WorldWideScience

Sample records for irregularly spaced velocity

  1. Irregularly Shaped Space-Filling Truncated Octahedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John Robert

    2008-01-01

    For any parent tetrahedron ABCD, centroids of selected sub-tetrahedra form the vertices of an irregularly shaped space-filling truncated octahedron. To reflect these properties, such a figure will be called an ISTO. Each edge of the ISTO is parallel to and one-eighth the length of one of the edges of tetrahedron ABCD and the volume of the ISTO is…

  2. Multiresolution Analysis Adapted to Irregularly Spaced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Mokraoui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical background of multiresolution analysis in the specific context where the signal is represented by irregularly sampled data at known locations. The study is related to the construction of nested piecewise polynomial multiresolution spaces represented by their corresponding orthonormal bases. Using simple spline basis orthonormalization procedures involves the construction of a large family of orthonormal spline scaling bases defined on consecutive bounded intervals. However, if no more additional conditions than those coming from multiresolution are imposed on each bounded interval, the orthonormal basis is represented by a set of discontinuous scaling functions. The spline wavelet basis also has the same problem. Moreover, the dimension of the corresponding wavelet basis increases with the spline degree. An appropriate orthonormalization procedure of the basic spline space basis, whatever the degree of the spline, allows us to (i provide continuous scaling and wavelet functions, (ii reduce the number of wavelets to only one, and (iii reduce the complexity of the filter bank. Examples of the multiresolution implementations illustrate that the main important features of the traditional multiresolution are also satisfied.

  3. Minimal information in velocity space

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, Guillaume

    1995-01-01

    Jaynes' transformation group principle is used to derive the objective prior for the velocity of a non-zero rest-mass particle. In the case of classical mechanics, invariance under the classical law of addition of velocities, leads to an improper constant prior over the unbounded velocity space of classical mechanics. The application of the relativistic law of addition of velocities leads to a less simple prior. It can however be rewritten as a uniform volumetric distribution if the relativistic velocity space is given a non-trivial metric.

  4. Modeling irregularly spaced residual series as a continuous stochastic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Asmuth, J.R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the background and functioning of a simple but effective continuous time approach for modeling irregularly spaced residual series is presented. The basic equations were published earlier by von Asmuth et al. (2002), who used them as part of a continuous time transfer function noise mo

  5. Flow induced vibrations in arrays of irregularly spaced cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Gordon; Michelin, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Historically the main industrial applications of cylinder arrays in cross flows favored regular arrangements of cylinders. For this reason, most past studies of Flow Induced Vibrations (FIV) in large cylinder arrays have focused on such arrangements. Recently there has been some interest in generating renewable energy using FIV of bluff bodies. In such applications it will likely be beneficial to enhance, rather than suppress FIV. It is not known a priori if regular or irregularly spaced arrays are most adequate for this type of application. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted on one regularly spaced array and four different irregularly spaced arrays of cylinders in a cross flow. Each arrangement of cylinders was examined under eight different orientations to a cross flow ranging between 10 m/s and 17 m/s. The average amplitude of vibration of the cylinders was found to highly depend on arrangement and orientation. The typical amplitude of vibration of the rods in the irregular arrangements were found to be an order of magnitude larger than that of the regular array. A simple model was proposed in order to predict if a given arrangement was likely to produce large oscillations, and the validity of the model was examined. This research was supported by a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant within the 7th European Community Framework Program (Grant PIRG08-GA-2010-276762).

  6. Simultaneous radar and spaced receiver VHF scintillation observations of ESF irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made on 10 nights during March-April 1998 and 1999, using an 18-MHz radar at Trivandrum (77° E, 8.5° N, dip 0.5° N and two spaced receivers recording scintillations on a 251-MHz signal at Tirunelveli (77.8° E, 8.7° N, dip 0.4° N, have been used to study the evolution of Equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. Case studies have been carried out on the day-to-day variability in ESF structure and dynamics, as observed by 18-MHz radar, and with spaced receiver measurements of average zonal drift Vo of the 251-MHz radio wave diffraction pattern on the ground, random velocity Vc, which is a measure of random changes in the characteristics of scintillation-producing irregularities, and maximum cross-correlation CI of the spaced receivers signals. Results show that in the initial phase of plasma bubble development, the greater the maximum height of ESF irregularities responsible for the radar backscatter, the greater the decorrelation is of the spaced receiver scintillation signals, indicating greater turbulence. The relationship of the maximum spectral width derived from the radar observations and CI also supports this result.

  7. Optical measurements of pore geometry and fluid velocity in a bed of irregularly packed spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alice Y. L.; Huang, Michelle Y. F.; Capart, Hervé; Chen, Rong-Her

    2008-08-01

    Imaging methods are proposed for the characterisation of liquid flows through transparent porous media of matched refractive index. The methods are based on the analysis of laser-illuminated slices, and specialized for the case in which the porous medium is composed of irregularly packed spheres. They include algorithms for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) sphere arrangement based on a laser scan of the packed bed, particle tracking velocimetry applied to the motions of micro-tracers in a laser-illuminated plane, and techniques for the co-registration of geometry and velocity measurements acquired from different slices. The methods are applied to a cylindrical flow cell filled with mono-sized spheres and operated at Reynolds number Re = 28. The data produced include the full 3D geometry of the packed spheres assembly, the 2D fluid velocity field in the axial centre-plane of the flow cell, and the corresponding porosity and velocity distributions.

  8. LITTLE THINGS in 3D: robust determination of the circular velocity of dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Giuliano; Nipoti, Carlo; Di Teodoro, Enrico; Read, Justin I; Battaglia, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf Irregular galaxies (dIrrs) are the smallest stellar systems with extended HI discs. The study of the kinematics of such discs is a powerful tool to estimate the total matter distribution at these very small scales. In this work, we study the HI kinematics of 17 galaxies extracted from the `Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey' (LITTLE THINGS). Our approach differs significantly from previous studies in that we directly fit 3D models (two spatial dimensions plus one spectral dimension) using the software $^\\text{3D}$BAROLO, fully exploiting the information in the HI datacubes. For each galaxy we derive the geometric parameters of the HI disc (inclination and position angle), the radial distribution of the surface density, the velocity-dispersion ($\\sigma_v$) profile and the rotation curve. The circular velocity (V$_{\\text{c}}$), which traces directly the galactic potential, is then obtained by correcting the rotation curve for the asymmetric drift. As an initial ap...

  9. Influence of initial stress, irregularity and heterogeneity on Love-type wave propagation in double pre-stressed irregular layers lying over a pre-stressed half-space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Kumar Singh; Amrita Das; Zeenat Parween; Amares Chattopadhyay

    2015-10-01

    The present paper deals with the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed irregular vertically heterogeneous layer lying over an initially stressed isotropic layer and an initially stressed isotropic half-space. Two different types of irregularities, viz., rectangular and parabolic, are considered at the interface of uppermost initially stressed heterogeneous layer and intermediate initially stressed isotropic layer. Dispersion equations are obtained in closed form for both cases of irregularities, distinctly. The effect of size and shape of irregularity, horizontal compressive initial stress, horizontal tensile initial stress, heterogeneity of the uppermost layer and width ratio of the layers on phase velocity of Love-type wave are the major highlights of the study. Comparative study has been made to identify the effects of different shapes of irregularity, presence of heterogeneity and initial stresses. Numerical computations have been carried out and depicted by means of graphs for the present study.

  10. A first comparison of irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Makarevich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available E-region irregularity velocity measurements at large flow angles with the STARE Finland coherent VHF radar are considered in context of the ion and electron velocity data provided by the EISCAT tristatic radar system, CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, and IMAGE fluxgate magnetometers. The data have been collected during a special experiment on 27 March 2004 during which EISCAT was scanning between several E- and one F-region altitudes along the magnetic field line. Within the E-region, the EISCAT measurements at two altitudes of 110 and 115 km are considered while the electron velocity is inferred from the EISCAT ion velocity measurements at 278 km. The line-of-sight (l-o-s VHF velocity measured by STARE VHF los is compared to the ion and electron velocity components (Vi0 comp and Ve0 comp along the STARE l-o-s direction. The comparison with Ve0 comp for the entire event shows that the measurements exhibit large scatter and small positive correlation. The correlation with Ve0 comp was substantial in the first half of the interval under study when Ve0 comp was larger in magnitude. The comparison with Vi0 comp at 110 and 115 km shows a considerable positive correlation, with VHF velocity being typically larger (smaller in magnitude than Vi0 comp at 110 km (115 km so that VVHF los appears to be bounded by the ion velocity components at two altitudes. It is also demonstrated that the difference between VVHF los and Vi0 comp at 110 km can be treated, in the first approximation, as a linear function of the effective backscatter height heff also counted from 110 km; heff varies in the range 108–114 km due to the altitude integration effects in the scattering cross-section. Our results are consistent with the notion that VHF

  11. Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anup Saha; Santimoy Kundu; Shishir Gupta; Pramod Kumar Vaishnav

    2016-06-01

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of torsional surface waves in an initially stressedanisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space. We assumethe quadratic inhomogeneity in rigidity and density in the lower half-space and irregularity is taken inthe form of rectangle at the interface separating the layer from the lower half-space. The dispersionequation for torsional waves has been obtained in a closed form. Velocity equation is also obtained inthe absence of irregularity. The study reveals that the presence of irregularity, initial stress, porosity,inhomogeneity and anisotropy factor in the dispersion equation approves the significant effect of theseparameters in the propagation of torsional waves in porous medium. It has also been observed that fora uniform media, the velocity equation reduces to the classical result of Love wave.

  12. Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anup; Kundu, Santimoy; Gupta, Shishir; Vaishnav, Pramod Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space. We assume the quadratic inhomogeneity in rigidity and density in the lower half-space and irregularity is taken in the form of rectangle at the interface separating the layer from the lower half-space. The dispersion equation for torsional waves has been obtained in a closed form. Velocity equation is also obtained in the absence of irregularity. The study reveals that the presence of irregularity, initial stress, porosity, inhomogeneity and anisotropy factor in the dispersion equation approves the significant effect of these parameters in the propagation of torsional waves in porous medium. It has also been observed that for a uniform media, the velocity equation reduces to the classical result of Love wave.

  13. Scattering of high-frequency seismic waves caused by irregular surface topography and small-scale velocity inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Furumura, Takashi; Maeda, Takuto

    2015-04-01

    Based on 3-D finite difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation, we examined the processes by which the complex, scattered high-frequency (f > 1 Hz) seismic wavefield during crustal earthquakes is developed due to heterogeneous structure, which includes small-scale velocity inhomogeneity in subsurface structure and irregular surface topography on the surface, and compared with observations from dense seismic networks in southwestern Japan. The simulations showed the process by which seismic wave scattering in the heterogeneous structure develops long-duration coda waves and distorts the P-wave polarization and apparent S-wave radiation pattern. The simulations revealed that scattering due to irregular topography is significant only near the station and thus the topographic scattering effects do not accumulate as seismic waves propagate over long distances. On the other hand, scattering due to velocity inhomogeneity in the subsurface structure distorts the seismic wavefield gradually as seismic waves propagate. The composite model, including both irregular topography and velocity inhomogeneity, showed the combined effects. Furthermore, by introducing irregular topography, the effects of seismic wave scattering on both body and coda waves were stronger than in the model with velocity inhomogeneity alone. Therefore, to model the high-frequency seismic wavefield, both topography and velocity inhomogeneity in the subsurface structure should be taken into account in the simulation model. By comparing observations with the simulations including topography, we determined that the most preferable small-scale velocity heterogeneity model for southwestern Japan is characterized by the von Kármán power spectral density function with correlation distance a = 5 km, rms value of fluctuation ɛ = 0.07 and decay order κ = 0.5. We also demonstrated that the relative contribution of scattering due to the topography of southwestern Japan is approximately 12 per cent.

  14. Dispersive SH waves in a cylindrical multiferroic composite with interfacial irregularity: Approximate analysis on coordinate-dependent phase velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Dong; Liu, Shi-Lun; Jin, Ying; Wei, Hong-Xing; Guan, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Irregular interfaces may be formed between the neighboring ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers of multiferroic composites during the hot-pressing process. They undoubtedly affects the mechanical behavior of multiferroic composites and this is a scientific problem deserving studying. In addition, phase velocity will be a function of coordinate if the interface is irregular, and this makes the governing equation so complicated that direct analytical solution is unobtainable. The present article proposes an approximate approach for analyzing SH waves in a cylindrical multiferroic composite with interfacial irregularity. The dispersion equation is analytically derived and numerically solved. After the validity range of the approximate treatment is clarified, parametric studies reveals that interfacial corrugations can give rise to an oscillatory distribution of phase velocity along the propagation direction. Because such oscillation can lead to unstable signal transmission, it should be avoided in engineering. Further discussion suggests three possible ways for suppressing the oscillation of phase velocity. The research results can provide references for optimizing the design, manufacture and application of multiferroic devices.

  15. Irregularities Associated with Artificially Created Dusty Plasmas in the near Earth Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W.; Mahmoudian, A.; Fu, H.

    2009-12-01

    A natural dust layer formed by tons of meteoric dust spans the altitude range between 80 and 100 kilometers of the earth’s upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere which forms Noctilucent Clouds NLCs. These dust layers are charged due to collection of electrons and ions from the earth’s ionosphere. Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes are radar echoes which result from scattering from the irregularities in the electron density above the NLC altitude. An alternate approach to understanding natural dust layers is to perform active space experiments in which a dust cloud is artificially created in a controlled manner in the upper atmosphere. The goal of Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) is to investigate similarity in plasma irregularity associated with natural and artificial dust layers. This presentation will address some of the physical processes expected to be important during the early time phase after creation of an artificial dust cloud in the earth’s ionosphere. Of major importance will be the production of plasma irregularities which may lead to radar echoes and the possibility of their relationship to PMSEs observed from natural dusty space plasmas. The objective is to investigate the production of electron irregularities due to growth of plasma instabilities driven by inhomogeneities in the boundary between the background plasma and the expanding charged dust layer. First, a two dimensional plasma simulation model will be described that may be used for examining early time evolution after expansion of an artificial dust cloud across the magnetic field in the ionosphere. The model considers a three species system with fluid electrons and ions and Particle-In-Cell PIC charged dust grains in which the dust charge on the grains varies in time according to the standard charging model. The electrons are magnetized and the algorithm incorporates the parallel electron dynamics while the ions are assumed to be unmagnetized. Simulations runs were made to

  16. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  17. Back to epicycles - relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri

    2017-05-01

    The study of relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space is prompted by the fact that the study of Newtonian Kepler/Coulomb systems in velocity space, although less familiar than the analytic solutions in ordinary space, provides a much simpler (also more elegant) method. The simplicity and elegance of the velocity-space method derives from the linearity of the velocity equation, which is the unique feature of 1/r interactions for Newtonian and relativistic systems alike. The various types of possible trajectories are presented, their properties deduced from the orbits in velocity space, accompanied with illustrations. In particular, it is found that the orbits traversed in the relativistic velocity space (which is hyperbolic (H 3) rather than Euclidean) are epicyclic - circles whose centres also rotate - thus the title. Dedicated to the memory of J. D. Bekenstein - physicist, teacher and human

  18. Effect of surface stress and irregularity of the interface on the propagation of SH-waves in the magneto-elastic crustal layer based on a solid semi space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D P Acharya; Indrajit Roy

    2009-04-01

    The object of the present paper is to investigate plane SH waves through a magneto-elastic crustal layer based over an elastic, solid semi space under the influence of surface stress on the free surface of the crustal layer and irregularity of the interface. Two types of irregularities of the interface namely, rectangular and parabolic have been considered. Modulations of wave velocity due to the presence of surface stress, irregularity and the magnetic field have been studied separately. Their combined effect has also been investigated. Graphs are drawn to highlight some important peculiarities. It is observed that surface stress, irregularity and magnetic field have their respective role to play in the propagation of SH waves in the crustal layer. Further modulation of wave velocity occurs due to their combined effect.

  19. Velocity-space sensitivity of neutron spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Neutron emission spectrometry (NES) measures the energies of neutrons produced in fusion reactions. Here we present velocity-space weight functions for NES and neutron yield measurements. Weight functions show the sensitivity as well as the accessible regions in velocity space for a given range...

  20. Interlamellar spacing and average interface undercooling of irregular eutectic in steady-state growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guang-hui; LIN Xin; HUANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    The average lamellar spacing and interface undercooling in steady-state irregular eutectic growth were estimated based on the Jackson and Hunt's analysis by relaxing the isothermal interface assumption. At low growth rates, the average lamellar spacing and average interface undercooling are dependent only on the characteristic thermo-physical properties of a binary eutectic system. For a general Al-Si eutectic, it is found that the eutectic characteristic length based on the present non-isothermal analysis is consistent with that obtained from isothermal analysis; however, the average interface undercooling is remarkably different between them, and such discrepancy in average interface undercooling increases with increasing of growth rate. The measured interface undercooling obtained from literature is reasonably interpreted by present non-isothermal analysis.

  1. Understanding redshift space distortions in density-weighted peculiar velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiyama, Naonori S; Spergel, David N

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect measure the density-weighted velocity field, a potentially powerful cosmological probe. This paper presents an analytical method to predict the power spectrum and two-point correlation function of the density-weighted velocity in redshift space, the direct observables in kSZ surveys. We show a simple relation between the density power spectrum and the density-weighted velocity power spectrum that holds for both dark matter and halos. Using this relation, we can then extend familiar perturbation expansion techniques to the kSZ power spectrum. One of the most important features of the density-weighted velocity is the change of the sign of infall velocity at small scales due to the nonlinear redshift space distortion. Our model can explain this characteristic feature without any free parameters. As a result, our results can precisely predict the non-linear behavior of the density-weighted velocity field in redshift space up to $\\sim10\\ h^{-1} {\\rm Mpc}$...

  2. View generation for 3D-TV using image reconstruction from irregularly spaced samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional television (3D-TV) will become the next big step in the development of advanced TV systems. One of the major challenges for the deployment of 3D-TV systems is the diversity of display technologies and the high cost of capturing multi-view content. Depth image-based rendering (DIBR) has been identified as a key technology for the generation of new views for stereoscopic and multi-view displays from a small number of views captured and transmitted. We propose a disparity compensation method for DIBR that does not require spatial interpolation of the disparity map. We use a forward-mapping disparity compensation with real precision. The proposed method deals with the irregularly sampled image resulting from this disparity compensation process by applying a re-sampling algorithm based on a bi-cubic spline function space that produces smooth images. The fact that no approximation is made on the position of the samples implies that geometrical distortions in the final images due to approximations in sample positions are minimized. We also paid attention to the occlusion problem. Our algorithm detects the occluded regions in the newly generated images and uses simple depth-aware inpainting techniques to fill the gaps created by newly exposed areas. We tested the proposed method in the context of generation of views needed for viewing on SynthaGram TM auto-stereoscopic displays. We used as input either a 2D image plus a depth map or a stereoscopic pair with the associated disparity map. Our results show that this technique provides high quality images to be viewed on different display technologies such as stereoscopic viewing with shutter glasses (two views) and lenticular auto-stereoscopic displays (nine views).

  3. ROTATING RINDLER SPACE TIME WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR VELOCITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YONG-CHENG

    2000-01-01

    A new space time metric is derived from Kerr metric if its mass and location approach to infinite in an appropriate way. The new space-time is an infinitesimal neighborhood nearby one of the two horizon poles of an infinite Kerr black hole. In other words, it is the second order infinitesimal neighborhood nearby one of the two horizon poles of a Kerr black hole. It is fiat and has event horizon and infinite red shift surface. We prove that it is a rotating Rindler space time with constant angular velocity.

  4. Some Modal Relations and Generalized Velocity Method in State Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Real mode theory in configuration space has shown that the mode acceleration method converges faster than the mode displacement method. This paper demonstrates a similar conclusion in the state space. Some new expressions on modal parameter matrices were set up first. A generalized velocity method (GVM) is then demonstrated in a systematic way. This method is the so-called complex mode velocity method, but the expressions and schemes are given in terms of parametric matrices in configuration space. Theoretical comparison of this GVM with the traditional complex mode method shows some interesting conclusions. The latter approach is actually a generalized displacement method (GDM). Without mode reduction, the displacement responses of the concerned system resulting from both approaches are identical. On the other hand, both approaches have to adopt mode reduction to become practical. Under this situation, GVM has advantages because it compensates for the contribution of the omitted high-order modes to the displacement responses.

  5. Driven phase space vortices in plasmas with nonextensive velocity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of chirp-driven electrostatic waves in unmagnetized plasmas is numerically investigated by using a one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-poisson solver with periodic boundary conditions. The initial velocity distribution of the 1D plasma is assumed to be governed by nonextensive q distribution [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. For an infinitesimal amplitude of an external drive, we investigate the effects of chirp driven dynamics that leads to the formation of giant phase space vortices (PSV) for both Maxwellian (q = 1) and non-Maxwellian ( q ≠ 1 ) plasmas. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the formation of giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities is shown to be dependent on the strength of "q". Novel features such as "shark"-like and transient "honeycomb"-like structures in phase space are discussed. Wherever relevant, we compare our results with previous work.

  6. Improved Minimum Detectable Velocity in Bistatic Space-Based Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; TANG Jun; PENG Yingning

    2008-01-01

    Single orbit bistatic space-based radar (SBR) is composed of two radars in the same orbit. The characteristics of the clutter Doppler-angle spectrum of a single orbit bistatic SBR show that the slope of the mainbeam clutter spectrum is highly sensitive to the cone angles. Therefore, the minimum detectable veloc-ity of the bistatic system is dependent on the cone angle. Then a new combined working mode of single-orbit bistatic SBR system was developed in which one radar will act as the transmitter and another as the receiver to improve detection performance for all angles. Simulation results by space-time adaptive process-ing verify the improved detection performance. The new design also reduces the average power of each ra-dar system and the size and weight of the on-board solar array-battery system.

  7. Comparative study of the discrete velocity and lattice Boltzmann methods for rarefied gas flows through irregular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Lindsay, Scott; Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Rooted from the gas kinetics, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a powerful tool in modeling hydrodynamics. In the past decade, it has been extended to simulate rarefied gas flows beyond the Navier-Stokes level, either by using the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, or by introducing the relaxation time that is a function of the gas-wall distance. While the former method, with a limited number of discrete velocities (e.g., D2Q36), is accurate up to the early transition flow regime, the latter method (especially the multiple relaxation time (MRT) LBM), with the same discrete velocities as those used in simulating hydrodynamics (i.e., D2Q9), is accurate up to the free-molecular flow regime in the planar Poiseuille flow. This is quite astonishing in the sense that less discrete velocities are more accurate. In this paper, by solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation accurately via the discrete velocity method, we find that the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature cannot describe the large variation in the velocity distribution function when the rarefaction effect is strong, but the MRT-LBM can capture the flow velocity well because it is equivalent to solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an effective shear viscosity. Since the MRT-LBM has only been validated in simple channel flows, and for complex geometries it is difficult to find the effective viscosity, it is necessary to assess its performance for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. Our numerical simulations based on the accurate discrete velocity method suggest that the accuracy of the MRT-LBM is reduced significantly in the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the rough surface and porous media. Our simulation results could serve as benchmarking cases for future development of the LBM for modeling and simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries.

  8. Asymmetric metallicity patterns in the stellar velocity space with RAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoja, T.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Monari, G.; Famaey, B.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Grebel, E. K.; Steinmetz, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienaymé, O.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The chemical abundances of stars encode information on their place and time of origin. Stars formed together in e.g. a cluster, should present chemical homogeneity. Also disk stars influenced by the effects of the bar and the spiral arms might have distinct chemical signatures depending on the type of orbit that they follow, e.g. from the inner versus outer regions of the Milky Way. Aims: We explore the correlations between velocity and metallicity and the possible distinct chemical signatures of the velocity over-densities of the local Galactic neighbourhood. Methods: We use the large spectroscopic survey RAVE and the Geneva Copenhagen Survey. We compare the metallicity distribution of regions in the velocity plane (vR,vφ) with that of their symmetric counterparts (-vR,vφ). We expect similar metallicity distributions if there are no tracers of a sub-population (e.g. a dispersed cluster, accreted stars), if the disk of the Galaxy is axisymmetric, and if the orbital effects of the bar and the spiral arms are weak. Results: We find that the metallicity-velocity space of the solar neighbourhood is highly patterned. A large fraction of the velocity plane shows differences in the metallicity distribution when comparing symmetric vR regions. The typical differences in the median metallicity are of 0.05 dex with statistical significant of at least 95% confidence, and with values up to 0.6 dex. For stars with low azimuthal velocity vφ, the ones moving outwards. These include stars in the Hercules and Hyades moving groups and other velocity branch-like structures. For higher vφ, the stars moving inwards have higher metallicity than those moving outwards. We have also discovered a positive gradient in vφ with respect to metallicity at high metallicities, apart from the two known positive and negative gradients for the thick and thin disks. Conclusions: The most likely interpretation of the metallicity asymmetry is that it is mainly due to the orbital effects of

  9. On the space and time evolution of regular or irregular human heart or brain signals

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2011-01-01

    A coupled map is suggested to investigate various spatial or temporal designs in biology: Several cells (or tissues) in an organ are considered as connected to each other in terms of some molecular diffusions or electrical potential differences and so on. The biological systems (groups of cells) start from various initial conditions for spatial designs (or initial signals for temporal designs) and they evolve in time in terms of the mentioned interactions (connections) besides some individual feedings. The basic aim of the present contribution is to mimic various empirical data for the heart (in normal, quasi-stable, unstable and post operative physiological conditions) or brain (regular or irregular; for epilepsy) signals. The mentioned empirical data are borrowed from various literatures which are cited. The suggested model (to be used besides or instead of the artificial network models) involves simple mathematics and the related software is easy. The results may be considered as in good agreement with the...

  10. Near-Field/Far-Field Transformation with Helicoidal Scanning from Irregularly Spaced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Agostino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast and accurate technique for the compensation of the probe positioning errors in the near-field/far-field transformation with helicoidal scanning is proposed in this paper. It relies on a nonredundant sampling representation using a spherical modelling of the antenna under test and employs an iterative scheme to evaluate the near-field data at the points fixed by the helicoidal nonredundant representation from the acquired irregularly distributed ones. Once these helicoidal data have been recovered, those required by a classical cylindrical near-field/far-field transformation are efficiently determined by using an optimal sampling interpolation algorithm. Some numerical tests assessing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its stability with respect to random errors affecting the near-field data are shown.

  11. Irregular amalgams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stewart

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The amalgam of Lp and ℓq consists of those functions for which the sequence of Lp-norms over the intervals [n,n+1 is in ℓq. These spaces (Lp,ℓq have been studied in several recent papers. Here we replace the intervals [n,n+1 by a cover α={In;n∈Z} of the real line consisting of disjoint half-open intervals In each of the form [a,b, and investigate which properties of (Lp,ℓq carry over to these irregular amalgams (Lp,ℓqα. In particular, we study how (Lp,ℓqα varies as p, q, and α vary and determine conditions under which translation is continuous.

  12. Finite element method for nonlinear Riesz space fractional diffusion equations on irregular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.; Nie, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhu, X.; Liu, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations with nonlinear source term on convex domains. Applying Galerkin finite element method in space and backward difference method in time, we present a fully discrete scheme to solve Riesz space fractional diffusion equations. Our breakthrough is developing an algorithm to form stiffness matrix on unstructured triangular meshes, which can help us to deal with space fractional terms on any convex domain. The stability and convergence of the scheme are also discussed. Numerical examples are given to verify accuracy and stability of our scheme.

  13. Space-time correlations of fluctuating velocities in turbulent shear flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; He, Guo-Wei

    2009-04-01

    Space-time correlations or Eulerian two-point two-time correlations of fluctuating velocities are analytically and numerically investigated in turbulent shear flows. An elliptic model for the space-time correlations in the inertial range is developed from the similarity assumptions on the isocorrelation contours: they share a uniform preference direction and a constant aspect ratio. The similarity assumptions are justified using the Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses and verified using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flows. The model relates the space-time correlations to the space correlations via the convection and sweeping characteristic velocities. The analytical expressions for the convection and sweeping velocities are derived from the Navier-Stokes equations for homogeneous turbulent shear flows, where the convection velocity is represented by the mean velocity and the sweeping velocity is the sum of the random sweeping velocity and the shear-induced velocity. This suggests that unlike Taylor's model where the convection velocity is dominating and Kraichnan and Tennekes' model where the random sweeping velocity is dominating, the decorrelation time scales of the space-time correlations in turbulent shear flows are determined by the convection velocity, the random sweeping velocity, and the shear-induced velocity. This model predicts a universal form of the space-time correlations with the two characteristic velocities. The DNS of turbulent channel flows supports the prediction: the correlation functions exhibit a fair good collapse, when plotted against the normalized space and time separations defined by the elliptic model.

  14. Knowledge base interpolation of path-dependent data using irregularly spaced natural neighbors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, J.; Keyser, R.; Young, C.; Shepard-Dombroski, E.; Chael, E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the requirements for the interpolation scheme needed for the CTBT Knowledge Base and discusses interpolation issues relative to the requirements. Based on these requirements, a methodology for providing an accurate and robust interpolation scheme for the CTBT Knowledge Base is proposed. The method utilizes a Delaunay triangle tessellation to mesh the Earth`s surface and employs the natural-neighbor interpolation technique to provide accurate evaluation of geophysical data that is important for CTBT verification. The natural-neighbor interpolation method is a local weighted average technique capable of modeling sparse irregular data sets as is commonly found in the geophysical sciences. This is particularly true of the data to be contained in the CTBT Knowledge Base. Furthermore, natural neighbor interpolation is first order continuous everywhere except at the data points. The non-linear form of the natural-neighbor interpolation method can provide continuous first and second order derivatives throughout the entire data domain. Since one of the primary support functions of the Knowledge Base is to provide event location capabilities, and the seismic event location algorithms typically require first and second order continuity, this is a prime requirement of any interpolation methodology chosen for use by the CTBT Knowledge Base.

  15. Adaptive Task-Space Cooperative Tracking Control of Networked Robotic Manipulators Without Task-Space Velocity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinwu; Wang, Hesheng; Liu, Yun-Hui; Chen, Weidong; Hu, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the task-space cooperative tracking control problem of networked robotic manipulators without task-space velocity measurements is addressed. To overcome the problem without task-space velocity measurements, a novel task-space position observer is designed to update the estimated task-space position and to simultaneously provide the estimated task-space velocity, based on which an adaptive cooperative tracking controller without task-space velocity measurements is presented by introducing new estimated task-space reference velocity and acceleration. Furthermore, adaptive laws are provided to cope with uncertain kinematics and dynamics and rigorous stability analysis is given to show asymptotical convergence of the task-space tracking and synchronization errors in the presence of communication delays under strongly connected directed graphs. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  16. Upscaling sparse, irregularly spaced in situ soil moisture measurements for calibration and validation of SMAP soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, J.; Clewley, D.; Moghaddam, M.; Akbar, R.; Silva, A. R. D.

    2015-12-01

    There is a large difference in the footprints over which remote sensing instruments, such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, retrieve soil moisture and that of in situ networks. Therefore a method for upscaling in situ measurements is required before they can be used to validate remote sensing instruments. The upscaling problem is made more difficult when measurements are sparse and irregularly spaced within the footprint. To address these needs, we have developed a method for producing upscaled estimates of soil moisture based on a network of in situ soil moisture measurements and airborne P-band SAR data, and utilizing a Random Forests-based regression algorithm. Sites within the SoilSCAPE network, for which the technique was developed, typically contains sensors at ~30 locations, with each location sampled at multiple depths. Measurements are taken at 20 minute intervals and averaged over a selectable time interval, thereby supporting near-real time generation of soil moisture maps. The collected measurements are automatically uploaded to a central database from which they can be accessed for use in the regression algorithm. Our regression-based approach works well with irregularly-spaced sensors by incorporating a set of data layers that correlate well with soil moisture. The layers include thematic land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, flow accumulation, clay fraction, air temperature, precipitation, and P-Band HH, VV, and HV backscatter. Values from these data layers are extracted for each sensor location and applied to train the Random Forests algorithm. The decision trees generated are then applied to estimate soil moisture at a 100 m spacing throughout the network region, after which the evenly-spaced values are averaged to accord with the 3-, 9-, and 36-km SMAP measurement grids. The resulting set of near-real time soil moisture estimates suitable for SMAP calibration and validation is placed online for use by the SMAP Cal/Val team

  17. Observations of small- to large-scale ionospheric irregularities associated with plasma bubbles with a transequatorial HF propagation experiment and spaced GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Kubota, Minoru; Ma, Guanyi; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Jinghua; Ha Duyen, Chau; Le Truong, Thanh

    2008-12-01

    The results from simultaneous observations of the nighttime transequatorial propagation (TEP) of HF radio waves between Australia and Japan and the GPS scintillation measurements in south China and Vietnam are presented in this paper. The results showed that there was good correspondence between the nighttime eastward traveling off-great circle propagation (OGCP) of broadcasting waves of Radio Australia from Shepparton, Australia, measured at Oarai, Japan, and the scintillations in GPS radio waves at Hainan, China. This shows that the nighttime eastward traveling OGCP in HF TEP is caused by a large-scale ionospheric structure associated with a plasma bubble. The zonal drift velocities of the large-scale ionospheric structure estimated by the change in the direction of arrival of the OGCP were similar to those of the small-scale irregularities associated with plasma bubbles measured by the GPS scintillation spaced-receiver technique. Our results show that the HF TEP measurement is quite useful for monitoring the plasma bubble occurrence over a wide area and for forecasting the arrival of the plasma bubble at places located to the east of it.

  18. Irregular Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood become too low or too high. Some women have irregular periods because their bodies produce too much androgen, which is a hormone that causes increased muscle mass, facial hair, and deepening of the voice in males and ...

  19. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. I. Experimental setup, data processing, and test of the spacing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C; Buhse, Thomas; de la Calleja, Elsa María; González-Espinoza, Alfredo; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Montoya-Nava, Fernando; Ramírez-Álvarez, Elizeth; Rivera-Islas, Marco; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Aurora; Müller, Markus F

    2016-05-07

    Since the early work on Liesegang rings in gels, they have been a reference point for the study of pattern formation in chemical physics. Here we present a variant of the Liesegang experiment in gas phase, where ammonia and hydrochloric acid react within a glass tube producing a precipitate, which deposits along the tube wall producing a spatial pattern. With this apparently simple experiment a wide range of rich phenomenon can be observed due to the presence of convective flows and irregular dynamics reminiscent of turbulent behavior, for which precise measurements are scarce. In this first part of our work, we describe in detail the experimental setup, the method of data acquisition, the image processing, and the procedure used to obtain an intensity profile, which is representative of the amount of precipitate deposited at the tube walls. Special attention is devoted to the techniques rendering a data series reliable for statistical studies and model building, which may contribute to a characterization and understanding of the pattern formation phenomenon under consideration. As a first step in this direction, based on our data, we are able to show that the observed band pattern follows, with slight deviations, the spacing law encountered in common Liesegang rings, despite that the experimental conditions are very different. A further statistical correlation analysis of the data constitutes Paper II of this research.

  20. Superluminal Velocities in the Synchronized Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev S. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the non-gravitational generalization of the special relativity, a problem of possible superluminal motion of particles and signals is considered. It has been proven that for the particles with non-zero mass the existence of anisotropic light barrier with the shape dependent on the reference frame velocity results from the Tangherlini transformations. The maximal possible excess of neutrino velocity over the absolute velocity of light related to the Earth (using th e clock with instantaneous synchronization has been estimated. The illusoriness of t he acausality problem has been illustrated and conclusion is made on the lack of the upper limit of velocities of signals of informational nature.

  1. Study of velocity centroids based on the theory of fluctuations in position-position-velocity space

    CERN Document Server

    Kandel, D; Pogosyan, D

    2016-01-01

    We study possibility of obtaining velocity spectra by studying turbulence in an optically thick medium using velocity centroids (VCs).We find that the regime of universal, i.e. independent of underlying turbulence statistics, fluctuations discovered originally within the velocity channel analysis (VCA) carries over to the statistics of VCs. In other words, for large absorptions the VC lose their ability to reflect the spectra of turbulence. Combining our present study with the earlier studies of centroids in Esquivel & Lazarian, we conclude that centroids are applicable for studies subsonic/transsonic turbulence for the range of scales that is limited by the absorption effects. We also consider VCs based on absorption lines and define the range of their applicability. We address the problem of analytical description of spectra and anisotropies of fluctuations that are available through studies using VC. We obtain spectra and anisotropy of VC fluctuations arising from Alfv\\'en, slow and fast modes that con...

  2. Shear Wave Propagation in Multilayered Medium including an Irregular Fluid Saturated Porous Stratum with Rigid Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned with the study of propagation of shear waves in an anisotropic fluid saturated porous layer over a semi-infinite homogeneous elastic half-space lying under an elastic homogeneous layer with irregularity present at the interface with rigid boundary. The rectangular irregularity has been taken in the half-space. The dispersion equation for shear waves is derived by using the perturbation technique followed by Fourier transformation. Numerically, the effect of irregularity present is analysed. It is seen that the phase velocity is significantly influenced by the wave number and the depth of the irregularity. The variations of dimensionless phase velocity against dimensionless wave number are shown graphically for the different size of rectangular irregularities with the help of MATLAB.

  3. Study of velocity centroids based on the theory of fluctuations in position-position-velocity space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, D.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2017-01-01

    We study the possibility of obtaining power spectrum of gas velocity in the turbulent interstellar medium from spatial correlation of velocity centroids (VCs) of optically thick emission lines. Combining this study with the earlier studies of centroids in Esquivel & Lazarian, we conclude that centroids are applicable for studies of subsonic/transonic turbulence for sufficiently small line-of-sight (LOS) separations at which self-absorption does not affect correlation scalings. At larger LOS separations where self-absorption becomes important, we find that there is a range of scales over which VC correlation demonstrates the universal scaling, similar to the effect found in the velocity channel analysis (VCA). In other words, for large absorptions the VCs lose their ability to reflect the spectra of turbulence. We develop analytical formalism that relates statistical properties of underlying magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence to observable scaling and anisotropy of VC correlations arising from Alfvén, slow and fast modes that constitute the compressible MHD modes, and show how the VC anisotropy can be used to find the media magnetization as well as to identify and separate the contributions from these MHD modes. Our study demonstrates that VCs are complementary to the VCA. In order to study turbulent volume with insufficient resolution of single-dish telescopes, we demonstrate how the studies of anisotropy can be performed using interferometers. We also suggest that restricted VC can be constructed for absorption lines by integrating LOS velocity weighted by the optical depth. We discuss the requirements for applicability of this approach.

  4. Study of velocity centroids based on the theory of fluctuations in position-position-velocity space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, D.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2016-10-01

    We study the possibility of obtaining power spectrum of gas velocity in the turbulent interstellar medium from spatial correlation of velocity centroids (VC) of optically thick emission lines. Combining our present study with the earlier studies of centroids in Esquivel & Lazarian, we conclude that centroids are applicable for studies of subsonic/transsonic turbulence for sufficiently small line of sight (LOS) separations at which self-absorption does not affect correlation scalings. At larger LOS separations where self-absorption becomes important, we find that there is a range of scales over which VC correlation demonstrates the universal scaling, similar to the effect found in the velocity channel analysis (VCA). In other words, for large absorptions the VC lose their ability to reflect the spectra of turbulence. We develop analytical formalism the relates statistical properties of underlying magnetohydrodynamical turbulence to observable scaling and anisotropy of VC correlations arising from Alfvén, slow and fast modes that constitute the compressible MHD modes, and show how the VC anisotropy can be used to find the media magnetization as well as to identify and separate the contributions from these MHD modes. Our study demonstrates that VC are complementary to the VCA. In order to study turbulent volume with insufficient resolution of single dish telescopes, we demonstrate how the studies of anisotropy can be performed using interferometers. We also suggest that restricted VC can be constructed for absorption lines by integrating line-of-sight velocity weighted by the optical depth. We discuss the requirements for applicability of this approach.

  5. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  6. Multivariate irregular sampling theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we prove a Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type inequality for multivariate entire functions of exponential type with non-equidistant spaced sampling points. And from this result,we establish a multivariate irregular Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon type sampling theorem.

  7. Multivariate irregular sampling theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN GuangGui; FANG GenSun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type inequality for multivariate entire functions of exponential type with non-equidistant spaced sampling points. And from this result, we establish a multivariate irregular Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon type sampling theorem.

  8. Inversion methods for fast-ion velocity-space tomography in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Stagner, L.; Salewski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography has been used to infer 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions. Here we compare the performance of five different tomographic inversion methods: truncated singular value decomposition, maximum entropy, minimum Fisher information and zeroth and first-order Tikhonov re...

  9. Combination of fast-ion diagnostics in velocity-space tomographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2013-01-01

    Fast-ion Dα (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics provide indirect measurements of fast-ion velocity distribution functions in magnetically confined plasmas. Here we present the first prescription for velocity-space tomographic inversion of CTS and FIDA measurements that can ...

  10. Velocity Space of Galactic O-B Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Hipparcos proper motions and available radial velocity data of O-B stars, we have re-examined the local kinematical structure of the young disk population of ~ 1500 O-B stars not including the Gould-belt stars. A systematic warping motion of the stars about the direction to the Galactic center has been reconfirmed. A negative K-term implying a systematic contraction of stars in the solar vicinity has been detected. Two different distance scales are used in order to find out their impact on the kinematical parameters, and we conclude that the adopted distance scale plays an important role in characterizing the kinematical parameters at the present level of the measurement uncertainty.

  11. Galactic Subsystems on the Basis of Cumulative Distribution of Space Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample containing $4,614$ stars with available space velocities and high-quality kinematical data from the Arihip Catalogue is formed. For the purpose of distinguishing galactic subsystems the cumulative distribution of space velocities is studied. The fractions of the three subsystems are found to be: thin disc 92\\%, thick disc 6\\% and halo 2\\%. These results are verified by analysing the elements of velocity ellipsoids and the shape and size of the galactocentric orbits of the sample stars, i.e. the planar and vertical eccentricities of the orbits.

  12. Trade Space Study for the Performance of Hard Armor Versus Threat Striking Velocity at Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-15/025 TRADE SPACE STUDY FOR...official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of trade names in this report does not...September 2013 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRADE SPACE STUDY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF HARD ARMOR VERSUS THREAT STRIKING VELOCITY AT RANGE 5a

  13. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g

  14. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography......, prior information makes up for this lack of data. We restrict the target velocity space through the measured absence of FIDA light, impose phase-space densities to be non-negative, and encode the known geometry of neutral beam injection (NBI) sources. We further use a numerical simulation as prior...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  15. Optimal Trajectory Planning and Coordinated Tracking Control Method of Tethered Space Robot Based on Velocity Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfeng Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tethered space robot (TSR is a new concept of space robot which consists of a robot platform, space tether and operation robot. This paper presents a multi-objective optimal trajectory planning and a coordinated tracking control scheme for TSR based on velocity impulse in the approaching phase. Both total velocity impulse and flight time are included in this optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal trajectory Pareto solution using the TSR dynamic model and optimal trajectory planning model. The coordinated tracking control scheme utilizes optimal velocity impulse. Furthermore, the PID controller is designed in order to compensate for the distance measurement errors. The PID control force is optimized and distributed to thrusters and the space tether using a simulated annealing algorithm. The attitude interferential torque of the space tether is compensated a using time-delay algorithm through reaction wheels. The simulation results show that the multi-objective optimal trajectory planning method can reveal the relationships among flight time, fuel consumption, planar view angle and velocity impulse number. This method can provide a series of optimal trajectory according to a number of special tasks. The coordinated control scheme can significantly save thruster fuel for tracking the optimal trajectory, restrain the attitude interferential torque produced by space tether and maintain the relative attitude stability of the operation robot.

  16. Bayesian Estimates of the Large-Scale Velocity Field in Real Space and Redshift Space

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Methods for inferring the velocity field from the peculiar velocity data are described and applied to old and newer data. Inhomogeneous Malmquist bias and ways to avoid it are discussed and utilized. We infer that these biases are probably important in interpreting the data.

  17. Azimuth space-variant properties of BiSAR with nonequal velocities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yonghong; Pi Yiming

    2008-01-01

    Bistatic SAR possesses characteristic of the azimuth space-variant when the velocities of transmitter and receiver are not equal.The geometric model of BiSAR with the parallel trajectories and the nonequal platform velocities is presented.Analyzing the motion relationship of transmitter and receiver,the formula of azimuth space-variant is derived in time domain.Via Taylor polynomial expansions,the azimuth space-variant is factorized by four terms: zero-order,first-order,second-order,and third-order term.And,their impacts on impulse response are illuminated.Some characteristics about azimuth space-variant of airborne BiSAR case are exhibited by simulation experiments,arid these simulated results are coincident with the formulae of azimuth space-variant.

  18. Velocity-space sensitivity of the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, A. S., E-mail: Ajsen@fysik.dtu.dk; Salewski, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M. [Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Eriksson, J.; Ericsson, G.; Hjalmarsson, A. [Association Euratom - VR, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    The velocity-space sensitivities of fast-ion diagnostics are often described by so-called weight functions. Recently, we formulated weight functions showing the velocity-space sensitivity of the often dominant beam-target part of neutron energy spectra. These weight functions for neutron emission spectrometry (NES) are independent of the particular NES diagnostic. Here we apply these NES weight functions to the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR at JET. By taking the instrumental response function of TOFOR into account, we calculate time-of-flight NES weight functions that enable us to directly determine the velocity-space sensitivity of a given part of a measured time-of-flight spectrum from TOFOR.

  19. Irregular-Time Bayesian Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ramati, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In many fields observations are performed irregularly along time, due to either measurement limitations or lack of a constant immanent rate. While discrete-time Markov models (as Dynamic Bayesian Networks) introduce either inefficient computation or an information loss to reasoning about such processes, continuous-time Markov models assume either a discrete state space (as Continuous-Time Bayesian Networks), or a flat continuous state space (as stochastic dif- ferential equations). To address these problems, we present a new modeling class called Irregular-Time Bayesian Networks (ITBNs), generalizing Dynamic Bayesian Networks, allowing substantially more compact representations, and increasing the expressivity of the temporal dynamics. In addition, a globally optimal solution is guaranteed when learning temporal systems, provided that they are fully observed at the same irregularly spaced time-points, and a semiparametric subclass of ITBNs is introduced to allow further adaptation to the irregular nature of t...

  20. Peculiar velocities in redshift space: formalism, N-body simulations and perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Teppei; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of peculiar velocities of galaxies and clusters of galaxies can in principle provide explicit information on the three dimensional mass distribution, but this information is modulated by the fact that velocity field is sampled at galaxy positions, and is thus probing galaxy momentum. We derive expressions for the cross power spectrum between the density and momentum field and the auto spectrum of the momentum field in redshift space, by extending the distribution function method to these statistics. The resulting momentum cross and auto power spectra in redshift space are expressed as infinite sums over velocity moment correlators in real space, as is the case for the density power spectrum in redshift space. We compare the predictions of the velocity statistics to those measured from N-body simulations for both dark matter and halos. We find that in redshift space linear theory predictions for the density-momentum cross power spectrum as well as for the momentum auto spectrum fail to pred...

  1. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomograp...

  2. On velocity-space sensitivity of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Moseev, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The velocity-space observation regions and sensitivities in fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements are often described by so-called weight functions. Here we derive expressions for FIDA weight functions accounting for the Doppler shift, Stark splitting, and the charge-exchange reaction and ...

  3. Determining dynamic parameters of different-scale ionospheric irregularities over northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, E. L.; Lipko, Y. V. Y. V.; Vugmeister, B. O.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995-1996, observations were carried out at Norilsk (geomagnetic latitude and longitude 64.2 degN and 160.4 degE) to determine dynamic parameters of irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere. The short-baseline spaced-receiver method that has been implemented at the ionospheric facility of the Norilsk Integrated Magnetic-Ionospheric Station, provides a means of simultaneously measuring parameters of small-scale irregularities (spatial scale of 3-5 km) by the Similar-Fading Method (SFM), as well as of medium-scale irregularities (time scale of 10-30 min, spatial scale of hundreds of kilometres) by the Statistical Angle-of-arrival and Doppler Method (SADM). About 20 h of the observational data for the F2-layer under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp = 3) and about 15 h for the sporadic E-layer (Kp ~ 3) were processed. It has been found that the propagation directions and velocities of different-scale irregularities do not coincide. Small-scale irregularities of the F2-layer travel predominantly eastward or westward. The velocity of the F2-layer irregularities is about 100 m/s, and under disturbed conditions it is up to 200-250 m/s. Small-scale irregularities of the sporadic E-layer travel mostly in the northward direction. It is confirmed that the Es-layer is characterised by high velocities of the irregularities (as high as 1000 m/s). Medium-scale irregularities with periods in the range of 10-30 min travel mostly in a southward direction with velocities of 20-40 m/s.

  4. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical

  5. On the Critical Ionization Velocity Effect in Interstellar Space and Possible Detection of Related Continuum Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit L

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) emission spectra manifest several families of linewidths whose numerical values (34, 13 & 6 km/s) appear to be related to the critical ionization velocities (CIVs) of the most abundant interstellar atomic species. Extended new analysis of HI emission profiles shows that the 34 km/s wide component, probably corresponding to the CIV for helium, is pervasive. The 34 km/s wide linewidth family is found in low-velocity (local) neutral hydrogen (HI) profiles as well as in the so-called high-velocity clouds. In addition, published studies of HI linewidths found in the Magellanic Stream, Very-High-Velocity Clouds, and Compact High-Velocity Clouds, all of which are believed to be intergalactic, have noted that typical values are of the same order. If the critical ionization velocity effect does play a role in interstellar space it may be expected to produce locally enhanced electron densities where rapidly moving neutral gas masses interact with surrounding plasma. Evidence is pr...

  6. New velocity-space discretization for continuum kinetic calculations and Fokker-Planck collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Landreman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Numerical techniques are described for discretization of velocity spacevin continuum kinetic calculations. An efficient spectral collocation method is developed for the speed coordinate - the radius in velocity space - employing a novel set of non-classical orthogonal polynomials. For problems in which Fokker-Planck collisions are included, a common situation in plasma physics, a procedure is detailed to accurately and efficiently treat the field term in the collision operator. When species with disparate masses are included simultaneously, a careful extrapolation of the Rosenbluth potentials is performed. The techniques are demonstrated in neoclassical calculations of the bootstrap current and plasma flows in a tokamak.

  7. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, M.; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Hansen, P. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nocente, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Rasmussen, J.; Stagner, L.; Stejner, M.; Weiland, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-10-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion D α (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography, prior information makes up for this lack of data. We restrict the target velocity space through the measured absence of FIDA light, impose phase-space densities to be non-negative, and encode the known geometry of neutral beam injection (NBI) sources. We further use a numerical simulation as prior information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI peaks at full, half and one-third energy by time-resolved tomographic movies.

  8. Searching for Possible Siblings of the Sun from a Common Cluster based on Stellar Space Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V; Myllari, A; Valtonen, M; 10.1134/S0320010811070011

    2011-01-01

    We propose a kinematic approach to searching for the stars that could be formed with the Sun in a common "parent" open cluster. The approach consists in preselecting suitable candidates by the closeness of their space velocities to the solar velocity and analyzing the parameters of their encounters with the solar orbit in the past in a time interval comparable to the lifetime of stars. We consider stars from the Hipparcos catalog with available radial velocities. The Galactic orbits of stars have been constructed in the Allen--Santillan potential by taking into account the perturbations from the spiral density wave. We show that two stars, HIP 87382 and HIP 47399, are of considerable interest in our problem. Their orbits oscillate near the solar orbit with an amplitude of about 250 pc; there are short-term close encounters to distances <10 pc. Both stars have an evolutionary status and metallicity similar to the solar ones.

  9. Gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasmas using a spectral velocity space representation

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Joseph Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic confinement fusion reactors suffer severely from heat and particle losses through turbulent transport, which has inspired the construction of ever larger and more expensive reactors. Numerical simulations are vital to their design and operation, but particle collisions are too infrequent for fluid descriptions to be valid. Instead, strongly magnetised fusion plasmas are described by the gyrokinetic equations, a nonlinear integro-differential system for evolving the particle distribution functions in a five-dimensional position and velocity space, and the consequent electromagnetic field. Due to the high dimensionality, simulations of small reactor sections require hundreds of thousands of CPU hours on High Performance Computing platforms. We develop a Hankel-Hermite spectral representation for velocity space that exploits structural features of the gyrokinetic system. The representation exactly conserves discrete free energy in the absence of explicit dissipation, while our Hermite hypercollision ope...

  10. Effects of Perpendicular Thermal Velocities on the Transverse Instability in Electron Phase Space Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-Yu; WU Hong; LU Quan-Ming; XUE Bing-Sen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A multi-dimensional electron phase-space hole(electron hole)is considered to be unstable to the transverse instability.We perform two-dimensional(219)particle-in-cell(PIC)simulations to study the evolutions of electron holes in weakly magnetized plasma(Ωe < ωpe,where Ωe and ωpe are the electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency,respectively),and the effects of perpendicular thermal velocities on the transverse instability are investigated.

  11. Space Debris Surfaces (Computer Code): Probability of No Penetration Versus Impact Velocity and Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N.; Meibaum, R.; Olsen, G.

    1995-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design that is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also suggests the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs or Microsoft-EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII. The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs. Examples will be presented of the interaction between space vehicle geometry, the space debris environment, and the penetration and critical damage ballistic limit surfaces of the shield under consideration.

  12. High-Precision Timing of 5 Millisecond Pulsars: Space Velocities, Binary Evolution and Equivalence Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, M E; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Nice, D J; Demorest, P B; Ransom, S M; Kramer, M; Camilo, F; Hobbs, G; Manchester, R N; Lyne, A G

    2011-01-01

    We present high-precision timing of five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) carried out for more than seven years; four pulsars are in binary systems and one is isolated. We are able to measure the pulsars' proper motions and derive an estimate for their space velocities. The measured two-dimensional velocities are in the range 70-210 km/s, consistent with those measured for other MSPs. We also use all the available proper motion information for isolated and binary MSPs to update the known velocity distribution for these populations. As found by earlier works, we find that the velocity distribution of binary and isolated MSPs are indistinguishable with the current data. Four of the pulsars in our observing program are highly recycled with low-mass white dwarf companions and we are able to derive accurate binary parameters for these systems. For three of these binary systems we are able to place initial constraints on the pulsar masses with best-fit values in the range 1.0-1.6 M_sun. The implications of the results pr...

  13. Modeling of Plasma Irregularities in Expanding Ionospheric Dust Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H.; Scales, W.; Mahmoudian, A.; Bordikar, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Natural dust layers occur in the earth’s mesosphere (50km-85km). Plasma irregularities are associated with these natural dust layers that produce radar echoes. Recently, an Ionospheric sounding rocket experiment was performed to investigate the plasma irregularities in upper atmospheric dust layers. The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) uses a rocket payload injection of particles in the ionosphere to determine the mechanisms for enhanced radar scatter from plasma irregularities embedded in artificial dusty plasma in space. A 2-D hybrid computational model is described that may be used to study a variety of irregularities in dusty space plasmas which may lead to radar echoes. In this model, the dust and ions are both treated with Particle-In-Cell method while the dust charge varies with time based on the standard dust Orbit Motion Limited charging model. A stochastic model is adopted to remove particle ions due to the dust charging process. Electrons are treated with a fluid model including the parallel dynamics of magnetic fields. Fourier spectral methods with a predictor-corrector time advance are used to solve it. This numerical model will be used to investigate the electrodynamics and several possible plasma irregularity generation mechanisms after the creation of an artificial dust layer. The first is the dust ion-acoustic instability due to the drift of dust relative to the plasma. The instability saturates by trapping some ions. The effects of dust radius and dust drift velocity on plasma irregularities will be analyzed further. Also, a shear- driven instability in expanding dusty clouds is investigated.

  14. Adaptive Neuro-Predictive Position/Velocity Control of Robot Manipulators in Work Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farrokhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC for hybrid position/velocity control of robot manipulators. Robot dynamics have generally uncertainties, including parameters variations, unknown nonlinearities of the robot, payload variations, and torque disturbances form the environment. The cost function of the NMPC is defined in such a way that by adjusting its weighting parameters, the end-effector of the robot tracks a predefined geometry path in Cartesian space with a constant velocity. Moreover, to eliminate the uncertainties, a neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm is used to estimate adaptively the model of the robot. The closed-loop stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov theory. The validity of the proposed control method is shown by simulation results on a 3-DOF robot manipulator actuated by DC servomotors.

  15. Velocity-space tomography of fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering of gyrotron radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, A.S.; Jensen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    We propose a diagnostic capable of measuring 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions 푓2퐷푣 in the MeV-range in magnetized fusion plasmas. Today velocity-space tomography based on fast-ion D훼 spectroscopy is regularly used to measure 푓2퐷푣 for ion energies below 100 keV. Unfortunately, the signal......-tonoise ratio becomes fairly low for MeV-range ions. Ions at any energy can be detected well by collective Thomson scattering of mm-wave radiation from a high-power gyrotron. We demonstrate how collective Thomson scattering can be used to measure 푓2퐷푣 in the MeV-range in reactor relevant plasmas...

  16. Trajectory Optimization for Velocity Jumps Reduction considering the Unexpectedness Characteristics of Space Manipulator Joint-Locked Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at reducing joint velocity jumps caused by an unexpected joint-locked failure during space manipulator on-orbit operations without shutting down manipulator, trajectory optimization strategy considering the unexpectedness characteristics of joint-locked failure is proposed in the paper, which can achieve velocity jumps reduction in both operation space and joint space simultaneously. In the strategy, velocity in operation space concerning task completion directly is treated as equality constraints, and velocity in joint space concerning motion performance is treated as objective function. Global compensation vector which consists of coefficient, gradient of manipulability, and orthogonal matrix of null space is constructed to minimize the objective function. For each particular failure time, unique optimal coefficient can be obtained when the objective function is minimal. As a basis, a method for optimal coefficient function fitting is proposed based on a priori failure information (possible failure time and the corresponding optimal coefficient to guarantee the unexpectedness characteristics of joint-locked failure. Simulations are implemented to validate the efficiency of trajectory optimization strategy in reducing velocity jumps in both joint space and operation space. And the feasibility of coefficient function is also verified in reducing velocity jump no matter when joint-locked failure occurs.

  17. Mass, velocity anisotropy, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of Abell 2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, E.; Biviano, A.; Mamon, G. A.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We aim to compute the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of Abell 2142 and, from there, the pseudo phase-space density profile Q(r) and the density slope - velocity anisotropy β - γ relation, and then to compare them with theoretical expectations. Methods: The mass profiles were obtained by using three techniques based on member galaxy kinematics, namely the caustic method, the method of dispersion-kurtosis, and MAMPOSSt. Through the inversion of the Jeans equation, it was possible to compute the velocity anisotropy profiles. Results: The mass profiles, as well as the virial values of mass and radius, computed with the different techniques agree with one another and with the estimates coming from X-ray and weak lensing studies. A combined mass profile is obtained by averaging the lensing, X-ray, and kinematics determinations. The cluster mass profile is well fitted by an NFW profile with c = 4.0 ± 0.5. The population of red and blue galaxies appear to have a different velocity anisotropy configuration, since red galaxies are almost isotropic, while blue galaxies are radially anisotropic, with a weak dependence on radius. The Q(r) profile for the red galaxy population agrees with the theoretical results found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that any bias, relative to the dark matter particles, in velocity dispersion of the red component is independent of radius. The β - γ relation for red galaxies matches the theoretical relation only in the inner region. The deviations might be due to the use of galaxies as tracers of the gravitational potential, unlike the non-collisional tracer used in the theoretical relation.

  18. PIC Simulations of the Effect of Velocity Space Instabilities on Electron Viscosity and Thermal Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    In low-collisionality plasmas, velocity-space instabilities are a key mechanism providing an effective collisionality for the plasma. We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the interplay between electron- and ion-scale velocity-space instabilities and their effect on electron pressure anisotropy, viscous heating, and thermal conduction. The adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment in low-collisionality plasmas leads to pressure anisotropy, {{Δ }}{p}j\\equiv {p}\\perp ,j-{p}\\parallel ,j\\gt 0, if the magnetic field {\\boldsymbol{B}} is amplified ({p}\\perp ,j and {p}\\parallel ,j denote the pressure of species j (electron, ion) perpendicular and parallel to {\\boldsymbol{B}}). If the resulting anisotropy is large enough, it can in turn trigger small-scale plasma instabilities. Our PIC simulations explore the nonlinear regime of the mirror, IC, and electron whistler instabilities, through continuous amplification of the magnetic field | {\\boldsymbol{B}}| by an imposed shear in the plasma. In the regime 1≲ {β }j≲ 20 ({β }j\\equiv 8π {p}j/| {\\boldsymbol{B}}{| }2), the saturated electron pressure anisotropy, {{Δ }}{p}{{e}}/{p}\\parallel ,{{e}}, is determined mainly by the (electron-lengthscale) whistler marginal stability condition, with a modest factor of ˜1.5-2 decrease due to the trapping of electrons into ion-lengthscale mirrors. We explicitly calculate the mean free path of the electrons and ions along the mean magnetic field and provide a simple physical prescription for the mean free path and thermal conductivity in low-collisionality β j ≳ 1 plasmas. Our results imply that velocity-space instabilities likely decrease the thermal conductivity of plasma in the outer parts of massive, hot, galaxy clusters. We also discuss the implications of our results for electron heating and thermal conduction in low-collisionality accretion flows onto black holes, including Sgr A* in the Galactic Center.

  19. Structure of synchronized chaos studied by symbolic analysis in velocity-curvature space

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    A new method of symbolic analysis based on finite discretization of velocity-curvature space is proposed. A minimum alphabet is introduced in a natural way, and a number of initial analytic measures are defined that make it possible to study the structure of discrete mapping dynamics. The proposed method is tested by application to a system of two unidirectionally coupled logistic maps. It is shown that this method can be used to reveal and study changes in the structure of attractors. In the given example, features in the attractor structure of the driven subsystem are studied upon its escape from the identical synchronization regime.

  20. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications What causes menstrual irregularities? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Menstrual irregularities can be caused by a variety of conditions, including pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, infections, malignancies, diseases, trauma, and certain ...

  1. Benchmark and combined velocity-space tomography of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy and collective Thomson scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the combination of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements to determine a common best estimate of the fastion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography. We further demonstrate a benchmark of FIDA tomography and CTS...

  2. MeV-range velocity-space tomography from gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry measurements at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of a 2D MeV-range ion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography at JET. Deuterium ions were accelerated into the MeV-range by third harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating. We made measurements with three neutron emission spectrometers and a high-...

  3. Velocity space evolution of a minority energetic electron population undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W. N.; Chapman, S. C., E-mail: S.C.Chapman@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    The kinetic evolution in velocity space of a minority suprathermal electron population that is undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability (ADI) is investigated using the results from fully nonlinear numerical simulations that self-consistently evolve particles and fields in a plasma. Electron trajectories in phase space during different stages of the ADI are captured, and are analysed in relation to the characteristics of the excited electric fields and of the overall distribution of particles. For some electrons, trapping and mirroring effects are observed during the saturation phase. A relationship between the second order moments of the perpendicular electron distribution function and time is established, and is used to investigate the range of applicability of analytical approximations drawn from classical theory, that involve a quasilinear wave-driven diffusion operator.

  4. Mass, velocity anisotropy and pseudo phase space density profiles of Abell 2142

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Emiliano; Mamon, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We aim to compute the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of Abell 2142 and, from there, the pseudo phase space density profile $Q(r)$ and the density slope - velocity anisotropy $\\beta - \\gamma$ relation, and compare them with theoretical expectations. Methods: The mass profiles have been obtained by using three techniques based on member galaxy kinematics, namely the caustic method, the method of Dispersion - Kurtosis and MAMPOSSt. Through the inversion of the Jeans equation it has been possible to compute the velocity anisotropy profiles. Results: The mass profiles, as well as the virial values of mass and radius, computed with the different techniques are in agreement with one another and with the estimates coming from X-ray and weak lensing studies. A concordance mass profile is obtained by averaging the lensing, X-ray and kinematics determinations. The cluster mass profile is well fit by an NFW profile with $c=4.0 \\pm 0.5$. The population of red and blue galaxies appear to have a different veloci...

  5. PIC Simulations of the Effect of Velocity Space Instabilities on Electron Viscosity and Thermal Conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Riquelme, Mario; Verscharen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In low-collisionality plasmas, velocity-space instabilities are a key mechanism providing an effective collisionality for the plasma. We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the interplay between electron and ion-scale velocity-space instabilities and their effect on electron pressure anisotropy, viscous heating, and thermal conduction. The adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment in low-collisionality plasmas leads to pressure anisotropy, $p_{\\perp,j} > p_{||,j}$, if the magnetic field $\\vec{B}$ is amplified ($p_{\\perp,j}$ and $p_{||,j}$ denote the pressure of species $j$ [electron, ion] perpendicular and parallel to $\\vec{B}$). If the resulting anisotropy is large enough, it can in turn trigger small-scale plasma instabilities. Our PIC simulations explore the nonlinear regime of the mirror, ion-cyclotron, and electron whistler instabilities, through continuous amplification of the magnetic field $|\\vec{B}|$ by an imposed shear in the plasma. In the regime $1 \\lesssim \\beta_j \\lesssim 20$ ($\\be...

  6. The ROCKSTAR Phase-space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 105 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>1010 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s-1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  7. Subluminal group velocity and dispersion of Laguerre Gauss beams in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareza, Nestor D; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-05-27

    That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein's postulate in special relativity. This has been a basic assumption in light's various applications. However, a physical beam of light has a finite extent such that even in free space it is by nature dispersive. The field confinement changes its wavevector, hence, altering the light's group velocity vg. Here, we report the subluminal vg and consequently the dispersion in free space of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam, a beam known to carry orbital angular momentum. The vg of LG beam, calculated in the paraxial regime, is observed to be inversely proportional to the beam's divergence θ0, the orbital order ℓ and the radial order p. LG beams of higher orders travel relatively slower than that of lower orders. As a consequence, LG beams of different orders separate in the temporal domain along propagation. This is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in LG beams from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.

  8. Green's function of a massless scalar field in curved space-time and superluminal phase velocity of the retarded potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2012-01-01

    We study a retarded potential solution of a massless scalar field in curved space-time. In a special ansatz for a particle at rest whose magnitude of the (scalar) charge is changing with time, we found an exact analytic solution. The solution indicates that the phase velocity of the retarded potential of a non-moving scalar charge is position dependent, and may easily be greater than the speed of light at a given point. In the case of the Schwarzschild space-time, at the horizon, the phase velocity becomes infinitely faster than the coordinate speed of light at that point. Superluminal phase velocity is relatively common phenomenon, with the the phase velocity of the massive Klein-Gordon field as the best known example. We discuss why it is possible to have modes with superluminal phase velocity even for a massless field.

  9. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations of High-Velocity Interstellar Absorption-Line Profiles in the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Danks, Anthony C.; Vieira, Gladys; Landsman, Wayne B.

    2002-06-01

    An atlas of ultraviolet interstellar absorption-line profiles toward four stars in the Carina Nebula is presented. The observations have been made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, with a resolving power of 114,000. Low-ionization, high-ionization, and excited-state lines from a wide array of chemical species are included. Extensive measurements of radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and column densities of individual components in these profiles are also given. The unprecedented capabilities of STIS reveal many more velocity components than previously known; most of the high-velocity components in previous observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer are now resolved into multiple subcomponents, and even higher velocities are seen. The great range of line strengths available permits the detection of the low-velocity components in the weakest lines, and progressively higher velocities in stronger lines (in which the low-velocity components become completely blended). The weak and high-ionization lines trace global structure in the H II region, while the strong low-ionization lines show intricate high-velocity structure that likely originates relatively near to the O stars observed. The extreme velocities found in the low-ionization lines toward these four stars are -388 and +127 km s-1, with 23-26 resolved components in each. Some components in different stars may be related, but many are different in each line of sight. A remarkably well-defined Routly-Spitzer effect is found in this region. Temporal variations toward one star observed twice have already been reported. These measurements will be used in subsequent astrophysical analyses to further constrain the origins of the phenomena. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract

  10. Propagation of Love-Type Wave in Porous Medium over an Orthotropic Semi-Infinite Medium with Rectangular Irregularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Vaishnav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed porous medium over a semi-infinite orthotropic medium with the irregular interface has been studied. The method of separation of variables has been adopted to get the dispersion relation of Love-type wave. The irregularity is assumed to be rectangular at the interface of the layer and half-space. Finally, the dispersion relation of Love wave has been obtained in classical form. The presence of porosity, irregularity, and initial stress in the dispersion equation approves the significant effect of these parameters in the propagation of Love-type waves in porous medium bounded below by an orthotropic half-space. The scientific effect of porosity, irregularity, and initial stress in the phase velocity of the Love-type wave propagation has been studied and shown graphically.

  11. A computational model for assessing high-velocity debris impact in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, M.; Garcia, V.

    2017-07-01

    Man-made space debris is dominating the background meteorite environment with a growing debris population leading to increased collision risks for satellites, especially in the low Earth orbit and geostationary orbit protected environments. Here we present a computational model for estimating the effect of hypervelocity impact from debris particles on non-shielded propellant and pressurant tanks. Eulerian hydrocode simulation is utilised to model firstly penetration and shock wave formation in the propellant and secondly subsequent detonation wave propagation and interaction with the tank wall. Furthermore, reactive molecular dynamics is used to estimate the risk of detonation in a liquid hydrazine layer. We present simulations of a 3.5 mm aluminium spherical debris particle at a velocity of 14 km/s relative to a hydrazine tank. We find that the degree of damage is strongly dependent on tank temperature and hence on the satellite thermal configuration at its end of life.

  12. NICA-MPD fixed target mode: soft jet studies in the relative 4-velocity space

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results obtained by studying the properties of soft jets in the 4-velocity space at $\\sqrt{s} \\sim 2-20$ GeV are presented. The changes in the mean distance from the jet axis to the jet particles, the mean kinetic energy of these particles, and the cluster dimension in response to the growth of the collision energy are consistent with the assumption that quark degrees of freedom manifest themselves in processes of pion jet production at intermediate energies. The energy at which quark degrees of freedom begin to manifest themselves experimentally in the production of soft pion jets is estimated for the first time. The estimated value of this energy is $2.8 \\pm 0.6$ GeV. The suggestions are made for future investigations on NICA-MPD.

  13. A computational model for assessing high-velocity debris impact in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, M.; Garcia, V.

    2017-01-01

    Man-made space debris is dominating the background meteorite environment with a growing debris population leading to increased collision risks for satellites, especially in the low Earth orbit and geostationary orbit protected environments. Here we present a computational model for estimating the effect of hypervelocity impact from debris particles on non-shielded propellant and pressurant tanks. Eulerian hydrocode simulation is utilised to model firstly penetration and shock wave formation in the propellant and secondly subsequent detonation wave propagation and interaction with the tank wall. Furthermore, reactive molecular dynamics is used to estimate the risk of detonation in a liquid hydrazine layer. We present simulations of a 3.5 mm aluminium spherical debris particle at a velocity of 14 km/s relative to a hydrazine tank. We find that the degree of damage is strongly dependent on tank temperature and hence on the satellite thermal configuration at its end of life.

  14. The 3D Space and Spin Velocities of a Gamma-ray Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2016-04-01

    PSR J2030+4415 is a LAT-discovered 0.5My-old gamma-ray pulsar with an X-ray synchrotron trail and a rare Halpha bowshock. We have obtained GMOS IFU spectroscopic imaging of this shell, and show a sweep through the remarkable Halpha structure, comparing with the high energy emission. These data provide a unique 3D map of the momentum distribution of the relativistic pulsar wind. This shows that the pulsar is moving nearly in the plane of the sky and that the pulsar wind has a polar component misaligned with the space velocity. The spin axis is shown to be inclined some 95degrees to the Earth line of sight, explaining why this is a radio-quiet, gamma-only pulsar. Intriguingly, the shell also shows multiple bubbles that suggest that the pulsar wind power has varied substantially over the past 500 years.

  15. Visco-acoustic transmission waveform inversion of velocity structure in space-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihua Long; Xiaofan Li; Meigen Zhang; Tong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    According to the least square criterion of minimizing the misfit between modeled and observed data, this paper provides a preconditioned gradient method to invert the visco-acoustic velocity structure on the basis of using sparse matrix LU factorization technique to directly solve the visco-acoustic wave forward problem in space-frequency domain. Numerical results obtained in an inclusion model inversion and a layered homogeneous model inversion demonstrate that different scale media have their own frequency responses, and the strategy of using low-frequency inverted result as the starting model in the high-frequency inversion can greatly reduce the non-uniqueness of their solutions. It can also be observed in the experi-ments that the fast convergence of the algorithm can be achieved by using diagonal elements of Hessian matrix as the pre-conditioned operator, which fully incorporates the advantage of quadratic convergence of Gauss-Newton method.

  16. Newtonian approach for the Kepler-Coulomb problem from the point of view of velocity space

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez-Yépez, H N; González-Villanueva, A; Romero, R P M; Salas-Brito, A L

    1998-01-01

    The hodograph of the Kepler-Coulomb problem, that is, the path traced by its velocity vector, is shown to be a circle and then it is used to investigate other properties of the motion. We obtain the configuration space orbits of the problem starting from initial conditions given using nothing more than the methods of synthetic geometry so close to Newton's approach. The method works with elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic orbits; it can even be used to derive Rutherford's relation from which the scattering cross section can be easily evaluated. We think our discussion is both interesting and useful inasmuch as it serves to relate the initial conditions with the corresponding trajectories in a purely geometrical way uncovering in the process some seldom discussed interesting connections.

  17. Task Space Angular Velocity Blending for Real-Time Trajectory Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is embodied in a method of controlling a robot manipulator moving toward a target frame F(sub 0) with a target velocity v(sub 0) including a linear target velocity v and an angular target velocity omega(sub 0) to smoothly and continuously divert the robot manipulator to a subsequent frame F(sub 1) by determining a global transition velocity v(sub 1), the global transition velocity including a linear transition velocity v(sub 1) and an angular transition velocity omega(sub 1), defining a blend time interval 2(tau)(sub 0) within which the global velocity of the robot manipulator is to be changed from a global target velocity v(sub 0) to the global transition velocity v(sub 1) and dividing the blend time interval 2(tau)(sub 0) into discrete time segments (delta)t. During each one of the discrete time segments delta t of the blend interval 2(tau)(sub 0), a blended global velocity v of the manipulator is computed as a blend of the global target velocity v(sub 0) and the global transition velocity v(sub 1), the blended global velocity v including a blended angular velocity omega and a blended linear velocity v, and then, the manipulator is rotated by an incremental rotation corresponding to an integration of the blended angular velocity omega over one discrete time segment (delta)t.

  18. A hidden state space modeling approach for improving glacier surface velocity estimates using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, D.; Schubert, A.; Small, D.; Meier, E.; Lüthi, M. P.; Vieli, A.

    2014-12-01

    A new method for glacier surface velocity (GSV) estimates is proposed here which combines ground- and space-based measurements with hidden state space modeling (HSSM). Examples of such a fusion of physical models with remote sensing (RS) observations were described in (Henke & Meier, Hidden State Space Models for Improved Remote Sensing Applications, ITISE 2014, p. 1242-1255) and are currently adapted for GSV estimation. GSV can be estimated using in situ measurements, RS methods or numerical simulations based on ice-flow models. In situ measurements ensure high accuracy but limited coverage and time consuming field work, while RS methods offer regular observations with high spatial coverage generally not possible with in situ methods. In particular, spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can obtain useful images independent of daytime and cloud cover. A ground portable radar interferometer (GPRI) is useful for investigating a particular area in more detail than is possible from space, but provides local coverage only. Several processing methods for deriving GSV from radar sensors have been established, including interferometry and offset tracking (Schubert et al, Glacier surface velocity estimation using repeat TerraSAR-X images. ISPRS Journal of P&RS, p. 49-62, 2013). On the other hand, it is also possible to derive glacier parameters from numerical ice-flow modeling alone. Given a well-parameterized model, GSV can in theory be derived and propagated continuously in time. However, uncertainties in the glacier flow dynamics and model errors increase with excessive propagation. All of these methods have been studied independently, but attempts to combine them have only rarely been made. The HSSM we propose recursively estimates the GSV based on 1) a process model making use of temporal and spatial interdependencies between adjacent states, and 2) observations (RS and optional in situ). The in situ and GPRI images currently being processed were acquired in the

  19. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN POSITION-POSITION-VELOCITY SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., WI 53711 (United States); Goodman, Alyssa [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2013-06-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is able to create hierarchical structures in the interstellar medium (ISM) that are correlated on a wide range of scales via the energy cascade. We use hierarchical tree diagrams known as dendrograms to characterize structures in synthetic position-position-velocity (PPV) emission cubes of isothermal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We show that the structures and degree of hierarchy observed in PPV space are related to the presence of self-gravity and the global sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers. Simulations with higher Alfvenic Mach number, self-gravity and supersonic flows display enhanced hierarchical structure. We observe a strong dependency on the sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and self-gravity when we apply the statistical moments (i.e., mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis) to the leaf and node distribution of the dendrogram. Simulations with self-gravity, larger magnetic field and higher sonic Mach number have dendrogram distributions with higher statistical moments. Application of the dendrogram to three-dimensional density cubes, also known as position-position-position (PPP) cubes, reveals that the dominant emission contours in PPP and PPV are related for supersonic gas but not for subsonic. We also explore the effects of smoothing, thermal broadening, and velocity resolution on the dendrograms in order to make our study more applicable to observational data. These results all point to hierarchical tree diagrams as being a promising additional tool for studying ISM turbulence and star forming regions for obtaining information on the degree of self-gravity, the Mach numbers and the complicated relationship between PPV and PPP data.

  20. Topography-Dependent Eikonal Traveltime Tomography for Upper Crustal Structure Beneath an Irregular Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2015-06-01

    Seismic modeling of the crust with nonflat topography can be made by first-arrival traveltime tomography, which faces the challenge of an irregular free surface. A feasible way to deal with this problem consists of expanding the physical space by overlapping a low velocity layer above the irregular surface in order to have a flat topography, besides using the classical eikonal equation solver for traveltime computation. However, the undesirable consequences of this method include seismic ray deviations due to the transition from an irregular surface that is the free boundary to an inner discontinuity lying in the expanded computational space. An alternative solution, called irregular surface flattening, which involves the transformation between curvilinear and Cartesian coordinate systems, has been recently proposed through the formulation of the topography-dependent eikonal equation (TDEE) and a new solver for forward modeling of traveltimes. Based on the solution of this equation, we present topography-dependent eikonal traveltime tomography (hereafter TDETT) for seismic modeling of the upper crust. First-arrival traveltimes are calculated using the TDEE solver and the raypaths with the minimum traveltime that can be found by following the steepest traveltime gradient from the receiver to the source. By solving an algebraic equation system that connects the slowness perturbations with the already determined traveltimes, these variables can be obtained making use of the back-projection algorithm. This working scheme is evaluated through three numerical examples with different topographic complexities that are conducted from synthetic data and a fourth example with somewhat more complicated topography and real data acquired in northeastern Tibet. The comparison of the results obtained by both methods, i.e., physical space expansion above the irregular surface and irregular surface flattening, fully validates the tomography scheme that is proposed to construct

  1. Survivability of bare, individual Bacillus subtilis spores to high-velocity surface impact: Implications for microbial transfer through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Brandon L.; Pratt, Sara N.; Austin, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    Laboratory experiments show that endospores of Bacillus subtilis survive impact against a solid surface at velocities as high as 299 ±28 m/s. During impact, spores experience and survive accelerations of at least 1010 m/s2. The spores were introduced into a vacuum chamber using an electrospray source and accelerated to a narrow velocity distribution by entrainment in a differentially pumped gas flow. Different velocity ranges were studied by modifying the gas flow parameters. The spores were electrically charged, allowing direct measurement of the velocity of each spore as it passed through an image charge detector prior to surface impact. Spores impacted a glass surface and were collected for subsequent analysis by culturing. Most spores survived impact at all measured velocities. These experiments differ fundamentally from other studies that show either shock or impact survivability of bacteria embedded within or on the surface of a projectile. Bacteria in the present experiments undergo a single interaction with a solid surface at the full impact velocity, in the absence of any other effects such as cushioning due to microbe agglomerations, deceleration due to air or vapor, or transfer of impact shock through solid or liquid media. During these full-velocity impact events, the spores experience extremely high decelerations. This study is the first reported instance of accelerations of this magnitude experienced during a bacteria impact event. These results are discussed in the context of potential transfer of viable microbes in space and other scenarios involving surface impacts at high velocities.

  2. Length measurements of mid-latitude scintillation irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdougall, J.W. (Western Ontario, University, London (Canada))

    1992-04-01

    The lengths of irregularities which produce 150-MHz amplitude scintillations have been measured at 43 deg N, 81 deg W (geographic) using arrays of receivers with large spacings. The average length (major axis radius) of the irregularities was 6.1 km. This is much shorter than expected and implies that the measurements are of 'young' irregularities, less than 1 minute old. These irregularities appear to be a large, 25-50-percent perturbation of the background density. 8 refs.

  3. A generalized AZ-non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function for space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A. A.; Khan, M. Z.; Lu, Quanming; Yap, S. L.

    2017-03-01

    A more generalized form of the non-Maxwellian distribution function, i.e., the AZ-distribution function is presented. Its fundamental properties are numerically observed by the variation of three parameters: α (rate of energetic particles on the shoulder), r (energetic particles on a broad shoulder), and q (superthermality on the tail of the velocity distribution curve of the plasma species). It has been observed that (i) the A Z - distribution function reduces to the ( r , q ) - distribution for α → 0 ; (ii) the A Z - distribution function reduces to the q - distribution for α → 0 , and r → 0 ; (iii) the A Z -distribution reduces to Cairns-distribution function for r → 0 , and q → ∞ ; (iv) the AZ-distribution reduces to Vasyliunas Cairns distribution for r → 0 , and q = κ + 1 ; (v) the AZ-distribution reduces to kappa distribution for α → 0 , r → 0 , and q = κ + 1 ; and (vi) finally, the AZ-distribution reduces to Maxwellian distribution for α → 0 , r → 0 , and q → ∞ . The uses of this more generalized A Z - distribution function in various space plasmas are briefly discussed.

  4. Velocity overshoot of start-up flow for a Maxwell fluid in a porous half-space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Wen-Chang

    2006-01-01

    Stokes' first problem has been investigated for a Maxwell fluid in a porous half-space for gaining insight into the effect of viscoelasticity on the start-up flow in a porous medium. An exact solution was obtained by using the Fourier sine transform. It was found that at large values of the relaxation time the velocity overshoot occurs obviously and the system exhibits viscoelastic behaviours. On the other hand, for short relaxation time the velocity overshoot disappears and the system exhibits viscous behaviours. A critical value of the relaxation time was obtained for the emergence of the velocity overshoot. Furthermore, it was found that the velocity overshoot is caused by both the viscoelasticity of the Maxwell fluid and the Darcy resistance resulting from the structure of the micropore in the porous medium.

  5. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  6. Estimation of elastic moduli in a compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Chen, C.

    2006-01-01

    A Gibson half-space model (a non-layered Earth model) has the shear modulus varying linearly with depth in an inhomogeneous elastic half-space. In a half-space of sedimentary granular soil under a geostatic state of initial stress, the density and the Poisson's ratio do not vary considerably with depth. In such an Earth body, the dynamic shear modulus is the parameter that mainly affects the dispersion of propagating waves. We have estimated shear-wave velocities in the compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. An analytical dispersion law of Rayleigh-type waves in a compressible Gibson half-space is given in an algebraic form, which makes our inversion process extremely simple and fast. The convergence of the weighted damping solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Calculation efficiency is achieved by reconstructing a weighted damping solution using singular value decomposition techniques. The main advantage of this algorithm is that only three parameters define the compressible Gibson half-space model. Theoretically, to determine the model by the inversion, only three Rayleigh-wave phase velocities at different frequencies are required. This is useful in practice where Rayleigh-wave energy is only developed in a limited frequency range or at certain frequencies as data acquired at manmade structures such as dams and levees. Two real examples are presented and verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements. The results of these real examples are also compared with the results of the layered-Earth model. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. Operational space synchronization of two robot manipulators through a virtual velocity estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kyrkjebø

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two robot manipulators are synchronized in a leader-follower scheme where only joint position measurements of the leader are available. A virtual manipulator is designed to provide a velocity estimate of the unknown leader velocity to the control law of the follower. The closed-loop errors are shown to be uniformly globally practically asymptotically stable.

  8. Mapping the Agulhas Current from space: an assessment of ASAR surface current velocities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available surface current velocities for oceanographic research are assessed. ASAR surface current velocities are compared to surface drifter data and merged altimetry observations. Maps of sea surface temperature are used to establish the ASAR’s capacity to capture...

  9. Effect of source parameters on forward-directivity velocity pulse for vertical strike slip fault in half space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qifang; Yuan Yifan; Jin Xing

    2006-01-01

    It has been found that the large velocity pulse is one of the most important characteristics of near-fault strong ground motions. Some statistical relationships between pulse period and the moment magnitude for near-fault strong ground motions have been established by Somerville (1998); Alavi and Krawinkler ( 2000); and Mavroeidis and Papageorgiou (2003), where no variety of rupture velocity, fault depth, and fault distance, etc. were considered. Since near-fault ground motions are significantly influenced by the rupture process and source parameters, the effects of some source parameters on the amplitude and the period of a forward-directivity velocity pulse in a half space are analyzed by the finite difference method combined with the kinematic source model in this paper. The study shows that the rupture velocity, fault depth, position of the initial rupture point and distribution of asperities are the most important parameters to the velocity pulse. Generally, the pulse period decreases and the pulse amplitude increases as the rupture velocity increases for shallow crustal earthquakes. In a definite region besides the fault trace, the pulse period increases as the fault depth increases. For a uniform strike slip fault,rupture initiating from one end of a fault and propagating to the other always generates a higher pulse amplitude and longer pulse period than in other cases.

  10. Measurement and interpretation of the velocity space correlation of a laboratory plasma fluctuation with laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, S. W.; Berumen, J.; Chu, F.; Hood, R.; Skiff, F.

    2013-11-01

    A technique for probing velocity space correlations has been developed using laser-induced fluorescence. In this paper, a description of the experimental setup is given, with results to follow in a later publication. The experiment consists of a cylindrical plasma column 3 m long and radius ~ 0.25 cm, holding singly-charged argon ions (Ar II) with density n ~ 109 cm-3, Te ~ 5 eV, Ti,|| ~ .06 eV, and a 1 kG axial magnetic field. Two separate metastable lines are excited by single frequency lasers at 611 nm and 668 nm. These lasers may tune with a precision of .01 pm. The separate lasers are used to measure independent slices of the velocity distribution function. To confirm the velocity distribution and magnetic field, the Doppler-broadened, sigma-polarized Zeeman line for each transition is measured. With this, the absolute parallel component of ion velocity subject to LIF can be determined. The two separate lasers then give us a signal as a function of two separate parallel ion velocities. Two point correlation is used to reduce the noise floor on the plasma fluctuation. This fluctuation is then investigated as a function of the difference in velocity.

  11. Effect of source parameters on forward-directivity velocity pulse for vertical strike slip fault in half space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qifang; Yuan, Yifan; Jin, Xing

    2006-06-01

    It has been found that the large velocity pulse is one of the most important characteristics of near-fault strong ground motions. Some statistical relationships between pulse period and the moment magnitude for near-fault strong ground motions have been established by Somerville (1998); Alavi and Krawinkler (2000); and Mavroeidis and Papageorgiou (2003), where no variety of rupture velocity, fault depth, and fault distance, etc. were considered. Since near-fault ground motions are significantly influenced by the rupture process and source parameters, the effects of some source parameters on the amplitude and the period of a forward-directivity velocity pulse in a half space are analyzed by the finite difference method combined with the kinematic source model in this paper. The study shows that the rupture velocity, fault depth, position of the initial rupture point and distribution of asperities are the most important parameters to the velocity pulse. Generally, the pulse period decreases and the pulse amplitude increases as the rupture velocity increases for shallow crustal earthquakes. In a definite region besides the fault trace, the pulse period increases as the fault depth increases. For a uniform strike slip fault, rupture initiating from one end of a fault and propagating to the other always generates a higher pulse amplitude and longer pulse period than in other cases.

  12. Rapidities and Observable 3-Velocities in the Flat Finslerian Event Space with Entirely Broken 3D Isotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yu. Bogoslovsky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the geometric phase transitions that accompany the dynamic rearrangement of vacuum under spontaneous violation of initial gauge symmetry. The rearrangement may give rise to condensates of three types, namely the scalar, axially symmetric, and entirely anisotropic condensates. The flat space-time keeps being the Minkowski space in the only case of scalar condensate. The anisotropic condensate having arisen, the respective anisotropy occurs also in space-time. In this case the space-time filled with axially symmetric condensate proves to be a flat relativistically invariant Finslerian space with partially broken 3D isotropy, while the space-time filled with entirely anisotropic condensate proves to be a flat relativistically invariant Finslerian space with entirely broken 3D isotropy. The two Finslerian space types are described briefly in the extended introduction to the work, while the original part of the latter is devoted to determining observable 3-velocities in the entirely anisotropic Finslerian event space. The main difficulties that are overcome in solving that problem arose from the nonstandard form of the light cone equation and from the necessity of correct introducing of a norm in the linear vector space of rapidities.

  13. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measuring Velocity and Altitude of Space and Arial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar has been developed to support future NASA missions to planetary bodies. The lidar transmits three laser beams and measures line-of-sight range and velocity along each beam using a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique. Accurate altitude and velocity vector data, derived from the line-of-sight measurements, enables the landing vehicle to precisely navigate from several kilometers above the ground to the designated location and execute a gentle touchdown. The same lidar sensor can also benefit terrestrial applications that cannot rely on GPS or require surface-relative altitude and velocity data.

  14. A Radio Propagation Technique for Geolocating Ionospheric Irregularities along Radio Occultation Ray-Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Rino, C. L.; McNeil, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Radio occultations (RO) with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signas have been widely used for remote sensing of tropospheric parameters and to provide ionospheric electron density profiles for the purpose of improving terrestrial and space weather forecasts. Radio occultations have also been used to investigate the morphology of irregularities that cause radio wave scintillation. Spaced-based monitoring of ionospheric irregularities is advantageous because it can be performed continuously and globally, including over ocean regions not easily monitored with ground-based instruments. Nevertheless, the radio propagation path of an occultation through the ionosphere can be very long (up to several thousand km), such that it can be challenging to infer the geographic location and extent of the irregularities from the scintillations they produce. Unlike RO retrievals of slant TEC which are dominated by the contribution near the tangent point, scintillations can be generated by irregularities distributed anywhere along the propagation path between transmitting and receiving satellites. In this paper, we propose a new technique for characterizing and geolocating ionospheric irregularities using radio occultation observations of amplitude scintillation. The approach taken is to solve an inverse problem for the propagation of radio waves through a phase changing screen. Referred to as Irregularity Parameter Estimation (Carrano and Rino, Radio Sci, 2016), this inverse technique estimates the irregularity turbulence strength, spectral index, and Fresnel frequency from measurements of amplitude scintillation. A new model for the effective velocity at which the radio occultation ray-path scans through the irregularity region is used to map the estimated Fresnel frequency to Fresnel spatial scale, which yields the distance from the receiver to the irregularities. Additional geophysical factors such as apex altitude and background electron density along the ray-path can

  15. Velocity-space sensitivities of neutron emission spectrometers at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade in deuterium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Binda, F.; Cazzaniga, C.; Eriksson, J.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Nocente, M.; Salewski, M.; Tardini, G.

    2017-07-01

    Future fusion reactors are foreseen to be heated by the energetic alpha particles produced in fusion reactions. For this to happen, it is important that the energetic ions are sufficiently confined. In present day fusion experiments, energetic ions are primarily produced using external heating systems such as neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. In order to diagnose these fast ions, several different fast-ion diagnostics have been developed and implemented in the various experiments around the world. The velocity-space sensitivities of fast-ion diagnostics are given by so-called weight functions. Here instrument-specific weight functions are derived for neutron emission spectrometry detectors at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade for the 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in deuterium-deuterium reactions in deuterium plasmas. Using these, it is possible to directly determine which part of velocity space each detector observes.

  16. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C as an e...... given alpha-particle velocity-space region contributes to the measurements in each γ-ray energy bin.......High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C...... as an example. The energy-dependent cross sections of this reaction suggest that GRS is sensitive to alpha particles above about 1.7 MeV and highly sensitive to alpha particles at the resonance energies of the reaction. Here we demonstrate that highresolution two-step reaction GRS measurements are not only...

  17. Determination of in vitro simulated blood cell velocity by laser-Doppler with state space methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter-Nelepovitz, C C; Rao, B D; Fronek, A

    1991-03-01

    In this paper a signal processing method based on an important tool of numerical analysis, the singular value decomposition (SVD), is used. This method is applied to the unprocessed output of a Laser-Doppler fluxmeter to obtain parameters that are more sensitive to blood velocity than to hematocrit. The SVD-based method utilizes the exponential shape of the frequency spectrum of the laser light scattered from the moving red blood cells and demonstrates an inverse relationship between the damping constant beta associated with the exponential shape and the blood velocity. This method was applied to samples of rat blood of several known hematocrit values that were rotated at different velocities on a turntable. The method extracted one dominant singular value from the spectra, indicating that the spectra can be modeled as a single exponential dominated by scatterings with a single moving red blood cell. A 68% change in inverse velocity resulted in a 50% change in the damping constant (hematocrit 29.5% vol). On the other hand, a 37% change in hematocrit resulted in a far smaller change in the damping constant beta of only 17%. Analysis of the extracted parameters shows that the damping constants are far more influenced by blood velocity than by blood hematocrit.

  18. Discretization of the velocity space in solution of the Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, X; Shan, Xiaowen; He, Xiaoyi

    1998-01-01

    We point out an equivalence between the discrete velocity method of solving the Boltzmann equation, of which the lattice Boltzmann equation method is a special example, and the approximations to the Boltzmann equation by a Hermite polynomial expansion. Discretizing the Boltzmann equation with a BGK collision term at the velocities that correspond to the nodes of a Hermite quadrature is shown to be equivalent to truncating the Hermite expansion of the distribution function to the corresponding order. The truncated part of the distribution has no contribution to the moments of low orders and is negligible at small Mach numbers. Higher order approximations to the Boltzmann equation can be achieved by using more velocities in the quadrature.

  19. Space-time ambiguity of two- and three-fragment reduced velocity correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasmacher, T.; Phair, L.; Bowman, D.R.; Gelbke, C.K.; Gong, W.G.; Kim, Y.D.; Lisa, M.A.; Lynch, W.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; de Souza, R.T.; Tsang, M.B.; Zhu, F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Reduced-velocity correlation functions between two and three intermediate mass fragments are compared for central {sup 36}Ar+{sup 197}Ar collisions at {ital E}/{ital A}=50 MeV. Previously published {ital N}-body Coulomb-trajectory calculations, capable of reproducing the measured two-fragment reduced velocity-correlation function, describe the measured three-fragment correlation function equally well. Moreover, ambiguities between source size and lifetime observed in the analysis of two-fragment correlations remain unresolved in the three-fragment correlation function.

  20. The effect of baryons on redshift space distortions and cosmic density and velocity fields in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.

    2016-09-01

    We use the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) galaxy formation simulation to study the effects of baryons on the power spectrum of the total matter and dark matter distributions and on the velocity fields of dark matter and galaxies. On scales k ≳ 4 h Mpc-1 the effect of baryons on the amplitude of the total matter power spectrum is greater than 1 per cent. The back-reaction of baryons affects the density field of the dark matter at the level of ˜3 per cent on scales of 1 ≤ k/( h Mpc-1) ≤ 5. The dark matter velocity divergence power spectrum at k ≲ 0.5 h Mpc-1 is changed by less than 1 per cent. The 2D redshift space power spectrum is affected at the level of ˜6 per cent at |k|≳ 1 h Mpc^{-1} (for μ > 0.5), but for |k|≤ 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} it differs by less than 1 per cent. We report vanishingly small baryonic velocity bias for haloes: the peculiar velocities of haloes with M200 > 3 × 1011 M⊙ (hosting galaxies with M* > 109 M⊙) are affected at the level of at most 1 km s-1, which is negligible for 1 per cent-precision cosmology. We caution that since EAGLE overestimates cluster gas fractions it may also underestimate the impact of baryons, particularly for the total matter power spectrum. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that for theoretical modelling of redshift space distortions and galaxy velocity-based statistics, baryons and their back-reaction can be safely ignored at the current level of observational accuracy. However, we confirm that the modelling of the total matter power spectrum in weak lensing studies needs to include realistic galaxy formation physics in order to achieve the accuracy required in the precision cosmology era.

  1. Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, Benedikt;

    2013-01-01

    Fast ions play an important role in heating the plasma in a magnetic confinement fusion device. Fast-ion Dα(FIDA) spectroscopy diagnoses fast ions in small measurement volumes. Spectra measured by a FIDA diagnostic can be related to the 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function. A single FIDA vi...

  2. Tomography of fast-ion velocity-space distributions from synthetic CTS and FIDA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh;

    2012-01-01

    We compute tomographies of 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions from synthetic collective Thomson scattering (CTS) and fast-ion D (FIDA) 1D measurements using a new reconstruction prescription. Contradicting conventional wisdom we demonstrate that one single 1D CTS or FIDA view suffices to...

  3. On velocity space interrogation regions of fast-ion collective Thomson scattering at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic proposed for ITER is designed to measure projected 1D fast-ion velocity distribution functions at several spatial locations simultaneously. The frequency shift of scattered radiation and the scattering geometry place fast ions that caused the col...

  4. The effect of baryons on redshift space distortions and cosmic density and velocity fields in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwing, Wojciech A; Frenk, Carlos S; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We use the EAGLE galaxy formation simulation to study the effects of baryons on the power spectrum of the total matter and dark matter distributions and on the velocity fields of dark matter and galaxies. On scales $k\\geq \\sim4{h\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}}$ the effect of baryons on the amplitude of the total-matter power spectrum is greater than $1\\%$. The back-reaction of baryons affects the density field of the dark matter at the level of $\\sim3\\%$ on scales of $1\\leq k/({h\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}})\\leq 5$. The dark matter velocity divergence power spectrum at $k\\leq \\sim0.5{h\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}}$ is changed by less than $1\\%$. The 2D redshift-space power spectrum is affected at the level of $\\sim6\\%$ at $k_\\perp\\geq \\sim1{h\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}}$, but for $k_\\perp\\leq 0.4{h\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}}$ the amplitude differs by less than $1\\%$. We report vanishingly small baryonic velocity bias for haloes: the peculiar velocities of haloes with with $M_{200}>3\\times10^{11}{{\\rm M}_{\\odot}}$ (hosting galaxies with $M_{*}>10^9{{\\rm M}_{\\odot}}$)...

  5. Experimental Investigation of Longitudinal Space-Time Correlations of the Velocity Field in Turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Quan; Lu, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Yu-Lu

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the longitudinal space-time cross-correlation function of the velocity field, $C(r,\\tau)$, in a cylindrical turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection cell using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. We show that while the Taylor's frozen-flow hypothesis does not hold in turbulent thermal convection, the recent elliptic model advanced for turbulent shear flows [He & Zhang, \\emph{Phys. Rev. E} \\textbf{73}, 055303(R) (2006)] is valid for the present velocity field for all over the cell, i.e., the isocorrelation contours of the measured $C(r,\\tau)$ have a shape of elliptical curves and hence $C(r,\\tau)$ can be related to $C(r_E,0)$ via $r_E^2=(r-\\beta\\tau)^2+\\gamma^2\\tau^2$ with $\\beta$ and $\\gamma$ being two characteristic velocities. We further show that the fitted $\\beta$ is proportional to the mean velocity of the flow, but the values of $\\gamma$ are larger than the theoretical predictions. Specifically, we focus on two representative regions in the cell...

  6. Blood pulse wave velocity and pressure sensing via fiber based and free space based optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce two techniques for non-contact sensing of vital bio signs. In the first approach the optical sensor is based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual. In the second concept we show a remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beams. In both concept experimental validation of the proposed schemes is shown and analyzed.

  7. A Bayesian fusion model for space-time reconstruction of finely resolved velocities in turbulent flows from low resolution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Linh; Chainais, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The study of turbulent flows calls for measurements with high resolution both in space and in time. We propose a new approach to reconstruct High-Temporal-High-Spatial resolution velocity fields by combining two sources of information that are well-resolved either in space or in time, the Low-Temporal-High-Spatial (LTHS) and the High-Temporal-Low-Spatial (HTLS) resolution measurements. In the framework of co-conception between sensing and data post-processing, this work extensively investigates a Bayesian reconstruction approach using a simulated database. A Bayesian fusion model is developed to solve the inverse problem of data reconstruction. The model uses a Maximum A Posteriori estimate, which yields the most probable field knowing the measurements. The DNS of a wall-bounded turbulent flow at moderate Reynolds number is used to validate and assess the performances of the present approach. Low resolution measurements are subsampled in time and space from the fully resolved data. Reconstructed velocities ar...

  8. Space optical remote sensor image motion velocity vector computational modeling, error budget and synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqi Wang; Ping Yu; Changxiang Yan; Jianyue Ren; Bin He

    2005-01-01

    @@ For space optical remote sensor (SORS) with either film or time delay and integrate charge coupled device (TDI-CCD) imaging, in order to achieve higher resolution it requires more accurate real-time image motion compensation.

  9. Space Velocities of Southern Globular Clusters VI. Nine Clusters in the Inner Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I; Korchagin, Vladimir I; van Altena, William F; Lopez, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We have measured the absolute proper motions of nine low-latitude, inner Galaxy globular clusters, namely NGC 6273 (M 19), NGC 6284, NGC 6287, NGC 6293, NGC 6333 (M 9), NGC 6342, NGC 6356, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441. These are the first determinations ever made for these clusters. The proper motions are on the ICRS via Hipparcos. The proper-motion errors range between 0.4 and 0.9 mas/yr, and are dominated by the number of measurable cluster members in these regions which are very crowded by the bulge/bar and the thick disk. This samle contains five metal poor ([Fe/H < -1.0) and four metal rich clusters; seven clusters are located within 4 kpc from the Galactic center, while the remaining two, namely NGC 6356 and NGC 6284 are in the background of the bulge at 7.5 kpc from the Galactic center. By combining proper motions with radial velocities and distances from the literature we derive 3D velocities. In a number of cases, distance uncertainties make the kinematical classification ambiguous. The two me...

  10. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: terman@math.ohio-state.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: jonrubin@pitt.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: diekman@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  11. Modelling Of Random Vertical Irregularities Of Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podwórna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents state-of-the-art in analytical and numerical modelling of random vertical irregularities of continuously welded ballasted railway tracks. The common model of railway track irregularity vertical profiles is applied, in the form of a stationary and ergodic Gaussian process in space. Random samples of track irregularity vertical profiles are generated with the Monte-Carlo method. Based on the numerical method developed in the study, the minimum and recommended sampling number required in the random analysis of railway bridges and number of frequency increments (harmonic components in track irregularity vertical profiles simulation are determined. The lower and upper limits of wavelengths are determined based on the literature studies. The approach yields track irregularity random samples close to reality. The track irregularity model developed in the study can be used in the dynamic analysis of railway bridge / track structure / highspeed train systems.

  12. Pore space characterization in carbonate rocks - Approach to combine nuclear magnetic resonance and elastic wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Huber, Edith; Schön, Jürgen; Börner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Pore space features influence petrophysical parameters such as porosity, permeability, elastic wave velocity or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Therefore they are essential to describe the spatial distribution of petrophysical parameters in the subsurface, which is crucial for efficient reservoir characterization especially in carbonate rocks. While elastic wave velocity measurements respond to the properties of the solid rock matrix including pores or fractures, NMR measurements are sensitive to the distribution of pore-filling fluids controlled by rock properties such as the pore-surface-to-pore-volume ratio. Therefore a combination of both measurement principles helps to investigate carbonate pore space using complementary information. In this study, a workflow is presented that delivers a representative average semi-axis length of ellipsoidal pores in carbonate rocks based on the pore aspect ratio received from velocity interpretation and the pore-surface-to-pore-volume ratio Spor as input parameters combined with theoretical calculations for ellipsoidal inclusions. A novel method to calculate Spor from NMR data based on the ratio of capillary-bound to movable fluids and the thickness of the capillary-bound water film is used. To test the workflow, a comprehensive petrophysical database was compiled using micritic and oomoldic Lower Muschelkalk carbonates from Germany. The experimental data indicate that both mud-dominated and grain-dominated carbonates possess distinct ranges of petrophysical parameters. The agreement between the predicted and measured surface-to-volume ratio is satisfying for oomoldic and most micritic samples, while pyrite or significant sample heterogeneity may lead to deviations. Selected photo-micrographs and scanning electron microscope images support the validity of the estimated representative pore dimensions.

  13. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S., E-mail: nishioka@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [School of Natural and Living Sciences Education, Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Fukano, A. [Toshiba, 33 Isogo-chou, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 235-001 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.

  14. Sub-Auroral Ion Drifts as a Source of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At midlatitudes, such space weather events are caused mainly by subauroral electric field structures (SAID/SAPS) [1, 2]. SAID/SAPS -related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code was used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities in the equatorial region [3]. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ Defence Military Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite low-resolution data [2] during UHF/GPS L-band subauroral scintillation events. [1] Mishin, E. (2013), Interaction of substorm injections with the subauroral geospace: 1. Multispacecraft observations of SAID, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 5782-5796, doi:10.1002/jgra.50548. [2] Mishin, E., and N. Blaunstein (2008), Irregularities within subauroral polarization stream-related troughs and GPS radio interference at midlatitudes. In: T. Fuller-Rowell et al. (eds), AGU Geophysical Monograph 181, MidLatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances, pp. 291-295, doi:10.1029/181GM26, Washington, DC, USA. [3] V. Sotnikov, T. Kim, E. Mishin, T. Genoni, D. Rose, I. Paraschiv, Development of a Flow Velocity Shear Instability in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 15 - 19 December, 2014.

  15. Space Velocities of Southern Globular Clusters. V. A Low Galactic Latitude Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti-Dinescu, D I; Herrera, D; Van Altena, W F; López, C E; Castillo, D J

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 2808, 3201, 4372, 4833, 5927 and 5986. The proper motions are on the Hipparcos system and they are the first determinations ever made for these low Galactic latitude clusters. The proper motion uncertainties range from 0.3 to 0.5 mas/yr. The inferred orbits indicate that 1) the single metal rich cluster in our sample, NGC 5927, dynamically belongs to the thick disk, 2) the remaining metal poor clusters have rather low-energy orbits of high eccentricity; among these, there appear to be two "pairs" of dynamically associated clusters, 3) the most energetic cluster in our sample, NGC 3201 is on a highly retrograde orbit -- which had already been surmised from its radial velocity alone -- with an apocentric distance of 22 kpc, and 4) none of the metal poor clusters appear to be associated with the recently detected SDSS streams, or with the Monoceros structure. These are the first results of the Southern Proper-Motion Program (SPM) where the sec...

  16. Role of grain size and particle velocity distribution in secondary electron emission in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, V. W.; Mendis, D. A.; Rosenberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    By virtue of being generally immersed in a plasma environment, cosmic dust is necessarily electrically charged. The fact that secondary emission plays an important role in determining the equilibrium grain potential has long been recognized, but the fact that the grain size plays a crucial role in this equilibrium potential, when secondary emission is important, has not been widely appreciated. Using both conducting and insulating spherical grains of various sizes and also both Maxwellian and generalized Lorentzian plasmas (which are believed to represent certain space plasmas), we have made a detailed study of this problem. In general, we find that the secondary emission yield delta increases with decreasing size and becomes very large for grains whose dimensions are comparable to the primary electron penetration depth, such as in the case of the very small grains observed at comet Halley and inferred in the interstellar medium. Moreover, we observed that delta is larger for insulators and equilibrium potentials are generally more positive when the plasma has a broad non-Maxwellian tail. Interestingly, we find that for thermal energies that are expected in several cosmic regions, grains of different sizes can have opposite charge, the smaller ones being positive while the larger ones are negative. This may have important consequences for grain accretion in polydisperse dusty space plasmas.

  17. The Rockstar Phase-Space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Behroozi, Peter S; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper (Knebe et al 2011) has shown Rockstar to have class-leading recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulat...

  18. Irregular conformal states and spectral curve: Irregular matrix model approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2016-01-01

    We present recent developments of irregular conformal conformal states. Irregular vertex operators and their adjoint are used to define the irregular conformal states and their Inner product. Free field formalism can be augmented by screening operators which provide more degrees of freedom. The inner product is conveniently given as partition function of a irregular matrix model. (Deformed) spectral curve is the loop equation of the matrix model at Nekrasov-Shatashivili limit. We present the details of analytic structure of the spectral curve for Virasoso symmetry and its extensions, W-symmetry and super-symmetry.

  19. Irregular marriage: myth and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the historiography, the law, and the practice of irregular marriage in Britain. It argues that there has been a confusion of terms in the historiography of irregular marriage that has served to obscure its meaning, pattern, and incidence. Using evidence from Scotland where irregular marriage continued to be legally valid until 1939 (with one form remaining legally valid until 2006), the article argues that despite its legally valid status, the interpretation of what cons...

  20. The Space Interferometry Mission Astrometric Grid Giant-Star Survey. I. Stellar Parameters and Radial Velocity Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Bizyaev, D; Cunha, K; Geisler, D; Gieren, W; Majewski, S R; Pardo, C D; Patterson, R J; Smith, V V; Suntzeff, N B; Arenas, Jose; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cunha, Katia; Geisler, Doug; Gieren, Wolfgang; Majewski, Steven R.; Pardo, Cecilia Del; Patterson, Richard J.; Smith, Verne V.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2005-01-01

    We present results from a campaign of multiple epoch echelle spectroscopy of relatively faint (V = 9.5-13.5 mag) red giants observed as potential astrometric grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest). Data are analyzed for 775 stars selected from the Grid Giant Star Survey spanning a wide range of effective temperatures (Teff), gravities and metallicities. The spectra are used to determine these stellar parameters and to monitor radial velocity (RV) variability at the 100 m/s level. The degree of RV variation measured for 489 stars observed two or more times is explored as a function of the inferred stellar parameters. The percentage of radial velocity unstable stars is found to be very high -- about 2/3 of our sample. It is found that the fraction of RV-stable red giants (at the 100 m/s level) is higher among stars with Teff \\sim 4500 K, corresponding to the calibration-independent range of infrared colors 0.59 < (J-K_s)_0 < 0.73. A higher percentage of RV-stable stars is found ...

  1. Predicted Space Motions for Hypervelocity and Runaway Stars: Proper Motions and Radial Velocities for the GAIA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, Scott J; Brown, Warren R; Geller, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    We predict the distinctive three dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10~kpc, unbound stars are rare; however, proper motions isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. Towards the Galactic Center, high proper motion stars are a unique signature of HVSs or runaways. At larger distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g <= 20 stars with GAIA should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  2. Predicted space motions for hypervelocity and runaway stars: proper motions and radial velocities for the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We predict the distinctive three-dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10 kpc, unbound stars are rare; proper motions alone rarely isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. At large distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g ≲ 20 stars with Gaia should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  3. NIHAO project II: halo shape, phase-space density and velocity distribution of dark matter in galaxy formation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsky, Iryna; Macciò, Andrea V.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Wang, Liang; Obreja, Aura; Stinson, Greg S.; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W.; Wadsley, James

    2016-10-01

    We use the NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of Hundred Astrophysical Objects) cosmological simulations to study the effects of galaxy formation on key properties of dark matter (DM) haloes. NIHAO consists of ≈90 high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that include (metal-line) cooling, star formation, and feedback from massive stars and supernovae, and cover a wide stellar and halo mass range: 106 ≲ M*/M⊙ ≲ 1011(109.5 ≲ Mhalo/M⊙ ≲ 1012.5). When compared to DM-only simulations, the NIHAO haloes have similar shapes at the virial radius, Rvir, but are substantially rounder inside ≈0.1Rvir. In NIHAO simulations, c/a increases with halo mass and integrated star formation efficiency, reaching ˜0.8 at the Milky Way mass (compared to 0.5 in DM-only), providing a plausible solution to the long-standing conflict between observations and DM-only simulations. The radial profile of the phase-space Q parameter (ρ/σ3) is best fit with a single power law in DM-only simulations, but shows a flattening within ≈0.1Rvir for NIHAO for total masses M > 1011 M⊙. Finally, the global velocity distribution of DM is similar in both DM-only and NIHAO simulations, but in the solar neighbourhood, NIHAO galaxies deviate substantially from Maxwellian. The distribution is more symmetric, roughly Gaussian, with a peak that shifts to higher velocities for Milky Way mass haloes. We provide the distribution parameters which can be used for predictions for direct DM detection experiments. Our results underline the ability of the galaxy formation processes to modify the properties of DM haloes.

  4. Measurement of ionospheric large-scale irregularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文焌; 郑怡嘉; 张喜镇

    1996-01-01

    Based on the observations of a meter-wave aperture synthesis radio telescope,as the scale length of ionospheric irregularity is greatly larger than the baseline length of interferometer,the phase error induced by the output signal of interferometer due to ionosphere is proportional to the baseline length and accordingly the expressions for extracting the information about ionosphere are derived.By using the ray theory and considering that the antenna is always tracking to the radio source in astronomical observation,the wave motion expression of traveling ionospheric disturbance observed in the total electron content is also derived,which is consistent with that obtained from the conception of thin-phase screen;then the Doppler velocity due to antenna tracking is introduced.Finally the inversion analysis for the horizontal phase velocity of TID from observed data is given.

  5. Artificial periodic irregularities in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Rietveld

    Full Text Available Artificial periodic irregularities (API are produced in the ionospheric plasma by a powerful standing electromagnetic wave reflected off the F region. The resulting electron-density irregularities can scatter other high-frequency waves if the Bragg scattering condition is met. Such measurements have been performed at mid-latitudes for two decades and have been developed into a useful ionospheric diagnostic technique. We report here the first measurements from a high-latitude station, using the EISCAT heating facility near Tromsø, Norway. Both F-region and lower-altitude ionospheric echoes have been obtained, but the bulk of the data has been in the E and D regions with echoes extending down to 52-km altitude. Examples of API are shown, mainly from the D region, together with simultaneous VHF incoherent-scatter-radar (ISR data. Vertical velocities derived from the rate of phase change during the irregularity decay are shown and compared with velocities derived from the ISR. Some of the API-derived velocities in the 75–115-km height range appear consistent with vertical neutral winds as shown by their magnitudes and by evidence of gravity waves, while other data in the 50–70-km range show an unrealistically large bias. For a comparison with ISR data it has proved difficult to get good quality data sets overlapping in height and time. The initial comparisons show some agreement, but discrepancies of several metres per second do not yet allow us to conclude that the two techniques are measuring the same quantity. The irregularity decay time-constants between about 53 and 70 km are compared with the results of an advanced ion-chemistry model, and height profiles of recorded signal power are compared with model estimates in the same altitude range. The calculated amplitude shows good agreement with the data in that the maximum occurs at about the same height as that of the measured amplitude. The calculated time-constant agrees very well with the

  6. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  7. Active Absorption of Irregular Gravity Waves in BEM-Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity...

  8. NIHAO project II: Halo shape, phase-space density and velocity distribution of dark matter in galaxy formation simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Butsky, Iryna; Dutton, Aaron A; Wang, Liang; Stinson, Greg S; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W; Wadsley, James

    2015-01-01

    We show the effect of galaxy formation on the dark matter (DM) distribution across a wide range of halo masses. We focus on how baryon physics changes the dark matter halo shape, the so called "pseudo phase-space density distribution" and the velocity distribution within the virial radius, Rvir and in the solar neighborhood. This study is based on the NIHAO galaxy formation simulations, a large suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations. The galaxies reproduce key properties of observed galaxies, and hence offer unique insight into how baryons change the dark matter morphology and kinematics. When compared to dark matter only simulations, the NIHAO haloes have similar shapes at Rvir, but are substantially rounder inside ~0.1 Rvir. In DM-only simulations the inner halo has a minor-to-major axis ratio of c/a~0.5. In hydro simulations c/a increases with halo mass and integrated star formation efficiency, reaching ~0.8 at the Milky Way mass, reconciling a long-standing conflict between observations and DM only sim...

  9. Geostatistical analysis of GPS trajectory data: Space-time densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Zhang, J.; Goodchild, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Creation of density maps and estimation of home range is problematic for observations of animal movement at irregular intervals. We propose a technique to estimate space-time densities by separately modeling animal movement paths and velocities, both as continuous fields. First the length of traject

  10. Irregular Wave-Induced Velocities in Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and Acceleration of the Surface of Wind Waves," Rep. Res. Inst. Appl . Mech. (Kyushu Univ.), 24, No. 76, 31-48. 19, Hughes, S.A. (1991) "Estimating...8217 siilk 2 i- (D½ 0 0 411 0 Ursoll No. 0.1 10 100 1000 10000 Ursell No. W (.), z-mid-depth W (#), z-bottom W (-), z-mid-depth W (-), z-bottom (b) Figure 72

  11. The effect of initial velocity on manually controlled remote docking of an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) to a space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated docking maneuvers were performed to assess the effect of initial velocity on docking failure rate, mission duration, and total impulse (fuel consumption). The effect of the removal of the range and rate displays was also examined. Since duration and impulse decrease and increase respectively with increases in initial velocity, two parameters were created by subtracting a reference value from each. These values were termed 'reserve time' and 'radial impulse'. Naive subjects were capable of achieving a high success rate in performing simulated docking maneuvers without extensive experience, and failure rate did not significantly increase with increased velocity. The amount of time pilots reserved for final approach increased with starting velocity. Piloting of docking maneuvers was not significantly affected in any way by the removal of range and rate displays. Values for reserve time, and radial impulse were lowest for docking maneuvers begun at the lowest initial velocity.

  12. Test functions for three-dimensional control-volume mixed finite-element methods on irregular grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, R.L.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2000-01-01

    Numerical methods based on unstructured grids, with irregular cells, usually require discrete shape functions to approximate the distribution of quantities across cells. For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error associated with the numerical approximation scheme. For a logically cubic mesh, the lowest-order shape functions are chosen in a natural way to conserve intercell fluxes that vary linearly in logical space. Vector test functions, while somewhat restricted by the mapping into the logical reference cube, admit a wider class of possibilities. Ideally, an error minimization procedure to select the test function from an acceptable class of candidates would be the best procedure. Lacking such a procedure, we first investigate the effect of possible test functions on the pressure distribution over the control volume; specifically, we look for test functions that allow for the elimination of intermediate pressures on cell faces. From these results, we select three forms for the test function for use in a control-volume mixed method code and subject them to an error analysis for different forms of grid irregularity; errors are reported in terms of the discrete L2 norm of the velocity error. Of these three forms, one appears to produce optimal results for most forms of grid irregularity.

  13. Analysis of irregularly distributed points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    The present thesis is on the analysis of irregularly distributed points. The main part of the thesis is concerned with enterpolating and restoration of irregularly distribyted points. The least squares methods of kriging and Kalman filtering and the Bayesian restoration method of iterated...... is described as a robust estimator which may be appled straightfor- wardly to a wide range of point patterns and processes when the correlation structure is known. We give a qualitative and quantitative comparison of kriging, Kalman filter and iterated conditional modes. The Kalman filter have in a case study...... and represents an interesting contextuel classifier. Extended Kalman filtering on the other hand seems to be well suited for interpolation in gradually changing environments. Bayesian restoration is applied to a point matching problem, which consists of matching a grid to an image of (irregularly) distributed...

  14. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  15. Cartography of irregularly shaped satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, R. M.; Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Irregularly shaped satellites, such as Phobos and Amalthea, do not lend themselves to mapping by conventional methods because mathematical projections of their surfaces fail to convey an accurate visual impression of the landforms, and because large and irregular scale changes make their features difficult to measure on maps. A digital mapping technique has therefore been developed by which maps are compiled from digital topographic and spacecraft image files. The digital file is geometrically transformed as desired for human viewing, either on video screens or on hard copy. Digital files of this kind consist of digital images superimposed on another digital file representing the three-dimensional form of a body.

  16. The periodic dynamics of the irregular heterogeneous celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lei; Yang, Mo; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a methodology to study the periodic dynamics of irregular heterogeneous celestial bodies. Heterogeneous bodies are not scarce in space. It has been found that bodies, such as 4 Vesta, 624 Hektor, 87 Sylvia, 16 Psyche and 25143 Itokawa, may all have varied internal structures. They can be divided into large-scale and small-scale cases. The varied internal structures of large-scale bodies always result from gradient pressure inside, which leads to compactness differences of the inner material. However, the heterogeneity of a small-scale body is always reflected by the different densities of different areas, which may originate from collision formation from multiple objects. We propose a modeling procedure for the heterogeneous bodies derived from the conventional polyhedral method and then compare its dynamical characteristics with those of the homogeneous case. It is found that zero-velocity curves, positions of equilibrium points, types of bifurcations in the continuation of the orbital family and the stabilities of periodic orbits near the heterogeneous body are different from those in the homogeneous case. The suborbicular orbits near the equatorial plane are potential parking orbits for a future mission, so we discuss the switching of the orbital stability of the family because it has fundamental significance to orbit maintenance and operations around actual asteroids.

  17. Evolutionary Models of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    G. (2010) Decentralize, adapt and cooperate. Nature 465:292-293. Sagarin, R. (2012) Learning From the Octopus : How Secrets from Nature Can Help Us...because the concepts map on to important features of modern irregular warfare. For example, small-scale behaviors are increasingly thought to

  18. TDLAS Test-stand Diagnostics Development for Velocity, Temperature, Efficiency, and Erosion for Space Shuttle Main Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose here to develop tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic for the Space Shuttle main engines during test stand operations. These engines represent...

  19. The universal distribution of halo interlopers in projected phase space. Bias in galaxy cluster concentration and velocity anisotropy?

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, Gary A; Murante, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    When clusters of galaxies are viewed in projection, one cannot avoid picking up foreground/background interlopers, that lie within the virial cone (VC), but outside the virial sphere. Structural and kinematic deprojection equations are not known for an expanding Universe, where the Hubble flow (HF) stretches the line-of-sight distribution of velocities. We analyze 93 mock relaxed clusters, built from a cosmological simulation. The stacked mock cluster is well fit by an m=5 Einasto DM density profile, with velocity anisotropy (VA) close to the Mamon-Lokas model with anisotropy radius equal to that of density slope -2. The surface density of interlopers is nearly flat out to the virial radius, while their velocity distribution shows a dominant gaussian cluster-outskirts component and a flat field component. This distribution of interlopers in PPS is nearly universal in mass. A local kappa=2.7 sigma velocity cut returns the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile (LOSVDP) expected from the NFW density and VA p...

  20. The space density of primordial gas clouds near galaxies and groups and their relation to galactic high-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA; Briggs, FH

    2000-01-01

    The Arecibo H I Strip Survey probed the halos of similar to 300 cataloged galaxies and the environments of similar to 14 groups with sensitivity to neutral hydrogen masses greater than or equal to 10(7) M-circle dot. The survey detected no objects with properties resembling the high-velocity clouds

  1. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  2. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archive

  3. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archive

  4. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  5. Space density distribution of galaxies in the absolute magnitude - rotation velocity plane: a volume-complete Tully-Fisher relation from CALIFA stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeraité, S.; Walcher, C. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Spekkens, K.; van de Ven, G.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; García-Benito, R.

    2016-10-01

    We measured the distribution in absolute magnitude - circular velocity space for a well-defined sample of 199 rotating galaxies of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA) using their stellar kinematics. Our aim in this analysis is to avoid subjective selection criteria and to take volume and large-scale structure factors into account. Using stellar velocity fields instead of gas emission line kinematics allows including rapidly rotating early-type galaxies. Our initial sample contains 277 galaxies with available stellar velocity fields and growth curve r-band photometry. After rejecting 51 velocity fields that could not be modelled because of the low number of bins, foreground contamination, or significant interaction, we performed Markov chain Monte Carlo modelling of the velocity fields, from which we obtained the rotation curve and kinematic parameters and their realistic uncertainties. We performed an extinction correction and calculated the circular velocity vcirc accounting for the pressure support of a given galaxy. The resulting galaxy distribution on the Mr-vcirc plane was then modelled as a mixture of two distinct populations, allowing robust and reproducible rejection of outliers, a significant fraction of which are slow rotators. The selection effects are understood well enough that we were able to correct for the incompleteness of the sample. The 199 galaxies were weighted by volume and large-scale structure factors, which enabled us to fit a volume-corrected Tully-Fisher relation (TFR). More importantly, we also provide the volume-corrected distribution of galaxies in the Mr-vcirc plane, which can be compared with cosmological simulations. The joint distribution of the luminosity and circular velocity space densities, representative over the range of -20 > Mr > -22 mag, can place more stringent constraints on the galaxy formation and evolution scenarios than linear TFR fit parameters or the luminosity function alone. Galaxies main

  6. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    concluded that the United States has a national policy gap in our own ability to wage “unconventional warfare in the gray zone.”3 That statement...advancing army—few have studied the irregular nature of the campaign waged against Napoleon. Napoleon’s overstretched logistics and the elusiveness of...94 Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac, Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia (Washington, DC: Basic

  7. Air Power in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaisance IW Irregular Warfare JFC Joint Force Commander JP Joint Publication xii MCP Malayan Communist Party...being or acting in accord with laws , rules, or established custom.”5 Combined with the Clausewitzian definition of war as “an act of violence meant...Quarterly and Defence Journal , October, 1920), accessed March 21, 2012, http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/lawrence.pdf, 17. 22 Bruce

  8. Precise Masses for Wolf 1062 AB from Hubble Space Telescope Interferometric Astrometry and McDonald Observatory Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G F; Franz, O G; Wasserman, L H; Henry, T J; Takato, T; Strateva, I V; Crawford, J L; Ianna, P A; McCarthy, D W; Nelan, E; Jefferys, W H; Van Altena, W F; Shelus, P J; Hemenway, P D; Duncombe, R L; Story, D; Whipple, A L; Bradley, A J; Fredrick, L W

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of astrometric data from FGS 3, a white-light interferometer on {\\it HST}, and of radial velocity data from two ground-based campaigns. We model the astrometric and radial velocity measurements simultaneously to obtain parallax, proper motion and component masses for Wolf 1062 = Gl 748 AB (M3.5V). To derive the mass fraction, we relate FGS 3 fringe scanning observations of the science target to a reference frame provided by fringe tracking observations of a surrounding star field. We obtain an absolute parallax $\\pi_{abs} = 98.0 \\pm 0.4$ milliseconds of arc, yielding ${\\cal M}_A = 0.379 \\pm 0.005{\\cal M}_{\\sun}$ and ${\\cal M}_B= 0.192 \\pm 0.003 {\\cal M}_{\\sun}$, high quality component masses with errors of only 1.5%.

  9. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene Wilhelmstrasse 3a, Freiburg 79098 (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties.

  10. Vibrations of strongly irregular or fractal resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoval, B.; Gobron, Th.

    1993-05-01

    It is shown on a specific example that fractal boundary conditions drastically alter the properties of wave excitations in space. The low-frequency part of the vibration spectrum of a finite-range fractal drum is computed using an analogy between the Helmoltz equation and the diffusion equation. The irregularity of the frontier is found to influence strongly the density of states at low frequency. The fractal perimeter generates a specific screening effect. Very near the frontier, the decrease of the wave form is related directly to the behavior of the harmonic measure. The possibility of localization of the vibrations is qualitatively discussed and we show that localized modes may exist at low frequencies if the geometrical structures possess narrow paths. Possible application of these results to the interpretation of thermal properties of binary glasses is briefly discussed.

  11. Space and Time pattern of mid-velocity IMF emission in peripheral heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies

    CERN Document Server

    Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Bini, M; Casini, G; Maurenzig, P R; Olmi, A; Pasquali, G; Stefanini, A A; Taccetti, N

    2001-01-01

    The emission pattern in the V_perp - V_par plane of Intermediate Mass Fragments with Z=3-7 (IMF) has been studied in the collision 116Sn + 93Nb at 29.5 AMeV as a function of the Total Kinetic Energy Loss of the reaction. This pattern shows that for peripheral reactions most of IMF's are emitted at mid-velocity. Coulomb trajectory calculations demonstrate that these IMF's are produced in the early stages of the reaction and shed light on geometrical details of these emissions, suggesting that the IMF's originate both from the neck and the surface of the interacting nuclei.

  12. Irregularity excitation associated with charged dust cloud boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

    2012-02-01

    Irregularity generation associated with dust cloud expansion through a background plasma along a magnetic field is investigated. Because of the dust charging process, a boundary layer is produced, separating the dusty plasma generated and the background plasma. It is observed that under appropriate conditions, localized plasma irregularities may be generated in this boundary layer. Theoretical and computational models are used to study the evolution of relevant plasma instabilities thought to play a dominant role in irregularity production. An electron flow develops along the boundary layer of the dust cloud, and plasma irregularities are generated in response to this flow. Several aspects of the cloud's structure (thickness of the boundary layer, average particle size and density, collisional processes, and cloud expansion speed) and the ambient plasma are varied to determine the effect of these quantities on the resulting irregularities. The relevance of these results to past experimental observations in space and the laboratory for applications to the expansion of naturally or artificially created dust clouds is discussed.

  13. Modeling of aluminum-silicon irregular eutectic growth by cellular automaton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the extensive application of Al-Si alloys in the automotive and aerospace industries as structural components, an understanding of their microstructural formation, such as dendrite and (Al+Si eutectic, is of great importance to control the desirable microstructure, so as to modify the performance of castings. Since previous major themes of microstructural simulation are dendrite and regular eutectic growth, few efforts have been paid to simulate the irregular eutectic growth. Therefore, a multiphase cellular automaton (CA model is developed and applied to simulate the time-dependent Al-Si irregular eutectic growth. Prior to model establishment, related experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of cooling rate and Sr modification on the growth of eutectic Si. This CA model incorporates several aspects, including growth algorithms and nucleation criterion, to achieve the competitive and cooperative growth mechanism for nonfaceted-faceted Al-Si irregular eutectic. The growth kinetics considers thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and curvature undercooling, as well as the anisotropic characteristic of eutectic Si growth. The capturing rule takes into account the effects of modification on the silicon growth behaviors. The simulated results indicate that for unmodified alloy, the higher eutectic undercooling results in the higher eutectic growth velocity, and a more refined eutectic microstructure as well as narrower eutectic lamellar spacing. For modified alloy, the eutectic silicon tends to be obvious fibrous morphology and the morphology of eutectic Si is determined by both chemical modifier and cooling rate. The predicted microstructure of Al-7Si alloy under different solidification conditions shows that this proposed model can successfully reproduce both dendrite and eutectic microstructures.

  14. Modeling of aluminum-silicon irregular eutectic growth by cellular automaton model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Qing-yan Xu; Bai-cheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Due to the extensive application of Al-Si aloys in the automotive and aerospace industries as structural components, an understanding of their microstructural formation, such as dendrite and (Al+Si) eutectic, is of great importance to control the desirable microstructure, so as to modify the performance of castings. Since previous major themes of microstructural simulation are dendrite and regular eutectic growth, few efforts have been paid to simulate the irregular eutectic growth. Therefore, a multiphase celular automaton (CA) model is developed and applied to simulate the time-dependent Al-Si irregular eutectic growth. Prior to model establishment, related experiments were carried out to investigate the inlfuence of cooling rate and Sr modiifcation on the growth of eutectic Si. This CA model incorporates several aspects, including growth algorithms and nucleation criterion, to achieve the competitive and cooperative growth mechanism for nonfaceted-faceted Al-Si irregular eutectic. The growth kinetics considers thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and curvature undercooling, as wel as the anisotropic characteristic of eutectic Si growth. The capturing rule takes into account the effects of modiifcation on the silicon growth behaviors. The simulated results indicate that for unmodiifed aloy, the higher eutectic undercooling results in the higher eutectic growth velocity, and a more reifned eutectic microstructure as wel as narrower eutectic lamelar spacing. For modiifed aloy, the eutectic silicon tends to be obvious ifbrous morphology and the morphology of eutectic Si is determined by both chemical modiifer and cooling rate. The predicted microstructure of Al-7Si aloy under different solidiifcation conditions shows that this proposed model can successfuly reproduce both dendrite and eutectic microstructures.

  15. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, A B; Almoznino, E; Van Zee, L; Salzer, J J; Heller, Ana B.; Brosch, Noah; Almoznino, Elchanan; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.

    2000-01-01

    We quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angular asymmetry index, and the concentration of star forming regions, as represented by the distribution of the H$\\alpha$ emission, in a sample of 78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies in two groups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution is analysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details in the light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of the underlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations, is relatively small, the H$\\alpha$ emission is very asymmetric and is correlated in position angle with the continuum light. We test a model of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulating HII regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. The implication is that random star formation over the full extent of a galaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf-irregular galaxies but not in BCD galaxies.

  16. Turbulent boundary layers under irregular waves and currents: Experiments and the equivalent-wave concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing

    2016-04-01

    A full-scale experimental study of turbulent boundary layer flows under irregular waves and currents is conducted with the primary objective to investigate the equivalent-wave concept by Madsen (1994). Irregular oscillatory flows following the bottom-velocity spectrum under realistic surface irregular waves are produced over two fixed rough bottoms in an oscillatory water tunnel, and flow velocities are measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry. The root-mean-square (RMS) value and representative phase lead of wave velocities have vertical variations very similar to those of the first-harmonic velocity of periodic wave boundary layers, e.g., the RMS wave velocity follows a logarithmic distribution controlled by the physical bottom roughness in the very near-bottom region. The RMS wave bottom shear stress and the associated representative phase lead can be accurately predicted using the equivalent-wave approach. The spectra of wave bottom shear stress and boundary layer velocity are found to be proportional to the spectrum of free-stream velocity. Currents in the presence of irregular waves exhibit the classic two-log-profile structure with the lower log-profile controlled by the physical bottom roughness and the upper log-profile controlled by a much larger apparent roughness. Replacing the irregular waves by their equivalent sinusoidal waves virtually makes no difference for the coexisting currents. These observations, together with the excellent agreement between measurements and model predictions, suggest that the equivalent-wave representation adequately characterizes the basic wave-current interaction under irregular waves.

  17. LDRD Report: Scheduling Irregular Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This LDRD project was a campus exec fellowship to fund (in part) Donald Nguyen’s PhD research at UT-Austin. His work has focused on parallel programming models, and scheduling irregular algorithms on shared-memory systems using the Galois framework. Galois provides a simple but powerful way for users and applications to automatically obtain good parallel performance using certain supported data containers. The naïve user can write serial code, while advanced users can optimize performance by advanced features, such as specifying the scheduling policy. Galois was used to parallelize two sparse matrix reordering schemes: RCM and Sloan. Such reordering is important in high-performance computing to obtain better data locality and thus reduce run times.

  18. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  19. Energy velocity and group velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇

    1995-01-01

    A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.

  20. The Dynamics of Equatorial F Layer Irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    of irregularities rise through the ionosphere. The patch, after development, has the form of a banana with its long axis magnetic north-south. A...determine the geometrical form of these irregularities. If the irregularities were vertical sheets the maximum intensity would be noted when the ray path...was along the sheet as shown in Figure 6. Vertical sheets , conceived theoretically from upwelling plasma bubbles, were ruled out. Multiplying factors

  1. Validation of rapid velocity encoded cine imaging of a dynamically complex flow field using turbo block regional interpolation scheme for k space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortright, E; Doyle, M; Anayiotos, A S; Walsh, E G; Fuisz, A R; Pohost, G M

    2001-02-01

    Block regional interpolation scheme for k space (BRISK) is a sparse sampling approach to allow rapid magnetic resonance imaging of dynamic events. Rapid velocity encoded cine (VEC) imaging with Turbo BRISK is potentially an important clinical diagnostic technique for cardiovascular diseases. Previously we applied BRISK and Turbo BRISK to imaging pulsatile flow in a straight tube. To evaluate the capabilities of Turbo BRISK imaging in more complex dynamic flow fields such as might exist in the human vasculature, an in vitro curved tube model, similar in geometry to the aortic arch, was fabricated and imaged under pulsatile flow conditions. Velocity maps were obtained using conventional VEC and Turbo BRISK (turbo factors 1 through 5). Comparison of the flow fields obtained with each higher order turbo factor showed excellent agreement with conventional VEC with minimal loss of information. Similarly, flow maps showed good agreement with the profiles from a laser Doppler velocimetry model. Turbo-5 BRISK, for example, allowed a 94% savings in imaging time, reducing the conventional imaging time from over 8 min to a near breath-hold imaging period of 31 s. Turbo BRISK shows excellent promise toward the development of a clinical tool to evaluate complex dynamic intravascular flow fields.

  2. CLASH-VLT: The mass, velocity-anisotropy, and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of the z=0.44 galaxy cluster MACS 1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Biviano, A; Balestra, I; Mercurio, A; Girardi, M; Nonino, M; Grillo, C; Scodeggio, M; Lemze, D; Kelson, D; Umetsu, K; Postman, M; Zitrin, A; Czoske, O; Ettori, S; Lombardi, M; Maier, C; Medezinski, E; Mei, S; Presotto, V; Tozzi, P; Ziegler, B; Annunziatella, M; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Bradley, L; Brescia, M; Broadhurst, T; Coe, D; Demarco, R; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Gobat, R; Graves, G; Koekemoer, A; Kuchner, U; Melchior, P; Meneghetti, M; Merten, J; Moustakas, L; Munari, E; Regos, E; Sartoris, B; Seitz, S; Zheng, W

    2013-01-01

    We use an unprecedented data-set of about 600 redshifts for cluster members, obtained as part of a VLT/VIMOS large programme, to constrain the mass profile of the z=0.44 cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 over the radial range 0-5 Mpc (0-2.5 virial radii) using the MAMPOSSt and Caustic methods. We then add external constraints from the gravitational lensing analysis of Umetsu et al. (2012). We invert the Jeans equation to obtain the velocity-anisotropy profiles of cluster members. With the mass-density and velocity-anisotropy profiles we then obtain the first determination of a cluster pseudo-phase-space density profile. The kinematics and lensing determinations of the cluster mass profile are in excellent agreement. This is very well fitted by a NFW model with mass M200=(1.4 +- 0.2) 10^15 Msun and concentration c200=6 +- 1, only slightly higher than theoretical expectations. Other mass profile models also provide acceptable fits to our data, of (slightly) lower (Burkert, Hernquist, and Softened Isothermal Sphere) or ...

  3. SPACE VELOCITIES OF SOUTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M28), AND NGC 6656 (M22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Jilkova, Lucie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Podesta, Federico; Lopez, Carlos E., E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu, E-mail: terry.girard@yale.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: jilkoval@physics.muni.cz [Universidad National de San Juan, Observatorio Astronomico ' ' Felix Aguilar' ' and Yale Southern Observatory, Chimbas, 5413 San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M22), and NGC 6656 (M28) as part of our ongoing Southern Proper-Motion Program. The reference system is the ICRS via Hipparcos stars for these three low-Galactic-latitude clusters. Formal errors range between {approx}0.3 and 0.7 mas yr{sup -1}. Notable is the result for NGC 6397, which differs by 2.5 mas yr{sup -1} from two Hubble Space Telescope determinations while agreeing with previous ground-based ones. We determine orbits for all three clusters in an axisymmetric and barred model of the Galaxy and discuss these in the context of globular-cluster formation. M22 is a well-known cluster with an iron abundance spread; such clusters are now believed to have formed in massive parent systems that can retain ejecta of core-collapsed supernovae. We find that the five currently accepted globular clusters with iron/calcium abundance spread show orbits unrelated to each other, thus suggesting at least five independent, massive progenitors that have contributed to the build-up of the Milky-Way halo.

  4. On Decoding Irregular Tanner Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Even, Guy

    2011-01-01

    We present a new combinatorial characterization for local-optimality of a codeword in irregular Tanner codes. This characterization is a generalization of [Arora, Daskalakis, Steurer; 2009] and [Vontobel; 2010]. The main novelty in this characterization is that it is based on a conical combination of subtrees in the computation trees. These subtrees may have any degree in the local-code nodes and may have any height (even greater than the girth). We prove that local-optimality in this new characterization implies Maximum-Likelihood (ML) optimality and LP-optimality. We also show that it is possible to compute efficiently a certificate for the local-optimality of a codeword given the channel output. We apply this characterization to regular Tanner codes. We prove a lower bound on the noise threshold in channels such as BSC and AWGNC. When the noise is below this lower bound, the probability that LP decoding fails diminishes doubly exponentially in the girth of the Tanner graph. We use local optimality also to ...

  5. Ethical issues in irregular migration research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvell, F.; Triandafyllidou, A.; Vollmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. This very nature of the phenomenon raises important

  6. Ethical issues in irregular migration research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvell, F.; Triandafyllidou, A.; Vollmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. This very nature of the phenomenon raises important

  7. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  8. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Tiwari; Amit Jain; Shivalika Sarkar; Sudhir Jain; A K Gwal

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in the space weather studies. Scintillation is a major problem in navigation application using GPS and in satellite communication at high latitudes. Severe amplitude fading and strong scintillation affect the reliability of GPS navigational system and satellite communication. To study the effects of the ionospheric scintillations, GPS receiver installed at Antarctic station Maitri (Geog. 70.76°S; 11.74°E) was used. The data is collected by using GISTM 4004A, NOVATEL’S GPS receiver during March 2008. Studies show that percentage occurrence of phase scintillation is well correlated with geomagnetic activity during the observation period. The result also shows that very intense scintillations can degrade GPS based location determination due to loss of lock of satellites. These findings indicate that the dependence of scintillations and irregularity occurrence on geomagnetic activity is associated with the magnetic local time (MLT). Large number of patches are reported and their activity depends on the magnetic activity index.

  9. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-11-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability.

  10. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  11. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  12. Searching for Strange Attractor in Sliver Irregularity Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jie; ZHONG Zai-min; CHEN Ren-zhe; YE Guo-ming

    2007-01-01

    The chaotic nonlinear time series method isapplied to analyze the sliver irregularity in textileprocessing. Because it unifies the system's determinacy andrandonmess, it seems more adaptive to describe the sliverirregularity than conventional methods. Firstly, the chaoscharacter, i. e. fractal dimension, positive Lyapunovexponent, and state space parameters, including time delayand reconstruction dimension, are calculated respectively.As a result, a positive Lyapunov exponent and a fractaldimension are obtained, which demonstrates that the systemis chaotic in fact. Secondly, both local linear forecast andglobal forecast models based on the reconstructed state areadopted to predict a segment part of the sliver irregularityseries, which proves the validity of this analysis.Therefore, the sliver irregularity series shows the evidenceof chaotic phenomena, and thus laying the theoreticalfoundation for analyzing and modeling the sliver irregularityseries by applying the chaos theory, and providing a newway to understand the complexity of the sliver irregularitymuch better.

  13. Irregular Variability In Kepler Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecker, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The transit method is the most successful tool for exoplanet discovery to date. With more than half of all known exoplanets discovered by Kepler using this method, the mission also revealed a number of objects with dimming events that defy the common explanations, the most prominent being KIC 8462852 aka ``Tabby's star''. I embarked on a search for objects with such irregular transit signatures in the data of K2, the two-wheeled successor mission of Kepler. My method is a combination of automated pre-selection of targets showing downward flux excursions and visual light curve inspection of the selected subset comprising about SI{1.5}% of the initial sample. In addition, I developed a tool to constrain the effective temperature of a planet-hosting star from photometry alone. This software finds broad application in any science case where a photometric spectral type estimate is necessary. I used existing transit models and Bayesian inference to perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis of a planetary candidate I discovered. This putative gas giant is in a SI{1.32}day circular orbit with an exceptionally tight orbital radius of a ≈ 0.012 AU. My analysis revealed a scaled planetary radius of R_{p}/R_star = 0.0927±0.0026 and an edge-on orientation with an inclination i=89.8+3.0-3.4. EPIC 217393088.01 is one of the closest-orbiting exoplanets ever detected and the first giant planet with such a small orbital radius. An additional major finding of my search is EPIC 220262993, which exhibits aperiodic, asymmetric dips in flux with rapid dimming rates and up to SI{˜25}% depth, lasting for SIrange{2}{4} day. In previous works based on optical and mid-infrared photometry, this object was inconsistently classified as a possible quasar or a white dwarf. We conducted follow-up observations both photometrically with GROND on the MPI/ESO SI{2.2} meter telescope in La Silla (Chile) and spectroscopically with FIRE on the Magellan/Baade SI{6.5} meter telescope. With

  14. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in C. chinense, it was above 80 %. Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum, mainly in C. baccatum, considering the low PV estimated, were significant but not impeditive for fertilization.

  15. Robust Spectral Estimation of Track Irregularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Wenjuan; Chen Chunjun

    2005-01-01

    Because the existing spectral estimation methods for railway track irregularity analysis are very sensitive to outliers, a robust spectral estimation method is presented to process track irregularity signals. The proposed robust method is verified using 100 groups of clean/contaminated data reflecting he vertical profile irregularity taken from Bejing-Guangzhou railway with a sampling frequency of 33 data every 10 m, and compared with the Auto Regressive (AR) model. The experimental results show that the proposed robust estimation is resistible to noise and insensitive to outliers, and is superior to the AR model in terms of efficiency, stability and reliability.

  16. The irregularity of two types of trees

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jianxi; Chee, Wai

    2015-01-01

    The irregularity of a graph G is defined as the sum of weights |d(u) − d(v)| of all edges uv of G, where d(u) and d(v) are the degrees of the vertices u and v in G, respectively. In this paper, some structural properties on trees with maximum (or minimum) irregularity among trees with given degree sequence and trees with given branching number are explored, respectively. Moreover, the corresponding trees with maximum (or minimum) irregularity are also found, respectively.

  17. Moduli of unramified irregular singular parabolic connections on a smooth projective curve

    CERN Document Server

    Inaba, Michi-aki

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we construct a coarse moduli scheme of stable unramified irregular singular parabolic connections on a smooth projective curve and prove that the constructed moduli space is smooth and has a symplectic structure. Moreover we will construct the moduli space of generalized monodromy data coming from topological monodromies, formal monodromies, links and Stokes data associated to the generic irregular connections. We will prove that for a generic choice of generalized local exponents, the generalized Riemann-Hilbert correspondence from the moduli space of the connections to the moduli space of the associated generalized monodromy data gives an analytic isomorphism. This shows that differential systems arising from (generalized) isomonodromic deformations of corresponding unramified irregular singular parabolic connections admit geometric Painlev\\'e property as in the regular singular cases proved generally in \\cite{Inaba-1}.

  18. The K-Spectrum of Ionospheric Irregularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans; Petersen, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory measurements in a cesium plasma device indicate that the wave number (power) spectrum of irregularities produced by the Farley instability is of the type P(K) ∝ K −β, where β ≃ 3.5-3.8.......Laboratory measurements in a cesium plasma device indicate that the wave number (power) spectrum of irregularities produced by the Farley instability is of the type P(K) ∝ K −β, where β ≃ 3.5-3.8....

  19. Wideband irregular-shaped fractal antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesov, V. V.; Krupenin, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm of generating fully reproducible irregular fractal structures for antenna design. Three types of pseudorandom fractal clusters are introduced. The multi-frequency behavior of the irregular-shaped fractal antennas is studied by means of numerical analysis. The antenna behavior is studied under feeder displacement. As shown by numerical results feeder displacements allow one to control the spatial-frequency antenna characteristics.

  20. Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyży, K. T.; Weżgowiec, M.; Beck, R.; Bomans, D. J.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 GHz. Three galaxies were detected. A higher frequency (4.85 GHz) was used to search for polarized emission in five dwarfs that are the most luminous ones in the infrared domain, of which three were detected. Results: Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are weak, with a mean value of the total field strength of regulated mainly by the star-formation surface density (with the power-law exponent of 0.30 ± 0.04) or by the gas surface density (with the exponent 0.47 ± 0.09). In addition, we find systematically stronger fields in objects of higher global star-formation rate. The dwarf galaxies follow a similar far-infrared relationship (with a slope of 0.91 ± 0.08) to that determined for high surface brightness spiral galaxies. The magnetic field strength in dwarf galaxies does not correlate with their maximum rotational velocity, indicating that a small-scale rather than a large-scale dynamo process is responsible for producting magnetic fields in dwarfs. If magnetization of the Universe by galactic outflows is coeval with its metal enrichment, we show that more massive objects (such as Lyman break galaxies) can efficiently magnetize the intergalactic medium with a magnetic field strength of about 0.8 nG out to a distance of 160-530 kpc at redshifts 5-3, respectively. Magnetic fields that are several times weaker and shorter magnetization distances are expected for primordial dwarf galaxies. We also predict that most star-forming local dwarfs might have magnetized their surroundings up to a field strength about 0.1 μG within about a 5 kpc distance. Conclusions: Strong magnetic

  1. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  2. Research on the photoelectric measuring method of warhead fragment velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Yu, Lixia; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-01

    The velocity of warhead fragment is the key criteria to determine its mutilation efficiency. But owing to the small size, larger quantity, irregular shape, high speed, arbitrary direction, large dispersion of warhead fragment and adverse environment, the test of fragment velocity parameter is very difficult. The paper designed an optoelectronic system to measure the average velocity of warhead fragments accurately. The apparatus included two parallel laser screens spaced apart at a known fixed distance for providing time measurement between start and stop signals. The large effective screen area was composed of laser source, retro-reflector and large area photo-diode. Whenever a moving fragment interrupted two optical screens, the system would generate a target signal. Due to partial obscuration of the incident energy and the poor test condition of the explosion, fragment target signal is easily disturbed. Therefore, fragments signal processing technology has become a key technology of the system. The noise of signal was reduced by employing wavelet decomposition and reconstruction. The time of fragment passing though the target was obtained by adopting peak detection algorithm. Based on the method of search peak in different width scale and waveform trend by using optima wavelet, the problem of rolling waveform was solved. Lots of fragments experiments of the different types of the warheads were conducted. Experimental results show that: warhead fragments capture rate of system is better than 98%, which can give velocity of each fragment in the density of less than 20 pieces per m2.

  3. Design and development of LED-based irregular leather area measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Rehan; Khan, Sarah Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Using optical sensor array, a precision motion control system in a conveyer follows the irregular shaped leather sheet to measure its surface area. In operation, irregular shaped leather sheet passes on conveyer belt and optical sensor array detects the leather sheet edge. In this way outside curvature of the leather sheet is detected and is then feed to the controller to measure its approximate area. Such system can measure irregular shapes, by neglecting rounded corners, ellipses etc. To minimize the error in calculating surface area of irregular curve to the above mentioned system, the motion control system only requires the footprint of the optical sensor to be small and the distance between the sensors is to be minimized. In the proposed technique surface area measurement of irregular shaped leather sheet is done by defining velocity and detecting position of the move. The motion controller takes the information and creates the necessary edge profile on point-to-point bases. As a result irregular shape of leather sheet is mapped and is then feed to the controller to calculate surface area.

  4. An Amino Acid Code for Irregular and Mixed Protein Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana; Fraga, Keith; Tsai, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of protein tertiary structure, the development of the knob-socket model is completed in an analysis of the packing in irregular coil and turn secondary structure packing as well as between mixed secondary structure. The knob-socket model simplifies packing based on repeated patterns of 2 motifs: a 3 residue socket for packing within 2° structure and a 4 residue knob-socket for 3° packing. For coil and turn secondary structure, knob-sockets allow identification of a correlation between amino acid composition and tertiary arrangements in space. Coil contributes almost as much as α-helices to tertiary packing. Irregular secondary structure involves 3 residue cliques of consecutive contacting residues or XYZ sockets. In irregular sockets, Gly, Pro, Asp and Ser are favored, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. For irregular knobs, the preference order is Arg, Asp, Pro, Asn, Thr, Leu, and Gly, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. In mixed packing, the knob amino acid preferences are a function of the socket that they are packing into, whereas the amino acid composition of the sockets does not depend on the secondary structure of the knob. A unique motif of a coil knob with an XYZ β-sheet socket may potentially function to inhibit β-sheet extension. In addition, analysis of the preferred crossing angles for strands within a β-sheet and mixed α-helices/β-sheets identifies canonical packing patterns useful in protein design. Lastly, the knob-socket model abstracts the complexity of protein tertiary structure into an intuitive packing surface topology map. PMID:26370334

  5. Mapa MEGNO para satélites irregulares de Satuno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, M. M.; Leiva, A. M.

    By implementing the elliptic restricted three-body model we obtain high resolution dynamical maps in the phase space region corresponding to that where Saturn's irregular satellites are currently found. The nature of the trajectories is characterized by the MEGNO chaos indicator (Cincotta P. and Simó C., 2000), which allows to identify regions of chaotic and quasi- periodic trajectories much faster than with other indicators (e.g. Lyapunov exponents). The results obtained allow to identify with great detail the boundaries of the regions of regular motion, chaotic motion, and substruc- tures associated to mean motion resonances. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. The Panchromatic STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS) Data

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Skillman, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding star formation in resolved low mass systems requires the integration of information obtained from observations at different wavelengths. We have combined new and archival multi-wavelength observations on a set of 20 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies to create a data archive of calibrated, homogeneously reduced images. Named the panchromatic "STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey" (STARBIRDS) archive, the data are publicly accessible through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This first release of the archive includes images from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Telescope (GALEX), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) MIPS instrument. The datasets include flux calibrated, background subtracted images, that are registered to the same world coordinate system. Additionally, a set of images are available which are all cropped to match the HST field of view. The GALEX and Spitzer images are available with foreground and background contamina...

  7. Effect of Body Acceleration on Pulsatile Flow of Micropolar Fluid through an Irregular Arterial Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ilyani; Amin, Norsarahaida

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of body acceleration together with surface irregularities on blood flow in artery. Prolonged exposure to high level unintended acceleration may cause serious health problems in the cardiovascular system. The situations like riding in vehicles, flying in airplanes and fast body movements during sport activities can lead to the impairment of certain physiological functions. A micropolar model of blood flow through an irregular arterial stenosis is considered. The governing equations involving unsteady nonlinear two-dimensional partial differential equations are solved employing finite difference scheme. Computational results on the velocity profiles and the flow characteristics are presented.

  8. Very weak solutions of wave equation for Landau Hamiltonian with irregular electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhansky, Michael; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem for the Landau Hamiltonian wave equation, with time-dependent irregular (distributional) electromagnetic field and similarly irregular velocity. For such equations, we describe the notion of a `very weak solution' adapted to the type of solutions that exist for regular coefficients. The construction is based on considering Friedrichs-type mollifier of the coefficients and corresponding classical solutions, and their quantitative behaviour in the regularising parameter. We show that even for distributional coefficients, the Cauchy problem does have a very weak solution, and that this notion leads to classical or distributional-type solutions under conditions when such solutions also exist.

  9. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  10. Periodic Orbit Families in the Gravitational Field of Irregular-shaped Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies, and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been f...

  11. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  12. High space velocities of single radio pulsars versus low orbital eccentricities and masses of double neutron stars: Evidence for two different neutron star formation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio pulsars tend to be high-velocity objects, which implies that the majority of them received a velocity kick of several hundreds of km s(-1) at birth. However, six of the eight known double neutron stars in the galactic disk have quite low orbital eccentricities (0.085-0.27), indicating - taking

  13. High space velocities of single radio pulsars versus low orbital eccentricities and masses of double neutron stars: Evidence for two different neutron star formation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio pulsars tend to be high-velocity objects, which implies that the majority of them received a velocity kick of several hundreds of km s(-1) at birth. However, six of the eight known double neutron stars in the galactic disk have quite low orbital eccentricities (0.085-0.27), indicating - taking

  14. Restructuring surface tessellation with irregular boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the surface tessellation problem is explored, in particular, the task of meshing a surface with the added consideration of incorporating constructible building components. When a surface is tessellated into discrete counterparts, certain unexpected conditions usually occur at the boundary of the surface, in particular, when the surface is being trimmed. For example, irregularly shaped panels form at the trimmed edges. To reduce the number of irregular panels that may form during the tessellation process, this paper presents an algorithmic approach to restructuring the surface tessellation by investigating irregular boundary conditions. The objective of this approach is to provide an alternative way for freeform surface manifestation from a well-structured discrete model of the given surface.

  15. Climatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautelet, Gilles; Warnant, René

    2014-03-01

    High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field—who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements—will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a 10 years GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9 % during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0 % during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-scale ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10 % of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15 % of the TEC background.

  16. An Irregular Wave Maker of Active Absorption with VOF Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A numerical irregular wave flume with active absorption of re-reflected waves is simulated by use of volume of fluid (VOF) method. An active absorbing wave-maker based on linear wave-theory is set on the left boundary of the wave flume. The progressive waves and the absorbing waves are generated simultaneously at the active wave generating-absorbing boundary. The absorbing waves are generated to eliminate the waves coming back to the generating boundary due to reflection from the outflow boundary and the structures. SIRW method proposed by Frigaard and Brorsen (1995) is used to separate the incident waves and reflected waves. The digital filters are designed based on the surface elevation signals of the two wave gauges. The corrected velocity of the wave-maker paddle is the output from the digital filter in real time. The numerical results of regular and irregular waves by the active absorbing-generating boundary are compared with the numerical results by the ordinary generating boundary to verify the performance of the active absorbing generator boundary. The differences between the initial incident waves and the estimated incident waves are analyzed.

  17. Spelling Pronunciations: Transforming Irregularity into Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Thaler, Verena; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In a 10-day training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations on German speaking 5th-graders' spelling skills for irregular words was examined. Poor spellers were less efficient in learning the spelling pronunciations than age-adequate spellers. On post-tests, 1 week after the last training day and between 5 and 12 weeks after post-test 1, poor…

  18. Informal labor and irregular migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Meeteren (Masja)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIrregular migrants, also referred to as “undocumented migrants” or “illegal migrants,” are immigrants who do not have legal permission to stay in the country they have migrated to and frequently take on informal and precarious employment. They may have entered the country legally – on a

  19. Color Survey of the Irregular Planetary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graykowski, Ariel; Jewitt, David

    2016-10-01

    Irregular satellites are characterized by their larger orbital distance from their planet, their high eccentricity and their high inclination, all indicating that they were captured. However, the mechanism of capture and the location of origin of the satellites remain unknown. We are conducting a photometric survey of the irregular satellites of the giant planets using the LRIS instrument on the 10-meter telescope at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii. The measured colors will be compared to other planetary bodies in search for similarities and differences that may reflect upon the origin of the satellites. For example, if irregular satellites were captured from the Kuiper Belt then some should contain the ultrared material that is common in the trans-Neptunian and Centaur populations. If the irregular satellites of Jupiter were captured from the same source population as the Jovian Trojans, then it is natural to expect that the surface properties of satellites and Trojans should be the same. We will present initial results of this work.

  20. default and irregular attendance at treatment centres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leprosy control in the post leprosaria abolition years in Nigeria: Reasons for default and irregular ... leprosy seen at the four leprosy clinics in Anambra State in a face to face interview. ..... India, 1974; 46: 46-48. 7. Leonard G, Sangure A, ...

  1. Enhanced wave absorption through irregular interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, S.; Sapoval, B.; Filoche, M.; Asch, M.

    2009-01-01

    The diffraction and absorption of waves by a system with both absorbing properties and irregular geometry is an open physical problem. A more reachable and closely related question is the understanding of wave oscillations in confined systems containing an absorbing material with an irregular shape. This has to be solved to understand why anechoic chambers (electromagnetic or acoustic) do work better with irregular absorbing walls. The answer to this question could also be used in other fields such as light or microwave absorption, or also to improve the performances of break-waters in order to damp sea-waves. It is found here that, in resonators containing an irregular shaped absorbent material, there appears a new type of mode localization. This phenomemon, that we call "astride" localization, describes the fact that these modes exist in both the lossless and the lossy regions. It is these modes that are particularly efficient in dissipating the energy of waves excited in the non-absorbing region.

  2. Spelling Pronunciations: Transforming Irregularity into Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Thaler, Verena; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In a 10-day training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations on German speaking 5th-graders' spelling skills for irregular words was examined. Poor spellers were less efficient in learning the spelling pronunciations than age-adequate spellers. On post-tests, 1 week after the last training day and between 5 and 12 weeks after post-test 1, poor…

  3. Acoustic and Linguistic Interdependencies of Irregular Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    falther forward subsystems. The subglottal subsystem, including the abdominal muscles, intercostals , diaphragm, lungs, branching airways, and trachea...labeled prosodically, which limits us to acoustic and phonetic deductions about irregular phonation. TIMIT was developed as a joint eff0l1 between

  4. Photometric Survey of the Irregular Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Grav, T; Gladman, B; Aksnes, K; Grav, Tommy; Holman, Matthew J.; Gladman, Brett; Aksnes, Kaare

    2003-01-01

    We present BVRI colors of 13 Jovian and 8 Saturnian irregular satellites obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, the 6.5m Magellan Baade Telescope on La Campanas, and the 6m MMT on Mt. Hopkins. The observations were performed between December 2001 to March 2002. Nearly all of the known irregular satellites can be divided into two distinct classes based on their colors. One, the grey color class, has the similar colors to the C-type asteroid, and the other, the light red color class, has colors similar to P/D-type asteroids. We also find at least one object, the Jovian irregular J XXIII Kalyke, that has colors similar to the red colored Centaurs/TNOs, although its classification is unsecure. We also find that there is a correlation between the physical properties and dynamical properties of the irregular satellites. Most of the dynamical clusters have homogeneous colors, which points to single homogeneous progenitors being cratered or fragmented as the source of each individual cluster. T...

  5. Irregular wavelet frames on L2(Rn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Deyun; ZHOU Xingwei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the conditions on dilation parameter {sj }j that ensure a discrete irregular wavelet system {Snj/2ψ(sj·-bk)}j∈(Z),k∈(Z)n to be a frame on L2(Rn),and for the wavelet frame we consider the perturbations of translation parameter b and frame function ψ respectively.

  6. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until...

  7. Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, Sandeep; and Pinker, Steven

    1993-01-01

    When it comes to explaining English verbs' patterns of regular and irregular generalization, single-network theories have difficulty with the former, rule-only theories with the latter process. Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, based on observation during experiments and simulations in morphological pattern generation, independently call…

  8. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making...

  9. SEISMIC PROPAGATION SIMULATION IN COMPLEX MEDIA WITH NON-RECTANGULAR IRREGULAR-GRID FINITE-DIFFERENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Weitao; YANG Huizhu

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a finite-difference (FD) method with spatially non-rectangular irregular grids to simulate the elastic wave propagation. Staggered irregular grid finite difference operators with a second-order time and spatial accuracy are used to approximate the velocity-stress elastic wave equations. This method is very simple and the cost of computing time is not much. Complicated geometries like curved thin layers, cased borehole and nonplanar interfaces may be treated with nonrectangular irregular grids in a more flexible way. Unlike the multi-grid scheme, this method requires no interpolation between the fine and coarse grids and all grids are computed at the same spatial iteration. Compared with the rectangular irregular grid FD, the spurious diffractions from "staircase"interfaces can easily be eliminated without using finer grids. Dispersion and stability conditions of the proposed method can be established in a similar form as for the rectangular irregular grid scheme. The Higdon's absorbing boundary condition is adopted to eliminate boundary reflections. Numerical simulations show that this method has satisfactory stability and accuracy in simulating wave propagation near rough solid-fluid interfaces. The computation costs are less than those using a regular grid and rectangular grid FD method.

  10. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX; Uwechue, Uzo Philip [Houston, TX

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  11. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    impoverished Shia fighters, but also out bid rival militias such as AMAL.78 In fact, the pay of Israel’s proxy militia, the South Lebanon Army ( SLA ...Taliban imposed the strictest Islamic system in place anywhere in the world.”223 The Taliban banned TV, videos, music, satellite dishes, sports , and

  12. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  13. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  14. Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

    CERN Document Server

    Chyzy, Krzysztof T; Beck, Rainer; Bomans, Dominik J

    2011-01-01

    We clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and what is the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 and 4.85GHz. Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are three times weaker than in the normal spirals (6muG) are observed only in dwarfs of extreme characteristics while typical LG dwarfs are not suitable objects for efficient supply of magnetic fields to the intergalactic medium.

  15. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2017-05-30

    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scaling when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.

  16. A Hybrid Heuristics for Irregular Flight Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiu-li; ZHU Jin-fu; GAO Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions, congestion at airports, and mechanical failures often disrupt regular flight schedules. The irregular flight recovery problem aims to recover these schedules through reassignments of flights and cancellations. In this article, we develop the classic resource assignment model for the irregular flight recovery problem, and a new hybrid heuristic procedure based on greedy random adaptive search procedure (GRASP) and simulated annealing algorithm is presented to solve this problem. As compared with the original GRASP method, the proposed algorithm demonstrates quite a high global optimization capability. Computational experiments on large-scale problems show that the proposed procedure is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of good quality in less than five seconds.

  17. Conditions for Adopting an Irregular Defense Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    however, believed that the irregular campaign needed to be conducted in the rural and urban area simultaneously.38 Fidel Castro and Che Guevara...shape; they were conscripts and unwilling to fight. The Batista regime was already unpopular when Castro and Guevara came along, and here is where the...scale publicity effort driven by Castro who had always shown a great capability to turn even unsuccessful military actions into propaganda triumphs

  18. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uluyol, Onder

    2017-07-11

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  19. Gelatinous plankton: irregularities rule the world (sometimes)

    OpenAIRE

    Boero, F.; Bouillon, J; GRAVILI C.; Miglietta, M. P.; Parsons, T. R.; Piraino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of being one of the most relevant components of the biosphere, the plankton-benthos network is still poorly studied as such. This is partly due to the irregular occurrence of driving phenomena such as gelatinous plankton pulses in this realm. Gelatinous plankters rely on their life cycles and histories to exploit temporarily abundant resources with an undeniable, but often overlooked, impact on marine food webs. Dramatic increases of gelatinous filter-feeders and/or carnivores (both ...

  20. When You Visit Your Doctor: Irregular Menstrual Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered to your inbox ! When You Visit Your Doctor - Irregular Menstrual Periods Irregular Menstrual Periods Updated: January ... Have you ever had difficulty getting pregnant? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

  1. Total irregular labeling of butterfly network on level two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin

    2017-08-01

    Previous results related to the concepts of the total irregular labeling of a graph indicate that the butterfly network was one of some graphs which have not been specified in term of the total irregularity strengths. This paper aimed to determine the total vertex irregularity strength, the total edge irregularity strength, and the total irregularity strength of butterfly network on level 2. The assessment of three parameters of butterfly network was conducted by determining the lower bound and the upper bound. The lower bound was analyzed based on the characteristics of the graph and other proponent theorems, while upper bound was analyzed by constructing a function. In this paper we determine that the total vertex irregularity strength, the total edge irregularity strength, and the total irregularity strength of butterfly network are 4, 6, and 6, respectively.

  2. Propagation of Love-Type Wave in Porous Medium over an Orthotropic Semi-Infinite Medium with Rectangular Irregularity

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar Vaishnav; Santimoy Kundu; Shishir Gupta; Anup Saha

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed porous medium over a semi-infinite orthotropic medium with the irregular interface has been studied. The method of separation of variables has been adopted to get the dispersion relation of Love-type wave. The irregularity is assumed to be rectangular at the interface of the layer and half-space. Finally, the dispersion relation of Love wave has been obtained in classical form. The presence of porosity, irregularity, and initial stress in...

  3. Photometric survey of the irregular satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Tommy; Holman, Matthew J.; Gladman, Brett J.; Aksnes, Kaare

    2003-11-01

    We present BVRI colors of 13 jovian and 8 saturnian irregular satellites obtained with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, the 6.5 m Magellan Baade Telescope on La Campanas, and the 6.5 m MMT on Mt. Hopkins. The observations were performed from December 2001 to March 2002. The colors of the irregular satellites vary from grey to light red. We have arbitrarily divided the known irregular satellites into two classes based on their colors. One, the grey color class, has similar colors to the C-type asteroids, and the other, the light red color class, has colors similar to P/D-type asteroids. We also find at least one object, the jovian irregular J XXIII Kalyke, that has colors similar to the red colored Centaurs/TNOs, although its classification is insecure. We find that there is a correlation between the physical properties and dynamical properties of the irregular satellites. Most of the dynamical clusters have homogeneous colors, which points to single homogeneous progenitors being cratered or fragmented as the source of each individual cluster. The heterogeneously colored clusters are most easily explained by assuming that there are several dynamical clusters in the area, rather than just one, or that the parent body was a differentiated, heterogeneous body. By analyzing simple cratering/fragmentation scenarios, we show that the heterogeneous colored S IX Phoebe cluster, is most likely two different clusters, a grey colored cluster centered on S IX Phoebe and a light red colored cluster centered on S/2000 S 1. To which of these two clusters the remaining saturnian irregulars with inclinations close to 174° belong is not clear from our analysis, but determination of their colors should help constrain this. We also show through analysis of possible fragmentation and dispersion of the six known uranian irregulars that they most likely make up two clusters, one centered on U XVI Caliban and another centered on U XVII Sycorax. We further show that

  4. Vertex Operators for Irregular Conformal Blocks: Supersymmetric Case

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric irregular vertex operators of arbitrary rank, appearing in the colliding limit of primary fields. We find that the structure of the supersymmetric irregular vertices differs significantly from the bosonic case: upon supersymmetrization, the irregular operators are no longer the eigenstates of positive Virasoro and $W_N$ generators but block-diagonalize them. We relate the block-diagonal structure of the irregular vertices to contributions of the Ramond sector to the colliding limit.

  5. Hitchin Equation, Irregular Singularity, and $N=2$ Asymptotical Free Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nanopoulos, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study irregular singular solution to Hitchin's equation and use it to describe four dimensional $N=2$ asymptotically free gauge theories. For $SU(2)$ $A$ type quiver, two kinds of irregular singularities besides one regular singularity are needed for the solution of Hitchin's equation; We then classify irregular singularities needed for the general $SU(N)$ $A$ type quiver.

  6. On irregularity strength of disjoint union of friendship graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the vertex total and edge total modication of the well-known irregularity strength of graphs. We have determined the exact values of the total vertex irregularity strength and the total edge irregularity strength of a disjoint union of friendship graphs.

  7. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  8. The first time observations of low-latitude ionospheric irregularities by VHF radar in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING BaiQi; HU LianHuan; LI GuoZhu; LIU LiBo; WAN WeiXing

    2012-01-01

    Sanya VHF radar (18.4°N,109.6°E,dip latitude 12.8°N) at Hainan Island is the first coherent backscatter radar for sounding low-latitude ionospheric irregularities in the mainland of China.In this paper,we present the first results of low-latitude ionospheric E and F region irregularities using the radar data during the period from February 2009 to March 2010.The Doppler velocity of radar echoes from E region field aligned irregularities (FAIs) was about several tens of meters per second,while the Doppler spectral width was appreciably larger than the velocity,and could reach one hundred meters per second,indicating that the observed E region FAIs belonged to type 2 irregularities.The observations of range time intensity (RTI) maps of FAIs showed that E region irregularities most often occurred at night within the altitude range 85-115 km,and were rarely observed at afternoon hours.The percentage occurrence of E region FAIs maximized during spring months (Feb.-May) with a peak value over 80%.The heights at which the strongest echo related FAIs occurred were mainly around 100 km,lower than h'Es and the difference is mostly 10-20 km.December solstice seemed to be the minimum period of occurrence when the FAI echoes were commonly detected at a narrow altitude range 90-100 km.Moreover,simultaneous radar and GPS observations during spread F events in the pre-midnight hours of solar minimum revealed that significant GPS L band scintillations coincided with the appearance of F region plasma plume structures,which extended up to 450 km in altitude.

  9. Tomography 3D models of S wave from cross-correlation of seismic noise to explore irregularities of subsoil under the artificial lake of Chapultepec Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Valdes, J. E.; Escobedo-Zenil, D.

    2013-05-01

    In June 2006, the base of the artificial lake in Chapultepec Park collapsed. 20 thousand liters of water were filtered to the ground through a crack increasing the dimensions of initial gap. Studies indicated that the collapse was due to saturated material associated with a sudden and massive water filtration process. Geological studies indicates that all the area of this section the subsoil is composed of vulcano-sedimentary materials that were economically exploited in the mid-20th century, leaving a series of underground mines that were rehabilitated for the construction of the Park. Currently, the Lake is rehabilitated and running for recreational activities. In this study we have applied two methods of seismic noise correlation; seismic interferometry (SI) in time domain and the Spatial Power Auto Correlation (SPAC) in frequency domain, in order to explore the 3D subsoil velocity structure. The aim is to highlight major variations in velocity that can be associated with irregularities in the subsoil that may pose a risk to the stability of the Lake. For this purpose we use 96 vertical geophones of 4.5 Hz with 5-m spacing that conform a semi-circular array that provide a length of 480 m around the lake zone. For both correlation methods, we extract the phase velocity associated with the dispersion characteristics between each pair of stations in the frequency range from 4 to 12 Hz. In the SPAC method the process was through the dispersion curve, and in SI method we use the time delay of the maximum amplitude in the correlation pulse, which was previously filtered in multiple frequency bands. The results of both processes were captured in 3D velocity volumes (in the case SI a process of traveltime tomography was applied). We observed that in the frequency range from 6 to 8 Hz, appear irregular structures, with high velocity contrast in relation with the shear wave velocity of surface layer (ten thick m of saturated sediments). One of these anomalies is related

  10. Reconstruction of Multidimensional Signals from Irregular Noisy Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Nordio, A; Viterbo, E

    2008-01-01

    We focus on a multidimensional field with uncorrelated spectrum, and study the quality of the reconstructed signal when the field samples are irregularly spaced and affected by independent and identically distributed noise. More specifically, we apply linear reconstruction techniques and take the mean square error (MSE) of the field estimate as a metric to evaluate the signal reconstruction quality. We find that the MSE analysis could be carried out by using the closed-form expression of the eigenvalue distribution of the matrix representing the sampling system. Unfortunately, such distribution is still unknown. Thus, we first derive a closed-form expression of the distribution moments, and we find that the eigenvalue distribution tends to the Marcenko-Pastur distribution as the field dimension goes to infinity. Finally, by using our approach, we derive a tight approximation to the MSE of the reconstructed field.

  11. Weighted statistical parameters for irregularly sampled time series

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Unevenly spaced time series are common in astronomy because of the day-night cycle, weather conditions, dependence on the source position in the sky, allocated telescope time, corrupt measurements, for example, or be inherent to the scanning law of satellites like Hipparcos and the forthcoming Gaia. This paper aims at improving the accuracy of common statistical parameters for the characterization of irregularly sampled signals. The uneven representation of time series, often including clumps of measurements and gaps with no data, can severely disrupt the values of estimators. A weighting scheme adapting to the sampling density and noise level of the signal is formulated. Its application to time series from the Hipparcos periodic catalogue led to significant improvements in the overall accuracy and precision of the estimators with respect to the unweighted counterparts and those weighted by inverse-squared uncertainties. Automated classification procedures employing statistical parameters weighted by the sugg...

  12. Efficient Clustering for Irregular Geometries Based on Identification of Concavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velázquez-Villegas Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional clustering problem has much relevance in applications related to the efficient use of raw material, such as cutting stock, packing, etc. This is a very complex problem in which multiple bodies are accommodated efficiently in a way that they occupy as little space as possible. The complexity of the problem increases with the complexity of the bodies. Clearly the number of possible arrangements between bodies is huge. No Fit Polygon (NFP allows to determine the entire relative positions between two patterns (regular or irregular in contact, non-overlapping, therefore the best position can be selected. However, NFP generation requires a lot of calculations; besides, selecting the best cluster isn’t a simple task because, between two irregular patterns in contact, hollows (unusable areas and external concavities (usable areas can be produced. This work presents a quick and simple method to reduce calculations associated with NFP generation and to minimize unusable areas in a cluster. This method consists of generating partial NFP, just on concave regions of the patterns, and selecting the best cluster using a total weighted efficiency, i.e. a weighted value of enclosure efficiency (ratio of occupied area on convex hull area and hollow efficiency (ratio of occupied area on cluster area. The proposed method produces similar results as those obtained by other methods; however the shape of the clusters obtained allows to accommodate more parts in similar spaces, which is a desirable result when it comes to optimizing the use of material. We present two examples to show the performance of the proposal.

  13. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  14. Irregular satellite capture during planetary resonance passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćuk, Matija; Gladman, Brett J.

    2006-08-01

    The passage of Jupiter and Saturn through mutual 1:2 mean-motion resonance has recently been put forward as explanation for their relatively high eccentricities [Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., 2005. Nature 435, 459-461] and the origin of Jupiter's Trojans [Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., 2005. Nature 435, 462-465]. Additional constraints on this event based on other small-body populations would be highly desirable. Since some outer satellite orbits are known to be strongly affected by the near-resonance of Jupiter and Saturn ("the Great Inequality"; Ćuk, M., Burns, J.A., 2004b. Astron. J. 128, 2518-2541), the irregular satellites are natural candidates for such a connection. In order to explore this scenario, we have integrated 9200 test particles around both Jupiter and Saturn while they went through a resonance-crossing event similar to that described by Tsiganis et al. [Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., 2005. Nature 435, 459-461]. The test particles were positioned on a grid in semimajor axes and inclinations, while their initial pericenters were put at just 0.01 AU from their parent planets. The goal of the experiment was to find out if short-lived bodies, spiraling into the planet due to gas drag (or alternatively on orbits crossing those of the regular satellites), could have their pericenters raised by the resonant perturbations. We found that about 3% of the particles had their pericenters raised above 0.03 AU (i.e. beyond Iapetus) at Saturn, but the same happened for only 0.1% of the particles at Jupiter. The distribution of surviving particles at Saturn has strong similarities to that of the known irregular satellites. If saturnian irregular satellites had their origin during the 1:2 resonance crossing, they present an excellent probe into the early Solar System's evolution. We also explore the applicability of this mechanism for Uranus, and find that only some of the uranian

  15. Subsonic Mechanical Alignment of Irregular Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We show that grains can be efficiently aligned by interacting with a subsonic gaseous flow. The alignment arises from grains having irregularities that scatter atoms with different efficiency in the right and left directions. The grains tend to align with long axes perpendicular to magnetic field, which corresponds to Davis-Greenstein predictions, but does not involve magnetic field. For rather conservative factors characterizing the grain helicity and scattering efficiency of impinging atoms, the alignment of helical grains is much more efficient than the Gold-type alignment processes.

  16. Fall velocity of multi-shaped clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate settling velocity predictions of differently shaped micro- or macroclasts are required in many branches of science and engineering. Here, a single, dimensionally correct equation is presented that yields a significant improvement on previous settling formulas for a wide range of clast shapes. For smooth or irregular clasts with known axial dimensions, a partially polynomial equation based on the logarithmic values of dimensionless sizes and settling velocities is presented, in which the values of only one coefficient and one exponent need to be adapted for different shapes, irrespective of the Reynolds number. For irregular, natural clasts with unknown axial dimensions, a polynomial equation of the same form is applied, but with different coefficients. Comparison of the predicted and measured settling velocities of 8 different shape classes as well as natural grains with unknown axial dimensions in liquids, representing a total of 390 experimental data points, shows a mean percentage error of - 0.83% and a combined R2 value of 0.998. The settling data of 169 differently shaped particles of pumice, glass and feldspar falling in air were also analyzed, which demonstrates that the proposed equation is also valid for these conditions. Two additional shape classes were identified in the latter data set, although the resultant equations are less accurate than for liquids. An Excel spreadsheet is provided to facilitate the calculation of fall velocities for grains settling individually and in groups, or alternatively to determine the equivalent sieve size from the settling velocity, which can be used to calibrate settling tubes.

  17. Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

  18. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke

    2014-08-05

    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  19. Influence of Acute Jugular Vein Compression on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Pial Artery Pulsation and Width of Subarachnoid Space in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Pawel J Winklewski; Wojciech Guminski

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1) pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ); (2) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); (3) peripheral blood pressure; and (4) possible relations between mentioned parameters. METHODS: Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS), CBFV i...

  20. Influence of Acute Jugular Vein Compression on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Pial Artery Pulsation and Width of Subarachnoid Space in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Winklewski, Pawel J.; Wojciech Guminski

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1) pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ); (2) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); (3) peripheral blood pressure; and (4) possible relations between mentioned parameters. METHODS: Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS), CBFV i...

  1. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  2. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Yegorov, Yuri; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Democratic societies are built around the principle of free and fair elections, and that each citizen’s vote should count equally. National elections can be regarded as large-scale social experiments, where people are grouped into usually large numbers of electoral districts and vote according to their preferences. The large number of samples implies statistical consequences for the polling results, which can be used to identify election irregularities. Using a suitable data representation, we find that vote distributions of elections with alleged fraud show a kurtosis substantially exceeding the kurtosis of normal elections, depending on the level of data aggregation. As an example, we show that reported irregularities in recent Russian elections are, indeed, well-explained by systematic ballot stuffing. We develop a parametric model quantifying the extent to which fraudulent mechanisms are present. We formulate a parametric test detecting these statistical properties in election results. Remarkably, this technique produces robust outcomes with respect to the resolution of the data and therefore, allows for cross-country comparisons. PMID:23010929

  3. Rational Characterization Complex Geology Model——Macro Velocity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongWei

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of migration velocity construction is always a key problem of the image quality of pre-stack depth migration. The velocity model construction process is a process from an unknown to unknown iteration procedure and involves three important steps -- model building, migration and model modification. It is necessary to rationally describe the velocity model, according to the complexity of the problem. Taking the Marmousi model as a study object, We established some standards for a rational description of the velocity model on the basis of different velocity space scales, analysis varieties of travel time, and image quality. It is considered that for any given seismic data gathered in the migration velocity model the space wavelength of velocity, which should be expressed in variation of space wavelength of various frequency contents, appears in the seismic data. Some space wavelengths, which are necessary for a description of the model velocity field, are also varying with the layer complexity. For a simple layer velocity structure it is sufficient to apply a simple velocity model (the space wavelength is large enough), whereas, for a complicated layer velocity structure it is necessary to take a velocity model of a more precise scale. In fact, when we establish a velocity model, it is difficult to describe the velocity model at a full space scale, so it is important to limit the space scale of the velocity model according to the complexity of a layer structure and establish a rational macro velocity model.

  4. Sensitivities of phase-velocity dispersion curves of surface waves due to high-velocity-layer and low-velocity-layer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Xu, Yixian; Pan, Yudi; Wang, Ao; Gao, Lingli

    2016-12-01

    High-velocity-layer (HVL) and low-velocity-layer (LVL) models are two kinds of the most common irregular layered models in near-surface geophysical applications. When calculating dispersion curves of some extreme irregular models, current algorithms (e.g., Knopoff transfer matrix algorithm) should be modified. We computed the correct dispersion curves and analyzed their sensitivities due to several synthetic HVL and LVL models. The results show that phase-velocity dispersion curves of both Rayleigh and Love waves are sensitive to variations in S-wave velocity of an LVL, but insensitive to that of an HVL. In addition, they are both insensitive to those of layers beneath the HVL or LVL. With an increase in velocity contrast between the irregular layer and its neighboring layers, the sensitivity effects (high sensitivity for the LVL and low sensitivity for the HVL) will amplify. These characteristics may significantly influence the inversion stability, leading to an inverted result with a low level of confidence. To invert surface-wave phase velocities for a more accurate S-wave model with an HVL or LVL, priori knowledge may be required and an inversion algorithm should be treated with extra caution.

  5. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  6. IRREGULAR WAVELET FRAMES AND GABOR FRAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Christensen; Sergio Favier; Felipe Zó

    2001-01-01

    Given g ∈ L2 (R), we consider irregular wavelet systems of theform {λ g(λj x-kb) }j z. kz, where λj >0 and b>0. Sufficient conditions for the wavelet system to constitute a frame for L2(R) are given. For a class of functions g ∈ L 2 (R) we prove that certain growth conditions on {λj} will lead to frames, and that some other types of sequences exclude the frame property. We also give a sufficient condition for a Gabor system {exib(j,x)g(x-λh)}jzn,kz to be a frame.CLC Number:O17 Document ID:AAuthor Resume:Ole Christensen;E-mail: Ole. Christensen@mat. dtu. dk Sergio Favier and Felipe Zó ;e-mails : sfavier@unsl. edu. ar fzo@unsl. edu. ar References:[1]Casaza,P.G. and Christensen,O.,Weyl-Heisenberg Frames for Subspaces of L2(R),Proc.Amer. Math. Soc. ,129(2001),145-154.[2]Casazza,P.G. and Christensen,O. ,Classifying Certain Irregular Gabor Frames,preprint[2]001.[3]Christensen,O. and Lindner,A. ,Lower Bounds for Finite Wavelet and Gabor Systems,Appr. Theory and Appl.,17(2001),17-31.[4]Chui,C.K. and Shi,X. ,Inequalities of Litdewood-Paley Type for Frames and Wavelets,SIAM J. Math. Anal. ,24:1(1993),263-277.[5]Daubechies,I. ,Ten Lectures on Wavelets,SIAM,Philadelphia,1992.[6]Favier,S. and Zalik,R. ,On the Stability of Frames and Riesz Bases,Appl. Comp. Ham.Anal. ,2(1995),160-173.[7]Feichtinger,H.G. and Strohmer,T. ,(Eds.),Gabor Analysis and Algorithms : Theory and Applications,Birkhauser,1998.[8]Heil,C.E. and Walnut,D.F. ,Continuous and Discrete Wavelet Transforms,SIAM Review,31:4(1989),628-666.[9]Sun,W. and Zhou,X. ,Irregular Wavelet Frames,Science in China (Series A),43:2(2000),122-127.Manuscript Received:2001年7月10日Manuscript Revised:2001年7月23日Published:2001年9月1日

  7. Three-dimensional CLEM-LES of irregular detonation propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Brian; Radulescu, Matei

    2016-11-01

    Recently, thin-channel experiments and 2D simulations have been conducted in order to investigate the effect of turbulent mixing rates on the structure of irregular detonation wave propagation. Furthermore, the dependence of the observed cell pattern, and also the reaction zone thickness, on the mixing of burned products with pockets of unburned gases, was investigated. The current work now includes 3D simulations, which are conducted to provide further validation of, and insight into, the 2D results. All simulations have been conducted using the Compressible Linear Eddy Model for Large Eddy Simulation (CLEM-LES). To date, the 3D results are found to match closely the previous 2D results. The agrreement is partly due to sufficient resolution of the large scale fluid motions, which are observed experimentally to be predominant in only two directions. Furthermore, the CLEM-LES methodology incorporates 3D mixing effects at the subgrid level. Finally, it was found that turbulent fluctuations on the subgrid were found to give rise to statistically lower than average propagation velocities on the wave front. This lead to longer ignition delays for large amounts of gas passing through the wave, giving rise to the unburned pockets of gas observed experimentally. Authors would like to acknowledge NSERC and Shell for project funding.

  8. A parametric approach to irregular fatigue prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    A parametric approach to irregular fatigue protection is presented. The method proposed consists of two parts: empirical determination of certain characteristics of a material by means of a relatively small number of well-defined standard tests, and arithmetical application of the results obtained to arbitrary loading histories. The following groups of parameters are thus taken into account: (1) the variations of the mean stress, (2) the interaction of these variations and the superposed oscillating stresses, (3) the spectrum of the oscillating-stress amplitudes, and (4) the sequence of the oscillating-stress amplitudes. It is pointed out that only experimental verification can throw sufficient light upon possibilities and limitations of this (or any other) prediction method.

  9. Evaluating transport in irregular pore networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, Dimitri A; Klimenko, Alexander Y; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.011112

    2012-01-01

    A general approach for investigating transport phenomena in porous media is presented. This approach has the capacity to represent various kinds of irregularity in porous media without the need for excessive detail or computational effort. The overall method combines a generalized Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) with a macroscopic continuum model in order to derive a transport equation with explicit analytical expressions for the transport coefficients. The proposed form of the EMA is an anisotropic and heterogeneous extension of Kirkpatrick's EMA [Rev. Mod. Phys. 45, 574 (1973)] which allows the overall model to account for microscopic alterations in connectivity (with the locations of the pores and the orientation and length of the throat) as well as macroscopic variations in transport properties. A comparison to numerical results for randomly generated networks with different properties is given, indicating the potential for this methodology to handle cases that would pose significant difficulties to ...

  10. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co...

  11. The Analysis and Creation of Track Irregularities Using TRAKVU

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy of the results from a rail vehicle dynamic model is dependent on the realism of the track input to the model. An important part of the track input is the irregularities that exist on actual track. This study analyzes the irregularities inherent in railroad track geometry data, and provides an analytical method for creating track data with the irregularities for use as the input to a dynamic model. Track data, measured from various classes of track, was ...

  12. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields; Avances en dosimetria de electrones de campos irregulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez V, J. [Departamento de Radioterapia, Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Avenida Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34 (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm{sup 2} with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  13. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity; Conveccao natural no interior de uma cavidade porosa irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1990-12-31

    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author) 6 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Stochastic Acceleration of Electrons by Fast Magnetosonic Waves in Solar Flares: the Effects of Anisotropy in Velocity andWavenumber Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model for stochastic acceleration of electrons in solar flares. As in several previous models, the electrons are accelerated by turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ("fast waves") via transit-time-damping (TTD) interactions. (In TTD interactions, fast waves act like moving magnetic mirrors that push the electrons parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field). We also include the effects of Coulomb collisions and the waves' parallel electric fields. Unlike previous models, our model is two-dimensional in both momentum space and wavenumber space and takes into account the anisotropy of the wave power spectrum $F_k$ and electron distribution function $f_{\\rm e}$. We use weak turbulence theory and quasilinear theory to obtain a set of equations that describes the coupled evolution of $F_k$ and $f_{\\rm e}$. We solve these equations numerically and find that the electron distribution function develops a power-law-like non-thermal tail within a restricted range of energies $E\\in (E_{\\rm nt}, E_{\\rm max}...

  15. Ground and space based cloud-top wind velocities using CFHT/ESPaDOnS (Doppler velocimetry) and VEx/VIRTIS (cloud tracking) coordinated measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro; Widemann, Thomas; Peralta, Javier; Gonçalves, Rúben; Donati, Jean-François; Luz, David

    2016-04-01

    We will present wind velocity results based in the measurements of the horizontal wind field at the cloud top level of the atmosphere of Venus, near 70 km altitude. Our aim is contribute to the characterisation of the zonal and meridional wind latitudinal profiles on hour and day-timescales. This will be done by tracking Doppler shift of solar and CO2 lines over the dayside hemisphere in coordination with ESA's Venus Express orbiter. Our observations measured winds at cloud tops at latitudes 60°S-60°N, while Vex/VIRTIS privileged southern latitudes poleward of 45°S. This coordination effort intended to provide a combined monitoring of short-term changes of wind amplitude and directions with extensive spatial coverage. We present results based on inter comparison of ground-based Doppler velocimetry of cloud-top winds and cloud tracking measurements from the Venus Express spacecraft. Doppler wind velocimetry obtained with the 3.60 m Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (CFHT) and the Visible Spectrograph ESPaDOnS in April 2014 consisted of high-resolution spectra of Fraunhofer lines in the visible range (0.37-1.05 μm) to measure the wind velocity using the Doppler shift of solar radiation scattered by cloud top particles in the observer's direction. The complete optical spectrum was collected at a phase angle Φ = (76 ± 0.3)°, at a resolution of about 80000. Both ground-based and Venus Express measurements show considerable day-to-day variability revealing wave propagation and angular momentum transport in latitude which needs to be carefully assessed. ESPaDOnS and the sequential technique of visible Doppler velocimetry has proven a reference technique to measure instantaneous winds. These measurements are necessary to help validating Global Circulation Models (GCMs), to extend the temporal coverage of available datasets. The ground-based observations in the base of this project are critical in their complementarity with Venus Express, which was recently

  16. Chemistry and Kinematics of the Late-forming Dwarf Irregular Galaxies Leo A, Aquarius, and Sagittarius DIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Rizzi, Luca; Held, Enrico V.; Cohen, Judith G.; Cole, Andrew A.; Manning, Ellen M.; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of individual stars in the relatively isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies Leo A, Aquarius, and the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy. The three galaxies—but especially Leo A and Aquarius—share in common delayed star formation histories (SFHs) relative to many other isolated dwarf galaxies. The stars in all three galaxies are supported by dispersion. We found no evidence of stellar velocity structure, even for Aquarius, which has rotating H i gas. The velocity dispersions indicate that all three galaxies are dark-matter-dominated, with dark-to-baryonic mass ratios ranging from {4.4}-0.8+1.0 (SagDIG) to {9.6}-1.8+2.5 (Aquarius). Leo A and SagDIG have lower stellar metallicities than Aquarius, and they also have higher gas fractions, both of which would be expected if Aquarius were further along in its chemical evolution. The metallicity distribution of Leo A is inconsistent with a closed or leaky box model of chemical evolution, suggesting that the galaxy was pre-enriched or acquired external gas during star formation. The metallicities of stars increased steadily for all three galaxies, but possibly at different rates. The [α/Fe] ratios at a given [Fe/H] are lower than that of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, which indicates more extended SFHs than Sculptor, consistent with photometrically derived SFHs. Overall, the bulk kinematic and chemical properties for the late-forming dwarf galaxies do not diverge significantly from those of less delayed dwarf galaxies, including dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. Representation of the Gravity Field of Irregularly Shaped Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimond, Stefan; Baur, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Exploratory space missions to small bodies in our solar system have gained importance over the last few decades. The well-renowned mission Rosetta set a milestone in space science history when it successfully lowered its mini-lab Philae onto the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014. Knowledge of the gravitational field of a small body, e.g. a comet or asteroid, is crucial in order to study a spacecraft's motion in its environment and to infer geophysical properties. Traditionally, the gravitational field of a body is modeled by means of spherical harmonics. For bodies of near-spherical shape (such as the Earth), this is an adequate method, because the reference figure, i.e. a sphere, snugly fits the body. For irregularly shaped bodies, however, the adoption of spherical harmonics might be a sub-optimal choice. As an alternative, oblate or prolate spheroidal harmonics (OH or PH, reference figure is an ellipsoid of revolution) or ellipsoidal harmonics (EH, reference figure is a tri-axial ellipsoid) should be considered. The latter will in general be the best choice in terms of aptness of the reference figure. The downside of EH, however, lies in the considerably increased (numerical) complexity of the computation of the base functions, i.e., the Lamé functions of the first and second kind. OH or PH represent a promising path down the middle. Elongated bodies (such as Asteroid 433 Eros) are often similarly well approximated by a prolate spheroid as by the corresponding tri-axial ellipsoid. Contracted bodies, on the other hand, can be described accordingly well by means of an oblate spheroid. We compare the SH, OH, PH and EH gravitational field parameterizations for different celestial bodies, including Rosetta's target comet 67P. The tasks are as follows: Based on the polyhedral representation of a body's shape model, the gravitational potential and acceleration vector is computed for evenly or irregularly distributed points inside or outside

  18. Influence of acute jugular vein compression on the cerebral blood flow velocity, pial artery pulsation and width of subarachnoid space in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej F Frydrychowski

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1 pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ; (2 cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV; (3 peripheral blood pressure; and (4 possible relations between mentioned parameters. METHODS: Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS, CBFV in the left anterior cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler, blood pressure was measured using Finapres, while end-tidal CO(2 was measured using medical gas analyser. Bilateral jugular vein compression was achieved with the use of a sphygmomanometer held on the neck of the participant and pumped at the pressure of 40 mmHg, and was performed in the bend-over (BOPT and swayed to the back (initial position. RESULTS: In the first group (n = 10 during BOPT, sas-TQ and pulse pressure (PP decreased (-17.6% and -17.9%, respectively and CBFV increased (+35.0%, while cc-TQ did not change (+1.91%. In the second group, in the initial position (n = 22 cc-TQ and CBFV increased (106.6% and 20.1%, respectively, while sas-TQ and PP decreases were not statistically significant (-15.5% and -9.0%, respectively. End-tidal CO(2 remained stable during BOPT and venous compression in both groups. Significant interdependence between changes in cc-TQ and PP after bilateral jugular vein compression in the initial position was found (r = -0.74. CONCLUSIONS: Acute bilateral jugular venous insufficiency leads to hyperkinetic cerebral circulation characterised by augmented pial artery pulsation and CBFV and direct transmission of PP into the brain microcirculation. The Windkessel effect with impaired jugular outflow and more likely increased intracranial pressure is described. This study clarifies the potential mechanism linking jugular outflow insufficiency with arterial small vessel cerebral

  19. Influence of acute jugular vein compression on the cerebral blood flow velocity, pial artery pulsation and width of subarachnoid space in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Winklewski, Pawel J; Guminski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1) pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ); (2) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); (3) peripheral blood pressure; and (4) possible relations between mentioned parameters. Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS), CBFV in the left anterior cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler, blood pressure was measured using Finapres, while end-tidal CO(2) was measured using medical gas analyser. Bilateral jugular vein compression was achieved with the use of a sphygmomanometer held on the neck of the participant and pumped at the pressure of 40 mmHg, and was performed in the bend-over (BOPT) and swayed to the back (initial) position. In the first group (n = 10) during BOPT, sas-TQ and pulse pressure (PP) decreased (-17.6% and -17.9%, respectively) and CBFV increased (+35.0%), while cc-TQ did not change (+1.91%). In the second group, in the initial position (n = 22) cc-TQ and CBFV increased (106.6% and 20.1%, respectively), while sas-TQ and PP decreases were not statistically significant (-15.5% and -9.0%, respectively). End-tidal CO(2) remained stable during BOPT and venous compression in both groups. Significant interdependence between changes in cc-TQ and PP after bilateral jugular vein compression in the initial position was found (r = -0.74). Acute bilateral jugular venous insufficiency leads to hyperkinetic cerebral circulation characterised by augmented pial artery pulsation and CBFV and direct transmission of PP into the brain microcirculation. The Windkessel effect with impaired jugular outflow and more likely increased intracranial pressure is described. This study clarifies the potential mechanism linking jugular outflow insufficiency with arterial small vessel cerebral disease.

  20. Dynamic Collision-avoidance Planning of Mobile Robot Based on Velocity Change Space%基于速度变化空间的移动机器人动态避碰规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱齐丹; 仲训昱; 张智

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic avoiding collision with moving obstacles of mobile robot is studied. For the existing problems of the previous velocity obstacle methods used for dynamic collision-avoidance, corresponding improvement methods are worked out. The velocity changes of obstacles, collision distance and collision time are considered synthetically. In the velocity change space, a new evaluation function based on collision-avoidance behavior dynamics is designed for the dy-namic collision-avoidance planning using two obstacle finding windows. Simulation experiments show that the proposed methods effectively overcome conservativeness of collision-avoidance planning, improve motion security of robot, and can be implemented to pursue the moving goal in time.%研究了移动机器人对运动障碍物的动态避碰.针对以往速度障碍法在动态避碰应用中存在的问题,制订了相应的改进方法.综合考虑障碍物速度的动态变化和碰掩时间、碰撞距离,在速度变化空间中,基于避碰行为动力学原理,设计了新的优化评价函数,采用双障碍物检测窗口进行动态避碰规划.仿真实验表明,该方法有效地克服了避碰规划的保守性,提高了机器人运动的安全性,并能实现对运动目标的及时追踪.

  1. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  2. Evaluating transport in irregular pore networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, Dimitri A.; Hooman, Kamel; Klimenko, Alexander Y.

    2012-07-01

    A general approach for investigating transport phenomena in porous media is presented. This approach has the capacity to represent various kinds of irregularity in porous media without the need for excessive detail or computational effort. The overall method combines a generalized effective medium approximation (EMA) with a macroscopic continuum model in order to derive a transport equation with explicit analytical expressions for the transport coefficients. The proposed form of the EMA is an anisotropic and heterogeneous extension of Kirkpatrick's EMA [Rev. Mod. Phys.RMPHAT0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.45.574 45, 574 (1973)] which allows the overall model to account for microscopic alterations in connectivity (with the locations of the pores and the orientation and length of the throat) as well as macroscopic variations in transport properties. A comparison to numerical results for randomly generated networks with different properties is given, indicating the potential for this methodology to handle cases that would pose significant difficulties to many other analytical models.

  3. Gravitational scattering within the Himalia group of jovian prograde irregular satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos A.

    2005-03-01

    We test the hypothesis that gravitational scattering within the Himalia prograde irregular satellite group is responsible for the large velocity dispersion identified by Nesvorný et al. (2003, Astron. J. 126, 398-429). We carry out numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of this group under several scenarios for Himalia's mass for 10 yr. We find that modification of the satellite orbits is significant, 10-15% of their semimajor axes differences but Caliban and Sycorax at Uranus and Nereid at Neptune.

  4. Hydrodynamics and Roughness of Irregular Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    that the REMUS ADCP can be effective in resolving steady BL structure with spatial averaging of 50-100m ( Jaramillo & Pawlak, 2010). Analysis of along...mounted ADCPs (Fong & Monismith, 2004; Fong & Jones, 2006). In Jaramillo & Pawlak (2010), we further characterize the variability in this bias with...transects over the course of a tidal cycle to enable resolution of along-shore velocity profiles. One postdoctoral researcher, Sergio Jaramillo

  5. Over rough and smooth : Amputee gait on an irregular surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.; Otten, B.

    2011-01-01

    When negotiating irregular surfaces, the control of dynamic stability is challenged. In this study, we compared the adjustments in stepping behaviour and arm-swing of 18 unilateral transtibial amputees and 17 able-bodied participants when walking on flat and irregular surfaces. Experimental findings

  6. Edge-partitioning graphs into regular and locally irregular components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Stevens, Brett

    2016-01-01

    A graph is locally irregular if every two adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. Recently, Baudon et al. introduced the notion of decomposition into locally irregular subgraphs. They conjectured that for almost every graph G, there exists a minimum integer χ'irr(G) such that G admits an edge-pa...

  7. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities linked with daytime VHF scintillations measured from Varanasi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Patel; A K Singh; R P Patel; R P Singh

    2009-12-01

    VHF amplitude scintillations recorded during the daytime period from January 1991 to December 1993, April 1998 to December 1999 and January 2008 to December 2008 at low latitude station Varanasi (geographic lat. = 25° 15′N; long. = 82° 59′E; geomagnetic lat. = 14° 55′N, long. = 154°E, dip angle = 37.3°, sub-ionospheric dip = 34°) have been analyzed to study the behaviour of ionospheric E-region irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric E-region irregularities linked with daytime scintillations. Derived spectral index ranges between −2 and −9. Assuming velocity of irregularities, the characteristic lengths of the E-region irregularities are estimated. We have estimated the minimum and maximum range of scale length of sporadic-E () irregularities to be observed over Varanasi. These results are in close agreement with those reported from this latitude region.

  8. Velocity-based movement modeling for individual and population level inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim M Hanks

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movement and resource selection provides important information about the ecology of the animal, but an animal's movement and behavior are not typically constant in time. We present a velocity-based approach for modeling animal movement in space and time that allows for temporal heterogeneity in an animal's response to the environment, allows for temporal irregularity in telemetry data, and accounts for the uncertainty in the location information. Population-level inference on movement patterns and resource selection can then be made through cluster analysis of the parameters related to movement and behavior. We illustrate this approach through a study of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus movement in the Bering Sea, Alaska, USA. Results show sex differentiation, with female northern fur seals exhibiting stronger response to environmental variables.

  9. Velocity-based movement modeling for individual and population level inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M; Hooten, Mevin B; Johnson, Devin S; Sterling, Jeremy T

    2011-01-01

    Understanding animal movement and resource selection provides important information about the ecology of the animal, but an animal's movement and behavior are not typically constant in time. We present a velocity-based approach for modeling animal movement in space and time that allows for temporal heterogeneity in an animal's response to the environment, allows for temporal irregularity in telemetry data, and accounts for the uncertainty in the location information. Population-level inference on movement patterns and resource selection can then be made through cluster analysis of the parameters related to movement and behavior. We illustrate this approach through a study of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) movement in the Bering Sea, Alaska, USA. Results show sex differentiation, with female northern fur seals exhibiting stronger response to environmental variables.

  10. Irregular conformal block, spectral curve and flow equations

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sang Kwan; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Irregular conformal block is motivated by the Argyres-Douglas type of N=2 super conformal gauge theory. We investigate the classical/NS limit of the irregular conformal block using spectral curve on a Riemann surface with irregular punctures, which is equivalent to the loop equation of irregular matrix model. The spectral curve is reduced to the second order (Virasoro symmetry, $SU(2)$ for the gauge theory) and third order ($W_3$ symmetry, $SU(3)$) differential equations of a polynomial with finite degree. The Virasoro and W symmetry generate flow equations in the spectral curve and determine the irregular conformal block, hence the partition function of the Argyres-Douglas theory ala AGT conjecture.

  11. School setting and irregular lunch consumption among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette

    level variables and irregular lunch consumption. Lunch consumption was measured by lunch frequency questions. Results: We found that the school level factors, “Availability to canteen” and “Adult present in lunch breaks” were associated with irregular lunch consumption. Students with no access...... to canteen had a lower risk of having irregular lunch consumption OR=0.77 (0.62-0.96). Students with no adult present in lunch breaks had a higher risk of irregular lunch consumption OR=1.62 (1.32-1.99). Having irregular lunch consumption was associated with the following individual characteristics: boy, 7th...... the association. Conclusion: The structural setting of the school was associated with children and adolescents’ regularity of lunch consumption in a multilevel model controlled for individual level factors. From the findings we can conclude that availability of canteen and school stall did not promote regular...

  12. Imaging HF-induced large-scale irregularities above HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Kitrosser, David F.; Elder, John H.; Snyder, A. Lee; Sales, Gary S.

    2006-02-01

    The University of Massachusetts-Lowell digisonde is used with the HAARP high-frequency (HF), ionospheric modification facility to obtain radio images of artificially-produced, large-scale, geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities. F region irregularities generated with the HAARP beam pointed in the vertical and geomagnetic field-aligned directions are examined in a smooth background plasma. It is found that limited large-scale irregularity production takes place with vertical transmissions, whereas there is a dramatic increase in the number of source irregularities with the beam pointed parallel to the geomagnetic field. Strong irregularity production appears to be confined to within ~5° of the geomagnetic zenith and does not fill the volume occupied by the HF beam. A similar effect is observed in optical images of artificial airglow.

  13. Processor Allocation for Optimistic Parallelization of Irregular Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Optimistic parallelization is a promising approach for the parallelization of irregular algorithms: potentially interfering tasks are launched dynamically, and the runtime system detects conflicts between concurrent activities, aborting and rolling back conflicting tasks. However, parallelism in irregular algorithms is very complex. In a regular algorithm like dense matrix multiplication, the amount of parallelism can usually be expressed as a function of the problem size, so it is reasonably straightforward to determine how many processors should be allocated to execute a regular algorithm of a certain size (this is called the processor allocation problem). In contrast, parallelism in irregular algorithms can be a function of input parameters, and the amount of parallelism can vary dramatically during the execution of the irregular algorithm. Therefore, the processor allocation problem for irregular algorithms is very difficult. In this paper, we describe the first systematic strategy for addressing this pro...

  14. Stationary bottom generated velocity fluctuations in one-dimensional open channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Bartele

    1993-01-01

    Statistical characteristics are calculated for stationary velocity fluctuations in a one-dimensional open channel flow with a given vertical velocity profile and with one-dimensional irregular bottom waves, characterized by a spectral density function. The calculations are based on an approximate ca

  15. Climatic irregular staircases: generalized acceleration of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saedeleer, Bernard

    2016-01-27

    Global warming rates mentioned in the literature are often restricted to a couple of arbitrary periods of time, or of isolated values of the starting year, lacking a global view. In this study, we perform on the contrary an exhaustive parametric analysis of the NASA GISS LOTI data, and also of the HadCRUT4 data. The starting year systematically varies between 1880 and 2002, and the averaging period from 5 to 30 yr - not only decades; the ending year also varies . In this way, we uncover a whole unexplored space of values for the global warming rate, and access the full picture. Additionally, stairstep averaging and linear least squares fitting to determine climatic trends have been sofar exclusive. We propose here an original hybrid method which combines both approaches in order to derive a new type of climatic trend. We find that there is an overall acceleration of the global warming whatever the value of the averaging period, and that 99.9% of the 3029 Earth's climatic irregular staircases are rising. Graphical evidence is also given that choosing an El Niño year as starting year gives lower global warming rates - except if there is a volcanic cooling in parallel. Our rates agree and generalize several results mentioned in the literature.

  16. Climatic irregular staircases: generalized acceleration of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saedeleer, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Global warming rates mentioned in the literature are often restricted to a couple of arbitrary periods of time, or of isolated values of the starting year, lacking a global view. In this study, we perform on the contrary an exhaustive parametric analysis of the NASA GISS LOTI data, and also of the HadCRUT4 data. The starting year systematically varies between 1880 and 2002, and the averaging period from 5 to 30 yr — not only decades; the ending year also varies . In this way, we uncover a whole unexplored space of values for the global warming rate, and access the full picture. Additionally, stairstep averaging and linear least squares fitting to determine climatic trends have been sofar exclusive. We propose here an original hybrid method which combines both approaches in order to derive a new type of climatic trend. We find that there is an overall acceleration of the global warming whatever the value of the averaging period, and that 99.9% of the 3029 Earth’s climatic irregular staircases are rising. Graphical evidence is also given that choosing an El Niño year as starting year gives lower global warming rates — except if there is a volcanic cooling in parallel. Our rates agree and generalize several results mentioned in the literature.

  17. Structuring of intermediate scale equatorial spread F irregularities during intense geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, B.; Gurram, P.; Tripura Sundari, P. N. B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here we examine the structuring of equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) during intense geomagnetic storm of solar cycle (SC) 24 that occurred on 17 March 2015 using spaced receiver scintillation observations on a 251 MHz radio signal, recorded by a network of stations in Indian region. As yet, this is the strongest geomagnetic storm (Dstmin˜-223nT) that occurred in present SC. Present study reveals that the structuring of equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities was significantly different on 17 March as compared to quiet days of corresponding month. ESF irregularities of intermediate scale (100 m to few kilometers) are observed at unusually higher altitudes (≥ 800 km) covering wider longitudinal-latitudinal belt over Indian region. A presence of large-scale irregularity structures with stronger ΔN at raised F peak with small-scale irregularities at even higher altitudes is observed. It caused strong focusing effect (S4>1) that prevails throughout premidnight hours at dip equatorial station Tirunelveli. Other observational aspect is that zonal irregularity drifts over low-latitude station Kolhapur exhibited a large deviation of ˜230 m/s from their average quiet time pattern. During this geomagnetic storm, two southward turnings of significant strength (BZ≤-15 nT) occurred at 11.4 IST (Indian standard time) and 17.9 IST. The later southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)BZ resulted in a large eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) close to sunset hours in Indian longitude. Estimates of PPEF obtained from real-time ionospheric model are too low to explain the observed large upliftment of F region in the post sunset hours. Possible reason for observed enhanced PPEF-linked effects is discussed.

  18. Bayesian modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Daniels, Michael J

    2015-05-30

    In long-term follow-up studies, irregular longitudinal data are observed when individuals are assessed repeatedly over time but at uncommon and irregularly spaced time points. Modeling the covariance structure for this type of data is challenging, as it requires specification of a covariance function that is positive definite. Moreover, in certain settings, careful modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data can be crucial in order to ensure no bias arises in the mean structure. Two common settings where this occurs are studies with 'outcome-dependent follow-up' and studies with 'ignorable missing data'. 'Outcome-dependent follow-up' occurs when individuals with a history of poor health outcomes had more follow-up measurements, and the intervals between the repeated measurements were shorter. When the follow-up time process only depends on previous outcomes, likelihood-based methods can still provide consistent estimates of the regression parameters, given that both the mean and covariance structures of the irregular longitudinal data are correctly specified and no model for the follow-up time process is required. For 'ignorable missing data', the missing data mechanism does not need to be specified, but valid likelihood-based inference requires correct specification of the covariance structure. In both cases, flexible modeling approaches for the covariance structure are essential. In this paper, we develop a flexible approach to modeling the covariance structure for irregular continuous longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function and the variance function. In particular, we propose semiparametric non-stationary partial autocorrelation function models, which do not suffer from complex positive definiteness restrictions like the autocorrelation function. We describe a Bayesian approach, discuss computational issues, and apply the proposed methods to CD4 count data from a pediatric AIDS clinical trial. © 2015 The Authors

  19. Identification of the plasma instabilities responsible for decameter-scale ionospheric irregularities on plasmapause field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltrass, Ahmed; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Mahmoudian, Alireza; Scales, Wayne; De Larquier, Sebastien; Baker, Joseph; Greenwald, Ray; Erickson, Philip

    The mid-latitude SuperDARN radars have revealed decameter-scale ionospheric irregularities during quiet geomagnetic periods that have been proposed to be responsible for the observed low-velocity Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS). The mechanism responsible for the growth of such common irregularities is still unknown. Joint measurements by Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) and SuperDARN HF radar located at Wallops Island, Virginia reported by Greenwald et al. [2006] have determined decameter-scale irregularities with low drift velocities in the quiet-time mid-latitude night-side ionosphere. Temperature gradient instability (TGI) is investigated as the cause of irregularities associated with these SuperDARN echoes. The electrostatic dispersion relation for TGI has been extended into the kinetic regime appropriate for SuperDARN radar frequencies by including Landau damping, finite gyro-radius effects, and temperature anisotropy. This dispersion relation allows study of the TGI over a wide range of parameter regimes that have not been considered for such ionospheric applications up to this time. The calculations of electron temperature and density gradients in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field have shown that the TGI growth is possible in the top-side F-region for the duration of the experiment. A time series for the growth rate has been developed for mid-latitude ionospheric irregularities observed by SuperDARN in the top-side F-region [Greenwald et al., 2006]. This time series is computed for both perpendicular and meridional density and temperature gradients. These observations show the role of TGI is dominant over the gradient drift instability (GDI) in this case. Nonlinear evolution of the TGI has been studied utilizing gyro-kinetic "Particle In Cell" (PIC) simulations with Monte Carlo collisions. This allows detailed study of saturation amplitude, particle flux, heat flux, diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusivity of the

  20. Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.

  1. Reconstructing regional climate networks from irregularly sampled satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donner, Reik V.; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. Satellite data with high resolution in time and space allow for an in-depth analysis of small-scale processes in the climate as well as ecosystems. This data type, however, also harbors crucial conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the dataset and both measurements can not be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps, due to cloud cover or maintenance work and irregular time steps, due to the orbiting time of the satellite. In this work, we utilize sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from the SMOS satellite as part of ESA's Earth Explorer Mission to study small-scale regional interactions between different parts of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea. In a first step, we create homogeneous time series for each grid point by combining data from ascending and descending satellite paths by utilizing principal component and singular spectrum analysis. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the dataset. By setting a threshold to the thus obtained correlation matrix we obtain a binary matrix which can be interpreted as the adjacency matrix of a complex network. We then use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. The methods presented

  2. Orbital maneuvers around irregular shaped bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Flaviane; Rocco, E. M.; Almeida Prado, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In the solar system there are many small bodies called asteroids. The large majority of these bodies are located in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. The Near- Earth Objects, or NEOs, are objects with perihelion below 1.3AU, which include comets and asteroids. The NEOs are considered to have orbits passing close to the Earth’s orbit and, in the case of asteroids, are called Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Among the NEAs there are bodies considered potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), whose minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth is 0.05AU and that have absolute magnitude (H) of 22, which would mean an asteroid of at least 110-240 meters, depending on its albedo. One of the major characteristic of the asteroids is the irregular shape, causing the dynamics of orbits around these bodies to be different from a spherical shaped one. The fact that an object is not spherical generates a perturbation on the gravitational field. The disturbing force can be determined considering the shape of the specific body. A satellite orbiting this body would suffer the effects of this perturbation, but knowing the disturbing force, it’s possible to correct and control the orbit according to the desired mission. The polyhedron method is a traditional way to model an asteroid by dividing the object into smaller parts. The data used on this work are composed by a combination of triangular faces. The total disturbing force is a sum of the force on each piece of the model. Therefore, after the simulations are obtained, it’s possible to apply the desired corrections of the perturbation using continuous low thrust in closed loop, making it possible to perform maneuvers near these bodies. One of the important applications of the study shown above is in the ASTER mission, that is under study by INPE and several other Brazilian academic institutions, which goal is to send a spacecraft to an asteroid and then

  3. Determining Ionospheric Irregularity Spectral Density Function from Japan GEONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, E. H.; Light, M. E.; Parker, P. A.; Carrano, C. S.; Haaser, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Japan's GEONET GPS network is the densest GPS monitoring network in the world, with 1200+ receivers over the area of Japan. Measuring and calibrating the integrated total electron content (TEC) from each station has been done in many cases to provide detailed maps of ionospheric disturbances over Japan. We use TEC measurements from Japan's GEONET array to determine an empirically derived description of the 2-dimensional scale sizes of spatial irregularities above Japan. The contributions from various scale sizes will be included in a statistical description for the irregularity spectral density (ISD) function. We will compare the statistics of the spatial irregularities between calm and moderately scintillated conditions.

  4. A three dimensional study of E region irregularity patches in the equatorial anomaly region using the Chung-Li VHF radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, C.J.; Liu, C.H.; Su, S.Y. [National Central Univ., Taiwan (China); Roettger, J. [EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna (Sweden)

    1994-08-15

    The authors report on VHF radar observations of E region Field Aligned Irregularity patches made from Taiwan. They observe pancake shaped patches, smaller than the radar viewing width. They are seen at heights above 100 km, drifting with velocities slightly less than 100 m/s.

  5. 高分辨率的频率空间域声波全波形速度反演-理论模型%High resolution acoustic wave full waveform velocity inversion in frequency space domain-theoretical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建平; 刘和秀; 王华忠; 彭叶辉; 杨天春; 王齐仁

    2011-01-01

    使用最速下降法进行二维频率空间域声波波动方程全波形速度反演,讨论了如何快速实现高精度的二维频率空间域声波波动方程全波形速度反演.多尺度的思想耦合在反演框架中.把非线性问题化为逐步线性问题是我们关注的焦点,目的是把整个非线性反演的黑匣子转化成为每一步可控的过程,尽可能得到想要的反演解.仅仅使用3个离散的频率,每个频率迭代10次,对广角Marmousi模型进行地面地震声波全波形速度反演,反演得到高分辨率、高精度的速度,为全波形反演实际资料奠定了很好的基础.%We use the steepest descent method based on two-dimensional frequency space domain acoustic wave equation for full waveform velocity inversion, discuss how to quickly realize high precision two-dimensional frequency domain full waveform velocity inversion. Multi-scale criterial is coupling in the inversion framework. The nonlinear problem changes into gradually linear problem is our focus. The purpose is the whole nonlinear inverse black box into every step of controllable process as far as possible, getting an inversion solution we want. Use only three discrete frequencies, each frequency iterative ten times, we make surface seismic acoustic wave full waveform inversion on extended Marmousi and get a high resolution and high precision imaging of velocity. This gives a good foundation for full waveform inversion on real field data.

  6. The irregularities of the sunspot cycle and their theoretical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2013-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle has many irregularities, the most promi- nent amongst them being the grand minima when sunspots may not be seen for several cycles. After summarizing the relevant observational data about the irregularities, we introduce the flux transport dynamo model, the currently most successful theoretical model for explaining the 11-year sunspot cycle. Then we analyze the respective roles of nonlinearities and random fluctuations in creating the irregularities. We also discuss how it has recently been realized that the fluctuations in meridional circula- tion also can be a source of irregularities. We end by pointing out that fluctuations in the poloidal field generation and fluctuations in meridional circulation together can explain the occurrences of grand minima.

  7. Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) for Jefferson County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) in this directory are generated from 2 foot contour lines from Jefferson County. Little is known about the...

  8. Approximate design calculation methods for radiation streaming in shield irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Toshimasa; Hirao, Yoshihiro [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoritsune, Tsutomu

    1997-10-01

    Investigation and assessment are made for approximate design calculation methods of radiation streaming in shield irregularities. Investigation is made for (1) source, (2) definition of streaming radiation components, (3) calculation methods of streaming radiation, (4) streaming formulas for each irregularity, (5) difficulties in application of streaming formulas, etc. Furthermore, investigation is made for simple calculation codes and albedo data. As a result, it is clarified that streaming calculation formulas are not enough to cover various irregularities and their accuracy or application limit is not sufficiently clear. Accurate treatment is not made in the formulas with respect to the radiation behavior for slant incidence, bend part, offset etc., that results in too much safety factors in the design calculation and distrust of the streaming calculation. To overcome the state and improve the accuracy of the design calculation for shield irregularities, it is emphasized to assess existing formulas and develop better formulas based on systematic experimental studies. (author)

  9. Irregular sampling for multivariate band-limited functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Wenchang(孙文昌); ZHOU; Xingwei(周性伟)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present some new algorithms to reconstruct multivariate band-limited functionsfrom irregular sampled values, which allow more arbitrary sampling points and lower sampling densities thanknown results.

  10. What Are the Common Treatments for Menstrual Irregularities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the menstrual problem, such as counseling for an eating disorder or extreme excercise Treatment for menstrual irregularities that ... Home Contact Accessibility Web Policies and Notices FOIA Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube RSS NIH...Turning Discovery Into ...

  11. Helicopters in Irregular Warfare: Algeria, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    the political group associated with the Algerian nationalist independence movement GALAT Groupement d’ Aviation Légère de l’Armée de Terre ...unique from most conflicts because the expeditionary forces’ parent country rarely perceives an existential threat.19 The lack of perceived threat...dominance rarely guarantees success in irregular warfare.22 Instead, success in irregular warfare requires synergy between government and military efforts

  12. Detection of F-region electron density irregularities using incoherent-scatter radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudivada, Krishna Prasad

    Incoherent-scatter radar data from Poker Flat, Alaska has been used to determine size distributions of electron density structures in the evening time sector of the auroral zone. At high latitudes ionospheric plasma typically moves east-west with speeds of several hundred meters per second. Density irregularities that rapidly move through the radar beam are therefore observed as time-varying power fluctuations. The new phased array radar used for this study has been operated with several antenna directions with successive pulses transmitted in each direction. It is therefore possible to observe plasma Doppler velocities in multiple directions and determine the vector direction of the plasma motion. This near-simultaneous observation of the plasma velocity in conjunction with the electron density height profile data enable a new technique to determine the scale sizes of electron density fluctuations that move horizontally through the radar beam. The study focuses on the collision-less F-region ionosphere where the plasma drift is approximately constant with altitude. The experimental technique limits the range of scale sizes that may be studied to relatively large-scale sizes (i.e. greater than few tens of km). Results show that during magnetically disturbed conditions (Kp ≥ 4) when westward plasma velocities are relatively high (500-1000 m/s) the scale sizes of irregularities (often called plasma blobs) are in the range of 100-300 km and predominantly originate from the polar cap and are transported over long distances (˜1000 km) due to the long chemical recombination times (30-90 minutes). Some irregularities are caused by local auroral particle precipitation and have been identified with associated electron temperature enhancements. For cases of low magnetic activity (Kp ≤ 1), when the radar is located in a region of low plasma velocities (100-500 m/s) well south of the auroral oval (essentially a mid-latitude type ionosphere), the density distribution is

  13. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  14. K2 and Herschel/PACS photometry of irregular satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Andras; Kiss, Csaba; Molnar, Laszlo; Mueller, Thomas G.; Sarneczky, Krisztian; Szabo, Robert; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Szabo, Gyula M.

    2016-10-01

    The combination of optical and far-infrared photometric measurements yields an unambiguous method for characterizing the basic physical and surface properties of minor bodies in the Solar System. In principle, an object with a certain visible brightness can either be an object with a small but bright or a large but dim surface. To resolve this issue, conducting thermal emission measurements can also be acquired since both larger and dimmer objects have higher infrared radiations. In addition, the precise modelling of thermal emission should certainly take into account the rotation period of these bodies - otherwise the presence of surface thermal inertia can result in inaccurate conclusions regarding to the physical size and albedo.Since early 2014, Kepler Space Telescope surveys fields close to the Ecliptic in a framework of quarterly campaigns of the K2 initiative. This program makes possible to continuously observe Solar System bodies during this period of 80-90 days and hence provide an uninterrupted photometric series of moving Solar System objects down to the magnitude range of R = 23.5. This instrument hence an ideal observatory now for Solar System studies. Due to the fact that the expected rotational periods of these objects are commensurable to the diurnal characteristics of ground-based observations, such uninterrupted light curves are rather valuable for the accurate determination of rotational characteristics - including the physical rotation period, the amplitude and the confirmation of the presence of double- or multiple peaked features.In this presentation we summarize our results of current K2 and legacy Herschel/PACS observations regarding to some of the irregular satellites of Uranus and Neptune, namely Caliban, Sycorax, Prospero, Setebos and Nereid. By comparing these results with similar kind of observations for trans-Neptunian objects (see Kiss et al., this DPS meeting), one can conclude how the formation and evolution of the outer Solar

  15. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  16. Irregular excitation patterns in reaction-diffusion systems due to perturbation by secondary pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Claudia; Einax, Mario; Maass, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Spatiotemporal excitation patterns in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model are studied, which result from the disturbance of a primary pacemaker by a secondary pacemaker. The primary and secondary pacemakers generate regular waves with frequencies f(pace) and f(pert), respectively. The pacemakers are spatially separated, but waves emanating from them encounter each other via a small bridge. This leads to three different types I-III of irregular excitation patterns in disjunct domains of the f(pace)-f(pert) plane. Types I and II are caused by detachments of waves coming from the two pacemakers at corners of the bridge. Type III irregularities are confined to a boundary region of the system and originate from a partial penetration of the primary waves into a space, where circular wave fronts from the secondary pacemaker prevail. For this type, local frequencies can significantly exceed f(pace) and f(pert). The degree of irregularity found for the three different types is quantified by the entropy of the local frequency distribution and an order parameter for phase coherence.

  17. Optimizing Irregular Applications for Energy and Performance on the Tilera Many-core Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Panyala, Ajay R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Tumeo, Antonino

    2015-05-20

    Optimizing applications simultaneously for energy and performance is a complex problem. High performance, parallel, irregular applications are notoriously hard to optimize due to their data-dependent memory accesses, lack of structured locality and complex data structures and code patterns. Irregular kernels are growing in importance in applications such as machine learning, graph analytics and combinatorial scientific computing. Performance- and energy-efficient implementation of these kernels on modern, energy efficient, multicore and many-core platforms is therefore an important and challenging problem. We present results from optimizing two irregular applications { the Louvain method for community detection (Grappolo), and high-performance conjugate gradient (HPCCG) { on the Tilera many-core system. We have significantly extended MIT's OpenTuner auto-tuning framework to conduct a detailed study of platform-independent and platform-specific optimizations to improve performance as well as reduce total energy consumption. We explore the optimization design space along three dimensions: memory layout schemes, compiler-based code transformations, and optimization of parallel loop schedules. Using auto-tuning, we demonstrate whole node energy savings of up to 41% relative to a baseline instantiation, and up to 31% relative to manually optimized variants.

  18. 3D thermal-hydraulic analysis of two irregular field joints for the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoldi, Laura, E-mail: laura.savoldi@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Bonifetto, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Izquierdo, Jesus [Fusion for Energy, ES-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Le Barbier, Robin; Utin, Yuri [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER vacuum vessel irregular field joints analyzed with ANSYS-FLUENT. • Steady-state thermal-hydraulic performance evaluated with 3D analysis. • Pressure drop comparable to that of regular field joints. • Acceptable hot spots on the inner shell and ports. • Heat transfer coefficient above the target value of 500 W/m{sup 2} K on the inner shell. - Abstract: In ITER, so-called “Irregular” Field Joints (IFJs) are foreseen at the interface between irregular sectors of the Vacuum Vessel (VV), which is located inside the cryostat and houses the in-vessel components. In the IFJs, a peculiar design of the equatorial port, with respect to that adopted in the Regular Field Joints (RFJs), accommodates the irregularities of the adjacent VV sectors. The IFJs are subject to nuclear heating and actively cooled by sub-cooled pressurized water flowing in a dedicated hydraulic loop, which includes the space left open by the borated In-Wall Shielding (IWS). Here we perform the 3D steady state thermal-hydraulic analysis of two different IFJs using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-FLUENT{sup ®}. The water flow field, the pressure drop and the temperature maps are computed. The thermal performance of the IFJs in nominal operation is compared to that of an RFJ and it is shown that also in this case enough cooling capability is available to avoid hot spots above the design limits, while the pressure drop remains acceptably low.

  19. The generation and use of numerical shape models for irregular Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Damon P.; Thomas, Peter C.; Carcich, Brian T.; Veverka, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    We describe a procedure that allows the efficient generation of numerical shape models for irregular Solar System objects, where a numerical model is simply a table of evenly spaced body-centered latitudes and longitudes and their associated radii. This modeling technique uses a combination of data from limbs, terminators, and control points, and produces shape models that have some important advantages over analytical shape models. Accurate numerical shape models make it feasible to study irregular objects with a wide range of standard scientific analysis techniques. These applications include the determination of moments of inertia and surface gravity, the mapping of surface locations and structural orientations, photometric measurement and analysis, the reprojection and mosaicking of digital images, and the generation of albedo maps. The capabilities of our modeling procedure are illustrated through the development of an accurate numerical shape model for Phobos and the production of a global, high-resolution, high-pass-filtered digital image mosaic of this Martian moon. Other irregular objects that have been modeled, or are being modeled, include the asteroid Gaspra and the satellites Deimos, Amalthea, Epimetheus, Janus, Hyperion, and Proteus.

  20. High-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H

    1997-01-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,

  1. Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...

  2. On irregular conformal blocks, with an application to the Painlev\\'e functions

    CERN Document Server

    Nagoya, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We develop the theory on irregular conformal blocks of the Virasoro algebra. In previous studies, expansions of irregular conformal blocks at regular singular points were obtained as degeneration limits of regular conformal blocks, however, expansions of those at irregular singular points were not understood clearly. This is because precise definitions of irregular vertex operators had not given before. In this paper, we give precise definitions of irregular vertex operators of two kinds and conjecture that they exist uniquely. Then, we define irregular conformal blocks with at most two irregular singular points, as expectation values of the given irregular vertex operators. Our definitions give an understanding of expansions of irregular conformal blocks and are enable us to obtain expansions at irregular singular points. As an application, we give conjectural formulas of Fourier expansions of the tau functions of the fifth and fourth Painlev\\'e functions, using expansions of irregular conformal blocks at an...

  3. A sharp interface immersed boundary method for solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Huangrui; Zhang, Fan; Cronin, Duane S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a sharp interface immersed boundary method is developed for efficiently and robustly solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometries. The proposed method employs a three-step prediction-correction flow reconstruction scheme for boundary treatment and enforces Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, and Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward and consistent manner. Numerical experiments concerning flow of two and three space dimensions, stationary and moving objects, convex and concave geometries, no-slip and slip wall boundary conditions are conducted to demonstrate the proposed method.

  4. An Irregular-gridded Stable Potential-field Downward Continuation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    Potential-fields downward continuation can increase the resolution, while it is an inherent ill-posed inverse problem. We advance a fast algorithm to solve the interpolation coefficients of arbitrary-spaced four variable cubic B-spline. The downward continuation, both 2D and 3D, is accomplished by solving integral equations using B-spline bases in space domain. In contrast to FFT method, our method can be irregular spacing, and the number of knots need not to be a power of 2. Through comparison with FFT method using synthetic examples, including noise-contaminated data continuation, it is found that our method is more accurate and more stable. Real data applications of B-spline method downward continuation provide very useful information for further interpretation.

  5. Dark Matter and the Chemical Evolution of Irregular Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carigi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of chemical evolution models for irregular galaxies: closed-box with continuous star formation rates (SFRs, closed-box with burstin g SFRs, and O-rich outflow with continuous SFRs. We discuss the chemical evolution of the irregular galaxies NGC 1560 and II Zw 33, and a "typical" irregular galaxy. The fraction of low-mass stars needed by our models is larger than that derived for the solar vicinity, but similar to that found in globular clusters. For our typical irregular galaxy we need a mass fraction of about 40% in the form of substellar objects plus non baryonic dark matter inside the Holmberg radius, in good agreement with the results derived for NGC 1560 and II Zw 33 where we do have an independent estimate of the mass fraction in non baryonic dark matter. Closed-box models are better than O-rich outflow models in explaining the C/O and Z/O observed values for our typical irregular galaxy.

  6. Spatiotemporal velocity-velocity correlation function in fully developed turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Canet, Léonie; Wschebor, Nicolás; Balarac, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is an ubiquitous phenomenon in natural and industrial flows. Since the celebrated work of Kolmogorov in 1941, understanding the statistical properties of fully developed turbulence has remained a major quest. In particular, deriving the properties of turbulent flows from a mesoscopic description, that is from Navier-Stokes equation, has eluded most theoretical attempts. Here, we provide a theoretical prediction for the {\\it space and time} dependent velocity-velocity correlation function of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence from the field theory associated to Navier-Stokes equation with stochastic forcing. This prediction is the analytical fixed-point solution of Non-Perturbative Renormalisation Group flow equations, which are exact in a certain large wave-number limit. This solution is compared to two-point two-times correlation functions computed in direct numerical simulations. We obtain a remarkable agreement both in the inertial and in the dissipative ranges.

  7. Blind comparisons of shear-wave velocities at closely-spaced sites in San Jose, California: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, May 3, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.; Boore, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities within several hundred meters of Earth's surface are important in specifying earthquake ground motions for engineering design. Not only are the shearwave velocities used in classifying sites for use of modern building codes, but they are also used in site-specific studies of particularly significant structures. Many are the methods for estimating sub-surface shear-wave velocities, but few are the blind comparisons of a number of the methods at a single site. The word 'blind' is important here and means that the measurements and interpretations are done completely independent of one another. Stephen Hartzell of the USGS office on Golden, Colorado realized that such an experiment would be very useful for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and he and Jack Boatwright of the USGS office in Menlo Park, California, in cooperation with Carl Wentworth of the Menlo Park USGS office found a convenient site in the city of San Jose, California. The site had good access and space for conducting experiments, and a borehole drilled to several hundred meters by the Santa Clara Valley Water District was made available for downhole logging. Jack Boatwright asked David Boore to coordinate the experiment. In turn, David Boore persuaded several teams to make measurements, helped with the local logistics, collected the results, and organized and conducted an International Workshop in May, 2004. At this meeting the participants in the experiment gathered in Menlo Park to describe their measurements and interpretations, and to see the results of the comparisons of the various methods for the first time. This Open-File Report describes the results of that workshop. One of the participants, Michael Asten, offered to help the coordinator prepare this report. Because of his lead role in pulling the report together, Dr. Asten is the lead author of the paper to follow and is also the lead Compiler for the Open-File Report. It is important to

  8. DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, and Irregularities Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics

  9. Regulation of Irregular Neuronal Firing by Autaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Wu, Shengdun; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    The importance of self-feedback autaptic transmission in modulating spike-time irregularity is still poorly understood. By using a biophysical model that incorporates autaptic coupling, we here show that self-innervation of neurons participates in the modulation of irregular neuronal firing, primarily by regulating the occurrence frequency of burst firing. In particular, we find that both excitatory and electrical autapses increase the occurrence of burst firing, thus reducing neuronal firing regularity. In contrast, inhibitory autapses suppress burst firing and therefore tend to improve the regularity of neuronal firing. Importantly, we show that these findings are independent of the firing properties of individual neurons, and as such can be observed for neurons operating in different modes. Our results provide an insightful mechanistic understanding of how different types of autapses shape irregular firing at the single-neuron level, and they highlight the functional importance of autaptic self-innervation in taming and modulating neurodynamics.

  10. Photometry of Irregular Satellites of Uranus and Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Grav, T

    2004-01-01

    We present BVR photometric colors of six Uranian and two Neptunian irregular satellites, collected using the Magellan Observatory (Las Campanas, Chile) and the Keck Observatory, (Manua Kea, Hawaii). The colors range from neutral to light red, and like the Jovian and the Saturnian irregulars (Grav et al. 2003) there is an apparent lack of the extremely red objects found among the Centaurs and Kuiper belt objects. The Uranian irregulars can be divided into three possible dynamical families, but the colors collected show that two of these dynamical families, the Caliban and Sycorax-clusters, have heterogeneous colors. Of the third possible family, the 168-degree cluster containing two objects with similar average inclinations but quite different average semi-major axis, only one object (U XXI Trinculo) was observed. The heterogeneous colors and the large dispersion of the average orbital elements leads us to doubt that they are collisional families. We favor single captures as a more likely scenario. The two nep...

  11. BVR Color Survey of the Jovian Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, T. W.; Walsh, K.

    2002-09-01

    BVR colors and magnitudes are presented for four Jovian irregular prograde satellites (Himalia J6, Elara J7, Lysithea J10 and Leda J13) and four irregular retrograde satellites (Pasiphae J8, Sinope J9, Carme J11 and Ananke J12). All eight have generally `solar' colors but the retrograde group has slightly redder and more diverse colors. The strikingly similar colors of the four prograde satellites suggests the parent planetesimal was likely very homogeneous. The four retrograde satellites show diversity in color that suggests a heterogeneous progenitor and thus, variations in pre-capture formation history. The absolute magnitudes and revised diameters are presented. We also report new colors and diameters for two Uranian irregular satellites (Caliban (S/1997 U1) and Sycorax (S/1997 U2)). The Uranian satellite colors are slightly redder than the eight Jovian satellites studied.

  12. A BVR Colors of Eight Jovian Irregular Satellites -- Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, T. W.; Walsh, K.

    2001-11-01

    We present BVR colors and magnitudes for four Jovian irregular prograde satellites (Himalia J6, Elara J7, Lysithea J10 and Leda J13) and four irregular retrograde satellites (Pasiphae J8, Sinope J9, Carme J11 and Ananke J12). All eight have generally `solar' colors but the retrograde group has slightly redder and more diverse colors. The strikingly similar colors of the four prograde satellites suggests the parent planetesimal was likely very homogeneous. The four retrograde satellites show diversity in color that suggests a heterogeneous progenitor and thus, variations in pre-capture formation history. The absolute magnitudes and revised diameters are presented. We also report new colors and diameters for two Uranian irregular satellites (Caliban (S/1997 U1) and Sycorax (S/1997 U2)) that are slightly redder than any of these Jovian satellites.

  13. Dynamical Configurations of Celestial Systems Comprised of Multiple Irregular Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n minus 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and...

  14. Track Irregularity Time Series Analysis and Trend Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chaolong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of linear and nonlinear methods is widely used in the prediction of time series data. This paper analyzes track irregularity time series data by using gray incidence degree models and methods of data transformation, trying to find the connotative relationship between the time series data. In this paper, GM (1,1 is based on first-order, single variable linear differential equations; after an adaptive improvement and error correction, it is used to predict the long-term changing trend of track irregularity at a fixed measuring point; the stochastic linear AR, Kalman filtering model, and artificial neural network model are applied to predict the short-term changing trend of track irregularity at unit section. Both long-term and short-term changes prove that the model is effective and can achieve the expected accuracy.

  15. A 2-D NUMERICAL IRREGULAR WAVE TANK AND ITS VERIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ben-xia; YU Xi-ping; YU Yu-xiu

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical irregular wave tank based on the potential wave theory was developed.A source term was used inside the domain to generate waves, and outgoing waves were dissipated by sponge layers and transmitted by radiation boundary.The σ-coordinate transformation was introduced to map the time-dependent irregular physical domain to a fixed regular computational domain, and thus the free surface and bottom boundary conditions could be implemented precisely.The model was verified by simulating the nonlinear regular and irregular wave propagation on constant-depth water, as well as regular waves reflected from a vertical wall, and satisfactory agreement between numerical results and analytical solutions was obtained.The present numerical model is proved to be an effective tool for a long-duration simulation of coastal wave dynamics where the wave reflection is significant.

  16. Inferring the Coronal Density Irregularity from EUV Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the density structure of the solar corona is important for modeling both coronal heating and the solar wind. Direct measurements are difficult because of line-of-sight integration and possible unresolved structures. We present a new method for quantifying such structure using density-sensitive EUV line intensities to derive a density irregularity parameter, a relative measure of the amount of structure along the line of sight. We also present a simple model to relate the inferred irregularities to physical quantities, such as the filling factor and density contrast. For quiet Sun regions and interplume regions of coronal holes, we find a density contrast of at least a factor of three to ten and corresponding filling factors of about 10-20%. Our results are in rough agreement with other estimates of the density structures in these regions. The irregularity diagnostic provides a useful relative measure of unresolved structure in various regions of the corona.

  17. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  18. A hybrid grid method in an auxiliary coordinate system for irregular fluid-solid interface modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yingming; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Li, Jinli

    2017-03-01

    Seismic wave propagation in a fluid-solid environment cannot be simulated with a single wave equation, but can be described by use of the acoustic and viscoelastic wave equations for their respective fluid and solid parts. Proper boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface based on the relationship between pressure and stress are crucial when combining the two different wave equations. Traditional finite difference methods have had difficulties in dealing with the irregular fluid-solid interface topography. The Cartesian grids discretization leads to artificial reflections and diffractions during the conversion between acoustic wave and elastic waves. We propose a variable coordinate transformation methodology to simulate seismic waves in a fluid-solid environment. An irregular fluid-solid interface can be transformed into a horizontal interface, so that pressure and stress can be well converted. We also introduce a multiblock coordinate transformation (MCT) method which meshes each layer with curvilinear grids to transform the interface topography into a horizontal one, thereby allocating vertical sampling points adaptively. The grid size is determined adaptively based on the shape and the parameters of the target area, which reduces in size in when the layers are thin or exhibit low velocities. A Lebedev-standard staggered grid scheme is applied to the MCT method to reduce both the computational cost associated with the Lebedev grid scheme and the instability in the auxiliary coordinate system when using a standard staggered grid scheme.

  19. Refraction traveltime tomography with irregular topography using the unwrapped phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Traveltime tomography has long served as a stable and efficient tool for velocity estimation, especially for the near surface. It, however, suffers from some of limitations associated with ray tracing and high-frequency traveltime in velocity inversion zones and ray shadow regions. We develop a tomographic approach based on traveltime solutions obtained by tracking the phase (instantaneous traveltime) of the wavefield solution of the Helmholtz wave equation. Since the instantaneous-traveltime does not suffer from phase wrapping, the inversion algorithm using the instantaneous-traveltime has the potential to generate robust inversion results. With a high damping factor, the instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides refraction tomography similar results, but from a single frequency. Despite the Helmholtz-based solver implementation, the tomographic inversion handles irrgular topography. The numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm generates a convergent smooth velocity model, which looks very much like a tomographic result. Next, we plan to apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion algorithm to real seismic data acquired from the near surface with irregular topography.

  20. Velocity selective optical pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.

    1982-01-01

    We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...

  1. Shape reconstruction of irregular bodies with multiple complementary data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, M.; Viikinkoski, M.; Carry, B.; Durech, J.; Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Marchis, F.; Hestroffer, D.

    2011-10-01

    Irregularly shaped bodies with at most partial in situ data are a particular challenge for shape reconstruction and mapping. We have created an inversion algorithm and software package for complementary data sources, with which it is possible to create shape and spin models with feature details even when only groundbased data are available. The procedure uses photometry, adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, and interferometry as main data sources, and we are extending it to include range-Doppler radar and thermal infrared data as well. The data sources are described as generalized projections in various observable spaces [2], which allows their uniform handling with essentially the same techniques, making the addition of new data sources inexpensive in terms of computation time or software development. We present a generally applicable shape support that can be automatically used for all surface types, including strongly nonconvex or non-starlike shapes. New models of Kleopatra (from photometry, adaptive optics, and interferometry) and Hermione are examples of this approach. When using adaptive optics images, the main information from these is extracted from the limb and terminator contours that can be determined much more accurately than the image pixel brightnesses that inevitably contain large errors for most targets. We have shown that the contours yield a wealth of information independent of the scattering properties of the surface [3]. Their use also facilitates a very fast and robustly converging algorithm. An important concept in the inversion is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. We have developed a mathematicallly rigorous scheme for this purpose. The resulting maximum compatibility estimate [3], a multimodal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, ensures that the actual information content of each source is properly taken into account, and that the resolution scale of the ensuing model can be reliably estimated

  2. Robust Fusion of Irregularly Sampled Data Using Adaptive Normalized Convolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for image fusion from irregularly sampled data. The method is based on the framework of normalized convolution (NC), in which the local signal is approximated through a projection onto a subspace. The use of polynomial basis functions in this paper makes NC equivalent to

  3. Structure Irregularity Impedes Drop Roll-Off at Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Søgaard, Emil

    2014-01-01

    We study water drop roll-off at superhydrophobic surfaces with different surface patterns. Superhydrophobic microcavity surfaces were fabricated in silicon and coated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS). For the more irregular surface patterns, the observed increase in roll...

  4. Modelling of Ionospheric Irregularities and Total Electron Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    heating and their Isle stital filtering effet fteAeioatnao aa effects on transitinospherte propagation. Pro,’dnso ips~ obse-vations of the temporal...irregularities at different heights. Radio Phys. Quantum Electron-. Lngl. Transl.. 20. 1246. 1977. S) tfttu-uatiolis. It serrs . ho%&ever thait ;to outer

  5. Predictions of Stellar Occultations by Irregular Satellites up to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Gomes, Altair; Assafin, Marcelo; Beauvalet, Laurene; Desmars, Josselin; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Camargo, Julio I.; Morgado, Bruno Eduardo; Braga Ribas, Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Due to their orbital configurations, it is believed the irregular satellites of the Giant Planets were captured by their host planets during the Solar System evolution. It is important to know their physical parameters such as size, shape, albedo and composition in an attempt to access their origin. The best ground-based technique to do so is by stellar occultations.With the release of the GAIA catalog and the publication of a large database of positions of irregular satellites (Gomes-Júnior et al., 2015), the position of the stars and the ephemeris of the satellites are improved to better predict stellar occultation.The present work predicts such events for the 8 largest irregular satellites of Jupiter and the largest irregular satellite of Saturn, Phoebe, up to 2020. Another motivation is the passage of Jupiter in front of the Galatic Plane in 2019-2020 increasing a lot the number of stars to be occulted. The same happens with Saturn in 2018.

  6. An Analysis of the Incidence of Recruiter Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    provided data and answered our questions about the incidence of recruiter irregularities. The people are Ted Disney at the U.S. Army Recruiting...are more likely to ultimately be substantiated. The Army and the Navy, in contrast, have fairly expansive inter- nal reporting requirements that

  7. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  8. 50 KPC radio trails behind irregular galaxies in A1367

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Jaffe, W.

    1987-11-01

    The authors report the discovery of exceptionally bright and extended trails of radio emission behind three irregular galaxies in the periphery of the cluster A 1367, in the Coma Supercluster. Turbulent interaction with the intergalactic medium or a past catastrophic collision between galaxies could have produced the observed phenomenon.

  9. Robust Fusion of Irregularly Sampled Data Using Adaptive Normalized Convolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Vliet, L.J. van; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for image fusion from irregularly sampled data. The method is based on the framework of normalized convolution (NC), in which the local signal is approximated through a projection onto a subspace. The use of polynomial basis functions in this paper makes NC equivalent to

  10. Active Absorption Wave Maker System for Irregular Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳淑学; 王先涛; 李木国; 郭美谊

    2003-01-01

    The key problem in physical model tests with highly reflective structures is to prevent the multiple reflections between the reflective structures and the wave maker. An active absorption wave maker system is described and the representative frequency method for irregular waves is proposed in this paper. Physical model tests are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. GHASP : An Halpha kinematic survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - VI. New Halpha data cubes for 108 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Epinat, B; Marcelin, M; Balkowski, C; Daigle, O; Hernández, O; Chemin, L; Carignan, C; Gach, J L; Balard, P

    2008-01-01

    We present the Fabry-Perot observations obtained for a new set of 108 galaxies that completes the GHASP survey (Gassendi HAlpha survey of SPirals). The GHASP survey consists of 3D Ha data cubes for 203 spiral and irregular galaxies, covering a large range in morphological types and absolute magnitudes, for kinematics analysis. The GHASP sample is by now the largest sample of Fabry-Perot data ever published. We have derived Ha data cubes from which are computed Ha maps, radial velocity fields as well as residual velocity fields, position-velocity diagrams, rotation curves and the kinematical parameters for almost all galaxies. Original improvements in the determination of the kinematical parameters, rotation curves and their uncertainties have been implemented in the reduction procedure. This new method is based on the whole 2D velocity field and on the power spectrum of the residual velocity fieldrather than the classical method using successive crowns in the velocity field. Among the results, we point out th...

  12. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  13. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  14. Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.

    All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.

    We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ18O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.

  15. Dynamics of landslides on comets of irregular shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    Landslides were observed on a few comet's nuclei, e.g. [1], [2]. The mechanism of their origin is not obvious because of very low gravity. According to [2] fluidization and multiphase transport of cometary material could be an explanation. We investigate here motion of the mass on a comet of irregular shape. The mechanism responsible for the low friction is not considered here. In fact, mass motion often occurs without contact with the surface. The motion could be triggered by meteoroids impacts or by the tidal forces. Comets nuclei are believed to be built of soft materials like snow and dust. The landing of Philae on the comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko indicates a different situation. According to [1]: "thermal probe did not fully penetrate the near-surface layers, suggesting a local resistance of the ground to penetration of >4 megapascals, equivalent to >2 megapascal uniaxial compressive strength". Here we assume that elastic properties of comet's nuclei could be similar to elastic properties of dry snow, namely Young modulus is assumed to be 1 - 100 MPa, see [3] and [4]. We consider nucleus of the shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with density 470 kg/m3. The impact or tidal forces result in changing of rotation of the comet. In general, the vector of angular velocity will be a subject to nutation that results in changing of centrifugal force, and consequently could be a factor triggering landslides. Note that nucleus' shape does not resemble the shape of surface of constant value of gravitational potential (i.e. 'geoid'). Our numerical models indicate the parts of the nucleus where landslides start and other parts where landslides stop. Of course, the regolith from the first type of regions would be removed to the regions of the second class. The motion of the mass is often complicated because of complicated distribution of the gravity and complicated shape of the nucleus. Acknowledgement: The research is partly supported by Polish National Science Centre

  16. Operation of SCINDA Receiver at the University of Calcutta and Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Space weather , Ionospheric Irregularities, scintillation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...using the SCINDA data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Space weather , Ionospheric Irregularities, scintillation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF... Space Weather Studies Principal Investigator: Dr. Ashik Paul Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics University of Calcutta ashik_paul

  17. Departure of some parameter-dependent spectral statistics of irregular quantum graphs from random matrix theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hul, Oleh; Seba, Petr; Sirko, Leszek

    2009-06-01

    Parameter-dependent statistical properties of spectra of totally connected irregular quantum graphs with Neumann boundary conditions are studied. The autocorrelation functions of level velocities c(x) and c[over ](omega,x) as well as the distributions of level curvatures and avoided crossing gaps are calculated. The numerical results are compared with the predictions of random matrix theory for Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) and for coupled GOE matrices. The application of coupled GOE matrices was justified by studying localization phenomena in graphs' wave functions Psi(x) using the inverse participation ratio and the amplitude distribution P(Psi(x)) .

  18. Investigation of the temperature gradient instability as the source of midlatitude quiet time decameter-scale ionospheric irregularities: 2. Linear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltrass, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; de Larquier, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Greenwald, R. A.; Erickson, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Previous joint measurements by the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar and the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radar located at Wallops Island, Virginia, have identified the presence of opposed meridional electron density and temperature gradients in the region of decameter-scale electron density irregularities that have been proposed to be responsible for low-velocity Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter observed by SuperDARN radars. The temperature gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) have been extended into the kinetic regime appropriate for SuperDARN radar frequencies and investigated as the causes of these irregularities. A time series for the growth rate of both TGI and GDI has been developed for midlatitude ionospheric irregularities observed by SuperDARN Greenwald et al. (2006). The time series is computed for both perpendicular and meridional density and temperature gradients. This growth rate comparison shows that the TGI is the most likely generation mechanism for the irregularities observed during the experiment and the GDI is expected to play a relatively minor role in irregularity generation.

  19. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs

  20. Velocity fields of distant galaxies with FORS2 at the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Bodo L; Da Rocha, Cristiano; Böhm, Asmus; Kapferer, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F; Schindler, Sabine; Verdugo, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to efficiently obtain two-dimensional velocity fields of distant, faint and small, emission-line galaxies with FORS2 at the VLT. They are examined for kinematic substructure to identify possible interaction processes. Numerical simulations of tidal interactions and ram-pressure effects reveal distinct signatures observable with our method. We detect a significant fraction of galaxies with irregular velocity fields both in the field and cluster environments.

  1. A technique for inferring zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of intensity (S4) and phase (σφ) scintillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Groves, Keith M.; Rino, Charles L.; Doherty, Patricia H.

    2016-08-01

    The zonal drift of ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of a scintillating satellite signal made with a pair of closely spaced antennas. The Air Force Research Laboratory-Scintillation Network Decision Aid (AFRL-SCINDA) network operates a small number of very high frequency (VHF) spaced-receiver systems at low latitudes for this purpose. A far greater number of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) scintillation monitors are operated by the AFRL-SCINDA network (25-30) and the Low-Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are too widely separated from each other for cross-correlation techniques to be effective. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of S4, σφ, and the propagation geometry. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this approach requires assumptions regarding the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment suggest that the ratio of σφ to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift. We validate the technique using VHF spaced-receiver measurements of zonal irregularity drift obtained from the AFRL-SCINDA network. While the spaced-receiver technique remains the preferred way to monitor the drift when closely spaced antenna pairs are available, our technique provides a new opportunity to monitor zonal irregularity drift using regional or global networks of widely separated GNSS scintillation monitors.

  2. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2000-01-01

    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  3. Finding Causes of Irregular Headways Integrating Data Mining and AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Irregular headways could reduce the public transit service level heavily. Finding out the exact causes of irregular headways will greatly help to develop efficient strategies aiming to improve transit service quality. This paper utilizes bus GPS data of Harbin to evaluate the headway performance and proposes a statistical method to identify the abnormal headways. Association mining is used to dig deeper and recognize six causes of bus bunching. The AHP, embedded data analysis, is applied to determine the weight of each cause in the case of that these causes are combined with each other constantly. Results show that the front bus has a greater effect on bus bunching than the following bus, and the traffic condition is the most critical factor affecting bus headway.

  4. Irregular Migration - between legal status and social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    . Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...... labour migration Thomsen, Trine Lund1 1Centre for the Studies of Migration and Diversity (CoMID), Aalborg University, Denmark Citation Information: Nordic Journal of Migration Research. Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 308–315, ISSN (Online) 1799-649X, ISSN (Print) , DOI: 10.2478/v10202-012-0001-0, December 2012...... Publication History: Published Online: 2012-12-28 Abstract How do Polish migrant workers experience the process of migration and how does irregular migration status influence their life plans? In this article I analyse how the shifts between different legal statuses may be related to the social practices...

  5. An analysis of the timing irregularities for 366 pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G; Kramer, M

    2009-01-01

    We provide an analysis of timing irregularities observed for 366 pulsars. Observations were obtained using the 76-m Lovell radio telescope at the Jodrell Bank Observatory over the past 36 years. These data sets have allowed us to carry out the first large-scale analysis of pulsar timing noise over time scales of > 10yr, with multiple observing frequencies and for a large sample of pulsars. Our sample includes both normal and recycled pulsars. The timing residuals for the pulsars with the smallest characteristic ages are shown to be dominated by the recovery from glitch events, whereas the timing irregularities seen for older pulsars are quasi-periodic. We emphasise that previous models that explained timing residuals as a low-frequency noise process are not consistent with observation.

  6. Constructing C1 Continuous Surface on Irregular Quad Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GUO Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for surface construction on irregular quad meshes as extensions to uniform B-spline surfaces. Given a number of control points, which form a regular or irregular quad mesh, a weight function is constructed for each control point. The weight function is defined on a local domain and is C1 continuous. Then the whole surface is constructed by the weighted combination of all the control points. The property of the new method is that the surface is defined by piecewise C1 bi-cubic rational parametric polynomial with each quad face. It is an extension to uniform B-spline surfaces in the sense that its definition is an analogy of the B-spline surface, and it produces a uniform bi-cubic B-spline surface if the control mesh is a regular quad mesh. Examples produced by the new method are also included.

  7. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  8. Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macauley, Donal

    2012-12-01

    Little\\'s Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.

  9. New Secular Resonances Involving the Irregular Satellies of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, M.; Burns, J. A.; Carruba, V.; Nicholson, P. D.; Jacobson, R. A.

    2002-09-01

    We report that some of the recently found irregular satellites of Saturn, and possibly Uranus, dwell in hitherto unobserved resonances. These include the Kozai resonance, previously postulated but never before found in our Solar System. We also describe a new type of secular resonance for irregular satellites at higher inclinations (40-45o ), which locks the satellite's pericenter with that of the planet. Comparing theoretical predictions (Carruba et al. 2002)with the orbits of those Saturnian irregulars having inclinations around 45o , we found that Saturn's 2000_S5 and 2000_S6 have extremely slow motions of their arguments of pericenter, and their pericenters are presently almost 90 degrees away from their nodes (Jacobson 2001). Longitude of pericenter of another prograde satellite of Saturn, 2000_S3, precesses extremely slowly (Jacobson 2001). We simulated the motion of a clone of 2000_S3 and found that its longitude of pericenter could be librating around that of Saturn, with a very long period (on the order of 30,000 years) and large amplitude (120o ). The nature of this resonance appears different from one affecting certain Jovian moons (Saha and Tremaine 1993). If the amplitude of pericenter librations can be that large, another Saturnian irregular, 2000_S2, could be in a similar resonance. The Uranian retrograde satellites Stephano and Caliban (at inclinations of about 140o ) also have ϖ's that precess very slowly and are roughly aligned with Uranus's (Jacobson 2000). We are currently examining their motion to see if they are also in a resonance similar to that seen at 2000_S3.

  10. Multicolor Photometry of the Uranus Irregular Satellites Sycorax and Caliban

    CERN Document Server

    Maris, M; Cremonese, G; Fulle, M; Maris, Michele; Carraro, Giovanni; Cremonese, Gabriele; Fulle, Marco

    2001-01-01

    We report on accurate BVRI photometry for the two Uranus irregular satellites Sycorax and Caliban. We derive colours, showing that Sycorax is bluer than Caliban. Our data allows us to detect a significant variability in the Caliban's light-curve, which suggests an estimated period of about 3 hours. Despite it is the brighter of the two bodies, Sycorax does not display a strong statistically significant variability. However our data seem to suggest a period of about 4 hours

  11. Generalizing Lifted Tensor-Product Wavelets to Irregular Polygonal Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2002-04-11

    We present a new construction approach for symmetric lifted B-spline wavelets on irregular polygonal control meshes defining two-manifold topologies. Polygonal control meshes are recursively refined by stationary subdivision rules and converge to piecewise polynomial limit surfaces. At every subdivision level, our wavelet transforms provide an efficient way to add geometric details that are expanded from wavelet coefficients. Both wavelet decomposition and reconstruction operations are based on local lifting steps and have linear-time complexity.

  12. Irregular and adaptive sampling for automatic geophysic measure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagnina, Davide; Lo Presti, Letizia; Mulassano, Paolo

    2000-07-01

    In this paper a sampling method, based on an irregular and adaptive strategy, is described. It can be used as automatic guide for rovers designed to explore terrestrial and planetary environments. Starting from the hypothesis that a explorative vehicle is equipped with a payload able to acquire measurements of interesting quantities, the method is able to detect objects of interest from measured points and to realize an adaptive sampling, while badly describing the not interesting background.

  13. Photometry of Irregular Satellites of Uranus and Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Tommy; Holman, Matthew J.; Fraser, Wesley C.

    2004-09-01

    We present BVR photometric colors of six Uranian and two Neptunian irregular satellites, collected using the Magellan Observatory (Las Campanas, Chile) and the Keck Observatory (Manua Kea, Hawaii). The colors range from neutral to light red, and like the Jovian and the Saturnian irregular satellites (Grav et al.) there is an apparent lack of the extremely red objects found among the Centaurs and Kuiper Belt objects. The Uranian irregular satellites can be divided into three possible dynamical families, but the colors collected show that two of these dynamical families, the Caliban and Sycorax clusters, have heterogeneous colors. Of the third possible family, the 168° cluster containing two objects with similar average inclinations but quite different average semimajor axes, only one object (U XXI Trinculo) was observed. The heterogeneous colors and the large dispersion of the average orbital elements lead us to doubt that they are collisional families. We favor single captures as a more likely scenario. The two Neptunian satellites observed (N II Nereid and S/2002 N1) both have very similar neutral, Sun-like colors. Together with the high collisional probability between these two objects over the age of the solar system (Nesvorný et al.; Holman et al.), this suggests that S/2002 N1 is a fragment of Nereid, broken loose during a collision or cratering event with an undetermined impactor.

  14. Histogram Planimetry Method for the Measurement of Irregular Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiloglu, Nebil; Yildiz, Kemalettin; Cem Akpinar, Ali; Gorgulu, Tahsin; Sirinoglu, Hakan; Ozcan, Arzu

    2016-09-01

    Irregularly shaped wounds or flap borders usually require specified software or devices to measure their area and follow-up wound healing. In this study, an easy way of area measurement called histogram planimetry (HP) for wounds with irregular geometric shapes is defined and compared to conventional millimetric wound measurement. Ten irregularly bordered geometric shapes were measured by 4 different individuals working as surgical assistants using both HP and manual millimetric measurement tools. The amount of time for each wound shape calculation as well as the measurements of the wound areas were noted. All measurements were compared for each method and between each individual using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 measurement methods by means of measured areas; however, measurement time was significantly lower when the HP method was used. There also was no significant difference between the individuals' measurements and calculation times. These results indicated that HP is useful as a conventional millimetric square wound measurement technique with significantly lower measurement times. Due to the development of photo-editor software technologies, measurements in the surgical field have become more accurate and rapid than conventional manual methods without consuming the time and energy needed for other studies. A future study including comparisons between the presented method and complex computerized measurement methods, in terms of duration and accuracy, may provide additional supportive data for the authors' method.

  15. Streak Tectonics associated with the Irregular Slab Topography at Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the physical features of streak tectonics (or abrasion tectonics) associated with the irregular surface topography, such as local convex rise or seamount(s), on the downgoing slab at subduction zones. Marine surveys such as sophisticated multichannel seismic experiments have revealed the detailed vertical structure of the overriding lithosphere as well as the upper-most part of downgoing slab at the fore-arc zone from the trench axis through the inclined plate interface zone at a depth of 10 - 15km. As previously, some researchers (e.g., Eguchi, 1979, 1996; Hilde, 1983; Suzan, 2010) demonstrated the influence of the surface irregular topography of the slab on the occurrence regime of greater interplate seismic events with the low-angle underthrusting slip. However, the earlier studies didn't incorporate any effects due to the spherical buckling of oceanic lithosphere with the age-dependent elastic thickness at subduction zones. In the case of a subduction zone where the slab age has gradually been decreasing or increasing, the spherical buckling of elastic shell (e.g., Eguchi, 2012) suggests that the interplate mechanical coupling strength varies with time and space. Next, we argue some tectonic features of strain-rate dependent deformation at areas surrounding an isolated-seamount on the downgoing slab, such as the quasi-static fluid lubrication, boundary lubrication or plastic deformation. We then discuss how to represent mathematically the streak process during a larger interplate seismic event at the non-uniform plate interface zone.

  16. Asymmetry Factors Shaping Regular and Irregular Bursting Rhythms in Central Pattern Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Irene; Varona, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Central Pattern Generator (CPG) circuits are neural networks that generate rhythmic motor patterns. These circuits are typically built of half-center oscillator subcircuits with reciprocally inhibitory connections. Another common property in many CPGs is the remarkable rich spiking-bursting dynamics of their constituent cells, which balance robustness and flexibility to generate their joint coordinated rhythms. In this paper, we use conductance-based models and realistic connection topologies inspired by the crustacean pyloric CPG to address the study of asymmetry factors shaping CPG bursting rhythms. In particular, we assess the role of asymmetric maximal synaptic conductances, time constants and gap-junction connectivity to establish the regularity of half-center oscillator based CPGs. We map and characterize the synaptic parameter space that lead to regular and irregular bursting activity in these networks. The analysis indicates that asymmetric configurations display robust regular rhythms and that large regions of both regular and irregular but coordinated rhythms exist as a function of the asymmetry in the circuit. Our results show that asymmetry both in the maximal conductances and in the temporal dynamics of mutually inhibitory neurons can synergistically contribute to shape wide regimes of regular spiking-bursting activity in CPGs. Finally, we discuss how a closed-loop protocol driven by a regularity goal can be used to find and characterize regular regimes when there is not time to perform an exhaustive search, as in most experimental studies. PMID:28261081

  17. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  18. An investigation into design of fair surfaces over irregular domains using data-dependent triangulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sharma; O P Sha

    2006-10-01

    Design of fair surfaces over irregular domains is a fundamental problem in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD), and has applications in engineering sciences (in aircraft, automobile, ship science etc.). In the design of fair surfaces over irregular domains defined over scattered data, it was widely accepted till recently that the classical Delaunay triangulation be used because of its global optimum property. However, in recent times it has been shown that for continuous piecewise linear surfaces, improvements in the quality of fit can be achieved if the triangulation pattern is made dependent upon some topological or geometric property of the data set or is simply data dependent. The fair surface is desired because it ensures smooth and continuous surface planar cuts, and these in turn ensure smooth and easy production of the surface in CAD/CAM, and favourable resistance properties. In this paper, we discuss a method for construction of $C^1$ piecewise polynomial parametric fair surfaces which interpolate prescribed $\\mathfrak{R}^3$ scattered data using spaces of parametric splines defined on $\\mathfrak{R}^3$ triangulation. We show that our method is more specific to the cases when the projection on a 2-D plane may consist of triangles of zero area, numerically stable and robust, and computationally inexpensive and fast. Numerical examples dealing with surfaces approximated on plates, and on ships have been presented.

  19. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2016-03-21

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical simulations on noise-free and noisy cases are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Continuous Time Random Walks for the Evolution of Lagrangian Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Dentz, Marco; Comolli, Alessandro; Borgne, Tanguy Le; Lester, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    We develop a continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities in steady heterogeneous flows based on a stochastic relaxation process for the streamwise particle velocities. This approach describes persistence of velocities over a characteristic spatial scale, unlike classical random walk methods, which model persistence over a characteristic time scale. We first establish the relation between Eulerian and Lagrangian velocities for both equidistant and isochrone sampling along streamlines, under transient and stationary conditions. Based on this, we develop a space continuous CTRW approach for the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lagrangian velocities. While classical CTRW formulations have non-stationary Lagrangian velocity statistics, the proposed approach quantifies the evolution of the Lagrangian velocity statistics under both stationary and non-stationary conditions. We provide explicit expressions for the Lagrangian velocity statistics, and determine the behaviors of...

  1. Using a Calculated Pulse Rate with an Artificial Neural Network to Detect Irregular Interbeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Bih-Chyun; Lin, Wen-Piao

    2016-03-01

    Heart rate is an important clinical measure that is often used in pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Valid detection of irregular heartbeats is crucial in the clinical practice. We propose an artificial neural network using the calculated pulse rate to detect irregular interbeats. The proposed system measures the calculated pulse rate to determine an "irregular interbeat on" or "irregular interbeat off" event. If an irregular interbeat is detected, the proposed system produces a danger warning, which is helpful for clinicians. If a non-irregular interbeat is detected, the proposed system displays the calculated pulse rate. We include a flow chart of the proposed software. In an experiment, we measure the calculated pulse rates and achieve an error percentage of pulse rates to detect irregular interbeats, we find such irregular interbeats in eight participants.

  2. Transnational activities and aspirations of irregular migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Meeteren (Masja)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe literature on immigrant transnationalism and on irregular immigration suggests irregular migrants engage relatively little in transnational activities because of the obstacles associated with their legal and economic statuses. Drawing on participant observation and in-depth interview

  3. Shadow Places: Patterns of Spatial Concentration and Incorporation of Irregular Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried); M.R.P.J.R.S. van San (Marion)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSummary: In Western countries, irregular immigrants constitute a sizeable segment of the population. By combining quantitative and qualitative research methods, this article describes and explains irregular immigrants’ patterns of spatial concentration and incorporation in the Netherland

  4. Velocities in Solar Pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.

    1996-05-01

    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  5. Counting forbidden patterns in irregularly sampled time series. II. Reliability in the presence of highly irregular sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Konstantinos; McCullough, Michael; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We are motivated by real-world data that exhibit severe sampling irregularities such as geological or paleoclimate measurements. Counting forbidden patterns has been shown to be a powerful tool towards the detection of determinism in noisy time series. They constitute a set of ordinal symbolic patterns that cannot be realised in time series generated by deterministic systems. The reliability of the estimator of the relative count of forbidden patterns from irregularly sampled data has been explored in two recent studies. In this paper, we explore highly irregular sampling frequency schemes. Using numerically generated data, we examine the reliability of the estimator when the sampling period has been drawn from exponential, Pareto and Gamma distributions of varying skewness. Our investigations demonstrate that some statistical properties of the sampling distribution are useful heuristics for assessing the estimator's reliability. We find that sampling in the presence of large chronological gaps can still yield relatively accurate estimates as long as the time series contains sufficiently many densely sampled areas. Furthermore, we show that the reliability of the estimator of forbidden patterns is poor when there is a high number of sampling intervals, which are larger than a typical correlation time of the underlying system.

  6. Long-period irregular pulsations under the conditions of a quiet magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazhkovskaya, N. A.; Klain, B. I.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous observations of high-latitude long-period irregular pulsations at frequencies of 2.0-6.0 mHz ( ipcl) and magnetic field disturbances in the solar wind plasma at low geomagnetic activity ( Kp ~ 0) have been studied. The 1-s data on the magnetic field registration at Godhavn (GDH) high-latitude observatory and the 1-min data on the solar wind plasma and IMF parameters for 2011-2013 were used in an analysis. Ipcl (irregular pulsations continuous, long), which were observed against a background of the IMF Bz reorientation from northward to southward, have been analyzed. In this case other solar wind plasma and IMF parameters, such as velocity V, density n, solar wind dynamic pressure P = ρ V 2 (ρ is plasma density), and strength magnitude B, were relatively stable. The effect of the IMF Bz variation rate on the ipcl spectral composition and intensity has been studied. It was established that the ipcl spectral density reaches its maximum (~10-20 min) after IMF Bz sign reversal in a predominant number of cases. It was detected that the ipcl average frequency ( f) is linearly related to the IMF Bz variation rate (Δ Bz/Δ t). It was shown that the dependence of f on Δ Bz/Δ t is controlled by the α = arctan( By/ Bx) angle value responsible for the MHD discontinuity type at the front boundary of magnetosphere. The results made it possible to assume that the formation of the observed ipcl spectrum, which is related to the IMF Bz reorientation, is caused by solar wind plasma turbulence, which promotes the development of current sheet instability and surface wave amplification at the magnetopause.

  7. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  8. 高速磁浮轨道不平顺测试及分析%Measurements and analysis of track irregularities on high speed maglev lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin SHI; Wen-shan FANG; Ying-jie WANG; Yang ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Track irregularities have an obvious effect on the running stability and ride quality of maglev trains traveling at high speeds. We developed a measurement principle and data processing method which were applied to the high speed maglev line operating. The method, which includes partial filtering, integration, resampling of signal, and a low pass Butterworth filter, was used to calculate the irregularities of the maglev line. The spectra of the sample space were evaluated. A 7-parameter power spectrum density (PSD) function of line irregularities was fitted, based on the measured data. Analysis of the results showed that the maglev stator plane irregularities were better than conventional railway vertical rail irregularities when the wavelength was 5-100 m, and worse when the wavelength was 1-5 m. The PSD of maglev guidance plane irregularities was similar to that of cross level GRSHL (German railway spectra of high irregularity) when the wavelength was 10-100 m. The irregularities were clearly worse than cross level rail irregularities in a conventional railway when the wavelength was 1-10 m. This suggests that short-wavelength track irregularities of a maglev line caused by deviation and inclination of the stator plane should be minimized by strictly controlling the machining error of functional components during construction and maintenance.%研究目的:提出高速磁浮轨道不平顺处理方法,分析不平顺特征,拟合形成轨道谱,为线路空间维护提供参考。  创新要点:实现了对高速磁浮轨道不平顺的提取,确定了轨道谱参数。  研究方法:基于惯性基准法,运用数字信号处理方法实现对轨道不平顺的提取,采用最小二乘法拟合得到定子面和导向面七参数轨道谱。  重要结论:定子面和导向面分别在5-100 m和10-100 m波长范围内平顺性状态较好,由功能件安装等引起的1-5 m和1-10 m波长范围内的偏差应严格控制。

  9. Simulation of EMIC growth and propagation within the plasmaspheric plume density irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Spasojevic, M.

    2012-12-01

    In situ data from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instruments onboard the LANL spacecraft are used to study the growth and propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the presence of cold plasma irregularities in the plasmaspheric plume. The data corresponds to the 9 June 2001 event, a period of moderate geomagnetic activity with highly irregular density structure within the plume as measured by the MPA instrument at geosynchoronus orbit. Theory and observations suggest that EMIC waves are responsible for energetic proton precipitation, which is stronger during geomagnetically disturbed intervals. These waves propagate below the proton gyrofrequency, and they appear in three frequency bands due to the presence of heavy ions, which strongly modify wave propagation characteristics. These waves are generated by ion cyclotron instability of ring current ions, whose temperature anisotropy provides the free energy required for wave growth. Growth maximizes for field-aligned propagation near the equatorial plane where the magnetic field gradient is small. Although the wave's group velocity typically stays aligned with the geomagnetic field direction, wave-normal vectors tend to become oblique due to the curvature and gradient of the field. On the other hand, radial density gradients have the capability of guiding the waves and competing against the magnetic field effect thus favoring wave growth conditions. In addition, enhanced cold plasma density reduces the proton resonant energy where higher fluxes are available for resonance, and hence explaining why wave growth is favored at higher L-shell regions where the ratio of plasma to cyclotron frequency is larger. The Stanford VLF 3D Raytracer is used together with path-integrated linear growth calculations to study the amplification and propagation characteristics of EMIC waves within the plasmaspheric plume formed during the 9 June 2001 event. Cold multi-ion plasma is assumed for raytracing

  10. Optimización de la distribución de piezas irregulares en chapas // Irregular parts nesting problem optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lastres - Aleaga

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente artículo se realiza un estudio de diferentes esquemas de solución reflejados en laliteratura, que tratan el problema de la distribución de piezas irregulares en superficies planas conanidamiento bidimensional (Nesting. Fueron analizados diferentes esquemas de solución, siendolos que consideran la geometría real de la pieza, durante la evaluación y posicionamiento de lasmismas sobre la superficie a cortar, los que garantizan el mayor aprovechamiento del material. Elesquema propuesto se caracteriza por un tratamiento gráfico de las piezas que permite acelerar elproceso de reconocimiento y evaluación de opciones de acoplamiento entre ellas, así como lacreación de poblaciones de conglomerados crecientes para su ubicación definitiva en la superficie acortar. En la generación de poblaciones de opciones de solución, se utiliza un algoritmo derivado delmétodo de Integración de Variables, además se realiza la comparación de los resultados obtenidospor el método propuesto, con otros resultados generados por procedimientos desarrollados pordiferentes autores, alcanzando mejorar los valores de aprovechamiento de material y la reduccióndel tiempo de generación de soluciones.Palabras claves: Distribución de piezas irregulares en superficies; optimización; Métodos Evolutivos;_________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article, we study various solution schemes reported in the literature, which deal with theproblem of irregular parts distribution on flat surfaces with two-dimensional nesting. Different solutionschemes were analyzed, which they consider to be the real geometry of the part, during theevaluation and positioning them on the surface to be cut, ensuring the best use of the material. Theproposed scheme is characterized by a graphic treatment of the pieces that can accelerate theprocess of recognition and evaluation of options coupling between them, as well as

  11. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  12. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  13. An Efficient GPU General Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication for Irregular Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weifeng; Vinter, Brian

    2014-01-01

    matrices. Recent work on GPU SpGEMM has demonstrated rather good both time and space complexity, but works best for fairly regular matrices. In this work we present a GPU SpGEMM algorithm that particularly focuses on the above three problems. Memory pre-allocation for the result matrix is organized......General sparse matrix-matrix multiplication (SpGEMM) is a fundamental building block for numerous applications such as algebraic multigrid method, breadth first search and shortest path problem. Compared to other sparse BLAS routines, an efficient parallel SpGEMM algorithm has to handle extra...... irregularity from three aspects: (1) the number of the nonzero entries in the result sparse matrix is unknown in advance, (2) very expensive parallel insert operations at random positions in the result sparse matrix dominate the execution time, and (3) load balancing must account for sparse data in both input...

  14. Hybrid numerical scheme for nonlinear two-dimensional phase-change problems with the irregular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jaeyuh [Chang Jung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Hantaw [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-01

    A hybrid numerical scheme combining the Laplace transform and control-volume methods is presented to solve nonlinear two-dimensional phase-change problems with the irregular geometry. The Laplace transform method is applied to deal with the time domain, and then the control-volume method is used to discretize the transformed system in the space domain. Nonlinear terms induced by the temperature-dependent thermal properties are linearized by using the Taylor series approximation. Control-volume meshes in the solid and liquid regions during simulations are generated by using the discrete transfinite mapping method. The location of the phase-change interface and the isothermal distributions are determined. Comparison of these results with previous results shows that the present numerical scheme has good accuracy for two-dimensional phase-change problems. (orig.). With 10 figs.

  15. A HIGHER-ORDER NON-HYDROSTATIC MODEL FOR SIMULATING WAVE PROPAGATION OVER IRREGULAR BOTTOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Cong-fang; XING Yah; JIN Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A higher-order non-hydrostatic model is developed to simulate the wave propagation over irregular bottoms based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system.In the model,an explicit projection method is adopted to solve the unsteady Euler equations.Advection terms are integrated explicitly with the MacCormack's scheme,with a second-order accuracy in both space and time.Two classical examples of surface wave propagation are used to demonstrate the capability of the model.It is found that the model with only two vertical layers could accurately simulate the motion of waves,including wave shoaling,nonlinearity,dispersion,refraction,and diffraction phenomena.

  16. Power Thresholds of SPEAR-induced Irregularities at Very High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Robinson, T. R.; Thomas, E. C.; Baddeley, L. J.; Dhillon, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) is a high power facility uniquely located to study the plasma physics and geophysics of the very high latitude magnetosphere and ionosphere. Recently, experiments have been undertaken to investigate the power thresholds required to excite field-aligned irregularities (FAIs). The artificially stimulated FAI act as intense targets in the fields of view of the CUTLASS HF coherent radar pair. Data derived using this artificial backscatter technique demonstrate that SPEAR effective radiated powers (ERPs) of the order of 1 MW or less are capable of initiating the formation of the FAI. This represents only 1/30th of the heating capability of SPEAR. Ionospheric hysteresis was also observed to occur during the experiments. This relates to the nature of the instability which leads to their excitation.

  17. Variation in response dynamics of regular and irregular vestibular-nerve afferents during sinusoidal head rotations and currents in the chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Sung; Minor, Lloyd B; Della Santina, Charles C; Lasker, David M

    2011-05-01

    In mammals, vestibular-nerve afferents that innervate only type I hair cells (calyx-only afferents) respond nearly in phase with head acceleration for high-frequency motion, whereas afferents that innervate both type I and type II (dimorphic) or only type II (bouton-only) hair cells respond more in phase with head velocity. Afferents that exhibit irregular background discharge rates have a larger phase lead re-head velocity than those that fire more regularly. The goal of this study was to investigate the cause of the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents at high-frequency head rotations. Under the assumption that externally applied galvanic currents act directly on the nerve, we derived a transfer function describing the dynamics of a semicircular canal and its hair cells through comparison of responses to sinusoidally modulated head velocity and currents. Responses of all afferents were fit well with a transfer function with one zero (lead term). Best-fit lead terms describing responses to current for each group of afferents were similar to the lead term describing responses to head velocity for regular afferents (0.006 s + 1). This finding indicated that the pre-synaptic and synaptic inputs to regular afferents were likely to be pure velocity transducers. However, the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents could not be explained solely by the ratio of type I to II hair cells (Baird et al 1988), suggesting that the variation was caused by a combination of pre- (type of hair cell) and post-synaptic properties.

  18. Spin-velocity correlations of optically pumped atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, R., III; McGuyer, B. H.; Olsen, B. A.; Happer, W.

    2012-08-01

    We present efficient theoretical tools for describing the optical pumping of atoms by light propagating at arbitrary directions with respect to an external magnetic field, at buffer-gas pressures that are small enough for velocity-selective optical pumping (VSOP) but large enough to cause substantial collisional relaxation of the velocities and the spin. These are the conditions for the sodium atoms at an altitude of about 100 km that are used as guidestars for adaptive optics in modern ground-based telescopes to correct for aberrations due to atmospheric turbulence. We use spin and velocity relaxation modes to describe the distribution of atoms in spin space (including both populations and coherences) and velocity space. Cusp kernels are used to describe velocity-changing collisions. Optical pumping operators are represented as a sum of poles in the complex velocity plane. Signals simulated with these methods are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and with preliminary experiments in our laboratory.

  19. Earth-based and Cassini-spacecraft Observations of Irregular Moons of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.; Roatsch, T.; Rosenberg, H.; Neukum, G.

    2010-10-01

    We observed irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn with the ISS camera of the Cassini spacecraft [1] and with the 1.23-m telescope of the Calar Alto observatory in Spain [2]. Scientific goals are the determination of rotation periods, rotation-axis orientations, spin directions, size parameters, color properties, phase curves, and searches for binaries. Himalia (J6), the largest of the irregular jovian moons, has been imaged by Cassini on 18 Dec 2000; a body size of 120±5 km x 150±10 km and an albedo of 0.05±0.01 have been measured [3,4]. Earth-based observations revealed that Himalia's rotation period is probably 9.3 h, which is in agreement with the 9.2 to 9.8 h suggested by [5], although periods of 7.8 or 11.7 h cannot be ruled out yet. In the saturnian system, 10 irregular moons were scheduled for Cassini ISS observations over time spans >9 hrs until end-of-August, 2010. Observation distances vary between 5.6 and 22 million km, corresponding to ISS pixel scales of 34 to 130 km. For the objects measured so far, the rotation periods vary significantly. For instance, Siarnaq (S/2000 S3; size 40 km) and Ymir (S/2000 S1; 18 km) exhibit rotation periods of 6.7 h and 7.3 h, respectively, while Kiviuq (S/2000 S5; 16 km) might take about 22 h for one rotation. First results from the observation campaigns will be presented at the meeting. References: [1] Porco, C.C., et al. (2004), Space Sci. Rev. 115, 363; [2] http://www.caha.es/CAHA/Telescopes/1.2m.html; [3] Denk, T. et al. (2001), Conference on Jupiter (Planet, Satellites & Magnetosphere), Boulder, CO, 25-30 June 2001, abstracts book p. 30-31; [4] Porco, C.C., et al. (2003), Science 299, 1541; [5] Degewij, J., et al. (1980), Icarus 44, 520. We gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Space Agency (DLR) Bonn through grant no. 50 OH 0305.

  20. [Irregular secretion of prolactin in infertile women with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, Carlos A; Echavarria Sánchez, Mirna; Juárez Bengoa, Armando

    2007-02-01

    Abnormal frequency and pulse amplitud of prolactin secretion in micro and macroprolactinomas has been atributed to a dysfunctional tumoral lactotrope. Previous evidence suggests that non tumoral hyperprolactinemia is caused by a hypothalamic dysfunction. The regularity of prolactin secretion has not been studied with cuantitative methods in patients with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea (NPG) which could be considered an entity that precedes non tumoral and tumoral hyperprolactinemia. To analyze the 24-hour prolactin secretion pattern and its secretion regularity in a group of infertile women with normoprolactinemic galatorea. A transversal-comparative study was carried out in 6 infertile women with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea and 4 healthy women as controls. The 24 hour prolactin profile, the ratio night time mean concentration/daytime mean concentrattion (NM/DM ratio) and apparent entropy (Ap En, Ap En ratio) were compared in the two groups. Blunting of the nyctohemeral rythm and nocturn hyperprolactinaemia occurred in patients with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea (NPG). NM/DM ratio was lower in patients with NPG than in controls (1.28 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.75 +/- 0.05; p= 0.01). Higher irregularity of prolactin secretion was found in patients with NPG (ApEn: 0.853 +/- 0.158 vs 0.608 +/- 0.171, p=0.04; Ap En ratio: 0.839 +/- 0.11 vs 0.661 +/- 0.14; p=0.04). The irregularity of prolactin secretion in patients with NPG is not dependant on the presence of a pituitary tumour which suggests that a hypothalamic dysfunction underlies this condition. An irregular secretion and a higher daily mass production of prolactin in patients with NPG could explain both galactorrhea and infertility.

  1. The sunspot cycle and ``auroral'' F layer irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, J.; Kersley, L.; Rodger, A. S.

    The use of the word ``aurora'' for many different observations at high latitudes has limited the concepts involved; this is particularly true for F region irregularities. Observations setting the position of the auroral oval (Starkov and Fel'dshtein, 1970) were made using primarily the 555.7-nm green line, which is emitted predominantly at E layer heights. These observations have shown that the change in position of the auroral oval for low values of Kp as a function of sunspot cycle is of the order of 1° to 2° between sunspot maximum and sunspot minimum. However, irregularities in the F region show much larger solar cycle variations in the locations of the equatorward boundary, typically 10°. A review of scintillation data indicates that at a given auroral latitude, the scintillation activity increases with sunspot number. In addition, for a constant scintillation intensity, the equatorward boundary moves to lower latitudes as sunspot maximum is approached. We review existing spread F studies and show that for quiet geomagnetic conductions, there is lower occurrence during years of low sunspot numbers than during years of high sunspot numbers. However, the spread F index, related to Δ f/f0F2, is higher during years of low sunspot number than during years of high sunspot number. We demonstrate that this apparent dichotomy can be reconciled by using a new method of normalizing the spread F index by the maximum electron concentration of the F layer. We briefly discuss the possible explanations for the observed solar cycle variations of irregularity occurrence in terms of the absolute values and gradients of electron concentration and the E region conductivity.

  2. Irregular breakfast eating and health status among adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Yeu-Sheng

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE, health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1% and girls (52.9% ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6% reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04, and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly.

  3. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  4. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  5. Similarity estimators for irregular and age-uncertain time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many data sets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age-uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel-based cross-correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011) and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013) against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF). We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case, coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60-55% (in the linear case) to 53-42% (for the nonlinear processes) of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time series irregularity

  6. Similarity estimators for irregular and age uncertain time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many datasets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel based cross correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011) and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013) against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF). We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60-55% (in the linear case) to 53-42% (for the nonlinear processes) of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time series irregularity

  7. Reducing Inconsistent Rules Based on Irregular Decision Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰轶东; 张霖; 刘连臣

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of rule extraction from data sets using the rough set method. For inconsistent rules due to improper selection of split-points during discretization, and/or to lack of information, we propose two methods to remove their inconsistency based on irregular decision tables.By using these methods, inconsistent rules are eliminated as far as possible, without affecting the remaining consistent rules. Experimental test indicates that use of the new method leads to an improvement in the mean accuracy of the extracted rules.

  8. Multicolor Photometry of the Uranus Irregular Satellites Sycorax and Caliban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Michele; Carraro, Giovanni; Cremonese, Gabriele; Fulle, Marco

    2001-05-01

    We report on accurate BVRI photometry for the two Uranian irregular satellites Sycorax and Caliban. We derive colors showing that Sycorax is bluer than Caliban. Our data allow us to detect a significant variability in Caliban's light curve, which suggests an estimated period of about 3 hr. Although it is the brighter of the two bodies, Sycorax does not display a strong, statistically significant variability. However, our data seem to suggest a period of about 4 hr. Based on observations carried out at ESO La Silla (Chile). See the Asteroid Properties Database (1993), http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/sbnhtml/.

  9. Favelas y fraccionamientos irregulares en São Paulo1

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Helena Menna Barreto; Ceneviva, Laura Vieira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: EL VIRAJE DE LOS AÑOS SETENTA Para las poblaciones de escasos recursos de São Paulo, la ocupación de terrenos en las favelas y en los fraccionamientos irregulares, o el arrendamiento de cuartos en los inmuebles deteriorados de la zona urbanizada (cortiços), constituyen desde hace varias décadas la única posibilidad de acceso a la vivienda. Hacia mediados de los años setenta, la situación alcanzó un nivel crítico. Para los cientos de miles de habitantes que habían adquirido terre...

  10. El derecho al trabajo y los extranjeros irregulares

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El artículo analiza desde una perspectiva de derecho constitucional la situación en España de los trabajadores extranjeros irregulares, defiende que estos poseen un derecho al trabajo de rango constitucional e intenta delimitar el contenido de este derecho en relación al derecho al trabajo del que son titulares los españoles. Plantea como conclusión que el contenido de dicho derecho no tiene porqué coincidir con el de los españoles. De hecho, considera que difiere del de est...

  11. Irregular subharmonic cluster patterns in an autonomous photoelectrochemical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miethe, Iljana; García-Morales, Vladimir; Krischer, Katharina

    2009-05-15

    Unusual subharmonic cluster patterns are observed during the oscillatory electro-oxidation of n-Si(111) under illumination. 2D in situ imaging of the electrode by means of an ellipsometric setup allows local variations in the oxide layer thickness to be monitored. The local oscillators exhibit an irregular distribution of the amplitude with the extrema locked to the constant base frequency of the total current. In addition, Ising 2-phase clustering occurs at half the base frequency. This intrinsic dynamics is described by means of a modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  12. TCM Treatment for Gynaecological Diseases-Irregular Menstruation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engin CAN

    2008-01-01

    @@ Menstruation is the periodic shedding(usually monthly)of the lining of the womb.Generally speaking,menstruation starts during puberty around 10-16 years old and continues until the menopause about 45-55 years old.An average menstrual cycle is about 28 days,but it may vary between 24-35 days.According to a study most women have more than 500 periods in a lifetime.Any abnormality of the above menstrual conditins can be regarded as irregular.

  13. Similarity estimators for irregular and age uncertain time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many datasets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel based cross correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011 and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013 against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF. We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60–55% (in the linear case to 53–42% (for the nonlinear processes of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time

  14. In situ measurements of plasma irregularity growth in the cusp ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksavik, K.; Moen, J.; Lester, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Bekkeng, J. K.

    2012-11-01

    The Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI-2) sounding rocket was launched on 5 December 2008 from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The high-resolution rocket data are combined with data from an all-sky camera, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar, and the SuperDARN Hankasalmi radar. These data sets are used to characterize the spatial structure of F region irregularities in the dayside cusp region. We use the data set to test two key mechanisms for irregularity growth; the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and gradient drift (GD) instabilities. Except for a promising interval of 4-6 km irregularities, the KH growth rate was found to be too slow to explain the observed plasma irregularities. The time history of the plasma gives further support that structured particle precipitation could be an important source of kilometer- to hectometer-scale “seed” irregularities, which are then efficiently broken down into decameter-scale irregularities by the GD mechanism.

  15. Human Rights of Irregular Immigrants: A Challenge for the Universality of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luljeta Ikonomi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Irregular immigration is a phenomenon with a substantial impact for the majority of the countries. The paper analyses whether there is an adequate human rights framework for protection of irregular immigrants or whether the irregular status exempts the migrants from the protection of international human rights law. If this is the case, then the human rights universality has failed. The paper takes into consideration the developments in the International and EU Law, as well as in the jurisprudence of the international tribunals regarding protection of irregular immigrants. It is divided into three main sections. The first section informs briefly on the dynamics of irregular immigrants; the second section analyses the legislation on irregular immigration from the perspective of the state sovereignty, the third section analyses the human rights law and the protection it affords to irregular immigrants, pursuant to the interpretation of International tribunals.

  16. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A.; Iurino, A.; Settanni, G.; Andrisani, A.; Stifanelli, P. F.; Larizza, P.; Mazzia, F.; Mininni, R. M.; Tangaro, S.; Bellotti, R.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  17. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  18. Hyper Velocity Impact - Damage Assessment System (HVI-DAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A device is proposed that can track the electrical charge dispersion that is created when hyper velocity impact (HVI) occurs between two entities with a closing...

  19. THE PANCHROMATIC STARBURST IRREGULAR DWARF SURVEY (STARBIRDS): OBSERVATIONS AND DATA ARCHIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    Understanding star formation in resolved low mass systems requires the integration of information obtained from observations at different wavelengths. We have combined new and archival multi-wavelength observations on a set of 20 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies to create a data archive of calibrated, homogeneously reduced images. Named the panchromatic “STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey” archive, the data are publicly accessible through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. This first release of the archive includes images from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Telescope (GALEX), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) Multiband Imaging Photometer instrument. The data sets include flux calibrated, background subtracted images, that are registered to the same world coordinate system. Additionally, a set of images are available that are all cropped to match the HST field of view. The GALEX and Spitzer images are available with foreground and background contamination masked. Larger GALEX images extending to 4 times the optical extent of the galaxies are also available. Finally, HST images convolved with a 5″ point spread function and rebinned to the larger pixel scale of the GALEX and Spitzer 24 μm images are provided. Future additions are planned that will include data at other wavelengths such as Spitzer IRAC, ground-based Hα, Chandra X-ray, and Green Bank Telescope H i imaging.

  20. Wave propagation and group velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1960-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  1. Irregular Information of the Rainstorm in a Continuous Rainy Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ming-juan

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze irregular information of the local rainstorm process (during 5-6 September,2009) in autumn continuous rainy weather in north Shaanxi. [Method] Based on V-3θ chart, routine observation data provided by Micaps system, satellite cloud chart and data at 100 automatic meteorological stations of Shaanxi, for rainstorm process in autumn continuous rainy weather in north Shaanxi during 4-10 September, 2009, by using structure analysis method, irregular information in local rainstorm weather was analyzed. [Result]In whole precipitation process, atmospheric structure in rainstorm zone presented obvious evolution process. Before precipitation, typical atmospheric structure information of the sudden convective weather appeared. Obvious ultra-low temperature structure appeared at 200 hPa, and consistent clockwise rotation flow was at vertical wind field. Meanwhile, water vapor was sufficient, and unstable energy existed at low layer. Structure characteristic of the convective strong precipitation appeared by advancing for 12h. As precipitation weakened, unstable energy was released, and ultra-low temperature disappeared. [Conclusion]The research provided some thoughts for the forecast of such weather process.

  2. Using Radio Irregularity for Increasing Residential Energy Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miljković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio irregularity phenomenon is often considered as a shortcoming of wireless networks. In this paper, the method of using radio irregularity as an efficient human presence detection sensor in smart homes is presented. The method is mainly based on monitoring variations of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI within the messages used for the communication between wireless smart power outlets. The radio signals used for the inter-outlets communication can be absorbed, diffracted or reflected by objects in their propagation paths. When a human enters the existing radio communication field, the variation of the signal strength at the receiver is even more expressed. Based on the detected changes and compared to the initial thresholds set during the initialization phase, the system detects human presence. The proposed solution increases user awareness and automates the power control in households, with the primary goal to contribute in residential energy savings. Compared to conventional sensor networks, this approach preserves the sensorial intelligence, simplicity and low installation costs, without the need for additional sensors integration.

  3. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion is a long-term, inevitable process, lessens the thickness and load carrying capacity of structures. Old steel structures are more vulnerable to buckling, yielding and fracture due to corrosion. In lieu of a detailed analysis, average thickness assumption is employed for general type of corrosion. However, the estimation of load carrying capacity reduction of corroded structures typically need a much higher level of accuracy, since the actual corroded plates would have irregular surfaces. The objective of this article is to determine the effect of general corrosion on reduction of elastic buckling strength of both-sided partially corroded plates with irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis using finite element method is employed for Euler stress calculation of corroded plates. The effects of different influential parameters are investigated and it is found that, aspect ratio of plate, location of corroded area, standard deviation of thickness diminution and concentration of corrosion have influence on reduction of elastic buckling strength. Reduction of elastic buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss. The higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of elastic buckling strength.

  4. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic blood flow through irregular multi-stenosed arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Norzieha; Amin, Norsarahaida; Chakravarty, Santabrata; Mandal, Prashanta Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Flow of an electrically conducting fluid characterizing blood through the arteries having irregular shaped multi-stenoses in the environment of a uniform transverse magnetic-field is analysed. The flow is considered to be axisymmetric with an outline of the irregular stenoses obtained from a three-dimensional casting of a mild stenosed artery, so that the physical problem becomes more realistic from the physiological point of view. The marker and cell (MAC) and successive-over-relaxation (SOR) methods are respectively used to solve the governing unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and pressure-Poisson equation quantitatively and to observe the flow separation. The results obtained show that the flow separates mostly towards the downstream of the multi-stenoses. However, the flow separation region keeps on shrinking with the increasing intensity of the magnetic-field which completely disappears with sufficiently large value of the Hartmann number. The present observations certainly have some clinical implications relating to magnetotherapy which help reducing the complex flow separation zones causing flow disorder leading to the formation and progression of the arterial diseases.

  5. Hydrophobic pulses predict transmembrane helix irregularities and channel transmembrane units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claustres Mireille

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few high-resolution structures of integral membranes proteins are available, as crystallization of such proteins needs yet to overcome too many technical limitations. Nevertheless, prediction of their transmembrane (TM structure by bioinformatics tools provides interesting insights on the topology of these proteins. Methods We describe here how to extract new information from the analysis of hydrophobicity variations or hydrophobic pulses (HPulses in the sequence of integral membrane proteins using the Hydrophobic Pulse Predictor, a new tool we developed for this purpose. To analyze the primary sequence of 70 integral membrane proteins we defined two levels of analysis: G1-HPulses for sliding windows of n = 2 to 6 and G2-HPulses for sliding windows of n = 12 to 16. Results The G2-HPulse analysis of 541 transmembrane helices allowed the definition of the new concept of transmembrane unit (TMU that groups together transmembrane helices and segments with potential adjacent structures. In addition, the G1-HPulse analysis identified helix irregularities that corresponded to kinks, partial helices or unannotated structural events. These irregularities could represent key dynamic elements that are alternatively activated depending on the channel status as illustrated by the crystal structures of the lactose permease in different conformations. Conclusions Our results open a new way in the understanding of transmembrane secondary structures: hydrophobicity through hydrophobic pulses strongly impacts on such embedded structures and is not confined to define the transmembrane status of amino acids.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of Irregular Buildings and Buddha Statues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, M.-j.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional laser scanning could acquire object's surface data quickly and accurately. However, the post-processing of point cloud is not perfect and could be improved. Based on the study of 3D laser scanning technology, this paper describes the details of solutions to modelling irregular ancient buildings and Buddha statues in Jinshan Temple, which aiming at data acquisition, modelling and texture mapping, etc. In order to modelling irregular ancient buildings effectively, the structure of each building is extracted manually by point cloud and the textures are mapped by the software of 3ds Max. The methods clearly combine 3D laser scanning technology with traditional modelling methods, and greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy of the ancient buildings restored. On the other hand, the main idea of modelling statues is regarded as modelling objects in reverse engineering. The digital model of statues obtained is not just vivid, but also accurate in the field of surveying and mapping. On this basis, a 3D scene of Jinshan Temple is reconstructed, which proves the validity of the solutions.

  7. Oral breathing: dentomaxillofacial irregularities associated with nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human beings are conditioned to breathe through the nose and feed through the mouth, when this physiological mechanism is interrupted facial and general growth is also affected. Objective: To characterize Angle´s Class II malocclusions in oral breathers with nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions. Method: A correlational, observational and descriptive study was developed from December 2004 to November 2005 including clinical examination of 833 children out of which 60 were selected to take part in this study. Each case was analyzed in Orthodontia, Orthopedics and Otolaryngology consultations. The studied variables were: age, sex, nasorespiratory disorders, orthopedic dysfunctions, dental-maxillofacial irregularities. Results: The mot frequent dental-maxillofacial irregularities were: bilabial incompetence, transversal micrognathism, vestibular version, overjet and overbite. The most important nasorespiratory dysfunctions found in these children were adenoiditis, and tonsil hypertrophy. The most outstanding orthopedic dysfunction was ciphosis. Conclusion: It is conclusive to state that there is a high relationship between dentomaxillofacial anomalies and nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions.

  8. Scatter dose summation for irregular fields: speed and accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWyngaert, J K; Siddon, R L; Bjarngard, B E

    1986-05-01

    Using program IRREG as a standard, we have compared speed and accuracy of several algorithms that calculate the scatter dose in an irregular field. All the algorithms, in some manner, decompose the irregular field into component triangles and obtain the scatter dose as the sum of the contributions from those triangles. Two of the algorithms replace each such component triangle with a sector of a certain "effective radius": in one case the average radius of the triangle, in the other the radius of the sector having the same area as the component triangle. A third algorithm decomposes each triangle further into two right triangles and utilizes the precalculated "equivalent radius" of each, to find the scatter contribution. For points near the center of a square field, all the methods compare favorably in accuracy to program IRREG, with less than a 1% error in total dose and with approximately a factor of 3-5 savings in computation time. Even for extreme rectangular fields (2 cm X 30 cm), the methods using the average radius and the equivalent right triangles agree to within 2% in total dose and approximately a factor of 3-4 savings in computation time.

  9. Upper mantle low-velocity layers beneath the High Lava Plains imaged by scattered-wavefield migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; James, D. E.; Wagner, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The High Lava Plains (HLP) in eastern Oregon represents one of the most active intraplate magmatic provinces on Earth. This region's recent tectonic history is dominated by voluminous mid-Miocene outpourings of the Steens and Columbia River flood basalts, followed by a period of bimodal volcanic activities, generating two roughly orthogonal time-progressive rhyolitic hotspot tracks: the northeastern-trending Snake River Plain and the northwestern-trending High Lava Plains. The causes of this complex tectonomagmatic evolution are not well understood, and geophysical constraints have been lacking regarding the detailed crustal and upper mantle structure in this region. From 2006 to 2009, a passive seismic experiment with the deployment of 118 broadband seismic stations was carried out as part of the multidisciplinary High Lava Plains project, which aims to investigate the causes of continental intraplate tectonomagmatism. These stations covered central and eastern Oregon, northern Nevada, and southwestern Idaho, with average spacing of 15-20 km, yielding unprecedented data density in the HLP region. A number of tomographic and receiver function studies has revealed complex structures beneath HLP. These include irregular Moho topography across the HLP, and concentrated low velocity anomalies in the uppermost mantle beneath regions of Holocene volcanism in southeastern Oregon (including areas of the Owyhee Plateau), as well as beneath volcanic centers near Steens Mountain and Newberry volcano. We complement these previous studies by generating high-resolution seismic images from scattered wavefield to detect seismic discontinuities beneath the HLP. We process 80 high-quality teleseismic events with good azimuthal coverage using a 2-D teleseismic migration algorithm based on the Generalized Radon Transform. The resulting migration images indicate the presence of several main features: 1) a prominent and varying Moho topography: the Moho is at ~40 km depth east of the

  10. Observational study of ionospheric irregularities and GPS scintillations associated with the 2012 tropical cyclone Tembin passing Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Liu, Zhizhao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the ionospheric responses observed in Hong Kong to a Typhoon, namely, Tembin, from the aspects of the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities and scintillations, using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from a ground-based GPS scintillation monitoring station in Hong Kong and from GPS receivers on board the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites. The ionospheric irregularities and scintillations are characterized by the rate of total electron content variation index (ROTI) and the amplitude scintillation index S4, respectively. The typhoon Tembin formed over the western North Pacific during 18-30 August 2012 and approached Hong Kong during 24-27 August 2012 with the closest distance 290 km from Hong Kong at around 17 universal time (UT) on 25 August 2012. The ground-based observations indicate that in the nighttime period of 20:00-02:00 local time (LT = UT + 8 h) on 26 August when Tembin passed closely to Hong Kong, the ionospheric irregularities and scintillations of GPS signals were observed in the south of Hong Kong, over the area of 13°N ~ 23°N in latitude and 110°E ~ 120°E in longitude. From the COSMIC observations, it shows that the number of radio occultation scintillation events peaks on 26 August 2012 during the passage of Tembin. Without the presence of strong geomagnetic or solar activity, it is suspected that gravity waves might be generated in the lower atmosphere and likely seed the formation of ionospheric plasma irregularities. This work for the first time from Hong Kong observes the sign of coupling between the lower atmosphere and ionosphere in a tropical cyclone event, combining both ground- and space-based GPS observation data.

  11. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  12. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.

    1998-02-01

    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  13. Velocity correlations of intermediate mass fragments produced in central collisions Au + Au at 100-400 A. MeV: a key to the space-time structure of a fragmenting source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, B. (Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear and Hadron Physics); Kotte, R. (Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear and Hadron Physics); Moesner, J. (Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear and Hadron Physics); Neubert, W. (Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear and Hadron Physics); Wohlfarth, D. (Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear and Hadron Physics)

    1994-01-01

    Velocity correlations of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) with Z[>=]3, produced in central and semi-central collisions of Au+Au at 100, 150, 250 and 400 A.MeV beam energy, are extracted from measurements with the FOPI (phase I) detector system at SIS in GSI Darmstadt. The comparison of the data with a Coulomb dominated final-state interaction model points to time scale of [tau][approx]25 fm/c or less for emitting IMFs from a radially expanding and fast-multifragmenting source with radius R[approx]14 fm. (orig.)

  14. Separating the regular and irregular energy levels and their statistics in Hamiltonian system with mixed classical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B

    1995-01-01

    We look at the high-lying eigenstates (from the 10,001st to the 13, 000th) in the Robnik billiard (defined as a quadratic conformal map of the unit disk) with the shape parameter \\lambda=0.15. All the 3,000 eigenstates have been numerically calculated and examined in the configuration space and in the phase space which - in comparison with the classical phase space - enabled a clear cut classification of energy levels into regular and irregular. This is the first successful separation of energy levels based on purely dynamical rather than special geometrical symmetry properties. We calculate the fractional measure of regular levels as \\rho_1=0.365\\pm 0.01 which is in remarkable agreement with the classical estimate \\rho_1=0.360\\pm 0.001. This finding confirms the Percival's (1973) classification scheme, the assumption in Berry-Robnik (1984) theory and the rigorous result by Lazutkin (1981,1991). The regular levels obey the Poissonian statistics quite well whereas the irregular sequence exhibits the fractional...

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE WAVE-INDUCED RIP CURRENTS UNDER IRREGULAR BATHYMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ming-xiao

    2012-01-01

    A process-based 3-D hydrodynamic model is established to simulate the rip current structures under irregular bathymetty.The depth-varying wave-induced residual momentum,the surface rollers,the turbulent mixing and the wave-current interactions are considered.Experimental datasets are used to validate the model,and it is shown that the model can effectively describe the 3-D structures of the rip currents in both normal and oblique wave incident cases.The flow patterns of the rip currents see various characteristics for different incident wave directions.In the normal incident case,pairs of counter-rotating primary circulation cells are formed,and an offshore rip flow occurs in the embayment troughs.The peak seaward velocities occur at the top of the bed boundary layer,and the undertow is incorporated in addition to the rip currents.In the oblique incident case,the longshore currents are dominant,which result in a meandering flow along the depth contour,and the undertow is weaker compared to that in the normal incident condition.

  16. Segregation characteristics of irregular binaries in gas solid fluidized beds——An ANN-approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abanti Sahoo; Gopendra Kishore Roy

    2008-01-01

    Binary mixtures of irregular materials of different particle sizes and/or particle densities are fluidized in a 15-cm diameter column with a perforated plate distributor. An attempt has been made in this work to determine the segregation characteristics of jetsam particles for both the homogeneous and heterogeneous binary mixtures in terms of segregation distance by correlating it to the various system parameters, viz. initial static bed height, height of a layer of particles above the bottom grid, superficial gas velocity and average particle size and/or particle densities of the mixture through the dimensional analysis. Correlation on the basis of Artificial Neural Network approach has also been developed with the above system parameters thereby authenticating the development of correlation by the former approach. The calculated values of the segregation distance obtained for both the homogeneous and heterogeneous binary mixtures from both the types of fluidized beds (i. e. under the static bed condition and the fluidized bed condition) have also been compared with each other.

  17. Subluminal velocity of OAM-carrying beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bareza, Nestor D

    2015-01-01

    We report a consequence of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a beam to its group velocity. We calculate the group velocity $v_g$ of Laguerre-Gauss beam ($\\emph{LG}$) with $\\ell$ and at $p=0$. The $v_g$ reduction of $\\emph{LG}$ beam even in free space is observed to have dependence on both orbital or winding number $\\ell$ and the beam's divergence $\\theta_0$. We found that light possessing higher $\\ell$ travels relatively slower than that with lower $\\ell$ values. This suggests that light of different OAM separate in the temporal domain along propagation and it is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in light with OAM from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.

  18. Mid-UV HST Imaging of Nearby Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, V. A.; Windhorst, R. A.; Chiarenza, C. A. T.; Odewahn, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; MacKenty, J.; de Jong, R. S.; de Grijs, R.; Eskridge, P. B.; Frogel, J. A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kobulnicky, H.; Hibbard, J. E.; Matthews, L. D.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2000-12-01

    Distant galaxies observed by HST appear to have primarily late-type, irregular, or peculiar morphologies. However, because of their high redshift they are observed in their restframe mid-UV. Nearby galaxies can look dramatically different in the rest-frame mid- and far-UV. We must therefore ask if these high redshift morphologies are due to real evolutionary effects or band-pass shifting and surface brightness dimming at high redshift. To address this, we have conducted a survey with HST of 37 nearby galaxies of various Hubble types and inclinations in two mid-UV bands. Most of these galaxies have supporting ground based data in UBVRJHK. A comparison of the photometric properties of these galaxies in these different band-passes will lead to a better ability to separate true evolutionary effects from the morphological K-correction. We will present and discuss preliminary results from the HST survey and ground-based observations in UBVR. Our preliminary results suggest that the late-types imaged so far are a heterogeneous mixture. More than half of the few irregulars/peculiars/mergers show a mid-UV F300W morphology that is similar to I-band F814W, but with important differences due to recognizable dust-lanes blocking out UV light, star-formation ``ridges,'' and hot stars or star-clusters that are mostly visible in F300W but not in F814W. Others yield significantly different classifications in F300W and F814W. We acknowledge NASA grant GO-8645.01-99A from STScI and the NASA Space Grant. This project is based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  19. Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross-section without recurring to nonphysical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.

  20. Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannoni, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross section without recurring to non--physical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.

  1. Velocity of small-scale auroral ionospheric current systems over Indian Antarctic station Maitri

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girija Rajaram; A N Hanchinal; R Kalra; K Unnikrishnan; K Jeeva; M Sridharan; A Dhar

    2002-03-01

    The Indian Antarctic station Maitri (geog. 70° 45/S, 11° 45/E, geom. 66° .03S, 53°.21E) occupies a sub-auroral location during magnetically quiet conditions ( Kp < 10), but attains an auroral position when the auroral oval shifts equatorwards with increasing strength of magnetic disturbance. At the latter times, triangulation with 3 uxgate magnetometers located at the vertices of a suitable triangle provides a means of monitoring mobile auroral ionospheric current systems over Maitri. The spacing between the magnetometers is typically kept at 75-200 km, keeping in mind the scale-sizes of ∼100 km for these mobile current systems. This work reports the results of two triangulation experiments carried out around Maitri in January 1992 and January 1995, both during Antarctic summer. The velocities estimated for pulsations of the Pc4 and Pc5 type were about 0.59 km/sec in the direction 102°.7 east of due north, in the first case, and about 1-3 km/sec in the second case in the east-west direction. While several magnetometer arrays exist in the northern auroral regions (e.g., the Alberta array in Canada, the Alaskan array in the U.S. and the IMS Scandinavian array), there is no report in literature of triangulation through arrays in Antarctica, except for a one-day study by Neudegg et al 1995 for ULF pulsations of the Pc1 and Pc2 type. The velocities obtained for the Pi3 type of irregular pulsations over Antarctica in the present study tally well with those obtained for northern auroral locations.

  2. Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?

    CERN Document Server

    De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels

    2016-01-01

    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...

  3. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  4. A deeper look at the color of Saturnian irregular satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Grav, T

    2006-01-01

    We have performed broadband color photometry of the twelve brightest irregular satellites of Saturn with the goal of understanding their surface composition, as well as their physical relationship. We find that the satellites have a wide variety of different surface colors, from the negative spectral slopes of the two retrograde satellites S IX Phoebe (S'=-2.5+/-0.4 %/100nm) and S XXV Mundilfari (S'=-5.0+/-1.9 %/100nm) to the fairly red slope of S XXII Ijiraq (S'=19.5+/-0.9 %/100nm). We further find that there exist a correlation between dynamical families and spectral slope, with the prograde clusters, the Gallic and Inuit, showing tight clustering in colors among most of their members. The retrograde objects are dynamically and physically more dispersed, but some internal structure is apparent.

  5. Irregular Computations in Fortran – Expression and Implementation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Prins

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern dialects of Fortran enjoy wide use and good support on high‐performance computers as performance‐oriented programming languages. By providing the ability to express nested data parallelism, modern Fortran dialects enable irregular computations to be incorporated into existing applications with minimal rewriting and without sacrificing performance within the regular portions of the application. Since performance of nested data‐parallel computation is unpredictable and often poor using current compilers, we investigate threading and flattening, two source‐to‐source transformation techniques that can improve performance and performance stability. For experimental validation of these techniques, we explore nested data‐parallel implementations of the sparse matrix‐vector product and the Barnes–Hut n‐body algorithm by hand‐coding thread‐based (using OpenMP directives and flattening‐based versions of these algorithms and evaluating their performance on an SGI Origin 2000 and an NEC SX‐4, two shared‐memory machines.

  6. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  7. Irregular Coarse-Grain Data Parallelism under LPARX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Kohn

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available LPARX is a software development tool for implementing dynamic, irregular scientific applications, such as multilevel finite difference and particle methods, on high-performance multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD parallel architectures. It supports coarse-grain data parallelism and gives the application complete control over specifying arbitrary block decompositions. LPARX provides structural abstraction, representing data decompositions as first-class objects that can be manipulated and modified at runtime. LPARX, implemented as a C++ class library, is currently running on diverse MIMD platforms, including the Intel Paragon, Cray C-90, IBM SP2, and networks of workstations running under PVM. Software may be developed and debugged on a singe-processor workstation.

  8. Optimized puncturing distributions for irregular non-binary LDPC codes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgoglione, Matteo; Declercq, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we design non-uniform bit-wise puncturing distributions for irregular non-binary LDPC (NB-LDPC) codes. The puncturing distributions are optimized by minimizing the decoding threshold of the punctured LDPC code, the threshold being computed with a Monte-Carlo implementation of Density Evolution. First, we show that Density Evolution computed with Monte-Carlo simulations provides accurate (very close) and precise (small variance) estimates of NB-LDPC code ensemble thresholds. Based on the proposed method, we analyze several puncturing distributions for regular and semi-regular codes, obtained either by clustering punctured bits, or spreading them over the symbol-nodes of the Tanner graph. Finally, optimized puncturing distributions for non-binary LDPC codes with small maximum degree are presented, which exhibit a gap between 0.2 and 0.5 dB to the channel capacity, for punctured rates varying from 0.5 to 0.9.

  9. Computer-Generated Experimental Designs for Irregular-Shaped Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Nam K.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of computer-generated designs on irregularly-shaped, constrained regions. Overviews of the Fedorov exchange algorithm (FEA) and other exchange algorithms for the construction of D-optimal designs are given. A faster implementation of the FEA is presented, which is referred to as fast-FEA (denoted FFEA). The FFEA was applied to construct D-optimal designs for several published examples with constrained experimental regions. Designs resulting from the FFEA are more D-efficient than published designs, and provide benchmarks for future comparisons of design construction algorithms. The construction of G-optimal designs for constrained regions is also discussed and illustrated with a published example.

  10. The Orbits of Jupiter’s Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozović, Marina; Jacobson, Robert A.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the improved ephemerides for the irregular Jovian satellites. We used a combination of numerically integrated equations of motion and a weighted least-squares algorithm to fit the astrometric measurements. The orbital fits for 59 satellites are summarized in terms of state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. The current data set appears to be sensitive to the mass of Himalia, which is constrained to the range of GM = 0.13–0.28 km3 s‑2. Here, GM is the product of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, G and the body's mass, M. Our analysis of the orbital uncertainties indicates that 11 out of 59 satellites are lost owing to short data arcs. The lost satellites hold provisional International Astronomical Union (IAU) designations and will likely need to be rediscovered.

  11. Irregularities of ionospheric VTEC during lightning activity over Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Nor, W. N. A. Wan Mohd

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the irregularities of vertical total electron content (VTEC) during lightning activity and geomagnetic quiet days over Antarctic Peninsula in year 2014. During the lightning event, the ionosphere may be disturbed which may cause disruption in the radio signal. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of lightning on VTEC in the study of upper-lower interaction. The lightning data is obtained from World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the VTEC data has analyzed from Global Positioning System (GPS) for O’Higgins (OHI3), Palmer (PALV), and Rothera (ROTH). The results demonstrate the VTEC variation of ∼0.2 TECU during low lightning activity which could be caused by energy dissipation through lightning discharges from troposphere into the thermosphere.

  12. Collisional Cascade Caclulations for Irregular Satellite Swarms in Fomalhaut b

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    We describe an extensive suite of numerical calculations for the collisional evolution of irregular satellite swarms around 1--300 M-earth planets orbiting at 120 AU in the Fomalhaut system. For 10--100 M-earth planets, swarms with initial masses of roughly 1% of the planet mass have cross-sectional areas comparable to the observed cross-sectional area of Fomalhaut b. Among 30--300 M-earth planets, our calculations yield optically thick swarms of satellites for ages of 1-10 Myr. Observations with HST and ground-based AO instruments can constrain the frequency of these systems around stars in the beta Pic moving group and possibly other nearby associations of young stars.

  13. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  14. Robust Fusion of Irregularly Sampled Data Using Adaptive Normalized Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutte Klamer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel algorithm for image fusion from irregularly sampled data. The method is based on the framework of normalized convolution (NC, in which the local signal is approximated through a projection onto a subspace. The use of polynomial basis functions in this paper makes NC equivalent to a local Taylor series expansion. Unlike the traditional framework, however, the window function of adaptive NC is adapted to local linear structures. This leads to more samples of the same modality being gathered for the analysis, which in turn improves signal-to-noise ratio and reduces diffusion across discontinuities. A robust signal certainty is also adapted to the sample intensities to minimize the influence of outliers. Excellent fusion capability of adaptive NC is demonstrated through an application of super-resolution image reconstruction.

  15. Combined radar observations of equatorial electrojet irregularities at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Daytime equatorial electrojet plasma irregularities were investigated using five distinct radar diagnostics at Jicamarca including range-time-intensity (RTI mapping, Faraday rotation, radar imaging, oblique scattering, and multiple-frequency scattering using the new AMISR prototype UHF radar. Data suggest the existence of plasma density striations separated by 3–5 km and propagating slowly downward. The striations may be caused by neutral atmospheric turbulence, and a possible scenario for their formation is discussed. The Doppler shifts of type 1 echoes observed at VHF and UHF frequencies are compared and interpreted in light of a model of Farley Buneman waves based on kinetic ions and fluid electrons with thermal effects included. Finally, the up-down and east-west asymmetries evident in the radar observations are described and quantified.

  16. Tracking breather dynamics in irregular sea state conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Chabchoub, A

    2016-01-01

    Breather solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLSE) are known to be considered as backbone models for extreme events in the ocean as well as in Kerr media. These exact determinisitic rogue wave (RW) prototypes on a regular background describe a wide-range of modulation instability configurations. Alternatively, oceanic or electromagnetic wave fields can be of chaotic nature and it is known that RWs may develop in such conditions as well. We report an experimental study confirming that extreme localizations in an irregular oceanic JONSWAP wave field can be tracked back to originate from exact NLSE breather solutions, such as the Peregrine breather. Numerical NLSE as well as modified NLSE simulations are both in good agreement with laboratory experiments and highlight the significance of universal weakly nonlinear evolution equations in the emergence as well as prediction of extreme events in nonlinear dispersive media.

  17. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  18. Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.

  19. First Stellar Abundances in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Geisler, Doug; Wallerstein, George; Borissova, Jura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pagel, Bernard E. J.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Smith, Verne

    2007-12-01

    Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).

  20. How Iapetus is Painted by Saturn's Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Dan; Burns, J. A.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hedman, M. M.

    2010-10-01

    The leading hemisphere of Iapetus, Saturn's outermost regular satellite, is ten times darker than its trailing side. To explain this unique albedo distribution, Soter (1974) proposed that collisionally generated dust from the dark outer irregular satellite Phoebe has evolved inward due to radiation forces and coated Iapetus’ leading side. The recent discovery (Verbiscer et al. 2009) of the colossal Phoebe ring between the orbits of Iapetus and Phoebe indicates that Soter's mechanism is active at some level. . To calibrate the effectiveness of this source, we follow the histories of Phoebe-ring dust under the relevant perturbations and thereby evaluate the particles’ probability of striking Iapetus, as well as the expected spatial distribution on the Iapetan surface. We find that, of the long-lived particles (those larger than 4 µm), those larger than 10 µm are virtually certain to strike Iapetus. Their calculated distribution across the surface matches well the measured albedo pattern in longitude. To explain the observed bright polar caps, our computed polar-dust-deposition rates must be overwhelmed by sublimation products from equatorial regions as proposed in the thermal runaway model of Spencer & Denk (2010); we thus constrain the latter model. We also track the dust originating from all the other known irregular moons, finding that a substantial fraction of the material from retrograde moons would eventually coat Iapetus--perhaps explaining why the spectrum of Iapetus’ dark material differs somewhat from Phoebe's (Buratti et al. 2005). We find that dust from lower-eccentricity moons with inclinations nearer 180° is more likely to strike Iapetus. . Finally, of those dust particles that do not strike Iapetus, we find that most land on Titan, with a smaller fraction hitting Hyperion. As has been previously conjectured (Burns et al. 1996), such exogenous dust, coupled with Hyperion's chaotic rotation could explain Hyperion's roughly uniform, moderate

  1. How to analyse irregularly sampled geophysical time series?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Ozken, Ibrahim; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Kurths, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    One of the challenges of time series analysis is to detect dynamical changes in the dynamics of the underlying system.There are numerous methods that can be used to detect such regime changes in regular sampled times series. Here we present a new approach, that can be applied, when the time series is irregular sampled. Such data sets occur frequently in real world applications as in paleo climate proxy records. The basic idea follows Victor and Purpura [1] and considers segments of the time series. For each segment we compute the cost of transforming the segment into the following one. If the time series is from one dynamical regime the cost of transformation should be similar for each segment of the data. Dramatic changes in the cost time series indicate a change in the underlying dynamics. Any kind of analysis can be applicable to the cost time series since it is a regularly sampled time series. While recurrence plots are not the best choice for irregular sampled data with some measurement noise component, we show that a recurrence plot analysis based on the cost time series can successfully identify the changes in the dynamics of the system. We tested this method using synthetically created time series and will use these results to highlight the performance of our method. Furthermore we present our analysis of a suite of calcite and aragonite stalagmites located in the eastern Kimberley region of tropical Western Australia. This oxygen isotopic data is a proxy for the monsoon activity over the last 8,000 years. In this time series our method picks up several so far undetected changes from wet to dry in the monsoon system and therefore enables us to get a better understanding of the monsoon dynamics in the North-East of Australia over the last couple of thousand years. [1] J. D. Victor and K. P. Purpura, Network: Computation in Neural Systems 8, 127 (1997)

  2. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  3. Boosting Moving Object Indexing through Velocity Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Thi; Zhang, Rui; Ward, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    There have been intense research interests in moving object indexing in the past decade. However, existing work did not exploit the important property of skewed velocity distributions. In many real world scenarios, objects travel predominantly along only a few directions. Examples include vehicles on road networks, flights, people walking on the streets, etc. The search space for a query is heavily dependent on the velocity distribution of the objects grouped in the nodes of an index tree. Motivated by this observation, we propose the velocity partitioning (VP) technique, which exploits the skew in velocity distribution to speed up query processing using moving object indexes. The VP technique first identifies the "dominant velocity axes (DVAs)" using a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering. Then, a moving object index (e.g., a TPR-tree) is created based on each DVA, using the DVA as an axis of the underlying coordinate system. An object is maintained in the index whose DVA...

  4. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-22

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  5. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Speckhard, Eric G; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming and proposed experiments will make significant improvements. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  6. Time-frequency processing of track irregularities in high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing; Lin, Jianhui; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Track irregularities are the main source of vehicle vibration. With the increase in the speed, the track irregularities have become a more significant issue of concerned. The axle box acceleration signals can be obtained for analyzing the track irregularities, but the signals are usually non-stationary and signal processing results are not normally satisfied with the ordinary way. Thus, time-frequency distribution analysis is proposed to use in this study. To minimize the cross-terms, a new method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Cohen's class distribution has been developed and advanced. This approach has been tested with three typical simulation signals and then applied to analyze the track irregularities. The result is consistent with the result from track inspection cars. This indicates this new algorithm is suitable for analyzing the track irregularities. It can be applied in rail irregularity measurement to compensate some shortages of the track inspection cars.

  7. High Velocity Features in the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dell, C R

    2008-01-01

    We have used widely spaced in time Hubble Space Telescope images to determine tangential velocities of features associated with outflows from young stars. These observations were supplemented by groundbased telescope spectroscopy and from the resultant radial velocities, space velocities were determined for many outflows. Numerous new moving features were found and grouped into known and newly assigned Herbig Haro objects. It was found that stellar outflow is highly discontinuous, as frequently is the case, with long-term gaps of a few hundred years and that these outflow periods are marked by staccato bursts over periods of about ten years. Although this has been observed in other regions, the Orion Nebula Cluster presents the richest display of this property. Most of the large scale Herbig Haro objects in the brightest part of the Orion Nebula appear to originate from a small region northeast of the strong Orion-S radio and infrared sources. With the possible exception of HH 203, we are not able to identify...

  8. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  9. Human Rights of Irregular Immigrants: A Challenge for the Universality of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Luljeta Ikonomi

    2013-01-01

    Irregular immigration is a phenomenon with a substantial impact for the majority of the countries. The paper analyses whether there is an adequate human rights framework for protection of irregular immigrants or whether the irregular status exempts the migrants from the protection of international human rights law. If this is the case, then the human rights universality has failed. The paper takes into consideration the developments in the International and EU Law, as well as in the jurisprud...

  10. Application of generalized separation of variables to solving mixed problems with irregular boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasymov, E. A.; Guseinova, A. O.; Gasanova, U. N.

    2016-07-01

    One of the methods for solving mixed problems is the classical separation of variables (the Fourier method). If the boundary conditions of the mixed problem are irregular, this method, generally speaking, is not applicable. In the present paper, a generalized separation of variables and a way of application of this method to solving some mixed problems with irregular boundary conditions are proposed. Analytical representation of the solution to this irregular mixed problem is obtained.

  11. Limitations of estimating turbulent convection velocities from PIV

    CERN Document Server

    de Kat, Roeland; Dawson, James R; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with determination of turbulent convection velocities from particle image velocimetry (PIV). Turbulent convection velocities are of interest because they can be used to map temporal information into space. Convection velocity can be defined in several different ways. One approach is to use the phase-spectrum of two signals with a time-separation. Obtaining convection velocity per wavenumber involves determining a spatial spectrum. PIV data is limited in spatial resolution and sample length. The influence of truncation of both spatial resolution and frequency resolution is investigated, as well as the influences of spatial filtering and measurement noise. These issues are investigated by using a synthetic data set obtained by creating velocity-time data with an imposed spectrum. Results from the validation show that, when applying a Hamming window before determining the phase spectrum, there is a usable range of wavenumbers for which convection velocities can be determined. Simulation of flow ...

  12. Simple approximation method for determining field factors and tissue-peap ratios of irregularly shaped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Fujio; Kumagai, Kozo; Iseri, Takumi; Kawano, Tsutomu (National Hospital of Kumamoto (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Dose calculation of irregularly shaped fields can be made by the Clarkson technique, which however requires considerable time and is thus not practical. We investigated a simple approximation method for determining field factors (F{sub A}) and tissue-peak ratios (TPRs) for irregularly shaped fields. By this method, we approximated scatter dose by the ratio of area for an irregularly shaped field to that for the overall field (without blocking). Maximum error of equivalent square fields as determined by this method for irregularly shaped fields was -1.3% for field factors, +2.1% for TPRs and +1.4% for the F{sub A} x TPRs. (author).

  13. Irregular and regular LDPC codes with high spectrum efficiency modulation in image transmission over fading channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Piming; Yuan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    If the degree distribution is chosen carefully, the irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can outperform the regular ones. An image transmission system is proposed by combining regular and irregular LDPC codes with 16QAM/64QAM modulation to improve both efficiency and reliability. Simulaton results show that LDPC codes are good coding schemes over fading channel in image communication with lower system complexity. More over, irregular codes can obtain a code gain of about 0.7 dB compared with regular ones when BER is 10-4. So the irregular LDPC codes are more suitable for image transmission than the regular codes.

  14. Characterization of irregular seeds on gibbsites precipitated from caustic aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-hui; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; YIN Zhi-min

    2006-01-01

    The irregular surface of seeds on which gibbsites are precipitated from caustic aluminate solutions, was investigated according to the fractal theory. Two kinds of fractal dimensions were used to characterize these irregularity. Box-dimension and spectral dimension are based on the SEM images of seeds and diffusive dynamic equation ofthe precipitation respectively. Both these two dimensions are affected by the reaction temperature, evolved with different reaction conditions and can reflect the influence of irregularity of seeds on the precipitation rate. Box dimension is fit for the characterization of the irregular morphology of seeds, while spectral dimension can explain the fractal dynamic behavior.

  15. Accurate Fitting of Noisy Irregular Beam Data for the Planck Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar; Nielsen, Per Heighwood; Tauber, Jan

    2011-01-01

    the noise and the size of the dataset a spatial filter is applied, without reducing the amount of pattern information. Thereafter, a Kriging [2], [3] fitting is performed, providing a smooth model with a significant noise level reduction. As a result, this algorithm provides a much more accurate...

  16. Unsupervised building detection from irregularly spaced LiDAR and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Nicholas Sven

    As more data sources containing 3-D information are becoming available, an increased interest in 3-D imaging has emerged. Among these is the 3-D reconstruction of buildings and other man-made structures. A necessary preprocessing step is the detection and isolation of individual buildings that subsequently can be reconstructed in 3-D using various methodologies. Applications for both building detection and reconstruction have commercial use for urban planning, network planning for mobile communication (cell phone tower placement), spatial analysis of air pollution and noise nuisances, microclimate investigations, geographical information systems, security services and change detection from areas affected by natural disasters. Building detection and reconstruction are also used in the military for automatic target recognition and in entertainment for virtual tourism. Previously proposed building detection and reconstruction algorithms solely utilized aerial imagery. With the advent of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems providing elevation data, current algorithms explore using captured LiDAR data as an additional feasible source of information. Additional sources of information can lead to automating techniques (alleviating their need for manual user intervention) as well as increasing their capabilities and accuracy. Several building detection approaches surveyed in the open literature have fundamental weaknesses that hinder their use; such as requiring multiple data sets from different sensors, mandating certain operations to be carried out manually, and limited functionality to only being able to detect certain types of buildings. In this work, a building detection system is proposed and implemented which strives to overcome the limitations seen in existing techniques. The developed framework is flexible in that it can perform building detection from just LiDAR data (first or last return), or just nadir, color aerial imagery. If data from both LiDAR and aerial imagery are available, then the algorithm will use them both for improved accuracy. Additionally, the proposed approach does not employ severely limiting assumptions thus enabling the end user to apply the approach to a wider variety of different building types. The proposed approach is extensively tested using real data sets and it is also compared with other existing techniques. Experimental results are presented.

  17. Velocity centroids as tracers of the turbulent velocity statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A E A

    2004-01-01

    We use the results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to emulate spectroscopic observations, and produce maps of variations of velocity centroids to study their scaling properties. We compare them with those of the underlying velocity field, and analytic predictions presented in a previous paper (Lazarian & Esquivel 2003). We tested, with success, a criteria for recovering velocity statistics from velocity centroids derived in our previous work. That is, if >> (where S is a 2D map of ``unnormalized'', v velocity, and I integrated intensity map -column density-), then the structure function of the centroids is dominated by the structure function of velocity. We show that it is possible to extract the velocity statistics using centroids for subsonic and mildly supersonic turbulence (e.g. Mach numbers ~2.5). While, towards higher Mach numbers other effects could affect significantly the statistics of centroids.

  18. Statistics of Velocity from Spectral Data Modified Velocity Centroids

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2003-01-01

    We address the problem of studying interstellar (ISM) turbulence using spectral line data. We construct a measure that we term modified velocity centroids (MVCs) and derive an analytical solution that relates the 2D spectra of the modified centroids with the underlying 3D velocity spectrum. We test our results using synthetic maps constructed with data obtained through simulations of compressible MHD turbulence. We prove that the MVCs are able to restore the underlying spectrum of turbulent velocity. We show that the modified velocity centroids (MVCs) are complementary to the the Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA) technique that we introduced earlier. Employed together they make determining of the velocity spectral index more reliable. At the same time we show that MVCs allow to determine velocity spectra when the underlying statistics is not a power law and/or the turbulence is subsonic.

  19. POTENT Reconstruction from Mark III Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, A.; Eldar, A.; Kolatt, T.; Yahil, A.; Willick, J. A.; Faber, S. M.; Courteau, S.; Burstein, D.

    1999-09-01

    We present an improved version of the POTENT method for reconstructing the cosmological velocity and mass density fields from radial peculiar velocities, test it with mock catalogs, and apply it to the Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities. The method is improved in several ways: (1) the inhomogeneous Malmquist bias is reduced by grouping and corrected statistically in either forward or inverse analyses of inferred distances, (2) the smoothing into a radial velocity field is optimized such that window and sampling biases are reduced, (3) the density field is derived from the velocity field using an improved weakly nonlinear approximation in Eulerian space, and (4) the computational errors are made negligible compared to the other errors. The method is carefully tested and optimized using realistic mock catalogs based on an N-body simulation that mimics our cosmological neighborhood, and the remaining systematic and random errors are evaluated quantitatively. The Mark III catalog, with ~3300 grouped galaxies, allows a reliable reconstruction with fixed Gaussian smoothing of 10-12 h-1 Mpc out to ~60 h-1 Mpc and beyond in some directions. We present maps of the three-dimensional velocity and mass-density fields and the corresponding errors. The typical systematic and random errors in the density fluctuations inside 40 h-1 Mpc are +/-0.13 and +/-0.18 (for Ω=1). In its gross features, the recovered mass distribution resembles the galaxy distribution in redshift surveys and the mass distribution in a similar POTENT analysis of a complementary velocity catalog (SFI), including such features as the Great Attractor, Perseus-Pisces, and the large void in between. The reconstruction inside ~40 h-1 Mpc is not affected much by a revised calibration of the distance indicators (VM2, tailored to match the velocities from the IRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey). The volume-weighted bulk velocity within the sphere of radius 50 h-1 Mpc about the Local Group is V50=370+/-110 km s-1

  20. Irregularities in Pump-Induced Tilt Above Shallow Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, H. J.; Fabian, M.

    2003-12-01

    Near surface ground tilt induced by the extraction of fluids from subsurface reservoirs has repeatedly been used to constrain reservoir parameters. In general, pump-induced tilt is found to be proportional in strength to the pore pressure gradient created by the pumping, to be a function of poroelastic rock parameters, and to depend on the geometric configuration of the tilt sensor and the productive sections of a well. Assuming radial flow, the strike of the tilt signal should point toward the productive well. However, inversion of near surface tilt can be hampered through irregularities in the pump-induced signal and suffer from insufficient knowledge of the influence of heterogeneities in the subsoil, either within or above the reservoir. We can learn more about the impact of such heterogeneities and reduce ambiguities by analyzing case studies. New observational data from 3 test sites in Germany confirm that a variety of causes can produce irregularities in pump-induced surface deformation, namely: (1) The strike of a tilt signal can considerably deviate from the direction toward the active well. A reason could be that the steepest effective pore pressure gradient builds up in another than radial direction (thereby generating anisotropic fluid flow). Accordingly, tilt hodographs for a complete pump cycle may be elliptic rather than follow a line. (2) The normal rule of how the signal strength depends on the horizontal and the vertical distance may be violated. Structural heterogeneities in the subsurface are the most likely cause for this behaviour. (3) Recovery of the induced tilt signal following the cessation of pumping can be incomplete. This could indicate a non-reversible compaction possibly due to overexploitation of a reservoir. (4) A transient sign reversal of ground tilt may occur during the build-up phase of the signal. This feature could be an analogue to the so-called Noordbergum effect occasionally seen in the response of well levels at locations

  1. Regional climate network analysis from irregularly sampled satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. This type of data, however, also harbors a variety of conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the data, and both measurements cannot be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps and irregular time steps. Third, the time period covered by the data is often too short to perform an appropriate seasonal detrending. Here, we propose a general framework to create homogeneous anomalized time series for a (multivariate) satellite data set by combining time series from ascending and descending satellite paths or even different missions using principal component and singular spectrum analysis. We then exemplarily apply our method to sea surface temperature data obtained from the SMOS satellite mission to study small-scale regional correlative patterns covering different parts of the Aegean Sea. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the data set. By binarizing the thus obtained matrices, we obtain a network representation of the system's similarity structure. Ultimately, we use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. In a second step, we extend the study area to the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea and investigate lagged interactions between these two

  2. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  3. Visual control of walking velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles

    2011-06-01

    Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.

  4. Open loop control of an induction motor's velocity using PWM with space vectors; Control en lazo abierto de la velocidad de un motor de induccion utilizando PWM con vectores espaciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, Manuel

    2001-10-15

    This work describes the design and implementation of an open loop speed controller for an induction motor. This controller is based on a DSP TMS320F240 chip from Texas Instruments. Speed control is achieved by maintaining the magnetic flux constant through the regularization of stator voltage/frequency relationship. Voltage and frequency variation are achieved using the strategy of pulse width modulation with space vectors. Hardware design is presented (current source and the printed circuit for the intelligent power module) and the software (control algorithms and the modulation strategy using space vectors). The algorithms given were implement using the TMS320F240 language. [Spanish] Este trabajo describe el diseno y la implementacion de un control de la velocidad en lazo abierto de un motor de induccion, basado en el DSP TMS320F240 de Texas Instruments. El control de la velocidad se logra manteniendo el flujo en el entre hierro constante, lo cual es realizado al regular el valor de la relacion voltaje/frecuencia en el estator. La variacion del voltaje y la frecuencia se realiza utilizando la estrategia de modulacion del ancho de los pulsos con vectores espaciales. Se presenta el diseno de los circuitos (fuente de corriente continua y circuito impreso para el modulo inteligente de potencia) y de los programas (algoritmos de control y de la estrategia de modulacion con vectores espaciales) necesarios que se utilizaron durante la implementacion del accionamiento del motor. Los algoritmos dados fueron implementados en el lenguaje ensamblador del TMS320F240.

  5. Fine velocity structures collisional dissipation in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    In a weakly collisional plasma, such as the solar wind, collisions are usually considered far too weak to produce any significant effect on the plasma dynamics [1]. However, the estimation of collisionality is often based on the restrictive assumption that the particle velocity distribution function (VDF) shape is close to Maxwellian [2]. On the other hand, in situ spacecraft measurements in the solar wind [3], as well as kinetic numerical experiments [4], indicate that marked non-Maxwellian features develop in the three-dimensional VDFs, (temperature anisotropies, generation of particle beams, ring-like modulations etc.) as a result of the kinetic turbulent cascade of energy towards short spatial scales. Therefore, since collisional effects are proportional to the velocity gradients of the VDF, the collisionless hypothesis may fail locally in velocity space. Here, the existence of several characteristic times during the collisional relaxation of fine velocity structures is investigated by means of Eulerian numerical simulations of a spatially homogeneous force-free weakly collisional plasma. The effect of smoothing out velocity gradients on the evolution of global quantities, such as temperature and entropy, is discussed, suggesting that plasma collisionality can increase locally due to the velocity space deformation of the particle velocity distribution. In particular, by means of Eulerian simulations of collisional relaxation of a spatially homogeneous force-free plasma, in which collisions among particles of the same species are modeled through the complete Landau operator, we show that the system entropy growth occurs over several time scales, inversely proportional to the steepness of the velocity gradients in the VDF. We report clear evidences that fine velocity structures are dissipated by collisions in a time much shorter than global non-Maxwellian features, like, for example, temperature anisotropies. Moreover we indicate that, if small-scale structures

  6. Response reduction factor of irregular RC buildings in Kathmandu valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Guragain, Ramesh; Mallik, Radhakrishna; Varum, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Most current seismic design includes the nonlinear response of a structure through a response reduction factor ( R). This allows the designer to use a linear elastic force-based approach while accounting for nonlinear behavior and deformation limits. In fact, the response reduction factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of a structure. This study focuses on estimating the actual ` R' value for engineered design/construction of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Kathmandu valley. The ductility and overstrength of representative RC buildings in Kathmandu are investigated. Nonlinear pushover analysis was performed on structural models in order to evaluate the seismic performance of buildings. Twelve representative engineered irregular buildings with a variety of characteristics located in the Kathmandu valley were selected and studied. Furthermore, the effects of overstrength on the ductility factor, beam column capacity ratio on the building ductility, and load path on the response reduction factor, are examined. Finally, the results are further analyzed and compared with different structural parameters of the buildings.

  7. Non-linear analysis of vibrations of irregular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Mook, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical perturbation method is used to investigate the forced vibrations of irregular plates. Nonlinear terms associated with the midplane stretching are retained in the analysis. The numerical part of the method involves the use of linear, finite element techniques to determine the free oscillation mode shapes and frequencies and to obtain the linear midplane stress resultants caused by the midplane stretching. Representing the solution as an expansion in terms of these linear mode shapes, these modes and the resultants are used to determine the equations governing the time-dependent coefficients of this expansion. These equations are solved by using the method of multiple scales. Specific solutions are given for the main-resonant vibrations of an elliptical plate in the presence of internal resonances. The results indicate that modes other than the driven mode can be drawn into the steady state response. Though the excitation is composed of a single harmonic, the response may not be periodic. Moreover, the particular types of responses that can occur are highly dependent on the mode being excited and are sensitive to small geometrical changes.

  8. New OpenMP Directives for Irregular Data Access Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Labarta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific applications involve array operations that are sparse in nature, ie array elements depend on the values of relatively few elements of the same or another array. When parallelised in the shared-memory model, there are often inter-thread dependencies which require that the individual array updates are protected in some way. Possible strategies include protecting all the updates, or having each thread compute local temporary results which are then combined globally across threads. However, for the extremely common situation of sparse array access, neither of these approaches is particularly efficient. The key point is that data access patterns usually remain constant for a long time, so it is possible to use an inspector/executor approach. When the sparse operation is first encountered, the access pattern is inspected to identify those updates which have potential inter-thread dependencies. Whenever the code is actually executed, only these selected updates are protected. We propose a new OpenMP clause, indirect, for parallel loops that have irregular data access patterns. This is trivial to implement in a conforming way by protecting every array update, but also allows for an inspector/executor compiler implementation which will be more efficient in sparse cases. We describe efficient compiler implementation strategies for the new directive. We also present timings from the kernels of a Discrete Element Modelling application and a Finite Element code where the inspector/executor approach is used. The results demonstrate that the method can be extremely efficient in practice.

  9. Mechanically Milled Irregular Zinc Nanoparticles for Printable Bioresorbable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Bikram K; Yu, Xiaowei; Shou, Wan; Pan, Heng; Huang, Xian

    2017-02-20

    Bioresorbable electronics is predominantly realized by complex and time-consuming anhydrous fabrication processes. New technology explores printable methods using inks containing micro- or nano-bioresorbable particles (e.g., Zn and Mg). However, these particles have seldom been obtained in the context of bioresorbable electronics using cheap, reliable, and effective approaches with limited study on properties essential to printable electronics. Here, irregular nanocrystalline Zn with controllable sizes and optimized electrical performance is obtained through ball milling approach using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a process control agent to stabilize Zn particles and prevent cold welding. Time and PVP dependence of the ball milled particles are studied with systematic characterizations of morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. The results reveal crystallized Zn nanoparticles with a size of ≈34.834 ± 1.76 nm and low surface oxidation. The resulting Zn nanoparticles can be readily printed onto bioresorbable substrates and sintered at room temperature using a photonic sintering approach, leading to a high conductivity of 44 643 S m(-1) for printable zinc nanoparticles. The techniques to obtain Zn nanoparticles through ball milling and processing them through photonic sintering may potentially lead to a mass fabrication method for bioresorbable electronics and promote its applications in healthcare, environmental protection, and consumer electronics.

  10. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  11. On the Star Formation Law for Spiral and Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical time scale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical time scale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and su...

  12. Irregular topography at the Earth’s inner core boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing

    2012-01-01

    Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth’s inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth’s ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of topography: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4–8 km with a lateral length scale of 2–4 km. The characteristics of the ICB topography indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable. PMID:22547788

  13. Research of CRP-based irregular 2D seismic acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hu; Yin Cheng; He Guang-Ming; Chen Ai-Ping; Jing Long-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Seismic exploration in the mountainous areas of western Chinese is extremely diffi cult because of the complexity of the surface and subsurface, which results in shooting difficulties, seismic data with low signal-to-noise ratio, and strong interference. The complexity of the subsurface structure leads to strong scattering of the refl ection points; thus, the curved-line acquisition method has been used. However, the actual subsurface structural characteristics have been rarely considered. We propose a design method for irregular acquisition based on common refl ection points (CRP) to avoid diffi cult-to-shoot areas, while considering the structural characteristics and CRP positions and optimizing the surface-receiving line position. We arrange the positions of the receiving points to ensure as little dispersion of subsurface CRP as possible to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic data. We verify the applicability of the method using actual data from a site in Sichuan Basin. The proposed method apparently solves the problem of seismic data acquisition and facilitates seismic exploration in structurally complex areas.

  14. FIGGS2: An HI survey of extremely faint irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Karachentsev, Igor D; Sharina, Margarita E

    2016-01-01

    We present the observations and first results from the FIGGS2 survey. FIGGS2 is an extension of the earlier Faint Irregular Galaxies GMRT survey (FIGGS) towards faint luminosity end. The sample consists of 20 galaxies of which 15 were detected in HI 21cm line using the Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The median blue band magnitude of our sample is ~ -11.6, which is more than one magnitude fainter than earlier FIGGS survey. From our GMRT observations we find that, for many of our sample galaxies, the HI disks are offset from their optical disks. The HI diameters of the FIGGS2 galaxies show a tight correlation with their HI mass. The slope of the correlation is 2.08 +/- 0.20 similar to what is found for FIGGS galaxies. We also find that for almost all galaxies, the HI disks are larger than the optical disks which is a common trend for dwarf or spiral galaxies. The mean value of the ratio of HI to optical diameter is ~ 1.54.

  15. Irregular persistent activity induced by synaptic excitatory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barbieri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological experiments on monkeys have reported highly irregular persistent activity during the performance of an oculomotor delayed-response task. These experiments show that during the delay period the coefficient of variation (CV of interspike intervals (ISI of prefrontal neurons is above 1, on average, and larger than during the fixation period. In the present paper, we show that this feature can be reproduced in a network in which persistent activity is induced by excitatory feedback, provided that (i the post-spike reset is close enough to threshold , (ii synaptic efficacies are a non-linear function of the pre-synaptic firing rate. Non-linearity between presynaptic rate and effective synaptic strength is implemented by a standard short-term depression mechanism (STD. First, we consider the simplest possible network with excitatory feedback: a fully connected homogeneous network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, using both numerical simulations and analytical techniques. The results are then confirmed in a network with selective excitatory neurons and inhibition. In both the cases there is a large range of values of the synaptic efficacies for which the statistics of firing of single cells is similar to experimental data.

  16. Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.

    1996-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.

  17. Irregular topography at the Earth's inner core boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing

    2012-05-15

    Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth's ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of topography: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4-8 km with a lateral length scale of 2-4 km. The characteristics of the ICB topography indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable.

  18. Influence of Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used numerical simulation to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements, using ionosphere-free (in atmospheric research and geometry-free (in ionospheric research dual-frequency phase combinations. It is known that elimination of these effects from multifrequency GNSS measurements is handi-capped by diffraction effects during signal propagation through turbulent ionospheric plasma with the inner scale being smaller than the Fresnel radius. We demonstrated the possibility of reducing the residual ionospheric error in dual-frequency GNSS remote sensing in ionosphere-free combination by Fresnel inversion. The inversion parameter, the distance to the virtual screen, may be selected from the minimum of amplitude fluctuations. This suggests the possibility of improving the accuracy of GNSS remote sensing in meteorology. In the study of ionospheric disturbances with the aid of geometry-free combination, the Fresnel inversion eliminates only the third-order error. To eliminate the random TEC component which, like the measured average TEC, is the first-order correction, we should use temporal filtering (averaging.

  19. Thick film traps with an irregular film. Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Adam; Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan

    2004-05-07

    A new method for preparation of sorbent-based ultra-thick film traps for concentration of trace volatile components from gaseous matrices is described. The procedure is based on blowing a prepolymer (polydimethylsiloxane) through a capillary tube, forming an irregular film of stationary phase. Subsequently, the prepolymer is immobilized in a few seconds by heating to 200 degrees C. Evaluation of the performance of the new traps showed that the loss of efficiency, compared to regular smooth film traps is only on the order of 20-30%. In terms of breakthrough volume, this loss in performance is rather insignificant. The technology is extremely simple and allows a rapid and cheap production of a large number of ultra-thick film traps, even in non-specialized laboratories. The method can be applied to any type of cross-linkable stationary phase, thereby expanding the scope of sorbent-based trapping and preconcentration concept. Many applications are anticipated in trace and ultra-trace analysis in a wide range of fields, such as environmental chemistry, polymers, food and process analysis.

  20. Bubble-Induced Star Formation in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Barnes, David J; Grand, Robert J J; Rahimi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to WLM. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae (SNe) feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor inter-stellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from lar...