fully Covered Metallic Stents for the Treatment of Benign Airway Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dahlqvist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We herein report our experience with new fully covered self-expanding metallic stents in the setting of inoperable recurrent benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Methods. Between May 2010 and July 2014, 21 Micro-Tech® FC-SEMS (Nanjing Co., Republic of Korea were placed in our hospital in 16 patients for inoperable, recurrent (after dilatation, and symptomatic benign airway stenosis. Their medical files were retrospectively reviewed in December 2014, with focus on stent’s tolerance and durability data. Results. Twenty-one stents were inserted: 13 for posttransplant left main bronchus anastomotic stricture, seven for postintubation tracheal stenosis, and one for postlobectomy anastomotic stricture. Positioning was easy for all of them. Stents were in place for a mean duration of 282 days. The most common complications were granulation tissue development (35%, migration (30%, and sputum retention (15%. Fifty-five % of the stents (11/20 had to be removed because of various complications, without difficulty for all of them. None of the patients had life-threatening complications. Conclusion. Micro-Tech FC-SEMS were easy to position and to remove. While the rate of complications requiring stent removal was significant, no life-threatening complication occurred. Further studies are needed to better define their efficacy and safety in the treatment of benign airway disease.

  1. Fully Covered Metallic Stents for the Treatment of Benign Airway Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Caroline; Ocak, Sebahat; Gourdin, Maximilien; Dincq, Anne Sophie; Putz, Laurie; d'Odémont, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We herein report our experience with new fully covered self-expanding metallic stents in the setting of inoperable recurrent benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Methods. Between May 2010 and July 2014, 21 Micro-Tech® FC-SEMS (Nanjing Co., Republic of Korea) were placed in our hospital in 16 patients for inoperable, recurrent (after dilatation), and symptomatic benign airway stenosis. Their medical files were retrospectively reviewed in December 2014, with focus on stent's tolerance and durability data. Results. Twenty-one stents were inserted: 13 for posttransplant left main bronchus anastomotic stricture, seven for postintubation tracheal stenosis, and one for postlobectomy anastomotic stricture. Positioning was easy for all of them. Stents were in place for a mean duration of 282 days. The most common complications were granulation tissue development (35%), migration (30%), and sputum retention (15%). Fifty-five % of the stents (11/20) had to be removed because of various complications, without difficulty for all of them. None of the patients had life-threatening complications. Conclusion. Micro-Tech FC-SEMS were easy to position and to remove. While the rate of complications requiring stent removal was significant, no life-threatening complication occurred. Further studies are needed to better define their efficacy and safety in the treatment of benign airway disease.

  2. Application of paclitaxel as adjuvant treatment for benign cicatricial airway stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Juan; Wang, Yu-Ling; Xu, Min

    2016-12-01

    Benign cicatricial airway stenosis (BCAS) is a potentially life-threatening disease. Recurrence occurs frequently after endoscopic treatment. Paclitaxel is known to prevent restenosis, but its clinical efficacy and safety is undetermined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the efficacy and associated complications of paclitaxel as adjuvant treatment for BCAS of different etiologies. The study cohort included 28 patients with BCAS resulting from tuberculosis, intubation, tracheotomy, and other etiologies. All patients were treated at the Department of Respiratory Diseases, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China, between January 2010 and August 2014. After primary treatment by balloon dilation, cryotherapy, and/or high-frequency needle-knife treatment, paclitaxel was applied to the airway mucosa at the site of stenosis using a newly developed local instillation catheter. The primary outcome measures were the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel as adjuvant treatment, and the incidence of complications was observed as well. According to our criteria for evaluating the clinical effects on BCAS, 24 of the 28 cases achieved durable remission, three cases had remission, and one case showed no remission. Thus, the durable remission rate was 85.7%, and the combined effective rate was 96.4%. No differences in outcomes were observed among the different BCAS etiologies (P=0.144), and few complications were observed. Our results indicated that paclitaxel as an adjuvant treatment has greater efficacy than previously reported BCAS treatment methods.

  3. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesegan Moodley

    2016-04-11

    Apr 11, 2016 ... Airway management problems may be particularly challenging to junior doctors.1 ... They respond to real-time, real-life clinical ... Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills.

  4. Airway Science curriculum demonstration project : summary of initial evaluation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    The performance, perceptions, and characteristics of Airway Science hires were compared with those of traditional hires. As of May 12, 1987. a total of 197 Airway Science candidates had been selected into FAA occupations. The demographic characterist...

  5. Modular microfluidic system as a model of cystic fibrosis airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skolimowski, Maciej; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Abeille, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    A modular microfluidic airways model system that can simulate the changes in oxygen tension in different compartments of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways was designed, developed, and tested. The fully reconfigurable system composed of modules with different functionalities: multichannel peristalt...

  6. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r = 0.032, P = 0.91). CONCLUSION: AHR in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol and methacholine...

  7. Ictal time-irreversible intracranial EEG signals as markers of the epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kaspar; Rummel, Christian; Andrzejak, Ralph G; Goodfellow, Marc; Zubler, Frédéric; Abela, Eugenio; Wiest, Roland; Pollo, Claudio; Steimer, Andreas; Gast, Heidemarie

    2016-09-01

    To show that time-irreversible EEG signals recorded with intracranial electrodes during seizures can serve as markers of the epileptogenic zone. We use the recently developed method of mapping time series into directed horizontal graphs (dHVG). Each node of the dHVG represents a time point in the original intracranial EEG (iEEG) signal. Statistically significant differences between the distributions of the nodes' number of input and output connections are used to detect time-irreversible iEEG signals. In 31 of 32 seizure recordings we found time-irreversible iEEG signals. The maximally time-irreversible signals always occurred during seizures, with highest probability in the middle of the first seizure half. These signals spanned a large range of frequencies and amplitudes but were all characterized by saw-tooth like shaped components. Brain regions removed from patients who became post-surgically seizure-free generated significantly larger time-irreversibilities than regions removed from patients who still had seizures after surgery. Our results corroborate that ictal time-irreversible iEEG signals can indeed serve as markers of the epileptogenic zone and can be efficiently detected and quantified in a time-resolved manner by dHVG based methods. Ictal time-irreversible EEG signals can help to improve pre-surgical evaluation in patients suffering from pharmaco-resistant epilepsies. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiscale time irreversibility of heart rate and blood pressure variability during orthostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chladekova, L; Czippelova, B; Turianikova, Z; Tonhajzerova, I; Calkovska, A; Javorka, M; Baumert, M

    2012-01-01

    Time irreversibility is a characteristic feature of non-equilibrium, complex systems such as the cardiovascular control mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Time irreversibility analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) represents a new approach to assess cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the changes in HRV and BPV irreversibility during the active orthostatic test (a balance of ANS shifted towards sympathetic predominance) in 28 healthy young subjects. We used three different time irreversibility indices—Porta’s, Guzik's and Ehler's indices (P%, G% and E, respectively) derived from data segments containing 1000 beat-to-beat intervals on four timescales. We observed an increase in the HRV and a decrease in the BPV irreversibility during standing compared to the supine position. The postural change in irreversibility was confirmed by surrogate data analysis. The differences were more evident in G% and E than P% and for higher scale factors. Statistical analysis showed a close relationship between G% and E. Contrary to this, the association between P% and G% and P% and E was not proven. We conclude that time irreversibility of beat-to-beat HRV and BPV is significantly altered during orthostasis, implicating involvement of the autonomous nervous system in its generation. (paper)

  9. Increased airway reactivity in a neonatal mouse model of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a primary form of respiratory support used in the intensive care of preterm infants, but its long-term effects on airway (AW) function are unknown. Methods We developed a neonatal mouse model of CPAP treatment to determine whether it modifies later AW reactivity. Un-anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice were fitted with a mask to deliver CPAP (6cmH2O, 3hrs/day) for 7 consecutive days starting at postnatal day 1. Airway reactivity to...

  10. Occupational upper airway disease: how work affects the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Steelant, B.; Fokkens, W.; Nemery, B.; Hellings, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the upper airways is common and can arbitrarily be divided into rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Infection and allergy represent two well-characterized and most frequently diagnosed etiologies of upper airway inflammation. Persistent upper airway inflammation caused by agents

  11. Alcohol and airways function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The volatility of alcohol promotes the movement of alcohol from the bronchial circulation across the airway epithelium and into the conducting airways of the lung. The exposure of the airways through this route likely accounts for many of the biologic effects of alcohol on lung airway functions. The effect of alcohol on lung airway functions is dependent on the concentration, duration, and route of exposure. Brief exposure to mild concentrations of alcohol may enhance mucociliary clearance, stimulates bronchodilation, and probably attenuates the airway inflammation and injury observed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prolonged and heavy exposure to alcohol impairs mucociliary clearance, may complicate asthma management, and likely worsens outcomes including lung function and mortality in COPD patients. Nonalcohol congeners and alcohol metabolites act as triggers for airway disease exacerbations especially in atopic asthmatics and in Asian populations who have a reduced capacity to metabolize alcohol. Research focused on the mechanisms of alcohol-mediated changes in airway functions has identified specific mechanisms that mediate alcohol effects within the lung airways. These include prominent roles for the second messengers calcium and nitric oxide, regulatory kinases including PKG and PKA, alcohol- and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. The role alcohol may play in the pathobiology of airway mucus, bronchial blood flow, airway smooth muscle regulation, and the interaction with other airway exposure agents, such as cigarette smoke, represents opportunities for future investigation.

  12. A Fingerprint Encryption Scheme Based on Irreversible Function and Secure Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fingerprint encryption scheme based on irreversible function has been designed in this paper. Since the fingerprint template includes almost the entire information of users’ fingerprints, the personal authentication can be determined only by the fingerprint features. This paper proposes an irreversible transforming function (using the improved SHA1 algorithm to transform the original minutiae which are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image. Then, Chinese remainder theorem is used to obtain the biokey from the integration of the transformed minutiae and the private key. The result shows that the scheme has better performance on security and efficiency comparing with other irreversible function schemes.

  13. Classical many-body theory with retarded interactions: Dynamical irreversibility and determinism without probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, A.Yu., E-mail: Anatoly.Zakharov@novsu.ru; Zakharov, M.A., E-mail: ma_zakharov@list.ru

    2016-01-28

    The exact equations of motion for microscopic density of classical many-body system with account of inter-particle retarded interactions is derived. It is shown that interactions retardation leads to irreversible behavior of many-body systems. - Highlights: • A new form of equation of motion of classical many-body system is proposed. • Interactions retardation as one of the mechanisms of many-body system irreversibility. • Irreversibility and determinism without probabilities. • The possible way to microscopic foundation of thermodynamics.

  14. Performance of an irreversible quantum Ericsson cooler at low temperature limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Feng; Chen Lingen; Wu Shuang; Sun Fengrui

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum properties of the working medium on the performance of an irreversible quantum Ericsson cooler with spin-1/2. The cooler is studied with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility. The optimal relationship between the dimensionless cooling load R * versus the coefficient of performance ε for the irreversible quantum Ericsson cooler is derived. In particular, the performance characteristics of the cooler at the low temperature limit are discussed

  15. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2008-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of magnetic Brayton refrigerators is established, in which the thermal resistance and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. Moreover, the optimal performance parameters are obtained at the maximum coefficient of performance. The optimization region (or criteria) for an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigerator is obtained. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of a magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

  16. Segmental dilatation of the ileum in a healthy adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Akash D.; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Brill, Paula W.; Beneck, Debra; Spigland, Nitsana

    2009-01-01

    Segmental intestinal dilatation is a rare entity presenting overwhelmingly in infants and young children with congenital malformations, anemia, or history of gastrointestinal pathology, characterized by a focally distended segment of bowel with abrupt transition points without an obstructing barrier. We present a 16-year-old girl with no significant medical history who presented with bowel obstruction clinically. Segmental dilatation of the ileum was evident on a CT scan and small bowel series. Following surgical resection, pathologic examination of the segment revealed the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa. The girl's symptoms resolved after surgery. Awareness of the imaging presentation of this entity can inform the evaluation of older children with nonspecific symptoms mimicking bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  17. Data of methylome and transcriptome derived from human dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Seok Jo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression have been implicated in the development of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Differentially methylated probes (DMPs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the left ventricle (LV, a pathological locus for DCM and the right ventricle (RV, a proxy for normal hearts. The data in this DiB are for supporting our report entitled “Methylome analysis reveals alterations in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of left ventricle development genes in human dilated cardiomyopathy” (Bong-Seok Jo, In-Uk Koh, Jae-Bum Bae, Ho-Yeong Yu, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Sun Shim Choi, 2016 [1].

  18. Dilation of nanonatennas induced by an electromagnetic source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The illumination of plasmonic mesostructures produces high confinement of light in their vicinity. This confinement of light can be enhanced in the gap between the two metallic nanorods of a nanonantenna, in particular for the design of biosensors. The nanometric gap can be reduced if the elevation of temperature of the nanonantenna is sufficient, and therefore the fine tuning of the sensor requires the description of the photo-thermal induced dilation. The multiphysics problem associated to such photo-thermal and mechanical effects is modeled through a Finite Element Method (FEM. The problem consists in computing the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the induced dilation surface. This contribution consists in discussing the numerical efficiencies of a sequential, and a coupled approaches, especially in terms of adaptive meshing of the space of computation. The relationship between the field enhancement and the reduction of the gap is studied. Finally the validity of the 2D multiphysic model is discussed.

  19. Balloon dilatation for the treatment of stricture of gastrojejunostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Hwa [Lee Rha Hospital, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Min; Chon, Su Bin; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Enteroenteric anastomotic strictures of UGI tract are common and require treatment if significant obstruction occurs. We performed fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation in 6 patients who had symptomatic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. The stricture was successfully resolved in 4 patients with benign stricture. But 2 patients with malignant stricture had recurrence of obstructive symptoms 2 weeks later, and they required a stent. Asymptomatic balloon rupture was seen in one patients, but other procedural complications did not occur. We found that fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation is an effective and safe method in the treatment of anastomotic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. We also found transient effect in malignant gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures, which required an interventional procedure, such as placement of a stent.

  20. MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, C.G. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: carmelcronin2000@hotmail.com; Lohan, D.G.; Browne, A.M.; Alhajeri, A.N.; Roche, C.; Murphy, J.M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Magnetic reasonance (MR) enterography enables high contrast resolution depiction of the location and cause of bowel obstruction through a combination of predictable luminal distension and multiplanar imaging capabilities. Furthermore, because the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, sequential 'dynamic' MR imaging can be performed repeatedly over time further facilitating depiction of the site and/or the cause of obstruction. With increasing availability of MR imaging and standardization of the oral contrast medium regimens, it is likely that this technique will assume an ever-increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel dilation in the coming years. We illustrate the utility of MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation, whether it be mechanical, functional (e.g., ileus), or related to infiltrative mural disease.